WorldWideScience

Sample records for prototype solar heated

  1. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  2. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  3. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  4. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific ata other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items in this report include systeem candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and coolin systems for installation and operational test. Two-heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences (SFR), Multi-Family Residences (MFR) and commercial applications.

  5. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. Quarterly report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-06

    The General Electric Company is developing eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  6. System design package for SIMS prototype system 3, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plat collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system. The SIMS Prototype Heating and Hot Water System, Model Number 3 has been installed in a residence at Glendo State Park, Glendo, Wyoming.

  7. System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

  8. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  9. Energetic performances of an optimized passive Solar Heating Prototype used for Tunisian buildings air-heating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, Farah; Hazami, Majdi; Naili, Nabiha; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study of a Solar Heating Prototype to prevail the buildings air-heating needs. • A parametric study of the system was achieved by means of the TRNSYS program. • The monthly internal temperature during cold months ranges between 22 and 25 °C. • The results shows that the relative humidity inside the monozone room of about 40%. - Abstract: This paper deals with the energetic performances of a Solar Heating Prototype (SHP) conceived in our laboratory to prevail the Tunisian households’ air-heating needs. The conceived SHP mainly consists of a flat-plate solar collector, solar hot water tank and an active layer integrated inside a single room. Firstly, a complete model is formulated taking into account various modes of heat transfer in the SHP by means of the TRNSYS simulation program. To validate the TRNSYS model, experimental tests under local weather conditions were performed for 2 days spread over 2 months (March and April 2013). Predicted results were compared to the measurements in order to determine the accuracy of the simulation program. A parametric study was then achieved by means of the TRNSYS program in order to optimize SHP design parameters (Collector area, collector mass flow rate, floor mass flow rate, storage tank volume and thickness of the active layer). The optimization of all design parameters shows that to achieve a maximum performances from the SHP it is essential to use a solar collector with an area equal to 6 m 2 area, a collector mass flow rate equal to 100 kg h −1 and a hot water storage tank with a capacity equal to 450 l. Concerning the floor heating, the optimal values of mass flow rate and the active layer thickness are 200 kg h −1 and 0.06 m, respectively. The long-term SHP performances were afterward evaluated by means of the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data relative to Tunis, Tunisia. Results showed that for an annual total solar insolation of about 6493.37 MJ m −2 the average solar fraction

  10. Experimental study on a prototype of heat pipe solar water heater using refrigerant R134a as a transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, T.; Sembiring, J.; Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    A prototype of a solar water heater by using refrigerant as a heat transfer fluid is investigated experimentally. The objective is to explore the characteristics and the performance of the prototype. To make heat transfer from the collector to the heated fluid effectively, refrigerant R134a is used as a transfer. In the experiments, the initial pressure inside the heat pipe is varied. The prototype is exposed to solar irradiation in a location in Medan city for three days of the experiment. Solar collector temperatures, solar radiation, water temperature, and ambient temperature are measured. The efficiency of the system is analyzed. The results show that temperature of the hot water increases as the initial pressure of the working fluid increase. However, the increasing is not linear, and there must exist an optimum initial pressure. For the case with the refrigerant pressure of 110 psi, the maximum hot water temperature and maximum thermal efficiency are 45.36oC and 53.23%, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that solar water heater by using refrigerant R134a should be operated at initial pressure 110 psi.

  11. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  12. Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Moser, Christoph; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    acetate trihydrate composites to conserve the latent heat of fusion for long-term heat storage. A control strategy directed heat from a solar collector array to either the PCM storage or a water buffer storage. Several PCM units had to be charged in parallel when the solar collector output peaked at 16 k......A solar heating system with 22.4m2 of solar collectors, a heat storage prototype consisting of four 200 kg phase-change material (PCM) storage units, and a 735 L water tank was designed to improve solar heat supply in single-family houses. The PCM storage utilized stable supercooling of sodium......W. A single unit was charged with 27.4 kWh of heat within four hours on a sunny day, and the PCM temperature increased from 20 °C to 80 °C. The sensible heat from a single PCM unit was transferred to the water tank starting with about 32 kW of thermal power after it had fully melted at 80 °C. A mechanical...

  13. Prototype thermochemical heat storage with open reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondag, H.A.; Kikkert, B.; Smeding, S.F.; Boer, de R.; Bakker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical (TC) heat storage is an interesting technology for future seasonal storage of solar heat in the built environment. This technology enables high thermal energy storage densities and low energy storage losses. A small-scale laboratory prototype TC storage system has been realized at

  14. Solar heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, J A

    1976-01-01

    Solar energy is discussed as an energy resource that can be converted into useful energy forms to meet a variety of energy needs. The review briefly explains the nature of this energy resource, the kinds of applications that can be made useful, and the status of several systems to which it has been applied. More specifically, information on solar collectors, solar water heating, solar heating of buildings, solar cooling plus other applications, are included.

  15. Building a parabolic solar concentrator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Romero, J F M; Montiel, S Vazquez y; Granados-AgustIn, F; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Martinez-Yanez, L; Cruz-Martinez, V M

    2011-01-01

    In order to not further degrade the environment, people have been seeking to replace non-renewable natural resources such as fossil fuels by developing technologies that are based on renewable resources. An example of these technologies is solar energy. In this paper, we show the building and test of a solar parabolic concentrator as a prototype for the production of steam that can be coupled to a turbine to generate electricity or a steam engine in any particular industrial process.

  16. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  17. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  18. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  19. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  20. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  1. Passive solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, K

    1981-11-10

    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  2. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  3. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  4. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  5. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  6. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  7. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  8. Solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is based on a previous, related, one which was quantitative in character and relied on 500 telephone interviews with house-owners. The aim of this, following, report was to carry out a more deep-going, qualitative analysis focussed on persons who already own a solar heating system (purchased during 1992) or were/are considering having one installed. Aspects studied were the attitudes, behaviour and plans of these two groups with regard to solar heating systems. Some of the key questions asked concerned general attitudes to energy supply, advantages and disadvantages of using solar heating systems, related decision-making factors, installation problems, positive and negative expectations, evaluation of the information situation, suggestions related to information systems regarding themes etc., dissemination of information, sources of advice and information, economical considerations, satisfaction with the currently-owned system which would lead to the installation of another one in connection with the purchase of a new house. The results of this investigation directed at Danish house-owners are presented and discussed, and proposals for following activities within the marketing situation are given. It is concluded that the basic attitude in both groups strongly supports environmental protection, renewable energy sources and is influenced by considerations of prestige and independence. Constraint factors are confusion about environmental factors, insecurity in relation to the effect of established supplementary energy supply and suspicion with regard to the integrity of information received. (AB)

  9. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  10. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  11. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  12. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  13. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Z. H. Khan; M. R. Al-Mamun; S. Sikdar; P. K. Halder; M. R. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experi...

  14. Simulation prototyping of an experimental solar house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, A.; Baur, S. [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1401 Pine Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Grantham, K. [Department of Engineering Management, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 600 W. 14th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a comparative analysis between an energy simulation model and an actual solar home. The case study used was the Team Missouri's 2009 Solar Decathlon entry. The home was evaluated using the predicted data developed with the use of Energy-10 Version 1.8. The software simulates the energy use performance of building strategies ranging from building envelope and system efficiency options. The performance data used was collected during the 2009 Solar Decathlon competition. Results comparing energy efficient strategies, consumption and generation are explored with future implications discussed. (authors)

  15. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  16. Fundamentals of Solar Heating. Correspondence Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…

  17. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Abhishek; Goel, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has be...

  18. Development of 12.5 m² Solar Collector Panel for Solar Heating Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    and large solar heating systems. Based on the theoretical findings a prototype of an improved HT solar collector was built and tested side-by-side with the original HT solar collector. The improved HT collector makes use of a changed insulation material, an absorber with improved absorptance and emittance......Theoretical and experimental investigations have elucidated how different changes in the design of the 12.5 m(2) HT flat-plate solar collector from the Danish company ARCON Solvarme A/S influence the solar collector efficiency and the yearly thermal performance. The collector is designed for medium...

  19. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  20. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  1. A Prototype Flux-Plate Heat-Flow Sensor for Venus Surface Heat-Flow Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Reyes, Celso; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Venus is the most Earth-like planet in the Solar System in terms of size, and the densities of the two planets are almost identical when selfcompression of the two planets is taken into account. Venus is the closest planet to Earth, and the simplest interpretation of their similar densities is that their bulk compositions are almost identical. Models of the thermal evolution of Venus predict interior temperatures very similar to those indicated for the regions of Earth subject to solid-state convection, but even global analyses of the coarse Pioneer Venus elevation data suggest Venus does not lose heat by the same primary heat loss mechanism as Earth, i.e., seafloor spreading. The comparative paucity of impact craters on Venus has been interpreted as evidence for relatively recent resurfacing of the planet associated with widespread volcanic and tectonic activity. The difference in the gross tectonic styles of Venus and Earth, and the origins of some of the enigmatic volcano-tectonic features on Venus, such as the coronae, appear to be intrinsically related to Venus heat loss mechanism(s). An important parameter in understanding Venus geological evolution, therefore, is its present surface heat flow. Before the complications of survival in the hostile Venus surface environment were tackled, a prototype fluxplate heat-flow sensor was built and tested for use under synthetic stable terrestrial surface conditions. The design parameters for this prototype were that it should operate on a conforming (sand) surface, with a small, self-contained power and recording system, capable of operating without servicing for at least several days. The precision and accuracy of the system should be < 5 mW/sq m. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  2. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  3. Solar heating and cooling of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, R. D.; Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar energy has been used for space heating and water heating for many years. A less common application, although technically feasible, is solar cooling. This paper describes the techniques employed in the heating and cooling of buildings, and in water heating. The potential for solar energy to displace conventional energy sources is discussed. Water heating for new apartments appears to have some features which could make it a place to begin the resurgence of solar energy applications in the United States. A project to investigate apartment solar water heating, currently in the pilot plant construction phase, is described.

  4. Passive Solar Heating Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    sunshine is the percentage of time during the average year that the sun is bright enough to cast a shadow Pcross a surface, divided by the number of hours...The Markle House in Vermont has 1,100 square feet of living area with a heat loss cf 17,500 BTU/hr. Particular attention was paid to reducing the...Determ.ine enierg;y savings of fossil fuel and electrical poweCr. 2. Determi.:ne the ftriction of the building’s hot)’ waiter , heting and/ur cooling load

  5. Initial solar observations with Prototype Brazilian Decimetric Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Andrade, M. C.; Subramanian, K. R.; Rajan, M. S. Sundara; Sawant, H. S.

    The Prototype Brazilian Decimetre Array (PBDA) consists of 5 element alt-azimuth mounted parabolic dishes of 4-m diameter, having baselines up to 216 m in East-West direction. We present initial solar observations carried out with the PBDA during the period 22nd November to 11th December, 2004. The frequency of observation was 1.6 GHz. The temporal and spatial resolution were 100 ms and 3 arcmin, respectively.

  6. Heat exchanger for solar water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, M.; Krupnick, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed efficient double-walled heat exchanger prevents contamination of domestic water supply lines and indicates leakage automatically in solar as well as nonsolar heat sources using water as heat transfer medium.

  7. New Prototype of Photovoltaic Solar Tracker Based on Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The global increase in energy demand and exponential exhaustion of fossil recourses has favored the development of new systems of electricity production. Photovoltaic solar energy is undoubtedly one that has the highest application in housings, due to its simplicity and easy implementation. In this work, a new prototype of photovoltaic solar tracker with Arduino platform was developed. Feedback control system that allows carrying out solar tracking with two axes using a stepper motor and linear actuator was established through an electronic circuit based on photodiodes. Moreover, real construction of the prototype was carried out, where the effectiveness of the design and its capacity to draw a maximum benefit of an incident radiation can be observed, placing the panel perpendicularly to the received energy and improving its performance for its application in future installations in housings. Results obtained from the comparison between the developed prototype and a static panel oriented according to the latitude of the area, show about 18% energy gain.

  8. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  9. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  10. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  11. Solar process heat is becoming sexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhart, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Linear concentrating solar collectors for solar medium-temperature process heat: an exotic niche market has turned into a wide range of offers for commercial and private customers - and there is no end in sight to the technical developments. (orig.)

  12. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  13. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  14. Design of micro-reactors and solar photocatalytic prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Hernandez H, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, M.R.; Bonifacio M, J.; Jimenez B, J.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Castaneda J, G.; Lugo H, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the ININ is carried out research in heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial light for to degrade organic compounds. In this context, it is sought to use the solar radiation as energy source to knock down costs. Of equal form it requires to link the basic and applied research. For it, a methodology that allows to design and to build micro-reactors and plants pilot has been developed, like previous step, to request external supports and to a future commercialization. The beginning of these works gave place to the partial construction of a prototype of photocatalytic reactor of the cylinder-parabolic composed type (CPC)

  15. Sodium heat pipe module test for the SAFE-30 reactor prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Robert S.; Sena, J. Tom; Martinez, Adam L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliable, long-life, low-cost heat pipes can enable safe, affordable space fission power and propulsion systems. Advanced versions of these systems can in turn allow rapid access to any point in the solar system. Twelve stainless steel-sodium heat pipe modules were built and tested at Los Alamos for use in a non-nuclear thermohydraulic simulation of the SAFE-30 reactor (Poston et al., 2000). SAFE-30 is a near-term, low-cost space fission system demonstration. The heat pipes were designed to remove thermal power from the SAFE-30 core, and transfer this power to an electrical power conversion system. These heat pipe modules were delivered to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in August 2000 and were assembled and tested in a prototypical configuration during September and October 2000. The construction and test of one of the SAFE-30 modules is described

  16. Project, fabrication, assembly and tests of different prototypes for CPS compound parabolic solar collectors; Projeto, fabricacao, montagem e testes de diferentes prototipos de coletores solares parabolicos compostos CPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Jose H.M. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: henrique@daem.des.cefemg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results of the experiment involving the design, fabrication, assembly and tests of composite parabolic solar collectors prototypes with acceptance half-angles of 3 deg C, 6.5 deg C, 11 deg C, 14 deg C and 19.5 deg C of the tube type absorber and 14 deg C rectangular absorber. Field test were performed on all the prototypes for determination of thermal efficiency, time constants and optical efficiencies represented by the modified incidence angles. Tests were performed for the determination of the heat transfer global coefficients on each prototype. (author)

  17. Solar heating action plan; Solvarme handlingsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jan Erik

    2011-10-15

    This solar action plan should be seen as a follow-up to the Danish Energy Agency's solar heating strategy from 2007, which showed great potential and opportunities for exploitation and use of solar heat in Denmark. In relation to the strategy from 2007, this action plan adjusted the distribution of solar heat from district heating plants and individual plants, but it is still the objective of this action plan to achieve the strategy's overall goal for 2030. With the implementation of the Action Plan in early 2012, it is estimated that in 2030 there will be about. 10 million m2 of solar collectors in operation, 8 million m2 for district heating and 2 million m2 for individual heating, equivalent to an installed capacity totaling 7 GW. The budget for actions in the Action Plan is about 80 million DKK annually over the next 5 years to initiate and ensure this development. (LN)

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world's total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world's final energy use -- more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport -- solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Solar Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The solar heating and cooling (SHC) roadmap outlines a pathway for solar energy to supply almost one sixth (18 EJ) of the world’s total energy use for both heating and cooling by 2050. This would save some 800 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year; more than the total CO2 emissions in Germany in 2009. While solar heating and cooling today makes a modest contribution to world energy demand, the roadmap envisages that if concerted action is taken by governments and industry, solar energy could annually produce more than 16% of total final energy use for low temperature heat and nearly 17% for cooling. Given that global energy demand for heat represents almost half of the world’s final energy use – more than the combined global demand for electricity and transport – solar heat can make a significant contribution in both tackling climate change and strengthening energy security.

  20. Solar district heating and cooling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Bava, Federico; Andersen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal...... technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also economic issues need to be tackled. Hence......Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and implemented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collectors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could...

  1. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  2. Development and prototype testing of MgCl 2 /graphite foam latent heat thermal energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Yu, Wenhua; Zhao, Weihuan; Kim, Taeil; France, David M.; Smith, Roger K.

    2018-01-01

    Composites of graphite foam infiltrated with a magnesium chloride phase-change material have been developed as high-temperature thermal energy storage media for concentrated solar power applications. This storage medium provides a high thermal energy storage density, a narrow operating temperature range, and excellent heat transfer characteristics. In this study, experimental investigations were conducted on laboratory-scale prototypes with magnesium chloride/graphite foam composite as the latent heat thermal energy storage system. Prototypes were designed and built to monitor the melt front movement during the charging/discharging tests. A test loop was built to ensure the charging/discharging of the prototypes at temperatures > 700 degrees C. Repeated thermal cycling experiments were carried out on the fabricated prototypes, and the experimental temperature profiles were compared to the predicted results from numerical simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the simulations to validate the thermal models.

  3. Solar observations with the prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Faria, C.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Madsen, F. H. R.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.

    The prototype of the Brazilian Decimetric Array BDA consists of 5 element alt-az mounted parabolic mesh type dishes of 4-meter diameter having base lines up to 220 meters in the E--W direction The array was put into regular operation at Cachoeira Paulista Brazil longitude 45 r 00 20 W and latitude 22 r 41 19 S This array operates in the frequency range of 1 2 -- 1 7 GHz Solar observations are carried at sim 1 4 GHz in transit and tracking modes Spatial fine structures superimposed on the one dimensional brightness map of the sun associated with active regions and or with solar activity and their time evolution will be presented In the second phase of the project the frequency range will be increased to 1 2 - 1 7 2 8 and 5 6 GHz Central part of the array will consist of 26 antennas with 4-meter diameter laid out randomically in the square of 256 by 256 meter with minimum and maximum base lines of 8 and 256 meters respectively Details of this array with imaging capabilities in snap shot mode for solar observations and procedure of the phase and amplitude calibrations will be presented The development of instrument will be completed by the beginning of 2008

  4. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  5. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  6. Research and demonstration facilities for energy conservation and solar heating in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. O.; Godbey, L. C.; Davis, M. A.; Ezell, D. O.; Allen, W. H.

    1981-10-01

    The design, testing and evaluation of two prototype solar holes are discussed. The first prototype is a greenhouse-residence designed with 6-in. wall cavities (to increase insulation thickness), a 381 sq. ft. solar collector used primarily for space heating, and a greenhouse that was utilized as a solar collector for growing vegetables. The house does feature a domestic hot water preheating system and an electrical resistance back-up heating system. The second prototype is an earth-insulated house designed primarily to study the physical features of the house in relation to the soil around it and the thermal interaction between the soil and the house environment. This house features a high temperature air collector that is used for domestic water heating. A special effort was made to have adequate daylight in the solar-earth house. A special study was conducted on the geometric configuration of the rock storage and the methods of admitting air to the rock storage.

  7. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  8. Solar heating - a major source of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.

    2001-01-01

    Actions that can be taken to increase the uptake of technology for solar water heaters and solar buildings are discussed. An overview of existing technology covers solar water heating, solar buildings, space heating, solar cooling, solar drying, solar desalination. Solar water heating, solar buildings and solar crop drying are discussed individually under the sub-headings of (a) the technology; (b) the market; (c) potential; (d) economics and (e) market acceleration strategies. Other subjects discussed are market acceleration, main opportunities, R and D needs and conclusions. The IEA solar heating and solar cooling programme is described

  9. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Technical Thermodynamics (ITT), German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  10. EIR solar heating plant OASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, K.H.

    1982-03-01

    For a corrosion surveillance program of the EIR solar heating unit, OASE, the coolant of the flat collector circuit is controlled and material samples mounted in a circuit by-pass are tested periodically. The results of the first year of surveillance have been evaluated and interpreted. Furthermore water-ethyleneglycol mixtures without and with corrosion inhibiting additives have been tested. Only the ethyleneglycol and inhibitor contents may be controlled by means of pH and electrical conductivity tests. The metal content in the coolant as a corrosion indicator is not recorded by pH or electrical conductivity readings - they must be determined by chemical analysis. Samples of different materials used in the coolant circuit, mounted in a test by-pass of the circuit and taken out every year for testing give information on the corrosion behaviour of these materials under service conditions. Corrosion can be prevented or reduced by adding inhibitors to the coolant. The optimum inhibitor composition for the concerned material combinations and for the coolant must be determined in laboratory tests. The inhibitor composition used in the flat collector circuit proved not to be the optimum: corrosion on the aluminium of the rollbond absorber plate was not prevented. (Auth.)

  11. Solar power from the supermarket. Water heating, space heating and air conditioning with solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    The different ways of utilizing solar energy are discussed. So far, top water heating is still the most practicable and most economical solution. Model houses with solar collectors, built by BBC and Philips, are dealt with in particular.

  12. Monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the monitoring of manufactured solar heating systems for domestic hot water combined with space heating and systems for domestic hot water only. Results from the monitoring of 5 marketed combined systems for domestic hot water and space heating are presented. The systems situated at one family houses at different sites in Denmark have been monitored from January/February 1992. For the detailed monitoring of manufactured systems only for domestic hot water a test facility for simultaneous monitoring of 5 solar heating systems has been established at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory. (au)

  13. Basic principles of solar water heating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page-Shipp, RJ

    1980-09-10

    Full Text Available This article correctly reflects the principles of Solar Water Heating as they pertain to South African conditions. However, it was written in 1980 and the global energy situation has changed considerably. Furthermore, modern commercial units...

  14. Solar heating and employment in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, P A

    1978-01-01

    If solar heating technology is to be introduced into sections of Canada as a way to alleviate unemployment problems and stimulate the manufacturing sector, realistic expectations must be grounded in better estimates of solar energy's potential than were made by early nuclear power enthusiasts. A study by Middleton Associates identified a number of factors affecting employment. These include implementation rates, choice of technologies, industry size, government involvement, location, and the share of solar heating relative to other heating sources. An employment simulation model using available technologies as inputs suggests that solar heating is feasible on the basis of both energy source and employment strategy. Model results are favorable for direct and indirect employment, while displacement effects on employment in conventional fuel industries are minor. Direct employment is affected more by implementation rates than by variations in the amount of imported equipment.

  15. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Improved model for solar heating of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    A considerable future increase in the global energy use is expected, and the effects of energy conversion on the climate are already observed. Future energy conversion should thus be based on resources that have negligible climate effects; solar energy is perhaps the most important of such resources. The presented work builds on a previous complete model for solar heating of a house; here the aim to introduce ventilation heat recovery and improve on the hot water storage model. Ventilation he...

  17. Solar heating cooling. Preparation of possible participation in IEA, Solar Heating Cooling Task 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    For the Danish solar heating industries it is interesting to discuss the domestic market possibilities and the export possibilities for solar heating cooling systems. The Danish solar heating sector also wants to participate in the international collaboration within IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 25 'Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings'. The Danish Energy Agency therefore has granted means for this project to discuss: The price of cooling for 3 different solar cooling methods (absorption cooling, desiccant cooling and ejector cooling); Market possibilities in Denmark and abroad; The advantages by Danish participation in IEA Task 25. The task has been solved through literature studies to establish status for the 3 technologies. It turned out that ejector cooling by low temperatures (85 deg. C from the solar collector) exists as pilot plants in relation to district heating, but is still not commercial accessible. Desiccant cooling, where the supplied heat has temperatures down to 55 deg. C is a well-developed technology. However only a handful of pilot plants with solar heating exists, and thus optimization relating to operation strategy and economy is on the experimental stage. Absorption cooling plants driven by solar heating are found in a large number in Japan and are also demonstrated in several other countries. The combination of absorption heating pump and solar heating is considered to be commercial accessible. Solar heating is interesting as heat source of to the extent that it can replace other sources of heat without the economy being depreciated. This can be the case in South Europe if: 1) oil or natural gas is used for heating; 2) a solar heating system already exists, e.g. for domestic water supply, and is installed so that the marginal costs by solar heating supply of the ventilation plant is reduced. All in all the above conditions mean that the market for solar heating for cooling is very limited in Europe, where almost everybody are

  18. Solar heat-pipe wick modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. In previous experimental work, the author has demonstrated that a heat pipe receiver can significantly improve system performance over a directly-illuminated heater head. The design and operating conditions of a heat pipe receiver differ significantly from typical laboratory heat pipes. New wick structures have been developed to exploit the characteristics of the solar generation system. Typically, these wick structures allow vapor generation within the wick. Conventional heat pipe models do not handle this enhancement, yet it can more than double the performance of the wick. In this study, the author developed a steady-state model of a boiling-enhanced wick for a solar heat pipe receiver. The model is used for design-point calculations and is written in FORTRAN90. Some limited comparisons have been made with actual test data.

  19. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2017-02-21

    Forced-circulation solar heating system has been widely used in process and domestic heating applications. Additional pumping power is required to circulate the water through the collectors to absorb the solar energy. The present study intends to develop a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) to obtain the minimum pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net heat energy gain Qnet (= Qs − Wp/ηe) was found to be the cost function for MPPT. The step-up-step-down controller was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  20. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  1. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  2. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  3. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  4. Combined system of solar heating and cooling using heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhidov, R.A.; Anarbaev, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    The heating and cooling systems of apartment buildings based on combined solar heat-pump equipment has been considered and the procedure of calculating its parameters has been worked out. A technical-economic analysis has been performed and compared with the boiler-setting version. (author)

  5. Design considerations and construction of an experimental prototype of concentrating solar power tower system in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.; Alnefaie, Khaled A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Article is about designing and building a small scale prototype solar power tower system. • Calculations revealed that 10 heliostats are required to direct incident solar rays. • Design requirements showed that a solar tower of 7 m height should be used. • Storage tanks are cylindrical vessels with height of 1 m and a diameter of 1.5 m each. • The percentage error in the thermal power obtained from this system is about 5.3%. - Abstract: A prototype of a solar power tower system was designed and constructed to produce electricity from solar energy. This prototype of a solar power tower system was constructed and installed at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia where solar intensity is excessive. Heliostats were implemented to capture the solar rays during daylight. These mirrors are used to direct the solar energy to a solar receiver that is made of alloy steel so that thermal energy is conveyed to a thermal fluid inside the receiver. Based on a detailed selection procedure presented in this article, a final number of ten heliostats were chosen to direct the solar energy to the solar receiver. In addition; two motors were used to control the heliostat rotational and elevation movements. The thermal fluid is a molten salt mixture (which consists of 60% NaNO_3 and 40% KNO_3). Cold and hot storage tanks were manufactured from steel and they were insulated with calcium silicate from all sides. A one-meter high and one and a half-meter cylindrical vessel was adopted for each of the cold and hot tanks. In this article, a detailed design analysis of each component is presented. The thermal power transferred to the water in the heat exchanger as it is heated by the molten salt was measured and found to be 11.26 kW. The thermal power given by the molten salt in the heat exchanger was also measured and found to be 12.31 kW. The design thermal power was 13 kW. The percentage error in the thermal power obtained is about 5.3%.

  6. Potential for solar water heating in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Lysen, E.H.; van Egmond, S.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic, social and environmental benefits from using solar water heating (SWH) in Zimbabwe. By comparing different water heating technology usage in three sectors over a 25-year period, the potential of SWH is demonstrated in alleviating energy and economic problems that

  7. Solar-Heated Office Building -- Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system designed to supply 87 percent of space heating and 100 percent of potable hot-water needs of large office building in Dallas, Texas. Unique feature of array serves as roofing over office lobby and gives building attractive triangular appearance. Report includes basic system drawings, test data, operating procedures, and maintenance instructions.

  8. Coloured solar collectors. Phase II : from laboratory samples to collector prototypes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A; Roecker, Ch; Chambrier, E de; Munari Probst, M

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the second phase of a project concerning the architectural integration of glazed solar collectors into the facades of buildings for heat production. The factors that limit the integration of photovoltaic panels in facades are discussed. The authors state that, for a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples and high quality levels are needed. The sol-gel deposition of the multi-layered coatings on A4-sized glass panes demonstrated in the laboratory by EPFL-LESO are discussed. The coatings produced exhibit a coloured reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure is discussed: This should result in the speeding up of the sol-gel process and thus save energy, thereby significantly reducing costs. Collaboration with industry is discussed in which full-scale glass panes are to be coated with novel multiple layers. The novel glazing is to be integrated into first prototype collectors. The manufacturing and test processes for the prototypes manufactured are discussed in detail.

  9. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C within one hour. Obtained results show that the convection and radiation exchanges at the bottom surface of the tank have a considerable impact on the total heat transfer rate of the water (as high as 70%.

  10. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  11. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  12. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  13. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an

  14. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere.

  15. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  16. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since...... it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the efficiency of two HT collectors, which have been in operation in the solar heating plant Ottrupgaard, Skørping......, Denmark since 1994 with a constant high flow rate and in the solar heating plant Marstal, Denmark since 1996 with a variable flow rate, will be presented. The efficiencies will be compared to the efficiencies of the collectors when they were first installed in the solar heating plants. The measurements...

  17. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...... gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this paper....

  18. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  19. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  20. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  1. Three story residence with solar heat--Manchester, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    When heat lost through ducts is counted for accurate performance assessment, solar energy supplied 56 percent of building's space heating load. Average outdoor temperature was 53 degrees F; average indoor temperature was 69 degrees F. System operating modes included heating from solar collectors, storing heat, heating from storage, auxiliary heating with oil fired furnace, summer venting, and hot water preheating.

  2. CISBAT 2007 - Solar collectors (heat and electricity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This is the third part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Building and urban integration of renewables the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Facade integration of solar thermal collectors: present and future', 'Long term experiences with a versatile PV in roof system', 'Development of a design and performance prediction tool for the ground source heat pump and underground thermal storage system', 'Hygrothermal performance of earth-to-air heat exchanger: long-term data evaluation and short-term simulation' as well as 'The real cost of heating your home: a comparative assessment of home energy systems with external costs'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage', 'Analysis of forced convection for evaporative air flow and heat transfer in PV cooling channels', 'Renewable energy technology in Mali: constraints and options for a sustainable development', 'Effect of duct width in ducted photovoltaic facades', 'Design and actual measurement of a ground source heat pump system using steel foundation piles as ground heat exchangers', 'Development of an integrated water-water heat pump unit for low energy house and its application', 'PV effect in multilayer cells and blending of fullerene/poly (3-hexylthiophene) and phthalocyanine having NIR charge transfer absorption band', 'CdTe photovoltaic systems - an alternative energetic', 'Integration of renewable energy sources in a town, examples in Grenoble', 'A prospective analysis method for the conception of solar integration solutions in buildings' and 'Energy and aesthetic improvements for building integration of cost effective solar energy systems'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings

  3. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifurrahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  4. Potential for solar space heating in Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgregor, A W.K.

    1980-07-01

    This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of passive-type solar-assisted space heating systems at various latitudes within the British Isles. A comparison is made of the useful solar gain of the same system linked to the same house at four different locations. Month-by-month energy balances indicate that the annual useful solar contribution at the highest latitude (Lerwick, 60 deg N) is about 35% higher than at the lowest latitude (Kew, 53 deg N). The main reason for this difference is the higher heating loads in the north, particularly outside the winter months. The estimated available irradiation on south-facing vertical surfaces was almost the same at all four locations. Previous work in the UK indicates that, contrary to the conclusions in this paper, more southerly latitudes were the most favorable for solar space heating. The reasons for the disparity are discussed. It is recommended that research and development of passive solar-assisted space heating systems should be most vigorously pursued in the more northerly latitudes of the British Isles, where both the potential benefit and the need are greatest.

  5. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  6. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  7. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  8. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  9. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  10. Information campaign on solar heating for houses heated by electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.

    1995-09-01

    A number of NESA's (Danish electric power company) customers were offered the use of a solar water heating system for a short period of time. NESA was responsible for the marketing and consultancy service and worked in cooperation with local plumbers in connection with the delivery of the systems. The company contacted 450 households and its representatives visited 25 of these. 4 customers decided to purchase a solar heating system, fourteen decided to think about it, and four declared that they would not buy one. The company had reckoned with 25 purchases. It is concluded that the price of the solar heating systems was too high for prospective customers and the fact that they were not given a special offer had a negative effect. The economic aspect was absolutely the most important for them, especially the length of the payback period on the higher purchase system. Environmental protection aspects came second in their deliberations. NESA has a positive attitude to their customers' use of solar heating plants and recommends that households are offered very high quality consultancy services in connection with marketing. The project is described in detail. (AB)

  11. Design and experimental study of a solar system for heating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a design and an experimental study of a linear Fresnel reflector solar with trapezoidal cavity. This prototype is used for heating the tap water. The reflector was designed, constructed and tested in mechanical engineering department, University of Blida 1, Algeria. Various combinations of reflecting mirrors ...

  12. Building Space Heating with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump Using Roof-Integrated Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system was designed by using a roof-integrated solar collector as the evaporator, and then it was demonstrated to provide space heating for a villa in Tianjin, China. A building energy simulation tool was used to predict the space heating load and a three dimensional theoretical model was established to analyze the heat collection performance of the solar roof collector. A floor radiant heating unit was used to decrease the energy demand. The measurement results during the winter test period show that the system can provide a comfortable living space in winter, when the room temperature averaged 18.9 °C. The average COP of the heat pump system is 2.97 and with a maximum around 4.16.

  13. Balancing of solar heating options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, W.B.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation many options are presently competing. This study aims at providing more rational criteria for selection between these options.The options considered are; insulation of the walls, regeneration of the heat in the waste air, double glazing, attached sunspace at the

  14. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  15. Nanoflare heating model for collisionless solar corona

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic reconnection plays a significant role in heating the solar corona. When two oppositely directed magnetic fields come closer to form a current sheet, the current density of the plasma increases due to which magnetic reconnection and conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy takes place. The present ...

  16. Solar water heating in the hotel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A

    1981-01-01

    There is an increasing number of hotels, pensions, guest-houses and boarding-houses whose owners attempt to lower their energy cost - especially for water heating in summer - by installing solar systems. The article presents some examples of buildings in West Germany.

  17. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, D; Hadorn, J C; Van Gilst, J; Aranovitch, E; Hardacre, A G; Ofverholm, E [eds.

    1982-09-14

    On May 9, 1979, the Federal Department for Buildings released instructions concerning the use of alternative energies. The federal energy policy is to be as much as possible independent on oil imports. The canton Fribourg decided to equip the new maintenance and service center for the national high-road N12, with alternative energy, resources, and to apply new concepts with respect to passive and active solar energy. The project uses active solar energy with an earth-storage and heat pump. A conventional oil-heating system provides energy for peak-loads and can be operated in stand-by. A delay in the construction of the earth storage sub system was requested because it was intended to optimize the system with respect to the solar sub system, and heat pump sub system. The design work was done by SORANE which also is the coordinator for Switzerland in the I.E.A. Task VII. However, the preplanning of the project started in 1978 before the I.E.A. Task VII started. As a consequence, many design parameters were determined before 1980. The optimization of the solar collector, heat-pump etc. sub system was performed by a simulation approach developed by SORANE. The Vaulruz service center has been commissioned during the winter 1981/82.

  18. Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brian; Fiedler, Lon

    2012-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, many schools and universities are considering energy-saving solutions, including solar heating options, to lower costs and to attract students and staff that support environmentally friendly practices. However, administrators and facility engineers should take several issues into account before pursuing a solar…

  19. Optimal Control of Solar Heating System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her

    2017-01-01

    was used in the feedback design of MPPT. The field test results show that the pumping power is 89 W at Qs = 13.7 kW and IT = 892 W/m2. A very high electrical COP of the solar heating system (Qs/Wp = 153.8) is obtained.

  20. The Marstal Central Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Jochen, Dahm

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant in Marstal is running since 1996 and has been monitored since. The resulting data from the plant is analysed and the plant performance evaluated. A TRNSYS-model (computersimulation) id prepared and validated based on the measured data from the plant. Acceptable good...

  1. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  2. Active solar heating industry development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Despite the fact that solar water heating systems are technologically viable and commercially available, this Energy Technology Support Unit report shows that there is no established market in the United Kingdom. The Solar Trade Association (STA) has undertaken an Active Solar Heating Industry Development Study which is reported here. The data is derived from a questionnaire survey completed by companies, organizations and individuals operating within the industry. Information was also gathered from utility companies, and STAs elsewhere in Europe. Barriers which need to be overcome include lack of public awareness, especially in the construction industry, lack of capital investment and other financial disincentives, little or no government support, and lack of organization and quality monitoring and assurance within the industry itself. (UK)

  3. Thermal performance of solar district heating plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Bava, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The market for solar heating plants connected to district heating systems is expanding rapidly in Denmark. It is expected that by the end of 2014 the 10 largest solar heating plants in Europe will be located in Denmark. Measurements from 23 Danish solar heating plants, all based on flat plate solar...... collectors mounted on the ground, shows measured yearly thermal performances of the solar heating plants placed in the interval from 313 kWh/m² collector to 493 kWh/m² collector with averages for all plants of 411 kWh/m² collector for 2012 and 450 kWh/m² collector for 2013. Theoretical calculations show...... of the cost/performance ratio for solar collector fields, both with flat plate collectors and with concentrating tracking solar collectors. It is recommended to continue monitoring and analysis of all large solar heating plants to document the reliability of the solar heating plants. It is also recommended...

  4. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  5. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experimental test. We reported the investigation of solar thermal conversion efficiency in different seasons which is 29.24% in summer, 14.75% in winter, and 15.53% in rainy season. This paper also discusses the DC heater for backup system and the current by using thermoelectric generator which are 3.20 V in summer, 2.120 V in winter, and 1.843 V in rainy season. This solar water heating system is mostly suited for its ease of operation and simple maintenance. It is expected that such novel solar thermal technology would further contribute to the development of the renewable energy (solar driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  6. HelioTrope: An innovative and efficient prototype for solar power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy alternative could provide us with all the energy we need as it exist in vast quantities all around us. We only should be innovative enough in order to improve the efficiency of our systems in capturing and converting solar energy in usable forms of power. By making a case for the solar energy alternative, we identify areas where efficiency can be improved and thereby Solar Energy can become a competitive energy source. This paper suggests an innovative approach to solar energy power production, which is manifested in a prototype given the name HelioTrope. The Heliotrope Solar Energy Production prototype is tested on its' capabilities to efficiently covert solar energy to generation of electricity and other forms of energy for storage or direct use. HelioTrope involves an innovative Stirling engine design and a parabolic concentrating dish with a sun tracking system implementing a control algorithm to maximize the capturing of solar energy. Further, it utilizes a patent developed by the authors where a mechanism is designed for the transmission of reciprocating motion of variable amplitude into unidirectional circular motion. This is employed in our prototype for converting linear reciprocating motion into circular for electricity production, which gives a significant increase in efficiency and reduces maintenance costs. Preliminary calculations indicate that the Heliotrope approach constitutes a competitive solution to solar power production.

  7. A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol for solar heating, cooling and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-03-01

    An engineering development test prototype of the CaCl2-CheOH chemical heat pump was tested. The unit, which has storage capacity in excess of 100,000 BTU, completed over 100 full charge-discharge cycles. Cycling data show that the rate of heat pumping depends strongly on the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. These rates are more than adequate for solar heating or for solar cooling using dry ambient air heat rejection. Performance degradation after 100 cycles, expressed as a contact resistance, was less than 2 C. The heat exchangers showed some warpage due to plastic flow of the salt, producing the contact resistance. The experimental COP for cooling was 0.52, close to the theoretically predicted value.

  8. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  9. Solar heating for a village; Ein Dorf heizt solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-07-05

    In Buesingen (administrative district of Konstanz) a solar thermal system with 1091 sqm collector area is put into operation. Together with two wood chip boilers they supply more than 100 private and municipal buildings with regenerative heat. [German] In Buesingen im Landkreis Konstanz ist eine solarthermische Anlage mit 1091 qm Kollektorflaeche in Betrieb gegangen. Zusammen mit zwei Hackschnitzelkesseln versorgt sie ueber 100 private und kommunale Gebaeude mit regenerativer Waerme.

  10. Solar heating systems for heating and hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnaith, G; Dittrich, K

    1980-07-01

    Deutsche Bundesbahn has shown an interest in solar heating systems, too. The items discussed include the useful radiation energy, design features of collectors, heat carrier media, safeguards and profitability studies. The system installed by Deutsche Bundesbahn in the social services building of the Munich-Laim railway workshop is described. In conclusion, the test results of the first few months of service are given. In order to obtain unambiguous results, it appears indispensable to arrange for an additional total trial period of not less than two years and to conduct tests also on further systems presently under construction.

  11. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  12. Performance of wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors having different pipes cross sections geometries and filling ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H.; Nada, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of wickless heat pipe cross section geometry and its working fluid filling ratio on the performance of flat plate solar collectors has been investigated experimentally. Three groups of wickless heat pipes having three different cross section geometries (namely, circular, elliptical and semi-circular cross sections) were designed and manufactured. Each group of three wickless heat pipes was charged with three different distilled water filling ratios of 10%, 20% and 35%. Each wickless heat pipe was then incorporated into a prototype flat plate solar collector developed for the purpose of the present study. The prototypes wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors have been investigated experimentally at different inlet cooling water temperatures, two different cooling water mass flow rates and under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The experimental results indicate that the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipe flat plate solar collectors have better performance than the circular cross section ones at low water filling ratios. The optimum water filling ratio of the elliptical cross section wickless heat pipe solar collector is about 10%, while it is very close to 20% for the circular cross section one. Also, the water filling ratio corresponding to the flooding limit of the elliptical wickless heat pipe solar collector is lower than that of the circular one. At 20% water filling ratio, the semi-circular cross section wickless heat pipe solar collector has bad performance compared with that of the other cross sections

  13. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy....... The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand...

  14. DOE/NASA SIMS Prototype Solar System, no. 4. Part 1: Market analysis. Part 2: Modular manufacturing cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The findings of the IIT Research Institute (IITRI) market study of the SIMS Prototype System 4, a hot water (DHW) system are documented. The feasibility of prepackaging currently available solar heating components into modular subsystems for site assembly is addressed. A documented design and installation procedure and a performance test report were prepared. The potential markets and applications for this particular system in the nonfederal market are profiled by assessing the needs and requirements of potential users and specifiers, by characterizing the nature of the market and the competitive environment, by identifying the barriers to commercial acceptance, and by estimating the size of the potential market.

  15. Pre study. Prototype of CO2 heat pump system for heating and cooling of a larger building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern; Jakobsen, Arne

    2006-03-01

    The activities concerning CO 2 heat pumps during NTNU-SINTEF's strategic research program SMARTBYGG (2002-2006) has lead to an increased interest in planning, building, installing and testing a prototype CO 2 heat pump for heating and cooling of a larger building. In cooperation with Statsbygg and Naeringslivets Idefond a p restudy was initiated in 2005, with the main aim to carry out a set of defined activities, preparing the ground for the realization of a prototype. The following subjects are treated in the p restudy: a technological assessment of the CO 2 heat pumps, a technological assessment of the interaction between the CO 2 heat pump and the secondary systems, a study of the possibilities regarding suitable CO 2 components including compressors, heat exchangers, valves etc., and a presentation of Teknotherm AS (Halden), a Norwegian industrial partner that can project, build and maintain a CO 2 heat pump prototype. During the project period Statsbygg has not found a suitable building where a prototype can be installed. It is recommended that further work is made on the realization of a CO 2 prototype plant by setting up a main project (ml)

  16. Investigation on Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating and due to storage. The storage affects the heat demand passively due to higher temperatures. Hence heat loss is reduced and passive heating is optioned. In theory, by running the system flow backwards, active heating can...... solar collector area of the system, was achieved. Active heating from the sand storage was not observed. The pay-back time for the system can be estimated to be similar to solar heated domestic hot water systems in general. A number of minor improvements on the system could be pointed out....

  17. Conversion of solar energy into heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, B.; Etievant, C.

    1975-01-01

    Argument prevails regarding the main parameters involved in the definition of installations designed to convert by means of a thermal machine, solar energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Between the temperature of the cold source and the stagnation temperature, there exists an optimal temperature which makes for the maximum efficiency of the collector/thermal machine unit. The optimal operating conditions for different types of collector are examined. Optimization of the surface of the collector is dealt with in particular. The structure and cost of solar installations are also analyzed with some examples as basis: solar pumps of 1 to 25kW, a 50MWe electrosolar plant. The cost involves three main elements: the collector, the thermal unit and the heat storage device. The latter is necessary for the integration of diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations of isolation. It is shown that thermal storage is economically payable only under certain conditions [fr

  18. Exergetic and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Solar Air Heating Processes Using a Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Román

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by an electric power utility. The methodology evaluates the process by the first and second law of thermodynamics as the first step then the cost analysis is applied for getting the thermoeconomic cost. For this study, the climatic conditions of the city of Queretaro (Mexico are considered. Two periods were taken into account: from July 2006 to June 2007 and on 6 January 2011. The prototype, located at CICATA-IPN, Qro, was analyzed in two different scenarios i.e., with 100% of electricity and 100% of solar energy. The results showed that thermoeconomic costs for the heating process with electricity, inside the chamber, are less than those using solar heating. This may be ascribed to the high cost of the materials, fittings, and manufacturing of the solar equipment. Also, the influence of the mass flow, aperture area, length and diameter of the receiver of the solar prototype is a parameter for increasing the efficiency of the prototype in addition to the price of manufacturing. The optimum design parameters are: length is 3 to 5 m, mass flow rate is 0.03 kg/s, diameter of the receiver is around 10 to 30 mm and aperture area is 3 m2.

  19. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger

    1990-01-01

    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  20. Solar heating cooling. Preparation of possible participation in IEA, Solar Heating Cooling Task 25; Solvarmedrevet koeling. Forberedelse af evt. deltagelse i IEA, Solar Heating Cooling Task 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the Danish solar heating industries it is interesting to discuss the domestic market possibilities and the export possibilities for solar heating cooling systems. The Danish solar heating sector also wants to participate in the international collaboration within IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 25 'Solar Assisted Air Conditioning of Buildings'. The Danish Energy Agency therefore has granted means for this project to discuss: The price of cooling for 3 different solar cooling methods (absorption cooling, desiccant cooling and ejector cooling); Market possibilities in Denmark and abroad; The advantages by Danish participation in IEA Task 25. The task has been solved through literature studies to establish status for the 3 technologies. It turned out that ejector cooling by low temperatures (85 deg. C from the solar collector) exists as pilot plants in relation to district heating, but is still not commercial accessible. Desiccant cooling, where the supplied heat has temperatures down to 55 deg. C is a well-developed technology. However only a handful of pilot plants with solar heating exists, and thus optimization relating to operation strategy and economy is on the experimental stage. Absorption cooling plants driven by solar heating are found in a large number in Japan and are also demonstrated in several other countries. The combination of absorption heating pump and solar heating is considered to be commercial accessible. Solar heating is interesting as heat source of to the exent that it can replace other sources of heat without the economy being depreciated. This can be the case in South Europe if: 1) oil or natural gas is used for heating; 2) a solar heating system already exists, e.g. for domestic water supply, and is installed so that the marginal costs by solar heating supply of the ventilation plant is reduced. All in all the above conditions mean that the market for solar heating for cooling is very limited in Europe, where almost

  1. Feasibility investigation of coupling a desalination prototype functioning by Aero-Evapo-Condensation with solar units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourouni, K.; Bouden, C.; Chaibi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The rural regions of south Mediterranean countries suffer from problems of drinking water supply. However, the majority of these regions have important resources of brackish salt water. Thus, brackish water desalination on a small scale presents a potential solution to this problem. For this reason, a number of small desalination prototypes are being developed worldwide. Bourouni et al. have developed a water desalination unit functioning by the Aero-Evapo-Condensation-Process (AECP) in order to satisfy this kind of water demand. One of the advantages of this prototype is that it allows the use of low temperature energy such as geothermal and solar energies abundant in these countries. An initial experiment was carried on an AECP prototype coupled to a geothermal spring in the south of Tunisia. The results relative to the technical and economic performances of the unit have shown that this kind of coupling is promising. On the other hand, the brackish water springs in these countries are often non-geothermal. In this case, the use of solar energy can be considered. Thus, we develop, in the present article, a feasibility investigation on the coupling of the AECP prototype with solar units. In fact, we analyse, in the first part of this article, the possibilities of this coupling in a manner that the functioning mode of the solar units will be compatible with that of the AECP prototype. To attempt this objective, two kinds of solar installation scenarios are considered and modelled to obtain their energetic contribution. Hence, the elaborated models are coupled to the one developed by Bourouni et al. for the AECP prototype to determine the technical and economic performances of the whole installation. In the last part of this article, a solar unit dimensioning is performed in order to minimise the total cost of the distilled water. (author)

  2. Note on field trials of a new prototype solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, S P

    1977-01-01

    Observations on field trials of a prototype still, of modified design, with respect to the quantity and quality of the fresh water obtained are reported. An average yield of 3.6 liters/m/sup 2//day of fresh water was obtained during the post-monsoon season and winter months. Traces of dissolved copper, zinc and iron were observed in the distilled water and the causes of metallic contamination are discussed. 10 references.

  3. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-12-01

    The project deals with the development and testing of a simple system for utilization of the summer excess heat from small solar air heating systems for preheating of fresh air. The principle of the system is to lead the heated air down around a domestic hot water tank letting the surface of the tank act as heat exchanger between the air and the water. In order to increase the heat transfer, coefficient fins into the air stream were mounted on the tank. A complete system with 3 m{sup 2} solar air collector, ductworks and a 85 litre storage were set up and extensively monitored. The air stream through the system was created by a fan connected directly to one or two PV-panels leading to a solar radiation dependent flow rate without the use of any other control. Based on monitoring results the system was characterized and a TRNSYS model of the system was developed and calibrated/validated. The monitoring and the simulations with the TRNSYS model revealed several interesting things about the system. The monitoring revealed that the system is capable of bringing the temperature of the water in the storage above 60 deg. C at warm days with clear sky conditions. The storage is very stratified, which is beneficial as usable hot water temperatures rather quickly are obtained. The performance was highly dependent on the airflow rate through the system. It can be concluded that the investigated system will have a performance in the order of 500 kWh during the winter, spring and autumn months and around 250 kWh during the four summer months - or in total a yearly performance of 750 kWh/m{sup 2}. A small traditional solar heating system for preheating of domestic hot water would have a higher performance during the four summer months, but no performance during the rest of the year if the system is installed in a summer house, which only is occupied during the summer. The parametric analysis further indicates that it is possible to further optimise the system when the thermal

  4. Prototype Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (A collation of Quarterly Reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report is a collection of quarterly reports from Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company (SEMCO) covering the period from November 1976 through September 1977. SEMCO, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32248, is developing two prototype solar domestic hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. These two systems are being installed at sites in Loxahatchee, Florida (OTS-27) and Macon, Georgia (OTS-28).

  5. Performance of a Solar Heating System with Photovoltaic Thermal Hybrid Collectors and Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    . When the solar collectors are unable to supply the heat demand an auxiliary heat source is used. Heat pumps can generate this heat. Liquid/water heat pumps have better performance than air/water heat pumps in cold climates but requires installation of a tubing system for the cold side of the heat pump....... The tubes are typically placed in the ground, requires a significant land area and increase the installation cost. A new system design of a solar heating system with two storage tanks and a liquid/water heat pump is presented. The system consists of PVT collectors that generate both heat and electricity......The energy consumption in buildings accounts for a large part of the World’s CO2 emissions. Much energy is used for appliances, domestic hot water preparation and space heating. In solar heating systems, heat is captured by solar collectors when the sun is shining and used for heating purposes...

  6. A heat pipe solar collector system for winter heating in Zhengzhou city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat pipe solar collector system for winter heating is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The hourly heat collecting capacity, water temperature and contribution rate of solar collector system based on Zhengzhou city typical sunshine are calculated. The study reveals that the heat collecting capacity and water temperature increases initially and then decreases, and the solar collector system can provide from 40% to 78% heating load for a 200 m2 villa with in Zhengzhou city from November to March.

  7. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  8. A Solar Powered Wireless Computer Mouse: Design, Assembly and Preliminary Testing of 15 Prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Reich, N.H.; Alsema, E.A.; Netten, M.P.; Veefkind, M.; Silvester, S.; Elzen, B.; Verwaal, M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept and design of a solar powered wireless computer mouse has been completed, and 15 prototypes have been successfully assembled. After necessary cutting, the crystalline silicon cells show satisfactory efficiency: up to 14% when implemented into the mouse device. The implemented voltage

  9. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  10. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  11. Experimental studies on a ground coupled heat pump with solar thermal collectors for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Chen; Hongxing, Yang; Lin, Lu; Jinggang, Wang; Wei, Liu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental studies on a solar-assisted ground coupled heat pump (SAGCHP) system for space heating. The system was installed at the Hebei Academy of Sciences in Shijiazhuang (lat. N38 o 03', long. E114 o 26'), China. Solar collectors are in series connection with the borehole array through plate heat exchangers. Four operation modes of the system were investigated throughout the coldest period in winter (Dec 5th to Dec 27th). The heat pump performance, borehole temperature distributions and solar colleting characteristics of the SAGCHP system are analyzed and compared when the system worked in continuous or intermittent modes with or without solar-assisted heating. The SAGCHP system is proved to perform space heating with high energy efficiency and satisfactory solar fraction, which is a promising substitute for the conventional heating systems. It is also recommended to use the collected solar thermal energy as an alternative source for the heat pump instead of recharging boreholes for heat storage because of the enormous heat capacity of the earth. -- Highlights: → We study four working modes of a solar-assisted ground coupled heat pump. → The heating performance is in direct relation with the borehole temperature. → Solar-assisted heating elevates borehole temperature and system performance. → The system shows higher efficiency over traditional heating systems in cold areas. → Solar heat is not suggested for high temperature seasonal storage.

  12. Solar assisted heat pumps: A possible wave of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems.

  13. Prototype Vent Gas Heat Exchanger for Exploration EVA - Performance and Manufacturing Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory J.; Strange, Jeremy; Jennings, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    NASA is developing new portable life support system (PLSS) technologies, which it is demonstrating in an unmanned ground based prototype unit called PLSS 2.0. One set of technologies within the PLSS provides suitable ventilation to an astronaut while on an EVA. A new component within the ventilation gas loop is a liquid-to-gas heat exchanger to transfer excess heat from the gas to the thermal control system s liquid coolant loop. A unique bench top prototype heat exchanger was built and tested for use in PLSS 2.0. The heat exchanger was designed as a counter-flow, compact plate fin type using stainless steel. Its design was based on previous compact heat exchangers manufactured by United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS), but was half the size of any previous heat exchanger model and one third the size of previous liquid-to-gas heat exchangers. The prototype heat exchanger was less than 40 cubic inches and weighed 2.57 lb. Performance of the heat exchanger met the requirements and the model predictions. The water side and gas side pressure drops were less 0.8 psid and 0.5 inches of water, respectively, and an effectiveness of 94% was measured at the nominal air side pressure of 4.1 psia.

  14. Combined heat and power solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    An Australian-designed photovoltaic (PV) power system that also supplies hot water is close to commercial release. PVs have been around for decades and solar concentrators have been efficiently heating water for nearly a century. The Australian National University, Department of Engineering - Centre for Sustainable Energy systems (CSES), has designed a domestic scale modular system that not only generates electricity but also provides concentrated thermal energy to heat water for a Solahart hot water system and is designed to be deployed into small to medium scale applications such as hospitals, schools and dwellings with an easily assembled galvanised steel frame. A market research was carried out and is envisaged that at least 7,500 units will be installed annually by the year 2005 and up to 25,000 units by 2008

  15. Prototype solar house. Study of the scientific evaluation and feasibility of a research and development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, V.; Grueter, J. W.; Kleemann, M.; Melis, M.; Stein, H. J.; Wagner, H. J.; Dittrich, A.; Pohlmann, D.

    1982-08-01

    A preliminary study was undertaken before a large scale project for construction and survey of about a hundred solar houses was launched. The notion of solar house was defined and the use of solar energy (hot water preparation, heating of rooms, heating of swimming pool, or a combination of these possibilities) were examined. A coherent measuring program was set up. Advantages and inconveniences of the large scale project were reviewed. Production of hot water, evaluation of different concepts and different fabrications of solar systems, coverage of the different systems, conservation of energy, failure frequency and failures statistics, durability of the installation, investment maintenance and energy costs were retained as study parameters. Different solar hot water production systems and the heat counter used for measurements are described.

  16. Multiple-effect diffusion solar still coupled with a vacuum-tube collector and heat pipe

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Tze-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The present study develops a multiple-effect diffusion solar still (MEDS) with a bended-plate design in multiple-effect diffusion unit (MDU) to solve the peel-off problem of wick material. The MDU is coupled with a vacuum-tube solar collector to produce a high temperature gradient for high productivity. A heat pipe is used to transfer the solar heat to the MDU. A prototype MEDS-1L was built and tested outdoors. Four performance indexes are proposed for the performance evaluation of MEDS, including daily pure water production per unit area of glass cover, solar absorber, and evaporating surface (Mcov, Msol, Mevp, respectively), and solar distillation efficiency Rcov. The outdoor test results of MEDS-1L show that the solar collector supply temperature Th reaches 100°C at solar radiation 800Wm-2. The highest Mcov is 23.9kgm-2d-1 which is about 29% higher than the basin-type MEDS [11]. The highest value is 25.9kgm-2d-1 for Msol and 2.79kgm-2d-1 for Mevp. The measured Rcov is 1.5-2.44, higher than the basin-type MEDS (1.45-1.88). The Mcov, Msol, Mevp and Rcov of MEDS-1L are all higher than the theoretical calculation of a MEDS with a flat-plate solar collector coupled with a heat pipe (MEDS-FHP) [17].© 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Solar heating systems for houses. A design handbook for solar combisystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-11-01

    A handbook giving guidance on systems for providing combined solar space heating and solar water heating for houses has been produced by an international team. The guidance focuses on selection of the optimum combi-system for groups of single-family houses and multi-family houses. Standard classification and evaluation procedures are described. The book should be a valuable tool for building engineers, architects, solar manufacturers and installers of solar solar energy systems, and anyone interested in optimizing combined water and space heating solar systems

  18. The turbulent cascade and proton heating in the solar wind during solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, Jesse T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Stawarz, Joshua E.; Forman, Miriam A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar wind measurements at 1 AU during the recent solar minimum and previous studies of solar maximum provide an opportunity to study the effects of the changing solar cycle on in situ heating. Our interest is to compare the levels of activity associated with turbulence and proton heating. Large-scale shears in the flow caused by transient activity are a source that drives turbulence that heats the solar wind, but as the solar cycle progresses the dynamics that drive the turbulence and heat the medium are likely to change. The application of third-moment theory to Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) data gives the turbulent energy cascade rate which is not seen to vary with the solar cycle. Likewise, an empirical heating rate shows no significan changes in proton heating over the cycle.

  19. Pre evaluation for heat balance of prototype sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Woong; Kim, De Hee; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Eui Kwang; Lee, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    Under the long term advanced SFR R and D plan, the design of prototype reactor has been carried out toward the construction of the prototype SFR plant by 2028. The R and D efforts in fluid system design will be focused on developing a prototype design of primary heat transport system(PHTS), intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), decay heat removal system(DHRS), steam generation system(SGS), and related auxiliary system design for a prototype reactor as shown in Fig. 1. In order to make progress system design, top tier requirements for prototype reactor related to design parameters of NSSS and BOP should be decided at first. The top tier requirement includes general design basis, capacity and characteristics of reactor, various requirements related to safety, performance, securities, economics, site, and etc.. Extensive discussion has been done within Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) for the decision of top tier requirements of the prototype reactor. The core outlet temperature, which should be described as top tier requirements, is one of the critical parameter for system design. The higher core exit temperature could contribute to increase the plant efficiency. However, it could also contribute to decrease the design margin for structure and safety. Therefore various operating strategies based on different core outlet temperatures should be examined and evaluated. For the prototype reactor two core outlet temperatures are taken into accounted. The lower temperature is for the operation condition and the higher temperature is for the system design and licensing process of the prototype reactor. In order to evaluate the operability of prototype reactor designed based on higher temperature, the heat balance calculations have been performed at different core outlet temperature conditions. The electrical power of prototype reactor was assumed to be 100MWe and reference operating conditions were decided based on existing available data. The

  20. Experimental validation of a theoretical model for a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump applied to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Rodriguez, A.; Garcia-Hernando, N.; González-Gil, A.; Izquierdo, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the experimental validation of a theoretical model that determines the operating parameters of a DXSAHP (direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump) applied to heating. For this application, the model took into account the variable condensing temperature, and it was developed from the following environmental variables: outdoor temperature, solar radiation and wind. The experimental data were obtained from a prototype installed at the University Carlos III, which is located south of Madrid. The prototype uses a solar collector with a total area of 5.6 m 2 , a compressor with a rated capacity of 1100 W, a thermostatic expansion valve and fan-coil units as indoor terminals. The monitoring results were analyzed for several typical days in the climatic zone where the machine was located to understand the equipment's seasonal behavior. The experimental coefficient of the performance varies between 1.9 and 2.7, and the equipment behavior in extreme outdoor conditions has also been known to determine the thermal demand that can be compensated for. - Highlights: • The study aims to present an experimental validation of a theoretical model. • The experimental COP can vary between 1.9 and 2.7 (max. condensation temperature 59 °C). • A “dragging term” relates condensation and evaporation temperature. • The operating parameters respond to the solar radiation. The COP may increase up to 25%

  1. Interaction of regulation and innovation: Solar air heating collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, K.

    2012-01-01

    Solar Air Heating Collectors have still a very small share of 0.8% of the nominal installed capacity in the solar heating and cooling market (151.7 GWth) [1]. Although constituting a niche market, the potential of those kind of collectors to provide heat for industrial processes, processing food, room heating, air preheating, drying processes or air conditioning could be significant. However, the technical potentials of the various technological solutions are not easy to compare. Such a compa...

  2. Thermal performance analysis of a solar heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Andersen, Ola Lie

    was developed to calculate thermal performances of the plant. In the Trnsys model, three solar collector fields with a total solar collector area of 33,300 m2, a seasonal water pit heat storage of 75,000 m3, a simplified CO2 HP, a simplified ORC unit and a simplified wood chip boiler were included. The energy......Detailed measurements were carried out on a large scale solar heating plant located in southern Denmark in order to evaluate thermal performances of the plant. Based on the measurements, energy flows of the plant were evaluated. A modified Trnsys model of the Marstal solar heating plant...... consumption of the district heating net was modeled by volume flow rate and given forward and return temperatures of the district heating net. Weather data from a weather station at the site of the plant were used in the calculations. The Trnsys calculated yearly thermal performance of the solar heating plant...

  3. Performance investigation of a lab–scale latent heat storage prototype – Numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyas, Hakeem; Prasad, Sunku; Muthukumar, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a numerical tool for analyzing a shell-and-tube LHS system. • Effective heat capacity method is used for incorporating the latent heat. • Number of heat transfer fluid tubes and fins are optimized. • Partial charging/discharging is efficient than complete charging/discharging. • Numerically predicted values match well with the experimental results. - Abstract: In the current study, numerical analysis of the charging and discharging characteristics of a lab-scale latent heat storage (LHS) prototype is presented. A mathematical model is developed to analyze the performance characteristics of the LHS prototype of shell and tube heat exchanger configuration. Effective heat capacity (EHC) method is implemented to consider the latent heat of the phase change material (PCM) and Boussinesq approximation is used to incorporate the buoyancy effect of the molten layer of the PCM in the model. For proper modeling of velocities in the PCM, Darcy law’s source term is added. The governing equations involved in the model are solved using a finite element based software product, COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3a. The number of embedded tubes and fins on the embedded tubes are optimized based on the discharging time of the model. Various performance parameters such as charging/discharging time, energy storage/discharge rate and melt fraction are evaluated. Numerically predicted temperature variations of the model during charging and discharging processes were compared with the experimental data extracted from the lab-scale LHS prototype and a good agreement was found between them.

  4. Prototype of a control board solar tracking mechanism on a shaft; Prototipo de una tarjeta de control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar en un eje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Lopez Perez, Manuel de Jesus; Beltran Adan, Jose; Lagunas Mendoza, Javier [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    A solar concentrator prototype of Parabolic Trough (PT) for solar process heat generation has been designed, manufactured and put into operation by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. By means of a sun tracking mechanism controlled by an automatic device, the PT is moving from East to West during the day then this way the solar energy is focused continually over the lineal receiver. Such movement is reached thanks to the electronic module fitted with special software. In this paper, the design of an electronic module based on calculation algorithm of the sun position along the day and over the year which controls the PT sun tracking is presented. The main purpose of the development is to integrate a control system which is using the algorithm of low cost (it was tested in a commercial system with success). [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha disenado, fabricado y puesto en operacion un prototipo de concentrador solar de canal parabolico para la generacion de calor de proceso. La tecnologia termosolar a concentracion de canal parabolica mantiene el concentrador moviendose de este a oeste durante el dia, enfocando continuamente el sol en el receptor lineal, mediante un mecanismo y un control automatico que permite el seguimiento aparente del sol. Se ha desarrollado el software para el control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar. En este articulo se presenta el diseno de un modulo electronico que controla el mecanismo de seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico, el cual tiene sus bases en un algoritmo que calcula la posicion del sol durante todo el dia y a lo largo del ano. El proposito principal es integrar un sistema de control de bajo costo, que utilice el algoritmo desarrollado por el IIE, el cual fue probado con exito en un sistema comercial para el seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico.

  5. Numerical analysis and experimental validation of heat transfer characteristic for flat-plate solar air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tzu-Chen; Huang, Tsung-Jie; Lee, Duen-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hung; Pei, Bau-Shei; Li, Zeng-Yao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Various types of solar air collectors are discussed. • CFD has been used to validate the characteristics of heat transfer. • Solar Ray Tracing has been successfully used for thermal radiation flux. - Abstract: This study combines both concepts of solar ventilation technology and solar air collector. This is a quite innovative and potential facility to effectively use thermal energy and reduce the accumulation of heat in the indoor space simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to create a prototype and implement the experiments. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is employed to validate the characteristics of the flow and heat transfer. For the accuracy of numerical predictions, the method of Solar Ray Tracing was used for thermal radiation flux as boundary condition on the wall. The local heat transfer correlation was investigated to predict surrounding wind speed upon device cover. Three sorts of glasses and several aspect ratios of flow channels have been compared to conclude the optimal configuration. In addition, four important factors, such as the stagnant layer thickness, emissivity on the illustrated surface, mass flow rate and the height of the device, are also considered and discussed in detail. The result showed that the optimal design is dominated by the combination of an aspect ratio of 50 mm:10 mm, and appropriate mass flow rate to the height of the device. The present work on thermal energy collection can assist us in designing a powerful solar air collector in some potential applications.

  6. Study concerning the erection within the precincts of INR Pitesti of TRIGA prototype nuclear heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.; Constantin, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the problems of nuclear plant energy production as heating source for industrial processes and urban district heating. The study is based on the TRIGA concept due to some of its advantages in comparison with other concepts. The system solutions for a prototype implementation and the aspects of the economical and financial efficiency are outlined. The conclusion is drawn that the TRIGA 53 MWt-reactor is suitable to meet the heating needs of urban and industrial heating systems in this country

  7. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP), reference phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladerer, R.; Schrader, L.

    1982-07-01

    The coal gasification processes using nuclear process heat being developed within the framwork of the PNP project, have the advantages of saving feed coal, improving efficiency, reducing emissions, and stabilizing energy costs. One major gasification process is the hydrogasification of coal for producing SNG or gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; this process can also be applied in a conventional route. The first steps to develop this process were planning, construction and operation of a semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed having an input of 100 kg C/h. Before the completion of the development phase (reference phase) describing here, several components were tested on part of which no operational experience had so far been gained; these were the newly developed devices, e.g. the inclined tube for feeding coal into the fluidized bed, and the raw gas/hydrogenation gas heat exchanger for utilizing the waste heat of the raw gas leaving the gasifier. Concept optimizing of the thoroughly tested equipment parts led to an improved operational behaviour. Between 1976 and 1980, the semi-technical pilot plant was operated for about 19,400 hours under test conditions, more than 7,400 hours of which it has worked under gasification conditions. During this time approx. 1,100 metric tons of dry brown coal and more than 13 metric tons of hard coal were gasified. The longest coherent operational phase under gasification conditions was 748 hours in which 85.4 metric tons of dry brown coal were gasified. Carbon gasification rates up to 82% and methane contents in the dry raw gas (free of N 2 ) up to 48 vol.% were obtained. A detailed evaluation of the test results provided information of the results obtained previously. For the completion of the test - primarily of long-term tests - the operation of the semi-technical pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal is to be continued up to September 1982. (orig.) [de

  8. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  9. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  10. Optimal design of solar water heating systems | Alemu | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar water heating systems are usually designed using simplified equation of annual efficiency of the heating system from solar radiation incident on the collector during the year and empirical values of annual efficiency. The pe1formance of the preliminary design is predicted by using either/chart method or by translate it ...

  11. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2015-07-01

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto porous stainless steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water–air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for an enhanced evaporation.

  12. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Tang, Bo; Wu, Jinbo; Li, Renyuan; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto porous stainless steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water–air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for an enhanced evaporation.

  13. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  14. Prototyping phase of the high heat flux scraper element of Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J., E-mail: jean.boscary@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Greuner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Ehrke, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Böswirth, B.; Wang, Z. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Clark, E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Lumsdaine, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Tretter, J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); McGinnis, D.; Lore, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Ekici, K. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Aim of scraper element: reduction of heat loads on high heat flux divertor ends. • Design: actively water-cooled for 20 MW/m{sup 2} local heat loads. • Technology: CFC NB31 monoblocks bonded by HIP to CuCrZr cooling tube. • Successful high heat flux testing up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: The water-cooled high heat flux scraper element aims to reduce excessive heat loads on the target element ends of the actively cooled divertor of Wendelstein 7-X. Its purpose is to intercept some of the plasma fluxes both upstream and downstream before they reach the divertor surface. The scraper element has 24 identical plasma facing components (PFCs) divided into 6 modules. One module has 4 PFCs hydraulically connected in series by 2 water boxes. A PFC, 247 mm long and 28 mm wide, has 13 monoblocks made of CFC NB31 bonded by hot isostatic pressing onto a CuCrZr cooling tube equipped with a copper twisted tape. 4 full-scale prototypes of PFCs have been successfully tested in the GLADIS facility up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. The difference observed between measured and calculated surface temperatures is probably due to the inhomogeneity of CFC properties. The design of the water box prototypes has been detailed to allow the junction between the cooling pipe of the PFCs and the water boxes by internal orbital welding. The prototypes are presently under fabrication.

  15. Development of the prototype data management system of the solar H-alpha full disk observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ka-Ning; Zhao, Shi-Qing; Li, Qiong-Ying; Chen, Dong

    2004-06-01

    The Solar Chromospheric Telescope in Yunnan Observatory generates about 2G bytes fits format data per day. Huge amounts of data will bring inconvenience for people to use. Hence, data searching and sharing are important at present. Data searching, on-line browsing, remote accesses and download are developed with a prototype data management system of the solar H-alpha full disk observation, and improved by the working flow technology. Based on Windows XP operating system and MySQL data management system, a prototype system of browse/server model is developed by JAVA and JSP. Data compression, searching, browsing, deletion need authority and download in real-time have been achieved.

  16. Flexibility of Large-Scale Solar Heating Plant with Heat Pump and Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luc, Katarzyna Marta; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to decrease biomass use in a district heating system. The paper focuses on the renewable energy-based district heating system in Marstal, Denmark, with heat produced in central solar heating plant, wood pellet boiler, heat pump and bio-oil boiler. The plant has been the object of research and developments...

  17. Experimentation of a LiBr–H2O absorption process for long-term solar thermal storage: Prototype design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Tsoukpoe, K.E.; Le Pierrès, N.; Luo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term thermal storage by absorption process studied in this paper is devoted to building heating. A demonstrative prototype that can store 8 kWh of heat and produce a heating power of 1 kW has been designed and built. It has been tested in static and dynamic operating conditions, which are compatible with domestic solar thermal and heating plants. The process operating principle, the prototype design and first experimental results are presented and discussed in this contribution. The charging process has been proved successful. The observed power during the charging phases is satisfactory, according to the process design for a real plant (2–5 kW). Absorption during discharging phase is also verified. Discharging tests show that absorption operates in conditions that could allow house heating as the absorber outlet solution temperature can reach 40 °C. However, some problems related to the absorber design have not allowed observing the heat recovery by the heat transfer fluid as expected. Some avenues are explored prior to a new and more appropriate design and eventually a new operating mode. Various aspects such as the use of a heat and mass transfer enhancement additive and stratification in the solution storage tank have also been addressed. - Highlights: ► A long-term thermal storage prototype is tested under practical conditions. ► For the prototype design, a separate reactor is used with integrated components. ► The observed powers during the charging phases are satisfactory (2–5 kW). ► Following crystallisation phases, discharging tests enabled the crystal dissolution. ► Absorber temperature that could allow house heating (up to 40°C) has been observed

  18. Study of an active wall solar heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, Talal

    2006-01-01

    An active wall solar heating system was built and tested. In the same time a compatible computer program has been according to set the recommended dimensions for the solar collectors where (F-Chart) method used to set the ratio of monthly solar sharing average for the examined heating system. Some parameters, such as collectors' areas, its tilt angle and near earth reflecting were experimentally investigated, affecting the executed active solar heating system performance. The study explain the ability of using this system which is simple, Low coast and high performance in heating residential and public buildings and heating water with ratio of yearly solar sharing achieves the needed saving of using this system.(Author)

  19. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  20. A prototype machine using thermal type Stirling solar energy and bio fuel as a primary energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Cesar; Sousa, Regina Celia de; Santos, Jose Maria Ramos dos; Oliveira, Antonio Jose Silva [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Depending on the energy crisis and global warming became necessary to seek new sources of energy that could minimize the serious problems arising from this situation. The energy base that supported our growth in recent decades has supported - heavily on fossil fuel, highly polluting since its extraction and consumption, causing great environmental impact. Before his coal, also harmful to human health and nature. Modern life has been moved at the expense of exhaustible resources that took millions of years to form and will end one day. In this work we developed a prototype that uses a heat engine cycle of the Stirling engine with a heat source, arising from the burning of bio fuels or solar power. The main bio fuel used was ethanol. Ethanol is a product of today's diverse market applications, widely used as automotive fuel in hydrated form or blended with gasoline. The main layout of our prototype are: the four-cylinder, two for expansion and the other two for compression, a heat spreader and heat sinks. These simple components can be arranged in various configurations allowing a large space to the adequacy and efficiency of the machine. In experimental measurements made in our prototype, we have an angular speed of 360.1 rpm (revolutions per minute) with an average temperature of 215.6 deg C camera hot (expansion cylinder) and 30 deg C cold source (compression cylinders) and torque generated by our machine is 0.388 Nm Our device is multi-fuel and can be used virtually any source of energy: gasoline, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, diesel, biogas, LPG and solar energy. The construction of this device allowed us to investigate the processes of transformation of energy: chemical, thermal, and mechanical and maximize efficiency of the Stirling engine. To complete the monitoring apparatus, use equipment such as notebook, digital tachometer and a data acquisition Agilent 34970A model. These devices were used in monitoring the angular velocity and

  1. Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Malay K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Horenstein, Mark N. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Joglekar, Nitin R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The feasibility of integrating and retrofitting transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) on the front surfaces of solar collectors was established as a means to provide active self-cleaning properties for parabolic trough and heliostat reflectors, solar panels, and Fresnel lenses. Prototype EDS-integrated solar collectors, including second-surface glass mirrors, metallized Acrylic-film mirrors, and dielectric mirrors, were produced and tested in environmental test chambers for removing the dust layer deposited on the front surface of the mirrors. The evaluation of the prototype EDS-integrated mirrors was conducted using dust and environmental conditions that simulate the field conditions of the Mojave Desert. Test results showed that the specular reflectivity of the mirrors could be maintained at over 90% over a wide range of dust loadings ranging from 0 to 10 g/m2, with particle diameter varying from 1 to 50 μm. The measurement of specular reflectivity (SR) was performed using a D&S Reflectometer at wavelength 660 nm. A non-contact reflectometer was designed and constructed for rapid measurement of specular reflectivity at the same wavelength. The use of this new noncontact instrument allowed us to measure SR before and after EDS activation. Several EDS prototypes were constructed and evaluated with different electrode configurations, electrode materials, and encapsulating dielectric materials.

  2. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  3. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  4. HYBRID INDIRECT SOLAR COOKER WITH LATENT HEAT STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Benazeer Hassan K. Ibrahim *, Victor Jose

    2016-01-01

    Solar cooking is the simplest, safest, most convenient way to cook food without consuming fuels or heating up the kitchen. All the conventional solar cooker designs have the disadvantage of inability to cook during off-shine and night hours.This disadvantage can be eliminated if the solar cooker is designed with thermal storage arrangement. In this paper, a hybrid solar cooker with evacuated tube collector and latent thermal storage unit and alternate electric heatingsource is simulated. The...

  5. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  6. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Li, Jinping; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  7. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  8. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively. PMID:29651424

  9. Total decay heat estimates in a proto-type fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In this paper, total decay heat values generated in a proto-type fast reactor are estimated. These values are compared with those of certain fast reactors. Simple analytical fits are also obtained for these values which can serve as a handy and convenient tool in engineering design studies. These decay heat values taken as their ratio to the nominal operating power are, in general, applicable to any typical plutonium based fast reactor and are useful inputs to the design of decay-heat removal systems

  10. Solar Heating in Uppsala : A case study of the solar heating system in the neighbourhood Haubitsen in Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Emelie; Häger, Klara; Wiborgh, Malin

    2012-01-01

    The housing corporation Uppsalahem has installed asolar heating system in the neighbourhood Haubitsen,which was renovated in 2011. This report examineshow much energy the solar heating system is expectedto generate and which factors could improve theefficiency. Simulations suggest that the solar heatingsystem can to cover about 22 per cent of the domestichot water demand in Haubitsen, which corresponds to50 MWh for a year. If some factors, such as the tilt ofthe solar collectors would have be...

  11. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  12. Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.

  13. Theoretical models of Kapton heating in solar array geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand pyrolysis of Kapton in solar arrays, a computational heat transfer program was developed. This model allows for the different materials and widely divergent length scales of the problem. The present status of the calculation indicates that thin copper traces surrounded by Kapton and carrying large currents can show large temperature increases, but the other configurations seen on solar arrays have adequate heat sinks to prevent substantial heating of the Kapton. Electron currents from the ambient plasma can also contribute to heating of thin traces. Since Kapton is stable at temperatures as high as 600 C, this indicates that it should be suitable for solar array applications. There are indications that the adhesive sued in solar arrays may be a strong contributor to the pyrolysis problem seen in solar array vacuum chamber tests.

  14. Validated TRNSYS Model for Solar Assisted Space Heating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Nedal

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves a validated TRNSYS model for solar assisted space heating system as applied to a residential building in Jordan using new detailed radiation models of the TRNSYS 17.1 and geometric building model Trnsys3d for the Google SketchUp 3D drawing program. The annual heating load for a building (Solar House) which is located at the Royal ScientiFIc Society (RS5) in Jordan is estimated under climatological conditions of Amman. The aim of this Paper is to compare measured thermal performance of the Solar House with that modeled using TRNSYS. The results showed that the annual measured space heating load for the building was 6,188 kWh while the heati.ng load for the modeled building was 6,391 kWh. Moreover, the measured solar fraction for the solar system was 50% while the modeled solar fraction was 55%. A comparison of modeled and measured data resulted in percentage mean absolute errors for solar energy for space heating, auxiliary heating and solar fraction of 13%, 7% and 10%, respectively. The validated model will be useful for long-term performance simulation under different weather and operating conditions.(author)

  15. Study of non-domestic applications for active solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammers, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The UK Department of Trade and Industry (through ETSU) commissioned this study as part of its active solar programme. It was carried out from October 1996 to June 1997. The objective was to assess the potential for the use of active solar heating in non-domestic applications. The study was carried out by searching the literature, carrying out case studies and interviewing members of the solar industry and experts in other fields. There are currently about 45-50 active solar non-domestic schemes in operation in the UK, mostly for heating tap water in buildings of different types. The biggest potential for future non-domestic sales also lies in solar water heating for buildings. Most of the opportunities seem to be in the following building types: ablutions blocks in caravan and holiday camps, sheltered flats and hostels, nursing homes, office buildings, hotels and guest houses, and schools occupied during the summer. There are some other building types which might present niche markets for solar water heating. The market for active solar systems in space heating and cooling appears to be negligible. There is one other market for active solar heating in the non-domestic building sector. This is for warming water used to maintain stand-by generators at a temperature which allows them to kick in without delay in the event of a mains power failure. The main market is in buildings housing computers which control the provision of vital services, e.g. electricity, water and gas. (author)

  16. Solar water heating: The making of a simple, standard appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Within the solar community we have carried on never-ending discussions about the performance of solar water heaters. As a long-time solar advocate and researcher, I am continually asked, open-quotes When will solar usage become widespread?close quotes We who are in the solar business all face this question, and we must respond. Our answers usually take the form of some discussion on efficiency improvements, life-cycle costs, level playing field or environmental factors. But the only real way to answer this question is: Use of solar will be widewspread when a solar water heater is considered to be just another standard appliance. Increased installations is the key, and the solar technology with the greatest near-term potential for increased installation is solar water heating

  17. Design and simulation of a prototype of a small-scale solar CHP system based on evacuated flat-plate solar collectors and Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vicidomini, Maria; Scarpellino, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel small scale solar power plant was designed and simulated. • The system is based on evacuated solar thermal collectors and an ORC system. • An average electric efficiency of 10% was found for the ORC. • The efficiency of solar collectors was found to be high in summer (>50%). • Pay-back periods lower than 5 years were estimated, in case of public funding. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a novel prototype of a 6 kW e solar power plant. The system is based on the coupling of innovative solar thermal collectors with a small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), simultaneously producing electric energy and low temperature heat. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the solar collector field, which is based on stationary evacuated flat-plate solar thermal collectors capable to achieve the operating temperatures typical of the concentrating solar thermal collectors. The solar field consists of about 73.5 m 2 of flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, heating a diathermic oil up to a maximum temperature of 230 °C. A diathermic oil storage tank is employed in order to mitigate the fluctuations due to the variability of solar energy availability. The hot diathermic oil exiting from the tank passes through an auxiliary gas-fired burner which provides eventual additional thermal energy. The inlet temperature of the diathermic oil entering the ORC system varies as a function of the availability of solar energy, also determining an oscillating response of the ORC. The ORC was simulated in Engineering Equation Solver (EES), using zero-dimensional energy and mass balances. The ORC model was subsequently implemented in a more general TRNSYS model, including all the remaining components of the system. The model was used to evaluate the energy and economic performance of the solar CHP system under analysis, in different climatic conditions. The results show that the efficiency of the ORC does not significantly vary during the

  18. A dynamic model of an innovative high-temperature solar heating and cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonomano Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new simulation model of a novel solar heating and cooling system based on innovative high temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collector is presented. The system configuration includes: flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, a double-stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, gas-fired auxiliary heater, a closed loop cooling tower, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, valves, mixers and controllers. The novelty of this study lies in the utilization of flat-plate stationary solar collectors, manufactured by TVP Solar, rather than concentrating ones (typically adopted for driving double-stage absorption chillers. Such devices show ultra-high thermal efficiencies, even at very high (about 200°C operating temperatures, thanks to the high vacuum insulation. Aim of the paper is to analyse the energy and economic feasibility of such novel technology, by including it in a prototypal solar heating and cooling system. For this purpose, the solar heating and cooling system design and performance were analysed by means of a purposely developed dynamic simulation model, implemented in TRNSYS. A suitable case study is also presented. Here, the simulated plant is conceived for the space heating and cooling and the domestic hot water production of a small building, whose energy needs are fulfilled through a real installation (settled also for experimental purposes built up close to Naples (South Italy. Simulation results show that the investigated system is able to reach high thermal efficiencies and very good energy performance. Finally, the economic analysis shows results comparable to those achieved through similar renewable energy systems.

  19. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  20. Economic analyses of central solar heating systems with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D; Keinonen, R.S.

    1986-10-01

    Economic optimization of large active community solar heating systems with annual thermal storage is discussed. The economic evaluation is based on a thermal performance simulation model employing one hour time steps and on detailed up-date data. Different system configurations and sub-system sizes have been considered. For Northern European weather conditions (60/sup 0/N) and with at least 400-500 residential units, the life-cycle cost of delivered solar heat was 6.5-7.5 c/kWh for 50% fraction of non-purchased energy. For a solar fraction of 70%, the solar energy price would be 8 c/kWh.

  1. Exploitation of humid air latent heat by means of solar assisted heat pumps operating below the dew point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, Federico; Tagliafico, Luca A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The opportunity of humid air latent heat exploitation by DX-SAHP is investigated. • A set of experimental tests confirms this opportunity and quantifies it as relevant. • A parametric analysis is performed, via simulation, to deepen the subject. • The energy gain is relevant during both night and daytime. - Abstract: Nowadays, the exploitation of environmental exergy resources for heating purposes (solar energy, convection heat transfer from ambient air, moist air humidity condensation) by means of properly designed heat pump systems is a possible opportunity. In particular, the use of direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps (DX-SAHP) is investigated in this study, when a bare external plate (the solar collector) is kept at temperatures lower than the dew point temperature of ambient air, so that condensation takes place on it. The potential of this technology is settled and an instrumented prototype of a small DX-SAHP system is used to verify the actual performance of the system, in terms of specific thermal energy delivered to the user, efficiency and regulation capabilities. Results clearly show that the contribution of the condensation is significant (20%–30% of the total harvested energy) overnight or in cloudy days with very low or no solar irradiation, and must be taken into account in a system model devoted to describe the DX-SAHP behavior. During daytime, the percentage gain decreases but is still consistent. By investigating along these lines, the heat due to condensation harvested by the collector is found to be a function of the dew-point temperature alone.

  2. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...

  3. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank is a......, the control strategy of intelligent solar heating systems is investigated and the yearly auxiliary energy use of the systems and the electricity price for supplying the consumers with domestic hot water and space heating are calculated....... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys......Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...

  4. Proceedings of the General Assembly 2016 on solar heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Francois; Porcheyre, Edwige; Mouvet, Celine; Humbert, Adrien; SEGUIS, Anne-Sophie; Manteau, Olivier; Roland, Joel; LAPLAGNE, Valerie; Chavagnac, Jean-Francois; Godin, Olivier; Long, Guy; Tamri, Laila; Parrens, Gael; Neveux, Guillaume; Fourmessol, Thomas; Cholin, Xavier; Mugnier, Daniel; Berthomieu, Nadine; Loyen, Richard; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Daclin, Julien; Dejonghe, Joseph; Bealu, Christophe; Alsafar, Thaer; Crozier, Benoit; Ramonet, Corinne; Meriau, Jean-Paul

    2016-10-01

    After an opening speech, a first set of contributions addressed the impact of the evolutions of building energetic regulations on the solar heat market for new buildings: towards positive energy and low carbon buildings with the Energy-Carbon experimentation; results of the RT2012 study on technical and economic solutions of solar hot water; opportunities and constraints of the integration of solar energy into projects. The second set addressed new opportunities in terms of technical innovations and services for connected thermal solar: a harmonised framework proposed by industries for individual equipment; returns on experience from industrials; impact of connected solar on the operator's profession. The third session discussed perspectives for the French sector: synthesis of a prospective study on the economic and social potential of the solar sector in France; a new MOOC on energy labelling of solar heating and water heaters. The fourth session presented some recent advances dealing with SOCOL for a collective, performing and sustainable production of solar heat: new SOCOL tools; a new design and sizing software; integration of the SOCOL quality approach in the 2017 Heat Fund. The fifth set of contributions addressed the issue of self-consumption and its possible dynamic impact on the production of solar electrons and calories: approach to burden management and reduction of CO_2 emissions; innovation at the service of photovoltaic performance by using phase-change materials; the example of the future House of the Ile-de-France in Paris. The last session addressed local dynamics noticed in relationship with the use of solar heat: the SOLTHERM plan in Wallonia; local initiatives in the farming sector; a large project by Lyon Habitat within the frame of an ADEME program (large installations). A closing speech proposes a synthesis on how to find growth again and reach the national ambitious objective for solar heat by 2023

  5. Design of micro-reactors and solar photocatalytic prototypes; Diseno de micro-reactores y prototipos fotocataliticos solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Hernandez H, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, M.R.; Bonifacio M, J.; Jimenez B, J.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Castaneda J, G.; Lugo H, M. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico)]. e-mail: rmfe@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In the ININ is carried out research in heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial light for to degrade organic compounds. In this context, it is sought to use the solar radiation as energy source to knock down costs. Of equal form it requires to link the basic and applied research. For it, a methodology that allows to design and to build micro-reactors and plants pilot has been developed, like previous step, to request external supports and to a future commercialization. The beginning of these works gave place to the partial construction of a prototype of photocatalytic reactor of the cylinder-parabolic composed type (CPC)

  6. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  7. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  8. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces the auxiliary heating by 7390 MJ, and reduces the annual operation cost by 2010 RMB. Under time and spatial partition heating, optimization analyses were conducted for the two system capacity parameters of the solar collector area and tank volume and the one operation parameter of auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature. The results showed that a reasonable choice of the solar collector area can reduce the dynamic annual cost, the increased tank volume is advantageous to heat storage, and the auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature have greater influence on the indoor heating effect. The advanced opening of solar water heating system and the normal opening of passive air vents are recommended. Based on the comparison of the two modes, the time and spatial partition heating technology is a better choice for rural dwellings.

  9. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.H.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Dijk, van H.A.L.; Brink, van den G.J.; Galen, van E; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a passive solar heating system with a higher efficiency (regarding accumulation and transfer of solar heat into dwellings) than convential concrete thermal storage walls and with restricted extra costs for manufacturing the system. This is to be achieved by the

  10. Technician Marshall MacCready installs solar cells on the Helios Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Technician Marshall MacCready carefully lays a panel of solar cells into place on a wing section of the Helios Prototype flying wing at AeroVironment's Design Development Center in Simi Valley, California. The bi-facial cells, manufactured by SunPower, Inc., of Sunnyvale, California, are among 64,000 solar cells which have been installed on the solar-powered aircraft to provide electricity to its 14 motors and operating systems. Developed by AeroVironment under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude aircraft which can perform atmospheric science missions and serve as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere. Target goals set by NASA for the giant 246-foot span flying wing include reaching and sustaining subsonic horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude in 2001, and sustained continuous flight for at least four days and nights above 50,000 feet altitude 2003 with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now being developed.

  11. Modelling radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhlopa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer inside a basin type solar still has been investigated using two models with (model 1) and without (model 2) taking into account optical view factors. The coefficient of radiative heat exchange (h r,w-gc ) between the water and cover surfaces of a practical solar still was computed using the two models. Simulation results show that model 1 yields lower values of h r,w-gc and the root mean square error than model 2. It is therefore concluded that the accuracy of modelling the performance of a basin-type solar still can be improved by incorporating view factors. - Highlights: • Radiative heat transfer in a basin type solar still has been investigated. • Two models with and without view factors were used. • The model with view factors exhibits a lower magnitude of root mean square error. • View factors affect the accuracy of modelling the performance of the solar still

  12. Solar energy and global heat balance of a city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Claude-Alain [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The global energy balance of a city involves numerous energy flows and is rather complex. It includes, among others, the absorbed solar radiation and the energy fuels on one hand, and the heat loss to the environment --- by radiation, convection and evaporation --- on the other hand. This balance generally results in a temperature in the town that is slightly higher than in the surrounding country. Using solar energy saves imported fuels on one hand, but increases the absorption of solar radiation on the other hand. Simple, steady state models are used to assess the change of heat released to the environment when replacing the use of classical fuels by solar powered plants, on both the global and city scale. The conclusion is that, in most cases, this will reduce the heat released to the environment. The exception is cooling, for which a good solar alternative does not exist today. (Author)

  13. Compact solar heating systems - back on the way up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the upward trend being noted in the installation of compact solar heating systems in Switzerland. The contribution of these complete, easy-to-install systems to the increasing number of solar heating units on the market is discussed and the role played by the Solar Collector and Systems Testing Facility at the Institute of Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, is emphasised. One of this institute's important publications is a list of certified compact solar heating systems. The high technical standards of the systems and the current price situation are discussed. The article is rounded off by an interview with a four-person family on their motivation to install such a hot-water system and their experience with its operation. Finally, future trends in the area are discussed

  14. Economic feasibility of solar water and space heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, R H; Hirshberg, A S; Babcock, W H

    1979-03-23

    The economic feasibility in 1977 and 1978 of solar water and combined water and space heating is analyzed for single-family detached residences and multi-family apartment buildings in four representative U.S. cities: Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Los Angeles, California. Three economic decision criteria are utilized: payback period, years to recovery of down payment, and years to net positive cash flow. The cost competitiveness of the solar systems compared to heating systems based on electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas is then discussed for each city, and the impact of the federal tax credit for solar energy systems is assessed. It is found that even without federal incentives some solar water and space heating systems are competitive. Enactment of the solar tax credit, however, greatly enhances their competitiveness. The implications of these findings for government tax and energy pricing policies are discussed.

  15. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  16. Experiments on novel solar heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiping; Cui Yong; Zhu Li; Han Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Solar heating and nocturnal radiant cooling techniques are united to produce a novel solar heating and cooling system. The radiant panel with both heating and cooling functions can be used as structural materials for the building envelope, which realizes true building integrated utilization of solar energy. Based on the natural circulation principle, the operation status can be changed automatically between the heating cycle and the cooling cycle. System performances under different climate conditions using different covers on the radiant panel are studied. The results show that the novel solar heating and cooling system has good performance of heating and cooling. For the no cover system, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 52% with the maximum efficiency of 73%, while at night, the cooling capacity is about 47 W/m 2 on a sunny day. On a cloudy day, the daily average heat collecting efficiency is 47% with the maximum of 84%, while the cooling capacity is about 33 W/m 2 . As a polycarbonate (PC) panel or polyethylene film are used as covers, the maximum heat collecting efficiencies are 75% and 72% and the daily average heat collecting efficiencies are 61% and 58%, while the cooling capacities are 50 W/m 2 and 36 W/m 2 , respectively

  17. Design concepts for solar heating in a Mediterranean climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M; Berger, X; Bourdeau, L; Jaffrin, A; Sylvain, J D

    1977-01-01

    Solar heating is often designed in a similar way to classical central heating. The consequence is a very high cost which can only be reduced by using a calorific fluid at a lower temperature than is customary, improved architectural design and a further research into new passive heating methods. The collection area and storage volume necessary to obtain good solar efficiency were computed in a Mediterranean climate. Emphasis is put on large thermal inertia which is best achieved by using the latent heat of materials. The result of an experiment performed with salt hydrates is most promising but many problems of time instability have still to be solved.

  18. Design of a Heat Pump Assisted Solar Thermal System

    OpenAIRE

    Krockenberger, Kyle G.; DeGrove, John M.; Hutzel, William J.; Foreman, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the design of an active solar thermal loop system that will be integrated with an air source heat pump hot water heater to provide highly efficient heating of a water/propylene glycol mixture. This system design uses solar energy when available, but reverts to the heat pump at night or during cloudy weather. This new design will be used for hydronic heating in the Applied Energy Laboratory, a teaching laboratory at Purdue University, but it is more generally applicable for...

  19. The Heating of the Solar Atmosphere: from the Bottom Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The heating of the solar atmosphere remains a mystery. Over the past several decades, scientists have examined the observational properties of structures in the solar atmosphere, notably their temperature, density, lifetime, and geometry, to determine the location, frequency, and duration of heating. In this talk, I will review these observational results, focusing on the wealth of information stored in the light curve of structures in different spectral lines or channels available in the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, Hinode's X-ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. I will discuss some recent results from combined data sets that support the heating of the solar atmosphere may be dominated by low, near-constant heating events.

  20. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  1. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  2. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  3. Building integration of concentrating solar systems for heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsou, Sapfo; Infante Ferreira, Carlos; Krieg, Jan; Ezzahiri, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A new solar collection system integrated on the façade of a building is investigated for Dutch climate conditions. The solar collection system includes a solar façade, a receiver tube and 10 Fresnel lenses. The Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses considered were linear, non-imaging, line – focused with a system tracking the position of the sun that ensures vertical incidence of the direct solar radiation on the lenses. For the heating system a double-effect absorption heat pump, which requires high temperature of the heating fluid, was used, working with water and lithium-bromide as refrigerant and solution respectively. The Fresnel lens system is connected with the absorption heat pump through a thermal energy storage tank which accumulates the heat from the Fresnel lens system to provide it to the high pressure generator of the absorption heat pump. - Highlights: • The integration of Fresnel lenses in solar thermal building façades is investigated. • Using building integrated Fresnel lenses, 43% heating energy can be saved. • Energy savings in Mediterranean countries are significantly larger. • The absorption heat pump could make great contribution to energy savings for Dutch climate conditions

  4. Proceedings of the solar industrial process heat symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to review the progress of various solar energy systems currently under design for supplying industrial process heat. Formal presentations consisted of a review of solar energy applications in industrial process heat as well as several on-going project reviews. An Open Forum was held to solicit the comments of the participants. The recommendations of this Open Forum are included in these proceedings. Eighteen papers were included. Separate abstracts were prepared for each paper.

  5. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  6. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  7. Electron heat flux instabilities in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.; Forslund, D.W.; Montgomery, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    There are at least three plasma instabilities associated with the electron heat flux in the solar wind. This letter reports the study of the unstable fast magnetosonic, Alfven and whistler modes via a computer code which solves the full electromagnetic, linear, Vlasov dispersion relation. Linear theory demonstrates that both the magnetosonic and Alfven instabilities are candidates for turbulent limitation of the heat flux in the solar wind at 1 A.U

  8. Numerical simulation of solar heating of buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffe, G.; Jannot, M.; Pellerin, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    This study is divided into two parts: First, the thermal modelling of a solar + electric heated building is presented; mathematical equations are established; numerical calculations are analyzed; and a calculation code in FORTRAN V is set down. Second, this calculation code was used to study the thermal performances of the solar + electric heated building in three European climates: Copenhagen (56/sup 0/ north latitude - Denmark), Trappes (48/sup 0/ north latitude - France), and Carpentras (44/sup 0/ north latitude - France).

  9. Consumer impacts on dividends from solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.; Levermore, G. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lynch, H. [Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, University of East London, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Common domestic solar water heating system usage patterns were investigated by a survey of 55 installations. These usage patterns were modelled by simulation based on the actual occupants' use of boiler or other auxiliary heating control strategies. These strategies were not optimal, as often assumed. The effectiveness of the technology was found to be highly sensitive to the time settings used for auxiliary water heating, and the 65% of solar householders using their boilers in the mornings were found to be forgoing 75% of their potential savings. Additionally, 92% of consumers were found to be small households, whose potential savings were only 23% of those of larger households, which use more hot water. Overall the majority (at least 60%) of the systems surveyed were found to be achieving no more than 6% of their potential savings. Incorporating consideration of Legionella issues, results indicate that if solar thermal technology is to deliver its potential to CO2 reduction targets: solar householders must avoid any use of their auxiliary water heating systems before the end of the main warmth of the day, grants for solar technology should be focused on households with higher hot water demands, and particularly on those that are dependent on electricity for water heating, health and safety requirements for hot water storage must be reviewed and, if possible, required temperatures should be set at a lower level, so that carbon savings from solar water heating may be optimized.

  10. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  11. 3D numerical simulation on heat transfer performance of a cylindrical liquid immersion solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Haijun; Wang Yiping; Zhu Li; Han Xinyue; Sun Yong; Zhao Zhengjian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Establishment of a three-dimensional numerical simulation model of a cylindrical liquid immersion solar receiver. ► Determination of model parameters and validation of the model by using the real-collected data. ► Optimization of liquid flow rate and fin’s structure for better heat transfer performance. - Abstract: Liquid immersion cooling for a cylindrical solar receiver in a dish concentrator photovoltaic system has been experimentally verified to be a promising method of removing surplus heat from densely packed solar cells. In the present study, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model of the prototype was established for better understanding the mechanism of the direct-contact heat transfer process. With the selection of standard k–ε turbulent model, the detailed simulation results of velocity field and temperature characteristics were obtained. The heat transfer performance of two structural modules (bare module and finned module) under actual weather conditions was simulated. It was found that the predicted temperature distribution of the two structural modules at the axial and lateral direction was in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated simulation model, the influence of liquid flow rate and module geometric parameters on the cell temperature was then investigated. The simulated results indicated that the cell module with fin height of 4 mm and fin number of 11 has the best heat transfer performance and will be used in further works.

  12. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  13. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... content of room air, temperature of supply air and moisture content of supply air was developed based on the experiments. Reduction of moisture content in the supply air by 1.6 g/kg had the same effect as lowering the operative temperature by 1 degree C. The solar-powered system for supplying dry air...... is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions....

  14. The annual number of days that solar heated water satisfies a specified demand temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohanis, Y.G. [Thermal Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ulster, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Popel, O.; Frid, S.E. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-08-15

    An analysis of solar water heating systems determines the number of days in each month when solar heated water wholly meets demand above a set temperature. The approach has been used to investigate the potential contribution to water heating loads of solar water heating in two UK locations. Correlations between the approach developed and the use of solar fractions are discussed. (author)

  15. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  16. ANALYSIS OF MEASURED AND MODELED SOLAR RADIATION AT THE TARS SOLAR HEATING PLANT IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    , such as solar radiation, inlet and outlet temperature for the solar collector field, flow rate and pressure, ambient temperature, Wind speed and wind direction were measured. Global horizontal radiation, direct normal irradiation (DNI) and total radiation on the tilted collector plane of the flat plate...... collector field have been measured in Tars solar heating plant. To determine the accuracy of modeled and measured solar radiation in Tars solar heating plant, monthly comparisons of measured and calculated radiation using 6 empirical models have been carried out. Comparisons of measured and modeled total......A novel combined solar heating plant with tracking parabolic trough collectors (PTC) and flat plate collectors (FPC) has been constructed and put into operation in Tars, 30 km north of Aalborg, Denmark in August 2015. To assess the operation performance of the plant, detailed parameters...

  17. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  18. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  19. Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

    1978-03-01

    The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

  20. Solar heating by radiant floor: Experimental results and emission reduction obtained with a micro photovoltaic–heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Agustín-Camacho, P. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work presents a PVT multicrystalline solar heating system for buildings. • The PV DC electricity generated was converted to AC to drive an air–water heat pump. • Experimental results obtained from December 1, 2012 to April 30, 2013 are detailed. • An environmental study is also presented. - Abstract: An experimental research with a solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) micro grid feeding a reversible air–water, 6 kW heating capacity heat pump, has been carried out from December 2012 to April 2013. Its purpose is to heat a laboratory that is used as a house prototype for the study of heating/cooling systems. It was built in accordance with the 2013 Spanish CTE, and has an area of 35 m 2 divided into two internal rooms: one of them housing the storage system, the solar controller, the inverter and the control system; the other one is occupied by three people. Its main thermal characteristics are: UA = 125 W/°C and a maximum thermal load about 6.0 kW at the initial time. The PVT field consists of 12 modules, with a total area of 15.7 m 2 and useful area of 14 m 2 . Each module is composed of 48 polycrystalline silicon cells of 243.4 cm 2 , which with a nominal efficiency 14% can generate a power of 180 W, being the total nominal power installed 2.16 kW. The PV system stores electricity in 250 Ah batteries from where is converted from DC to AC through a 3.0 kW inverter that feeds the heat pump. This works supplying 840 l/h of hot water at 35–45 °C to the radiant floor. The data storing system is recording variables such as solar radiation; temperatures; input power to batteries; heat produced; heat transferred by the radiant floor; heat pump’s COP; isolated ratio; and solar fraction. The objective of this work is to present and discuss the experimental results and the emission reduction of CO 2 obtained during the period from 01/12/2012 to 30/04/2013, including the detailed results of two representative days of Madrid’s climate: 28

  1. Solar energy. From prototypes to working units but always the same obstacle: the cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The fraction of radiated energy from the sun intercepted by the earth is 20,000 times greater than world consumption in 1975. A house heated by solar energy and displayed at the 1975 Paris Fair had 45 M/sup 2/ of collector panels, a water thermal storage system of 3000 litres, 3 M/sup 2/ of photopiles, and a wind generator. A 400 W solar generator using silicon photovoltaic cells has been employed to drive an electric pump to draw 2700 litres/hour of water from a depth of 20 M.

  2. Solar district heating and seasonal heat storage - state of the art; Solare Nahwaerme und Saisonale Waermespeicherung - Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, M.; Hahne, E. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Solarthermische Energietechnik; Lottner, V. [BEO Biologie, Energie Oekologie, Juelich (Germany); Schulz, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Solar energy technology becomes more and more important for space and water heating of residential buildings. Compared to small systems for single-family houses, the specific investment cost of big solar plants is lower and a higher contribution of solar energy can be achieved. In central solar heating plants with seasonal storage (CSHPSS), more than 50% of the total heat demand of residential areas can be covered by solar energy. The first pilot plants for CSHPSS are operating in Germany since 1996. The first results of the accompanying monitoring program show good agreement between calculated and actual solar contribution. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Nutzung solarer Niedertemperaturwaerme zur Brauchwassererwaermung und zur Beheizung von Wohngebaeuden erfaehrt in Deutschland ein immer groesseres Interesse. Solare Grossanlagen haben gegenueber solaren Kleinanlagen den Vorteil, dass mit geringeren Investitions- und Waermekosten groessere Anlagenertraege erzielt werden koennen. In Verbindung mit saisonaler Waermespeicherung erreichen solare Grossanlagen Deckungsanteile von 50% und darueber am Gesamtwaermebedarf von Wohnsiedlungen. Die ersten Pilotanlagen zur solaren Nahwaerme mit saisonalem Waermespeicher gingen 1996 in Betrieb und werden derzeit detailliert vermessen. Erste Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die vorausberechneten Werte fuer den Jahresenergieertrag erreicht werden koennen. (orig.)

  3. Feasibility Study on Solar District Heating in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Junpeng; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of developing solar district heating (SDH) in China from the perspective of incentive policy, selections of technical route, regional adaptability and economic feasibility for clean heating. Based on the analyzation, this proposes a road map for the development...

  4. Solar-Heated and Cooled Office Building--Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Final report documents solar-energy system installed in office building to provide space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. Collectors mounted on roof track Sun and concentrate rays on fluid-circulating tubes. Collected energy is distributed to hot-water-fired absorption chiller and space-heating and domestic-hot-water preheating systems.

  5. Solar wind heat flux regulation by the whistler instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Feldman, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper studies the role of the whistler instability in the regulation of the solar wind heat flux near 1 AU. A comparison of linear and second-order theory with experimental results provides strong evidence that the whistler may at times contribute to the limitation of this heat flux

  6. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT STORAGE OF SOLAR HEAT IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Holck, Ole; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with the highest energy con-sumption. The reduction depends on the solar collector area, distribution of the insulation thickness, heat-ing demand and control strategy, but not on pipe spacing and layer thickness and material. Finally, it is shown that the system can also be used for comfort heating of tiled...

  7. High Heat Flux Test of the ITER FW Semi-prototype Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Dug; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Suk Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung; Hong, Bong Guen

    2010-01-01

    As a procurement party of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) blanket project, we have to pass the qualification program which comprises two distinct phases; Phases 1 is about qualifying joining techniques, and phase 2 covers production scaled up component which is so called 'semi-prototype' and the enhanced heat flux qualification. We have constructed the FWQMs (First Wall Qualification Mockups) and already passed the qualification thermal fatigue tests organized by the IO (ITER Organization). The tests were performed at the EB-1200 in the USA and at the BESTH /JUDITH-2 in the EU. For the phase 2 qualification, the semi-prototype design will be provided by the IO. Even though the design has not fixed because the generic design of the first wall is not fixed, it shall comprise a minimum of 3 full length pairs of first wall fingers. We designed and fabricated two semi-prototype mockups which have a full length pair of first wall finger. The two mockups were designed to have different types of the cooling channels; one has a plain rectangular cross-section and the other has a hypervapotron type cooling channel. In order to compare the cooling capability of the two types, we performed high heat flux tests of the two mockups at the KoHLT-2

  8. Test and evaluation of Alco/BLH prototype sodium-heated steam generator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, C.J.; Auge, L.J.; Cho, S.M.; Hanna, R.W.; Prevost, J.R.; Steger, N.A.; Wagner, R.K.

    1971-01-31

    A 30-Mwt prototype sodium-to-sodium intermediate heat exchanger and a 30-Mwt prototype sodium-heated steam generator were tested in combined operation in its Sodium Components Test Installation. This report contains the results of test and evaluation of the steam generator. During plant performance tests, performance degradation was observed, which resulted in the initiation of a diagnostic test series. This test series revealed that under certain operating conditions, the thermohydraulic characteristic of the steam generator changed either suddenly or gradually, resulting in overall performance degradation. A structural failure, requiring retirement of the unit, occurred before the diagnostic test series and analytical support effort were completed. This report describes the thermohydraulic and structural performance, including the structural failures, and related evaluation analyses of the Alco/BLH prototype steam generator performed prior to termination of the test and evaluation program. In addition, the report presents a post-test examination plan to obtain data that could possibly explain the cause of performance anomalies and structural failures experienced during testing.

  9. Performance of commercially available solar and heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.R.; Kerr, A.S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries are using policy incentives to encourage the adoption of energy-efficient hot water heating as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such policies rely heavily on assumed performance factors for such systems. In-situ performance data for solar and heat pump hot water systems, however, are not copious in the literature. Otago University has been testing some systems available in New Zealand for a number of years. The results obtained are compared to international studies of in-situ performance of solar hot water systems and heat pump hot water systems, by converting the results from the international studies into a single index suitable for both solar and heat pump systems (COP). Variability in the international data is investigated as well as comparisons to model results. The conclusions suggest that there is not too much difference in performance between solar systems that have a permanently connected electric boost backup and heat pump systems over a wide range of environmental temperatures. The energy payback time was also calculated for electric boost solar flat plate systems as a function of both COP and hot water usage for a given value of embodied energy. The calculations generally bode well for solar systems but ensuring adequate system performance is paramount. In addition, such systems generally favour high usage rates to obtain good energy payback times

  10. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  11. Experimental test of a novel multi-surface trough solar concentrator for air heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hongfei; Tao Tao; Ma Ming; Kang Huifang; Su Yuehong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We made a prototype novel multi-surface trough solar concentrator for air heating. ► Circular and rectangular types of receiver were chosen for air heating in the test. ► The changes of instantaneous system efficiency with different air flow were obtained. ► The system has the advantage of high collection temperature, which can be over 140 °C. ► The average efficiency can exceed 45% at the outlet temperature of above 60 °C. - Abstract: This study presents the experimental test of a novel multi-surface trough solar concentrator for air heating. Three receivers of different air flow channels are individually combined with the solar concentrator. The air outlet temperature and solar irradiance were recorded for different air flow rates under the real weather condition and used to determine the collection efficiency and time constant of the air heater system. The characteristics of the solar air heater with different airflow channels are compared, and the variation of the daily efficiency with the normalized temperature change is also presented. The testing results indicates that the highest temperature of the air heater with a circular glass receiver can be over 140 °C. When the collection temperature is around 60 °C, the collection efficiency can be over 45%. For the rectangular receivers, the system also has a considerable daily efficiency at a larger air flow rate. The air heater based on the novel trough solar concentrator would be suitable for space heating and drying applications.

  12. The study of the heat-engineering characteristics of a solar heat collector based on aluminum heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairnasov, S.M.; Zaripov, V.K.; Passamakin, B.M. et al.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies into the heat-engineering characteristics of a flat heat solar collector based on aluminum heat pipes that is designed to be used in building facades. The principle of work and the structure of the solar collector are considered; the results of its comparison with a traditional flat solar collector are presented. The studies were performed at a heat carrier temperature range of +10 - +30 degree C and at a solar heat flow density of 400 - 1000 W/m 2 . The obtained experimental heat-engineering characteristics of the collector based on heat pipes show that they are at a level of traditional flow solar collectors; for example, its efficiency is 0.65 - 0.73. Meanwhile, the hydraulic resistance of the structure with heat pipes is by a factor of 2 - 2.4 smaller and ensures a high level of scalability, reliability, and maintainability, which is important when using it as an element of facade constructions of solar heat systems. (author)

  13. Solar and seasonal dependence of ion frictional heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion frictional heating constitutes one of the principal mechanisms whereby energy, originating in the solar wind, is deposited into the Earth's ionosphere and ultimately the neutral atmosphere. Common programme observations by the EISCAT UHF radar system, spanning the years 1984 to 1995, provide the basis for a comprehensive statistical study of ion frictional heating, results of which are documented in this and a previous paper by the authors. In the present work, the authors demonstrate the solar and seasonal dependence of the universal time distribution of frictional heating, and explain these results with reference to corresponding dependences of the ion velocity. Although EISCAT observes a significant increase in the occurrence of enhanced ion velocities associated with increased solar activity, the latter characterised according to the prevailing 10.7 cm solar flux, this is not reflected to such an extent in the occurrence of frictional heating. It is suggested that this is a consequence of the decreased neutral atmosphere response times associated with active solar conditions, resulting from the higher ionospheric plasma densities present. Seasonal effects on the diurnal distribution of ion frictional heating are well explained by corresponding variations in ionospheric convection, the latter principally a result of geometrical factors. It is noted that, over the entire dataset, the variations in the unperturbed F-region ion temperature, required to implement the identification criterion for ion heating, are highly correlated with model values of thermospheric temperature.Keywords. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; plasma temperature and density

  14. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  15. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  17. Solar water heating and its prospect for timber drying application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, B T

    1982-01-01

    The technical requirements for timber drying are discussed, and the possibility of using a solar water heating system to substitute for conventional fuel in a modern kiln is looked into from heat transfer considerations. At the moment, conventional fuel is used to generate steam for the heating of air in a kiln. If hot water is to be substitued for steam as the heating medium, the heating coil size required is larger. This size is determined relative to that of a steam coil for similar kiln operating temperatures. 5 references.

  18. Natural working fluids for solar-boosted heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichana, C.; Lu Aye [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). International Technologies Centre, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Charters, W.W.S. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The option of using natural working fluids as a substitute of R-22 for solar-boosted heat pumps depends not only upon thermal performance and hazardous rating but also on potential impacts on the environment. This paper presents the comparative assessment of natural working fluids with R-22 in terms of their characteristics and thermophysical properties, and thermal performance. Some justification is given for using natural working fluids in a solar boosted heat pump water heater. The results show that R-744 is not suitable for solar-boosted heat pumps because of its low critical temperature and high operational pressures. On the other hand, R-717 seems to be a more appropriate substitute in terms of operational parameters and overall performance. However, major changes in the heat pumps are required. R-290 and R-1270 are identified as candidates for direct drop-in substitutes for R-22. (author)

  19. Solar hot-water generation and heating - Kombi-Kompakt+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.; Vogelsanger, P.

    2005-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes new testing facilities at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, that allow the testing of solar systems the whole year through. The systems tested feature the combined generation of heat for hot water storage vessels and heat for space heating. The test method used, the Concise Cycle Test (CCT) is described. The results of tests made on a large number of systems demonstrate that it is especially important to have a test system that allows the solar market to be protected from unsatisfactory systems. Good co-operation with manufactures is noted. As the test method includes tests with secondary energy sources such as oil or gas, certain problems in this area were discovered and corrected. Further tests are to be made with systems using biomass as a secondary source of heat

  20. Solar Powered Heat Storage for Injera Baking

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfay, Asfafaw H; Kahsay, Mulu Bayray; Nydal, Ole Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia with a population of about 85 million meets 96% of its energy needs with bio-mass, charcoal, wood, animal dung and plant residues. More than 50% of this energy goes entirely on baking Injera. Injera the national food of the country demands 180-220 °C to be well cooked. In this article; Injera baking with solar energy on off-focus system, status of electric powered stove and the potential for solar powered stoves is discussed. The research and development of solar thermal for househol...

  1. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  2. SOLTECH 1992 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17-20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil, (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, and (6) Photovoltaic (PV) Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  3. Combined heat and power and solar energy; BHKW und solare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, M.; Schmidt, A.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a new apartment complex in Buelach, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard and also features solar-thermal heat generation. This solar installation provides heat for the provision of domestic hot water and, also, heat for the space-heating system of the building complex. The solar collectors cover an area of 153 m{sup 2}; their power is rated at 96 kW. Further elements of the building's technical services include a combined heat and power plant, a heat-pump and a gas-fired boiler. The article discusses ecological and social aspects of the design and construction of the building complex and briefly describes the installations, which also include a 'Minergie' fan-assisted balanced ventilation system.

  4. Low and medium temperature solar thermal collector based in innovative materials and improved heat exchange performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, A.; Dieste, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We designed, built and tested 2 different prototypes of thermal collector. • We included polymeric materials and suppressed pipes for freeform optimization. • Efficiency of the collector achieved values as high as commercial ones. • We provided a low cost and high volume production product. - Abstract: A low and medium temperature solar thermal collector for economical supply of heat between 40 and 90 °C has been developed. It is based on solar concentrating systems, heat transfer optimization and substitution of metallic materials by plastic ones. The basic concept is the integration of a flat absorber strip inside semicircular reflector channels in contact with heated water without pressurization. This collector is intended to be more efficient and cheaper than what actual commercial collectors usually are so that the access to a clean and renewable energy would be more quickly redeemable and its use more effective during its life cycle, expanding its common application range. The substitution of traditional materials by surface treated Aluminum with TiNOx for the absorber and chromed thermoformed ABS for the reflector simplifies the production and assembly process. The definitive prototype has an aperture area of 0.225 m 2 . It was tested in Zaragoza (Spain) and the accumulated efficiency was between 41% and 57%, and the instantaneous efficiency reached 98% depending on the weather conditions. As all trials were made in parallel with a commercial collector, in several cases the performance was over the commercial one

  5. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  6. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125 I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images

  7. MINERGIE modules: heat pump - heat pump/solar - wood - wood/solar; Minergie-Module Waermepumpe - Waermepumpe/Solar - Holz - Holz/Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallati, J. [Seecon GmbH, Lucerne (Switzerland); Portmann, M. [Buero Markus Portmann, Kriens (Switzerland); Zurfluh, B. [Zurfluh Lottenbach, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This research report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the feasibility of setting up 'MINERGIE' low-energy-consumption module standards for the production of heat in small residential buildings. The aims of the standards and the basic idea behind the MINERGIE-modules are discussed. The concepts of the modules for heat pumps and wood-fired heating systems and their combination with solar installations are examined, as are their areas of application. The requirements placed on the modules are listed. System concepts, including simple schematics for typical installations, are presented for wood-log, wood-chippings and pellets-fired systems as well as for ground-loop and air-water heat pump systems as well as their solar-aided counterparts. The results of cost-benefit analyses are presented and questions regarding system guarantee and liability are examined.

  8. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  9. Innovating a solar concentrator of static reflector and movable center for heat processes; Un concentrador solar innovador de reflector estatico y foco movil para procesos de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, V.; Pujol, R.; Moia, A.

    2008-07-01

    The development of a solar thermal collector with fixed reflector and tracking absorber, especially designed for supplying process heat in industrial processes and solar cooling is described. the final solution consists in a mesh of 32 Sydney evacuates tubes with a total aperture of 24 m{sup 2} and maximum focus length of about 800 mm. With this design it is expected to reach about 40% annual averaged efficiency (referred to beam radiation at latitude of 39 degree centigrade) with temperatures in the range from 120 to 150 degree centigrade. At moment the first prototype is starting operation. (Author)

  10. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    to achieve 100% coverage of space heating and domestic hot water in a low energy house in a Danish climate with a solar heating system with 36 m² flat plate solar collector and approximately 10 m³ storage with sodium acetate. A traditional water storage solution aiming at 100% coverage will require a storage...... of the storage to cool down below the melting point without solidification preserving the heat of fusion energy. If the supercooled storage reaches the surrounding temperature no heat loss will take place until the supercooled salt is activated. The investigation shows that this concept makes it possible...

  11. Flat plate solar air heater with latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, B.; Kerroumi, N.; Virgone, J.

    2017-02-01

    Our work contains two parts, first is an experimental study of the solar air heater with a simple flow and forced convection, we can use thatlaste oneit in many engineering's sectors as solardrying, space heating in particular. The second part is a numerical study with ansys fluent 15 of the storage of part of this solar thermal energy produced,using latent heat by using phase change materials (PCM). In the experimental parts, we realize and tested our solar air heater in URER.MS ADRAR, locate in southwest Algeria. Where we measured the solarradiation, ambient temperature, air flow, thetemperature of the absorber, glasses and the outlet temperature of the solar air heater from the Sunrise to the sunset. In the second part, we added a PCM at outlet part of the solar air heater. This PCM store a part of the energy produced in the day to be used in peak period at evening by using the latent heat where the PCMs present a grateful storagesystem.A numerical study of the fusion or also named the charging of the PCM using ANSYS Fluent 15, this code use the method of enthalpies to solve the fusion and solidification formulations. Furthermore, to improve the conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (Air heated in solar plate air heater) and the PCM, we simulate the effect of adding fins to our geometry. Also, four user define are write in C code to describe the thermophysicalpropriety of the PCM, and the inlet temperature of our geometry which is the temperature at the outflow of the solar heater.

  12. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  13. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  14. Bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark it has been put forward that the introduction of solar heating prepared tanks into the building regulation can cause increased nuisance with respect to bacterial growth in hot water for domestic use. The reason is that solar heating prepared tanks have a larger volume and another form of operation than traditional tanks. In this investigation the difference between bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks was measured by heterotrophic plate counts as a general parameter for microbiological growth. There was no significant difference between the bacterial number in the solar heating prepared tanks and in the traditional tanks, either for bacteria determined at 37 deg. C, 44 deg. C, 55 deg. C or at 65 deg. C. The hot water for domestic use from the solar heating prepared tanks and the traditional tanks had in most cases a bacterial number below 1.000 CFU/ml, and all tests had a bacterial number below 10.000 CFU/ml. The number of bacteria must be considered low seen in relation to the other measurements of bacteria in hot water for domestic use, particularly in larger block of flats. (au)

  15. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  16. High temperature alloys for the primary circuit of a prototype nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, P.J.; Schuster, H.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive materials test programme for the High Temperature Reactor Project 'Prototype Plant for Nuclear Process Heat' (PNP), high temperature alloys are being investigated for primary circuit components operating at temperatures above 750 0 C. On the basis of important material parameters, in particular corrosion behaviour and mechanical properties in primary coolant helium, the potential of candidate alloys is discussed. By comparing specific PNP materials data with the requirements of PNP and those of conventional plant, the implications for the materials programme and component design are given. (orig.)

  17. Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris; Nordlander, Svante

    2004-01-01

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary en...

  18. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  19. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  20. Solar heating at the P. E. I. Ark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, K.T.

    1979-01-01

    Both active and passive solar heating systems are employed at the P.E.I. Ark. An active drain-down system, which stores heat in water located in 70,000 litre concrete tanks, supplies heat to the living area. Domestic hot water is heated by a thermosiphon drain-down solar system coupled to a wood cookstove. Environmental design of the Ark allows for maximum use of passive solar energy. The passive system supplies the majority of the heating load on sunny days, while wood stoves supply the back-up heat. The performance of the active system has required high maintenance because of problems in the mechanical and electrical systems. This, coupled with the high initial cost, has not made the system cost effective. The 178m/sup 2/ commercial greenhouse uses a hybrid system with both active and passive systems. The active system employs a fan to draw air through rock storage. The passive system employs the high thermal mass of the deep soil beds, a concrete slab, and most importantly, 53,200 litres of water in translucent tanks. These tanks are then used for fish rearing and are the basis for a solar hatchery. The greenhouse has performed very well, producing crops year round since 1976.

  1. SIMS prototype system 1 test results: Engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The space and domestic water solar heating system designated SIMS Prototype Systems 1 was evaluated. The test system used 720 ft (gross) of Solar Energy Products Air Collectors, a Solar Control Corporation SAM 20 Air Handler with Model 75-175 control unit, a Jackson Solar Storage tank with Rho Sigma Mod 106 controller, and 20 tons of rack storage. The test data analysis performed evaluates the system performance and documents the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 1 hardware for field installation.

  2. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquil Ahmad

    2012-08-03

    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  3. Solar systems and heat pumps in operation in Carinthia: results 1994 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1998-04-01

    Solar systems and heat pumps in operation in Carinthia: results 1994 - 1997. Test results from solar systems for swimming pool heating, hot water preparation and space heating as well as heat pumps for hot water preparation, space heating and heat recovery will be reported and assessed collectively. (author)

  4. Experimental study of a photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, H.D.; Pei, G.; Ji, J.; Long, H.; Zhang, T.; Chow, T.T.

    2012-01-01

    A practical design for a heat pump with heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is presented. The hybrid system is called the photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/heat-pipe (PV-SAHP/HP) system. To focus on both actual demand and energy savings, the PV-SAHP/HP system was designed to be capable of operating in three different modes, namely, the heat-pipe, solar-assisted heat pump, and air-source heat-pump modes. Based on solar radiation, the system operates in an optimal mode. A series of experiments were conducted in Hong Kong to study the performance of the system when operating in the heat-pipe and the solar-assisted heat-pump modes. Moreover, energy and exergy analyses were used to investigate the total PV/T performance of the system. - Highlights: ► A novel PV-SAHP/HP system with three different operating modes was proposed. ► Performance of the PV-SAHP/HP system was studied experimentally. ► A optimal operating mode of the PV-SAHP/HP system was suggested in this paper.

  5. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  6. Energetic and financial evaluation of solar assisted heat pump space heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Moschos, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solar heating systems are presented in this work. • Various combinations between solar collectors and heat pumps are presented. • The systems are compared energetically and financially. • The use of PV and an air source heat pump is the best choice financially. • The use of PVT with a water source heat pump is the best solution energetically. - Abstract: Using solar energy for space heating purposes consists an alternative way for substituting fossil fuel and grid electricity consumption. In this study, four solar assisted heat pump heating systems are designed, simulated and evaluated energetically and financially in order to determine the most attractive solution. The use of PV collectors with air source heat pump is compared to the use of FPC, PVT and FPC with PV coupled with a water source heat pump. A sensitivity analysis for the electricity cost is conducted because of the great variety of this parameter over the last years. The final results proved that for electricity cost up to 0.23 €/kW h the use of PV coupled with an air source heat pump is the most sustainable solution financially, while for higher electricity prices the coupling of PVT with an water source heat pump is the best choice. For the present electricity price of 0.2 €/kW h, 20 m"2 of PV is able to drive the air source heat pump with a yearly solar coverage of 67% leading to the most sustainable solution. Taking into account energetic aspects, the use of PVT leads to extremely low grid electricity consumption, fact that makes this technology the most environmental friendly.

  7. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  8. Direct containment heating experiments in Zion Nuclear Power Plant geometry using prototypic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J.L.; McUmber, L.M.; Spencer, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Containment Heating (DCH) experiments have been completed which utilize prototypic core materials. The experiments reported on here are a continuation of the Integral Effects Testing (IET) DCH program. The experiments incorporated a 1/40 scale model of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant containment structures. The model included representations of the primary system volume, RPV lower head, cavity and instrument tunnel, and the lower containment structures. The experiments were steam driven. Iron-alumina thermite with chromium was used as a core melt stimulant in the earlier IET experiments. These earlier IET experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided useful data on the effect of scale on DCH phenomena; however, a significant question concerns the potential experiment distortions introduced by the use of non-prototypic iron/alumina thermite. Therefore, further testing with prototypic materials has been carried out at ANL. Three tests have been completed, DCH-U1A, U1B and U2. DCH-U1A and U1B employed an inerted containment atmosphere and are counterpart to the IET-1RR test with iron/alumina thermite. DCH-U2 employed nominally the same atmosphere composition of its counterpart iron/alumina test, IET-6. All tests, with prototypic material, have produced lower peak containment pressure rises; 45, 111 and 185 kPa in U1A, U1B and U2, compared to 150 and 250 kPa IET-1RR and 6. Hydrogen production, due to metal-steam reactions, was 33% larger in U1B and U2 compared to IET-1RR and IET-6. The pressurization efficiency was consistently lower for the corium tests compared to the IET tests

  9. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  10. Available online Efficiency potential of indirectly heated solar reforming with different types of solar air receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Henrik von; Roeb, Martin; Stadler, Hannes; Sattler, Christian; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A process for indirectly heated solar reforming of natural gas with air as heat transfer fluid is proposed. • Different solar receivers are modeled and implemented into the reforming process. • The overall efficiency of the process with different solar receivers is determined. • Optimum solar receiver characteristics for application in a solar reforming process are determined. - Abstract: In solar reforming, the heating value of natural gas is increased by utilization of concentrated solar radiation. Hence, it is a process for storing solar energy in a stable and transportable form that also permits further conversion into liquid fuels like methanol. This process has the potential to significantly decrease the natural gas consumption and the associated CO_2-emissions of methanol production with only few open questions to be addressed prior to commercialization. In the medium and long term, it has the potential to generate methanol as an environmentally friendly fuel for both transport as well as flexible electricity production in combined cycle gas turbines, when biogas is used as reactant. In a previous study the high potential of indirectly heated solar reforming with solar air receivers was shown; however, the efficiency is limited when using state of the art open volumetric receivers. Therefore, different types of air receivers are implemented into an indirectly heated solar reforming process and the overall efficiency potential is assessed in the present study. The implemented receivers are an open volumetric cavity receiver, a closed volumetric cavity receiver and a tubular cavity receiver. The open volumetric cavity receiver and tubular cavity receiver achieve the best results due to their capability of operating efficiently at temperatures well above 700 °C. For these receivers peak efficiencies up to 29% and 27% respectively are predicted. As the utilization of an open volumetric cavity receiver constitutes an open heat transfer

  11. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  12. Development of automated prototype for studying the effect of solar aging on sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2015-06-01

    The first Brazilian standard for UV protection sunglasses, NBR15111, was drafted and published in 2003, hitherto a faithful copy (mirror) of European, BSEN1836 standard. From 2010 to 2013 the Laboratório de Instrumentação Oftálmica of the School of Engineering of São Carlos (USP) made contribution in the review and drafting of this standard and the main change so far is on the extension of the UV range analysis for protection of sunglasses, i.e. from 280 - 380nm to 280-400nm. In previous studies, there are indications that ultraviolet protection degrades with use and exposure of sunglasses to natural ultraviolet radiation. Thus, this project aims to build a prototype for irradiating sunglasses lenses, where one of the spectacles will be submitted to the solar simulator; and the other to the prototype. This prototype consists of a panel with cover, which houses 100 lenses arranged in the vertical (user's) position and which will be irradiated by the sun from sunrise until sunset. The lid opens automatically and should turn towards the sun, so that the lens will always be irradiated facing the sun. Sensors will be installed to close the cover and protect the lenses of undesirable weather conditions and to determine the ultraviolet index to which the lenses are being subjected to. The exposure time and UV index will be recorded and automatic opening or closing the lid may also be interfered by a PC by online software. Previously to irradiation, spectroscopy will be performed and then repeated after every 30 days of exposure.

  13. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  14. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

  15. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  16. Solar chemical heat pipe in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.

    1990-06-01

    The work on the solar CO 2 reforming of methane was completed. A computer program was developed for simulation of the whole process. The calculations agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The work was written up and submitted for publication in Solar Energy. A methanator was built and tested first with a CO/H 2 mixture from cylinders, and then with the products of the solar reformer. The loop was then closed by recirculating the products from the methanator into the solar reformer. Nine closed loop cycles were performed, so far, with the same original gas mixture. This is the first time that a closed loop solar chemical heat pipe was operated anywhere in the world. (author). 13 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Experimental and numerical study of heat transfer phenomena, inside a flat-plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH), with indirect heat withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertzos, K.P.; Pnevmatikakis, S.E.; Caouris, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal behavior of a particular flat-plate integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is examined, experimentally and numerically. The particularity consists of the indirect heating of the service hot water, through a heat exchanger incorporated into front and back major surfaces of the ICSSWH. Natural and forced convection mechanisms are both examined. A prototype tank was fabricated and experimental data of temperature profiles are extracted, during various energy withdrawals. A 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and validated against experimental results. Numerical predictions are found highly accurate, providing thus the use of the 3D CFD model for the optimization of this and similar devices

  18. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating and dome......The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating...... and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildings”. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let...... storage parts already melted to cool down to surrounding temperature without solidification in which state that part of the storage will be heat loss free but still will hold the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion. At the time of energy demand the solidification of the super-cooled storage part...

  19. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPE SOLAR UPDRAFT CHIMNEY IN ASWAN/EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Harte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a joint project funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF of the Arab republic of Egypt and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF of the Federal Republic of Germany. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels in electricity production systems causes many problems such as: global warming, other environmental concerns, the depletion of fossil fuels reserves and continuing rise in the price of fuels. One of the most promising paths to solve the energy crisis is utilizing the renewable energy resources. In Egypt, high insolation and more than 90 percent available desert lands are two main factors that encourage the full development of solar power plants for thermal and electrical energy production. With an average temperature of about 40 °C for more than half of the year and average annual sunshine of about 3200 hours, which is close to the theoretical maximum annual sunshine hours, Aswan is one of the hottest and sunniest cities in the world. This climatic condition makes the city an ideal place for implementing solar energy harvesting projects from solar updraft tower. Therefore, a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP is being installed at Aswan City. The chimney height is 20.0 m, its diameter is 1.0m and the collector is a four-sided pyramid, which has a side length of 28.5 m. A mathematical model is used to predict its performance. The model shows that the plant can produce a maximum theoretical power of 2 kW. Moreover, a CFD code is used to analyse the temperature and velocity distribution inside the collector, turbine and chimney at different operating conditions. Static calculations, including dead weight and wind forces on the solar updraft chimney and its solar collector, have been performed for the prototype. Mechanical loading and ambient impact on highly used industrial structures such as chimneys and masts cause lifetime-related deteriorations. Structural degradations occur not only from

  20. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  1. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  2. The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.

  3. Experimental investigation of a solar collector integrated with a pulsating heat pipe and a compound parabolic concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Rong Ji; Zhang, Xiao Hui; Wang, Rui Xiang; Xu, Shu Hui; Wang, Hua Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar collector integrates compound parabolic concentrator and pulsating heat pipe. • Concentrator of a concentration ratio 3.4 matches well heat flux of heat pipe. • Solar collector efficiency increases with decreasing absorber thermal resistance. • Maximum 50% efficiency of the integrated solar collector has been achieved. - Abstract: The paper reports an experimental investigation of a newly proposed solar collector that integrates a closed-end pulsating heat pipe (PHP) and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The PHP is used as an absorber due to its simple structure and high heat transfer capacity. The CPC has a concentration ratio of 3.4 and can be readily manufactured by three-dimensional printing. The CPC can significantly increase the incident solar irradiation intensity to the PHP absorber and also reduce the heat loss due to the decrease in the area of the hot surface. A prototype of the solar collector has been built, consisting of a PHP absorber bent by 4 mm diameter copper tube, CPC arrayed by 10 × 2 CPC units with the collection area of 300 × 427.6 mm 2 , a hot water tank and a glass cover. HFE7100 was utilized as the working fluid at a filling ratio of 40%. The operating characteristics and thermal efficiency of the solar collector were experimentally studied. The steady and periodic temperature fluctuations of the evaporation and condensation sections of the PHP absorber indicate that the absorber works well with a thermal resistance of about 0.26 °C/W. It is also found that, as the main factor to the the thermal performance of the collector, thermal resistance of the PHP absorber decreases with increasing evaporation temperature. The collector apparently shows start-up, operational and shutdown stages at the starting and ending temperatures of 75 °C. When the direct normal irradiance is 800 W/m 2 , the instantaneous thermal efficiency of the solar collector can reach up to 50%.

  4. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer in the combi...

  5. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  6. Two-story residence with solar heating--Newman, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report evaluates performance of warm-air collector system for 11 month period and provides operation and maintenance information. System consists of 14 warm air collectors, rock-storage bin, air handler, heat exchangers, hot-water preheat tank, associated controls, plumbing, and air ducting. Average building temperature was maintained at 72 F (22 C); solar equipment provided 47 percent of space-heating requirement.

  7. Solar-heated swimming school--Wilmington, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes operation, installation, and performance of solar-energy system which provides alternative to natural gas pool heating. System is comprised of 2,500 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors connected to 3,600 galloon; gallongalloon storage tank, with microcomputer-based controls. Extension of building incorporates vertical-wall, passive collection system which provides quarter of heated fresh air for office.

  8. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation of the central solar heating technology is based on measurements on the case plant in Marstal, Denmark, and on published and unpublished data for other, mainly Danish, CSDHP plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performances are reported, based on the experiences from the last decade. The measurements from the Marstal case are analysed, experiences extracted and minor improvements to the plant design proposed. For the detailed designing and energy planning of CSDHPs, a computer simulation model is developed and validated on the measurements from the Marstal case. The final model is then generalised to a 'generic' model for CSDHPs in general. The meteorological reference data, Danish Reference Year, is applied to find the mean performance for the plant designs. To find the expectable variety of the thermal performance of such plants, a method is proposed where data from a year with poor solar irradiation and a year with strong solar irradiation are applied. Equipped with a simulation tool design studies are carried out spreading from parameter analysis over energy planning for a new settlement to a proposal for the combination of plane solar collectors with high performance solar collectors, exemplified by a trough solar collector. The methodology of utilising computer simulation proved to be a cheap and relevant tool in the design of future solar heating plants. The thesis also exposed the demand for developing computer models for the more advanced solar collector designs and especially for the control operation of CSHPs. In the final chapter the CSHP technology is put into perspective with respect to other possible technologies to find the relevance of the application

  9. Efficiency analysis of solar facilities for building heating and household water heating under conditions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pivko, Michal; Jursová, Simona; Turjak, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the efficiency of solar facilities applied for the heating of buildings and household water heating in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is situated in the temperate zone characterized by changeable weather. It is respected in the assessment of a solar facility installation. The efficiency of solar facilities is evaluated according to energy and economic balances. It is analyzed for solar facilities heating both household water and buildings. The main problems relating ...

  10. Performance of cylindrical plastic solar collectors for air heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.S.; Bassiouny, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study including the combined convective and radiative heat transfer analysis. • The solar collector is manufactured from LDPE films acting as a black absorber. • Comparisons between the experimental data and the theoretical methods have been made. • The thermal efficiency increases with decreasing the major axes of elliptic shape. • The Nusselt number between the absorber and the heated air is determined. - Abstract: A theoretical and experimental study including the combined convective and radiative heat transfer analysis of a flexible cylindrical type solar air-heater for agriculture crops dehydration as well as heating processes is presented. The solar collector is manufactured from LDPE films acting as a black absorber with a back insulation and double transparent covers sealed together along its edges. The collector is to be blown with a flow of pressurized air. The experiments are carried out with solar collectors of circular shapes having 0.5 m diameter and solar collectors of elliptic shapes having 0.55 m and 0.65 m major axis. Energy balance of the cover, absorber and air yield three simultaneous quadratic algebraic equations in the three unknowns namely, cover, absorber and outlet air temperatures. A computer program is written for calculating the outlet temperature using the Newton–Raphson method and the collector thermal efficiency in terms of its diameter, length, mass flow rate, inlet temperature and solar insolation. Moreover the Nusselt number between the absorber and the heated air is determined experimentally in relation with the Reynolds number. Comparisons between the experimental data and the theoretical methods for the collector efficiency demonstrate a good agreement. In addition of this, the present experimental results of Nusselt number are correlated and compared with a correlation of another authors

  11. Investigating the real situation of Greek solar water heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A.; Spyropoulos, G.

    2005-01-01

    Solar thermal applications have been acknowledged among the leading alternative solutions endeavouring to face the uncontrollable oil price variations, the gradual depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the chain environmental consequences caused by its excessive usage. Almost 30 years after the initial emergence of the commercial domestic solar water heating system (DSWHS) in the European market, the corresponding technology is qualified as quite mature. On top of this, the European Commission expects that 100,000,000 m 2 of solar collectors are to be installed in Europe by the year 2010 to facilitate durable and environment-friendly heat. In this context, the Greek DSWHSs market is highly developed worldwide, having a great experience in this major energy market segment. The present study is devoted to an extensive evaluation of the local DSWHSs market, including a discerning analysis of its time variation, taking seriously into account the corresponding annual replacement rate. Accordingly, the crucial techno-economic reasons, limiting the DSWHSs penetration in the local heat production market, are summarized and elaborated. Subsequently, the national policy measures - aiming to support the DSWHSs in the course of time - are cited, in comparison with those applied in other European countries. Next, the financial attractiveness of a DSWHS for Greek citizens is examined in the local socio-economic environment. The present work is integrated by reciting the prospects and mustering certain proposals that, if applied, could stimulate the local market. As a general comment, the outlook for penetration of new DSWHSs in the local market is rather grim, as the current techno-economic situation of solar heat cannot compete with oil and natural gas heat production, unless the remarkable social and environmental benefits of solar energy are seriously considered. Hence, the Greek State lacks stimulus to further DSWHSs installations, being strongly in support of the imported

  12. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  13. Solar heat and heat pump. What benefits?; Solarthermie und Waermepumpe. Was bringt's?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droescher, Angela; Heinz, Andreas [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik; Gerardts, Bernhard [Solid GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-11-08

    If solar heating and heat pumps work together, then usually in a single-family house. The fact that there is another way, shows a large solar heating system in Graz. Investigations show what potential there is in this type of system and where special attention is needed. [German] Wenn Solarwaerme und Waermepumpen zusammenarbeiten, dann meist im Einfamilienhaus. Dass es auch anders geht, zeigt eine Grossanlage bei Graz. Untersuchungen zeigen, welche Potenziale es bei Systemen dieser Art gibt und worauf besonders zu achten ist.

  14. The heat recovery with heat transfer methods from solar photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özakın, A. N.; Karsli, S.; Kaya, F.; Güllüce, H.

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many fluctuations in energy prices, they seems like rising day by day. Thus energy recovery systems have increasingly trend. Photovoltaic systems converts solar radiation directly into electrical energy thanks to semiconductors. But due to the nature of semiconductors, whole of solar energy cannot turn into electrical energy and the remaining energy turns into waste heat. The aim of this research is evaluate this waste heat energy by air cooling system. So, the energy efficiency of the system will be increased using appropriate heat transfer technologies such as fin, turbulator etc. (paper)

  15. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  16. Cyprus solar water heating cluster: A missed opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxoulis, Christos N.; Charalampous, Harris P.; Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2007-01-01

    Cyprus is often called the 'sun island' because of the amount of sunshine received all year round. The abundance of solar radiation together with a good technological base has created favourable conditions for the exploitation of solar energy on the island. This led to the development of a pioneering solar collector industry in Cyprus, which in the mid-1980s was flourishing. The result was an outstanding figure of installed solar collector area per inhabitant. Nowadays, Cyprus is cited as the country with the highest solar collector area installed per inhabitant, worldwide. This means that the local market for solar thermal collectors (for domestic applications) is now rather saturated. It was only rational to assume that Cypriot firms equipped with their gained expertise and leading edge would have safeguarded a sustainable growth and have an international orientation, focusing on exports in an emerging European and eastern Mediterranean thermal solar market. Unfortunately, this is not the case today. This paper reviews the economic performance and the competitiveness of Cyprus and the evolution of the solar water heating (SWH) industry using the cluster theory of Michael Porter. Its aim is to give insight and explanations for the success of the sector domestically, its failure with regards to exporting activity, pinpoint the industry in the European map and finally give recommendations for the cross the boarders commercial success of the industry

  17. Nanoflares and Heating of the Solar Corona

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal heating by nanoflares is presented by using observational, analytical, numerical simulation and statistical results. Numerical simulations show the formation of numerous current sheets if the magnetic field is sheared and bipoles have unequal pole strengths. This fact supports the generation of ...

  18. Solar thermal space heating combined with swimming pool heating: A promising solution for southern Europe climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.J.; Neves, Ana [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The system concept evaluation performed focused on systems that can provide hot water, space heating and swimming-pool heating, and are designed for application in southern climates specifically for single-family houses. Due to the climate characteristics of southern Europe, space heating is required only for a few months in the year. In this evaluation it was considered a six month period for space heating and, on the other six months, swimming pool heating was considered. This type of systems are applicable to a niche market of people who are building their houses as single-family houses and want also to take profit of the good climate conditions for the use of solar energy. It is common that the construction of a swimming pool is also planned and constructed. The evaluation is made considering as reference system a factory made with 4m{sup 2} collector area and 300 l storage tank. The system in evaluation offers extra service - space heating and swimming pool heating and is formed by a collector field and a combistore providing solar hot water preparation and space heating in the winter period and providing also swimming pool heating in the summer period. The evaluation made shows that in southern Europe climates this system will give extra service in comparison to the traditional solar systems used and can be economically interesting.

  19. Adaptive heating, ventilation and solar shading for dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Calculation of various strategies for the heating of, and the prevention of overheating in, a Dutch standard dwelling that includes (automated) adaptive ventilation systems and solar shading to maintain indoor temperatures at acceptably comfortable temperatures informs this analysis of the costs,

  20. Solar heating for a restaurant--North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Hot water consumption of large building affects solar-energy system design. Continual demand for hot water at restaurant makes storage less important than at other sites. Storage capacity of system installed in December 1979 equals estimated daily hot-water requirement. Report describes equipment specifications and modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems.

  1. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Ton, Wei-Zhe; Wu, Chen-Chun; Ko, Hua-Wei; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Yen, Rue-Her; Wang, Jiunn-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI

  2. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  3. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  4. Solar Space and Water Heating for School -- Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    90 page report gives overview of retrofitted solar space-heating and hot-water system installation for 61-year-old high school. Description, specifications, modifications, plan drawings for roof, three floors, basement, correspondence, and documents are part of report.

  5. Building with integral solar-heat storage--Starkville, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Column supporting roof also houses rock-storage bin of solar-energy system supplying more than half building space heating load. Conventional heaters supply hot water. Since bin is deeper and narrower than normal, individual pebble size was increased to keep airflow resistance at minimum.

  6. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  7. Organic Rankine Cycle with Solar Heat Storage in Paraffin Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LUCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an electricity generation system based on an Organic Rankine Cycle and proposed storing the amount of the heat produced by the solar panels using large volume of paraffin wax. The proposed working fluid is R-134a refrigerant. The cycle operates at very low temperatures. A efficiency of 6,55% was obtained.

  8. STUDY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SOLAR SYSTEM FOR AIR HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghodbane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar energy in sunny countries, is an effective outil for compensate the lack in the energy, their benefits are not related only to its economic benefits but especially for the environmental protection, so we must find solutions to the problems of pollution. This work is a theoretical study of a solar flat plate collector ; air is used as the heat transfer fluid. In this study, we established in first step the calculation of solar radiation in various sites in Algeria (Adrar, El Oued, Bechar, Biskra and Tamanrasset. The second step is the parameters influence study of the sites and climate on the performance of our collector. The results obtained are encouraging for the use of this type in the heating in the winter, also it can be used in different kinds of drying.

  9. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  10. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  11. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  12. Results and analysis of high heat flux tests on a full-scale vertical target prototype of ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Merola, M.; Bobin-Vastra, I.; Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.

    2005-01-01

    After an extensive R and D development program, a full-scale divertor target prototype, manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor, was intensively tested in the high heat flux FE200 facility. The prototype consists of four units having a full monoblock geometry. The lower part (CFC armour) and the upper part (W armour) of each monoblock were joined to the solution annealed, quenched and cold worked CuCrZr tube by HIP technique. This paper summarises and analyses the main test results obtained on this prototype

  13. Beam heating in solar flares - Electrons or protons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; Karlicky, M.; Mackinnon, A.L.; Van Den Oord, G.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of electron and proton beam models as candidates for the impulsive phase heating of solar flares is discussed in relation to observational constants and theoretical difficulties. It is concluded that, while the electron beam model for flare heating still faces theoretical and observational problems, the problems faced by low and high energy proton beam models are no less serious, and there are facets of proton models which have not yet been studied. At the present, the electron beam model remains the most viable and best developed of heating model candidates. 58 refs

  14. Water heating solar system for popular houses; Sistema solar de aquecimento de agua para residencias populares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogawer, Tamer; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a case study for the design of a low cost solar heating system for a popular residence in an isolated rural community in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. This scaling can be extended to several rural communities that are in the same situation in Brazil as well as the wider use of solar power between the low-income people who do not have the benefits of electricity in their homes or want to have a lower cost of electricity. In this context, there are very interesting alternatives, among which is the replacement of electric heating bath water by heating by solar energy. According to several sources the electric shower, as it is now simple and extremely cheap, is the villain of the national electrical system. It is used in peak hours of consumption, something like 10% of electric generating capacity installed in Brazil, forcing many industries to switch off the machines because of the high cost of electricity during this period. Using the heating by solar energy, we can reduce consumption of electric shower and also increase the use of clean energy in popular homes and in isolated rural communities. This paper will address the use of solar energy with the basic purpose of heating water for bathing in popular residences and in isolated rural areas, using low cost systems, built with easily materials that is found in any area of the country. (author)

  15. Heat transfer analysis of parabolic trough solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, Ricardo Vasquez; Demirkaya, Gokmen; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias; Rahman, Muhammad M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this paper a detailed one dimensional numerical heat transfer analysis of a PTC is performed. → The receiver and envelope were divided into several segments and mass and energy balance were applied in each segment. → Improvements either in the heat transfer correlations or radiative heat transfer analysis are presented. → The proposed heat transfer model was validated with experimental data obtained from Sandia National Laboratory. → Our results showed a better agreement with experimental data compared to other models. -- Abstract: Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTCs) are currently used for the production of electricity and applications with relatively higher temperatures. A heat transfer fluid circulates through a metal tube (receiver) with an external selective surface that absorbs solar radiation reflected from the mirror surfaces of the PTC. In order to reduce the heat losses, the receiver is covered by an envelope and the enclosure is usually kept under vacuum pressure. The heat transfer and optical analysis of the PTC is essential to optimize and understand its performance under different operating conditions. In this paper a detailed one dimensional numerical heat transfer analysis of a PTC is performed. The receiver and envelope were divided into several segments and mass and energy balance were applied in each segment. Improvements either in the heat transfer correlations or radiative heat transfer analysis are presented as well. The partial differential equations were discretized and the nonlinear algebraic equations were solved simultaneously. Finally, to validate the numerical results, the model was compared with experimental data obtained from Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and other one dimensional heat transfer models. Our results showed a better agreement with experimental data compared to other models.

  16. Application of solar radiation for heating and preparation of warm water in an individual house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Tadeeusz; Majchrzycka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The paper is aimed at analysis of application of the solar collectors array for preparing of warm water and space heating in an individual house. Keywords: application of solar radiation, preparation of warm water, heating

  17. Optimization of flat-plate solar energy heat pipe collector parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Garakovich, L P; Khrustalev, D K

    1984-01-01

    Performance characteristics of flat solar energy collectors with heat pipes have been analysed with regard to various parameters. Their advantages are discussed. The use of heat pipes in solar energy collectors is proved to be efficient.

  18. Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014 the project “Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems” was carried out within the Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development Programme, the so called RED programme jointly developed by the Chinese and Danish governments. In the project Danish...... know how on solar heating plants and solar heating test technology have been transferred from Denmark to China, large solar heating systems have been promoted in China, test capabilities on solar collectors and large scale solar heating systems have been improved in China and Danish-Chinese cooperation...

  19. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  20. FFT analysis of sensible-heat solar-dynamic receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kurt O.

    The use of solar dynamic receivers with sensible energy storage in single-phase materials is considered. The feasibility of single-phase designs with weight and thermal performance comparable to existing two-phase designs is addressed. Linearized heat transfer equations are formulated for the receiver heat storage, representing the periodic input solar flux as the sum of steady and oscillating distributions. The steady component is solved analytically to produce the desired receiver steady outlet gas temperature, and the FFT algorithm is applied to the oscillating components to obtain the amplitudes and mode shapes of the oscillating solid and gas temperatures. The results indicate that sensible-heat receiver designs with performance comparable to state-of-the-art two-phase receivers are available.

  1. Solar water heating system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of using a solar water heater for a lunar base is described. During the investigation, computer codes were developed to model the lunar base configuration, lunar orbit, and heating systems. Numerous collector geometries, orientation variations, and system options were identified and analyzed. The results indicate that the recommended solar water heater could provide 88 percent of the design load and would not require changes in the overall lunar base design. The system would give a 'safe-haven' water heating capability and use only 7 percent to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric heating system. As a result, a fixed position photovoltaic array can be reduced by 21 sq m.

  2. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  3. On the addition of heat to solar pond from external sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Jain, Ravi; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    This brief note addresses the method of adding heat to a solar pond from an external source which is used to enhance the performance of a solar pond. Heat energy collected by Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors (ETSC) is transferred by circulating fluid from the Lower Convective Zone (LCZ) of a solar

  4. Concept, Design, and Prototyping of XSAS: A High Power Extendable Solar Array for CubeSat Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Patrick; Klesh, Andrew; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; McKague, Darren; Cutler, James

    2010-01-01

    CubeSats have proven themselves as a reliable and cost-effective method to perform experiments in space, but they are highly constrained by their specifications and size. One such constraint is the average continuous power, about 5 W, which is available to the typical CubeSat. To improve this constraint, we have developed the eXtendable Solar Array System (XSAS), a deployable solar array prototype in a CubeSat package, which can provide an average 23 W of continuous power. The prototype served as a technology demonstrator for the high risk mechanisms needed to release, deploy, and control the solar array. Aside from this drastic power increase, it is in the integration of each mechanism, their application within the small CubeSat form-factor, and the inherent passive control benefit of the deployed geometry that make XSAS a novel design. In this paper, we discuss the requirements and design process for the XSAS system and mechanical prototype, and provide qualitative and quantitative results from numerical simulations and prototype tests. We also discuss future work, including an upcoming NASA zero-gravity flight campaign, to further improve on XSAS and prepare it for future launch opportunities.

  5. Solar-heated municipal swimming pools, a case study: Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1981-09-01

    The installation of a solar energy system to heat the water in the swimming pool in one of Dade County, Florida's major parks is described. The mechanics of solar heated swimming pools are explained. The solar heating system consists of 216 unglazed polypropylene tube collectors, a differential thermostat, and the distribution system. The systems performance and economics as well as future plants are discussed.

  6. Performance analysis of a solar-assisted swimming pool heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhamis, A I; Sherif, S A [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1991-12-31

    This paper discusses feasibility studies for a solar-assisted heating system using a computer simulation program. The solar heating is accomplished by employing hot water generated by heat exchange with the solar collector working fluid. The performance of the system is analysed from both thermodynamic and economic standpoints and general conclusions are reached. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  8. Greenhouse heating with a fresh water floating collector solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.; Sokolov, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fresh water floating collector solar pond was investigated both experimentally and theoretically in a previous work, and it is now matched, by simulation, with the heat load requirements of a greenhouse. Results of the simulation indicate that such a pond is a potential energy source for greenhouse heating. This is especially true when the material properties are such that solar absorption and storage are enhanced. This paper reports that to demonstrate this point, three sets of collectors constructed with materials of different physical (radiation) properties were tested. One set is constructed of common materials which are readily available and are normally used as covers for greenhouses. The second set made of improved materials which are also available but have a smaller long-wave transmittance. The last set made of ideal material which additionally possesses selective radiation absorption properties. Collectors made of ideal materials make a superior solar pond; thus, manufacturing films with improved properties should become a worthwhile challenge for the agricultural polyethylene-films industry. Preliminary economic studies indicate that even with the low oil (<$20/Bbl) prices which exist between 1986-1989, the fresh water floating collectors solar pond provides an economically attractive alternative to the conventional oil-burning heating system. This is especially true in mild climate areas and when the large initial investment is justified by long-term greenhouse utilization planning

  9. Solar water heating for aquaculture : optimizing design for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Thwaites, J. [Taylor Munro Energy Systems Inc., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a solar water heating project at Redfish Ranch, the first Tilapia tropical fish farm in British Columbia. The fish are raised in land-based tanks, eliminating the risk of contamination of local ecosystems. As a tropical species, they requires warm water. Natural gas or propane boilers are typically used to maintain tank temperatures at 26 to 28 degrees C. Redfish Ranch uses solar energy to add heat to the fish tanks, thereby reducing fossil-fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions. This unique building-integrated solar system is improving the environmental status of of this progressive industrial operation by offsetting fossil-fuel consumption. The system was relatively low cost, although substantial changes had to be made to the roof of the main building. The building-integrated design of the solar water heating system has reduced operating costs, generated local employment, and shows promise of future activity. As such, it satisfies the main criteria for sustainability. 7 refs.

  10. Thermal State-of-Charge in Solar Heat Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carsie, A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to determine the so-called thermal state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers employing encapsulated phase change materials (PCMS) that undergo cyclic melting and freezing. The present problem is relevant to space solar dynamic power systems that would typically operate in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The solar heat receiver is integrated into a closed-cycle Brayton engine that produces electric power during sunlight and eclipse periods of the orbit cycle. The concepts of available power and virtual source temperature, both on a finite-time basis, are used as the basis for determining the SOC. Analytic expressions for the available power crossing the aperture plane of the receiver, available power stored in the receiver, and available power delivered to the working fluid are derived, all of which are related to the SOC through measurable parameters. Lower and upper bounds on the SOC are proposed in order to delineate absolute limiting cases for a range of input parameters (orbital, geometric, etc.). SOC characterization is also performed in the subcooled, two-phase, and superheat regimes. Finally, a previously-developed physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system is used in order to predict the SOC as a function of measurable parameters.

  11. Energetical and ecological assessment of solar- and heat pump technologies for hot water preparation and space heating in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Solar and heat pump systems have been proved in many applications on the market. To achieve an efficient energy output it is necessary to consider the special conditions of these technologies. The energetical and ecological criteria of solar and heat pump systems for hot water preparation and space heating are analysed on the basis of experimental data. (author)

  12. Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran

    2017-12-01

    Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.

  13. Dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Shen, Jingchun; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A transient model was developed to predict dynamic performance of new PV/LHP system. • The model accuracy was validated by experiment giving less than 9% in error. • The new system had basic and advanced performance coefficients of 5.51 and 8.71. • The new system had a COP 1.5–4 times that for conventional heat pump systems. • The new system had higher exergetic efficiency than PV and solar collector systems. - Abstract: Objective of the paper is to present an investigation into the dynamic performance of a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for potential use in space heating or hot water generation. The methods used include theoretical computer simulation, experimental verification, analysis and comparison. The fundamental equations governing the transient processes of solar transmission, heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic (PV) power generation were appropriately integrated to address the energy balances occurring in different parts of the system, e.g., glazing cover, PV cells, fin sheet, loop heat pipe, heat pump cycle and water tank. A dedicated computer model was developed to resolve the above grouping equations and consequently predict the system’s dynamic performance. An experimental rig was constructed and operated under the real weather conditions for over one week in Shanghai to evaluate the system living performance, which was undertaken by measurement of various operational parameters, e.g., solar radiation, photovoltaic power generation, temperatures and heat pump compressor consumption. On the basis of the first- (energetic) and second- (exergetic) thermodynamic laws, an overall evaluation approach was proposed and applied to conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the PV/LHP module’s efficiency, which involved use of the basic thermal performance coefficient (COP th ) and the advanced performance coefficient (COP PV/T ) of such a system. Moreover, a simple comparison

  14. Quasi-adaptive fuzzy heating control of solar buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, M.M. [Faculty of Industrial Education, Cairo (Egypt); Danaher, S. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Underwood, C.P. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Built Environment and Sustainable Cities Research Institute

    2006-12-15

    Significant progress has been made on maximising passive solar heat gains to building spaces in winter. Control of the space heating in these applications is complicated due to the lagging influence of the useful solar heat gain coupled with the wide range of construction materials and heating system choices. Additionally, and in common with most building control applications, there is a need to develop control solutions that permit simple and transparent set-up and commissioning procedures. This paper addresses the development and testing of a quasi-adaptive fuzzy logic control method that addresses these issues. The controller is developed in two steps. A feed-forward neural network is used to predict the internal air temperature, in which a singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm is used to remove the highly correlated data from the inputs of the neural network to reduce the network structure. The fuzzy controller is then designed to have two inputs: the first input being the error between the set-point temperature and the internal air temperature and the second the predicted future internal air temperature. The controller was implemented in real-time using a test cell with controlled ventilation and a modulating electric heating system. Results, compared with validated simulations of conventionally controlled heating, confirm that the proposed controller achieves superior tracking and reduced overheating when compared with the conventional method of control. (author)

  15. Theoretical energy and exergy analyses of solar assisted heat pump space heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmaca Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to use of alternative energy sources and energy efficient operation, heat pumps come into prominence in recent years. Especially in solar-assisted heat pumps, sizing the required system is difficult and arduous task in order to provide optimum working conditions. Therefore, in this study solar assisted indirect expanded heat pump space heating system is simulated and the results of the simulation are compared with available experimental data in the literature in order to present reliability of the model. Solar radiation values in the selected region are estimated with the simulation. The case study is applied and simulation results are given for Antalya, Turkey. Collector type and storage tank capacity effects on the consumed power of the compressor, COP of the heat pump and the overall system are estimated with the simulation, depending on the radiation data, collector surface area and the heating capacity of the space. Exergy analysis is also performed with the simulation and irreversibility, improvement potentials and exergy efficiencies of the heat pump and system components are estimated.

  16. Experimental investigation of a solar dryer with natural convective heat flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbaha, P.; Yobouet Andoh, H.; Kouassi Saraka, J. [Laboratoire d' Energies d' Energies Nouvelles et Renouvelables, Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphoeuet-Boigny, B.P. 1526 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Kamenan Koua, B.; Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, 22 B.P.: 582, Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2007-09-15

    A direct type natural convection solar dryer is designed. It is constructed in local materials (wood, blades of glass, metals) then tested experimentally in foodstuffs drying (cassava, bananas, mango). It is about an experimental approach which consists in analyzing the behavior of the dryer. The study relates mainly kinetics and establishment of drying heat balances. The influence of significant parameters governing heat and mass transfers, such as solar incident radiation, drying air mass flow and effectiveness, is analyzed in order to evaluate its thermal performances. Experimental data can be represented by empirical correlations of the form M(t)=M{sub i}exp(-kt) for representation of drying process. The resolution of these drying equations makes-possible to predict total drying time of each product. Moreover, this drying process allows to reduce the moisture content of cassava and sweet banana approximately to 80% in 19 and 22 h, respectively to reach the safety threshold value of 13%. This value permits the conservation of these products about one year without deterioration. The determination of parameters, like ambient temperature, drying chamber temperature, drying air mass flow and incident heat fluxes, allow to predict the drying effectiveness for modeling and refining the dimensioning of the elaborate prototype. (author)

  17. Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, J.H.; Hsu, H.Y.; Wang, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 °C, indoor temperature 25 °C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 °C and condensing temperature 37 °C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 °C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 °C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of hybrid solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 °C, indoor temperature 25 °C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 °C and condensing temperature 37 °C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 °C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 °C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-Axis Solar Heat Collection Tracker System for Solar Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using a continuous operation two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. This heat-collection sun tracking which LDR (light dependent resistor sensors installed on the Fersnel lens was used to control the tracking path of the sun with programming method of control with a closed loop system. The control hardware was connected to a computer through Zigbee wireless module and it also can monitor the whole tracking process information on a computer screen. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. The results indicate that sun tracking systems are being increasingly employed to enhance the efficiency of heat collection by polar-axis tracking of the sun. Besides, the heating power was also measured by designed power measurement module at the different focal length of Fresnel lens, and the design of shadow mask of LDR sensors is an important factor for solar photothermal applications. Moreover, the results also indicated that the best time to obtain the largest solar irradiation power is during 11:00 –13:00  in Taiwan.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  1. Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéry eMasson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance scheme, taking account of the energy production (for thermal and photovoltaic panels, the impact on the building below and feedback towards the urban micro-climate through radiative and convective fluxes. A scenario of large but realistic deployment of solar panels on the Paris metropolitan area is then simulated. It is shown that solar panels, by shading the roofs, slightly increases the need for domestic heating (3%. In summer however, the solar panels reduce the energy needed for air-conditioning (by 12% and also the Urban Heat Island (UHI: 0.2K by day and up to 0.3K at night. These impacts are larger than those found in previous works, because of the use of thermal panels (that are more efficient than photovoltaic panels and the geographical position of Paris, which is relatively far from the sea. This means that it is not influenced by sea breezes, and hence that its UHI is stronger than for a coastal city of the same size. But this also means that local adaptation strategies aiming to decrease the UHI will have more potent effects. In summary, the deployment of solar panels is good both globally, to produce renewable energy (and hence to limit the warming of the climate and locally, to decrease the UHI, especially in summer, when it can constitute a health threat.

  2. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  3. Heat receivers for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla Esther

    A review of state-of-the-art technology is presented and discussed for phase change materials. Some of the advanced solar dynamic designs developed as part of the Advanced Heat Receiver Conceptual Design Study performed for LeRC are discussed. The heat receivers are analyzed and several recommendations are proposed, including two new concepts. The first concept evaluated the effect of tube geometries inside the heat receiver. It was found that a triangular configuration would provide better heat transfer to the working fluid, although not necessarily with a reduction in receiver size. A sensible heat receiver considered in this study uses vapor grown graphite fiber-carbon (VGCF/C) composite as the thermal storage media and was designed for a 7 kW Brayton engine. The proposed heat receiver stores the required energy to power the system during eclipse in the VGCF/C composite. The heat receiver analysis was conducted through the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer and Fluid Integrator (SINDA) software package. The proposed heat receiver compares well with other latent and advanced sensible heat receivers while avoiding the problems associated with latent heat storage salts and liquid metal heat pipes. The weight and size of the system can be optimized by changes in geometry and technology advances for this new material. In addition to the new concepts, the effect of atomic oxygen on several materials is reviewed. A test was conducted for atomic oxygen attack on boron nitride, which experienced a negligible mass loss when exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 5 x 10 exp 21 atoms/sq cm. This material could be used to substitute the graphite aperture plate of the heat receiver.

  4. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  5. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  6. Method and equipment to utilize solar heat. [paraffin used as heat storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellein, H

    1976-09-16

    In this process, solar radiation is converted into heat by means of absorbers. The heat transferred to a liquid is led in forced circulation, first into a heat storage device and then into a water heater. The cooled-down liquid is rercirculated. The storage material used here is paraffin. A measuring and control device is provided to switch from periods with solar radiation to periods where only stored energy is consumed. This device consists of a photocell measuring the incoming sunlight and a temperarure sensor. The control system is put into operation by a combination of the two measured values. The heat accumulator consists of several elements connected in parallel. A control device makes sure that only one accumulator element at a time is part of the circuit. The absorbers, as usual, consists of the absorber plate proper and a cover plate.

  7. Absorption technology for solar and waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption heat pumps, first developed in the 19th century, have received renewed and growing attention in the past two decades. With the increasing cost of oil and electricity, the particular features of this heat-powered cycle have made it attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered air conditioning, gas-fired domestic cooling and waste-heat-powered temperature boosters are some of the applications on which intensive research and development has been conducted. This paper describes the operation of absorption systems and discusses several practical applications. It surveys recent advances in absorption technology, including the selection of working fluids, cycle improvements and multi-staging, and fundamentals of the combined heat and mass transfer in absorption processes. (author)

  8. Hearing of the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES). The ombudsman for solar heating systems as a quality assurance element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger-Mariani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Following an invitation issued by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES),14 solar energy specialists hold a hearing on quality assurance for solar heating systems. Anticipating the introduction of taxes in favour of renewable energy sources and the expected rapid solar market development, the delegates discussed about the creation of a neutral ombudsman office for unsatisfied clients of the solar industry. Clearly, the solar heating system market can only expand if system quality is in accordance with the clients' expectations. The needed know-how may be found since several years in well presented reference books. However, at the moment, not all industry people follow these instructions yet [de

  9. Solar air heating system: design and dynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bououd, M.; Hachchadi, O.; Janusevicius, K.; Martinaitis, V.; Mechaqrane, A.

    2018-05-01

    The building sector is one of the big energy consumers in Morocco, accounting for about 23% of the country’s total energy consumption. Regarding the population growth, the modern lifestyle requiring more comfort and the increase of the use rate of electronic devices, the energy consumption will continue to increase in the future. In this context, the introduction of renewable energy systems, along with energy efficiency, is becoming a key factor in reducing the energy bill of buildings. This study focuses on the design and dynamic simulation of an air heating system for the mean categories of the tertiary sector where the area exceeds 750 m3. Heating system has been designed via a dynamic simulation environment (TRNSYS) to estimate the produced temperature and airflow rate by one system consisting of three essential components: vacuum tube solar collector, storage tank and water-to-air finned heat exchanger. The performances estimation of this system allows us to evaluate its capacity to meet the heating requirements in Ifrane city based on the prescriptive approach according to the Moroccan Thermal Regulation. The simulation results show that in order to maintain a comfort temperature of 20°C in a building of 750m3, the places requires a thermal powers of approximately 21 kW, 29 kW and 32 kW, respectively, for hotels, hospitals, administrative and public-school. The heat generation is ensured by a solar collector areas of 5 m², 7 m² and 10 m², respectively, for hotels, hospitals, administrative and public-school spaces, a storage tank of 2 m3 and a finned heat exchanger with 24 tubes. The finned tube bundles have been modelled and integrated into the system design via a Matlab code. The heating temperature is adjusted via two controllers to ensure a constant air temperature of 20°C during the heating periods.

  10. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  11. The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1992-02-01

    The market penetration of solar and heat pump systems in Austria in 1991 shows a high interest for solar systems as well as for swimming-pool heating as for domestic hot-water preparation and also an increase in the field of heat pumps especially for space heating. (author)

  12. Air-liquid solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and hot water subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of quarterly reports consisting of the installation and layout design of the air collector system for commercial applications, completion of the preliminary design review, detailed design efforts, and preparation of the verification test plan are given. Performance specifications and performance testing of a prototype model of a two manifold, 144 tube air collector array is presented.

  13. Solar heating system for recreation building at Scattergood School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heins, C.F.

    1978-01-03

    This project was initiated in May 1976 and was completed in June 1977. A six-month acceptance-testing period followed during which time a number of minor modifications and corrections were made to improve system performance and versatility. This Final Report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and the project involved in its construction. As such, it has both detailed drawings of the completed system and a section that discusses the bottlenecks that were encountered along the way.

  14. Active solar heating system performance and data review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Bertarelli, L.; Schmidt, G.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the performance and costs of solar heating systems in Europe, and their relevance to systems in the UK. Details are given of the identification and review of the available data, the collection of information on UK and overseas systems, and the assessment and analysis of the data. Appendices give a lists of the monitored parameters, European contacts, data sources, the questionnaire for gathering information, and a printout of the data files. (uk)

  15. Characterization of HEM silicon for solar cells. [Heat Exchanger Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.; Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1981-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) is a promising low-cost ingot casting process for material used for solar cells. This is the only method that is capable of casting single crystal ingots with a square cross section using a directional solidification technique. This paper describes the chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the HEM silicon material as a function of position within the ingot.

  16. Design and experiment of a new solar air heating collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams, S.M.N.; Mc Keever, M.; Mc Cormack, S.; Norton, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experiment of a CTAH (Concentrating Transpired Air Heating) system. A newly designed solar air heating collector comprised of an inverted perforated absorber and an asymmetric compound parabolic concentrator was applied to increase the intensity of solar radiation incident on the perforated absorber. An extensive literature review was carried out to find the vital factors to improve optical and thermal efficiency of solar air heating systems. A stationary optical concentrator has been designed and experimented. Experimental thermal efficiency remained high at higher air flow rates. The average thermal efficiency was found to be approximately 55%–65% with average radiation above 400 W/m"2 for flow rates in the range of 0.03 kg/s/m"2 to 0.09 kg/s/m"2. Experimental results at air flow rates of 0.03 kg/s/m"2 and 0.09 kg/s/m"2 showed temperature rise of 38 °C and 19.6 °C respectively at a solar radiation intensity of 1000 W/m"2. A comparative performance study shows the thermal performance of CTAH. As the absorber of the CTAH facing downward, it avoids radiation loss and the perforated absorber with tertiary concentrator reduces thermal losses from the system. - Highlights: • Literature review was carried out to improve SAH system performance. • Optimisation factors were optical efficiency; heat loss, weight and cost. • Concentrator was designed to concentrate radiation for 6–7 h. • The highest efficiency of CTAH can be 73%. • It can work as efficient as 60% for a temperature rise of 70 °C.

  17. Experimental evaluation of a direct air-cooled lithium bromide-water absorption prototype for solar air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Gil, A.; Izquierdo, M.; Marcos, J.D.; Palacios, E.

    2011-01-01

    A new direct air-cooled single-effect LiBr-H 2 O absorption prototype is described and proposed for use in solar cooling. As distinguishing aspects, it presents: an adiabatic absorber using flat-fan sheets; an air-cooling system that directly refrigerates both the condenser and the absorber and; the possibility of being operated also as a double-effect unit. A solar facility comprising a 48 m 2 field of flat-plate collectors was used to test the single-effect operation mode of the prototype. Results from an experimental campaign carried out in Madrid during summer 2010 are shown and operation parameters corresponding to two typical summer days are detailed. The prototype worked efficiently, with COP values around 0.6. Cooling power varied from 2 kW to 3.8 kW, which represented about 85% of the prototype's nominal capacity. Chilled water temperatures mostly ranged between 14 o C and 16 o C, although the lowest measured value was of 12.8 o C. Condensation and absorption temperatures were under 50 o C and 46 o C, respectively, even with outdoor temperatures of 40 o C. Driving water temperature ranged between 85 o C and 110 o C. As a mean, the system was able to meet 65% of the cooling demand corresponding to a room of 40 m 2 . No signs of crystallization were observed during about a hundred hours of operation. - Highlights: → A novel direct air-cooled single-effect absorption prototype is described. → Feasibility of air-cooled technology for LiBr-H 2 O absorption cooling is proved. → An adiabatic absorber using flat-fan sheets avoids crystallization of the solution. → A field of flat-plate collectors powers the chiller at temperatures from 85 to 110 o C. → The prototype works with thermal COP about 0.6.

  18. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  19. Catastrophic cooling and cessation of heating in the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.; Bingert, S.; Kamio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Condensations in the more than 106 K hot corona of the Sun are commonly observed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). While their contribution to the total solar EUV radiation is still a matter of debate, these condensations certainly provide a valuable tool for studying the dynamic response of the corona to the heating processes. Aims: We investigate different distributions of energy input in time and space to investigate which process is most relevant for understanding these coronal condensations. Methods: For a comparison to observations we synthesize EUV emission from a time-dependent, one-dimensional model for coronal loops, where we employ two heating scenarios: simply shutting down the heating and a model where the heating is very concentrated at the loop footpoints, while keeping the total heat input constant. Results: The heating off/on model does not lead to significant EUV count rates that one observes with SDO/AIA. In contrast, the concentration of the heating near the footpoints leads to thermal non-equilibrium near the loop top resulting in the well-known catastrophic cooling. This process gives a good match to observations of coronal condensations. Conclusions: This shows that the corona needs a steady supply of energy to support the coronal plasma, even during coronal condensations. Otherwise the corona would drain very fast, too fast to even form a condensation. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Solar-assisted heat pump – A sustainable system for low-temperature water heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Gagrani, V.D.; Abdel-Salam, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DX-SAHP water heaters systems are economical as well as energy conserving. • The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis. • LCC can be optimized with respect to the collector area at a specific temperature. • For high load temperature range a two stage heat pump system is more appropriate. - Abstract: Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems (DX-SAHP) have been widely used in many applications including water heating. In the DX-SAHP systems the solar collector and the heat pump evaporator are integrated into a single unit in order to transfer the solar energy to the refrigerant. The present work is aimed at studying the use of the DX-SAHP for low temperature water heating applications. The novel aspect of this paper involves a detailed long-term thermo-economic analysis of the energy conservation potential and economic viability of these systems. The thermal performance is simulated using a computer program that incorporates location dependent radiation, collector, economic, heat pump and load data. The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) method. Results indicate that the DX-SAHP water heaters systems when compared to the conventional electrical water heaters are both economical as well as energy conserving. The analysis also reveals that the minimum value of the system life cycle cost is achieved at optimal values of the solar collector area as well as the compressor displacement capacity. Since the cost of SAHP system presents a barrier to mass scale commercialization, the results of the present study indicating that the SAHP life cycle cost can be minimized by optimizing the collector area would certainly be helpful in lowering, if not eliminating, the economic barrier to these systems. Also, at load temperatures higher than 70 °C, the performance of the single stage heat pump degrades to the extent that its cost and efficiency advantages over the electric only system are

  1. Testing of PCM Heat Storage Modules with Solar Collectors as Heat Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    A latent heat storage based on the phase change material Sodium Acetate Trihydrate (SAT) has been tested as part of a demonstration system. The full heat storage consisted of 4 individual modules each containing about 200 kg of sodium acetate trihydrate with different additives. The aim...... was to actively utilize the ability of the material to supercool to obtain long storage periods. The modules were charged with solar heat supplied by 22.4 m2 evacuated tubular collectors. The investigation showed that it was possible to fully charge one module within a period of 270 minutes with clear skies...

  2. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  3. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  4. Annex to Solar heat storages in district heating networks. Comprehensive list of Danish literature and R and D projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This annex relates to the report 'Solar heat storages in district heating networks', which has been elaborated to inform about the Danish experiences and findings on the use of central solar heating plants in district heating networks, especially with the focus on the development of the storage part of the systems. The report has been funded as part of the IEE PREHEAT cooperation and by Energinet.dk, project no. 2006-2-6750. (au)

  5. Practical use of solar heating-dehumidification dry kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    1988-06-01

    In order to decrease the energy cost for drying, a solar-dehumidification dry kiln which used the dehumidification dry process together with the solar thermal drier was developed and tested. In the daytime the drying temperature rose up to 60/sup 0/C in summer and 40/sup 0/C in winter, and it was kept higher by 15 to 20/sup 0/C than the outside temperature at night. Owing to the adoption of the combination of direct solar heating and exhausting highly humid air, it was not necessary to operate the dry kiln in the day time. Average electrical energy consumption which was consumed to 15% moisture content from the raw lumber was about 73kWh/m/sup 3/ in summer which was lowest, about 87kWh/m/sup 3/ in winter. Energy cost required for the solar dehumidification dry kiln is 1/2 to 2/3 of that of the conventional dehumidification dry kiln. The solar-dehumidification dry kiln has a merit of cheaper operating cost in the low energy cost and reduced drying time. (7 figs, 1 tab, 6 refs)

  6. Methods of heat transformation for solar facilities in buildings; Verfahren der Waermetransformation fuer die solare Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Gruppe Aktive Thermische Systeme; Treffinger, P. [Deutsche Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Lampoldshausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-02-01

    Processes in which a heat pump cycle is driven by thermal energy may be defined as heat transformation processes. The technical realization of this type of processes in general is based on sorption techniques. Depending on the temperature level of the utilized heat these technologies may be used for either cooling or heating of buildings. The paper presents state-of-the-art technologies and new developments. It comprises solar cooling of buildings, utilization of environmental energy sources (earth, air) by thermal driven heat pumps and seasonal storage of solar thermal energy by means of sorption processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter Waermetransformationsverfahren werden im allgemeinen Verfahren verstanden, in denen ein Waermepumpenprozess mit thermischer Energie angetrieben wird. Die technische Realisierung dieser Verfahren erfolgt ueberwiegend mit Hilfe von Sorptionsvorgaengen. Abhaengig vom Temperaturniveau des Nutzwaermestroms koennen solche Verfahren im Gebaeudebereich fuer die Kuehlung oder Heizung eingesetzt werden. Im Beitrag werden der Stand der Technik sowie neue Entwicklungen vorgestellt. Im einzelnen umfasst der Beitrag die solare Kuehlung von Gebaeuden, die Nutzung von Umweltenergie (Erdreich, Luft) mittels thermisch angetriebener Waermepumpen sowie die saisonale Speicherung von Solarenergie ueber Sorptionsprozesse. (orig.)

  7. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  8. Simulation of Hybrid Photovoltaic Solar Assisted Loop Heat Pipe/Heat Pump System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid photovoltaic solar assisted loop heat pipe/heat pump (PV-SALHP/HP water heater system has been developed and numerically studied. The system is the combination of loop heat pipe (LHP mode and heat pump (HP mode, and the two modes can be run separately or compositely according to the weather conditions. The performances of independent heat pump (HP mode and hybrid loop heat pipe/heat pump (LHP/HP mode were simulated and compared. Simulation results showed that on typical sunny days in spring or autumn, using LHP/HP mode could save 40.6% power consumption than HP mode. In addition, the optimal switchover from LHP mode to HP mode was analyzed in different weather conditions for energy saving and the all-year round operating performances of the system were also simulated. The simulation results showed that hybrid LHP/HP mode should be utilized to save electricity on sunny days from March to November and the system can rely on LHP mode alone without any power consumption in July and August. When solar radiation and ambient temperature are low in winter, HP mode should be used

  9. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  10. Comparison of three systems of solar water heating by thermosiphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; Guzmán, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this project was to elaborate a comparison between three water heating systems; using two plane water heating solar collector and another using a vacuum tube heater, all of them are on top of the cafeteria's roof on building of the “Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana” in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Through testing was determined each type of water heating systems' performance, where the Stainless Steel tube collector reached a maximum efficiency of 71.58%, the Copper Tubing Collector a maximum value of 76.31% and for the Vacuum Tube Heater Collector a maximum efficiency of 72.33%. The collector with copper coil was the system more efficient. So, taking into account the Performance and Temperature Curves, along with the weather conditions at the time of the testing we determined that the most efficient Solar Heating System is the one using a Vacuum Tube Heater Collector. Reaching a maximum efficiency of 72.33% and a maximum temperature of 62.6°C.

  11. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: 1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads; 2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes; 3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating; and 4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  12. Performance Evaluation of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Working under Supercritical Conditions in a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in low grade heat valorization using organic Rankine cycle (ORC technologies has increased significantly. A new small-scale ORC with a net capacity of 3 kW was efficiently integrated with a concentrated solar power technology for electricity generation. The excess heat source from Photovoltaic (PV collectors with a maximum temperature of 100 °C was utilized through a supercritical heat exchanger that uses R-404A as working medium. By ensuring supercritical heat transfer leads to a better thermal match in the heat exchanger and improved overall cycle efficiency. A helical coil heat exchanger was designed by using heat transfer correlations from the literature. These heat transfer correlations were derived for different conditions than ORCs and their estimated uncertainty is ~20%. In order to account for the heat transfer correlation uncertainties this component was oversized by 20%. Next, a prototype was built and installed in an integrated concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T/Rankine system. The results from the measurements show that for better estimation of the sizing of the heat exchanger a more accurate correlation is required in order to design an optimal configuration and thus employ cheaper components.

  13. Thermoeconomic optimization of Solar Heating and Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; D'Accadia, M. Dentice; Vanoli, L.

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the optimal thermoeconomic configuration of Solar Heating and Cooling systems (SHC) is investigated. In particular, a case study is presented, referred to an office building located in Naples (south Italy); for such building, three different SHC configurations were analyzed: the first one is based on the coupling of evacuated solar collectors with a single-stage LiBr-H 2 O absorption chiller equipped with a water-to-water electrical heat pump, to be used in case of insufficient solar radiation; in the second case, a similar layout is considered, but the capacities of the absorption chiller and the solar field are smaller, since they are requested to balance just a fraction of the total cooling load of the building selected for the case study; finally, in the third case, the electric heat pump is replaced by an auxiliary gas-fired heater. A zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed in TRNSYS, was used to analyze each layout from both thermodynamic and economic points of view. In particular, a cost model was developed in order to assess the owning and operating costs for each plant layout. Furthermore, a mixed heuristic-deterministic optimization algorithm was implemented in order to determine the set of the synthesis/design variables able to maximize the overall thermo-economic performance of the systems under analysis. For this purpose, two different objective functions were selected: the Pay-Back Period and the overall annual cost. Possible public funding, in terms of Capital Cost Contributions and/or feed-in tariff, were also considered. The results are presented on monthly and weekly basis, paying special attention to the energy and monetary flows in the optimal configurations. In particular, the thermoeconomic analysis and optimization showed that a good funding policy for the promotion of such technologies should combine a feed-in tariff with a slight Capital Cost Contribution, allowing to achieve satisfactory Pay-Back Periods.

  14. The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    . The investigation is based on calculations with validated models. Solar heating systems with different solar collector types, heat storage volumes and solar fractions are included in the investigation. The yearly solar radiation varies with approximately 20 % in the period from 1990 until 2002. The calculations......The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar combi systems, solar domestic hot water systems and solar heating plants is investigated. The investigation is based on weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY and weather data measured for a period from 1990 until 2002...... show that the thermal performance of the investigated systems varies due to the weather variation. The variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar heating plant is about 40 % while the variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system is about 30...

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  16. The UK solar water heating industry: a period of development and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, John

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the solar water heating sector in the UK and presents an illustration of the layout of a typical solar water heating system. The rising demand for solar water heating and growth in sales especially in the export market are noted. Developments within the UK solar water heating manufacturing industry are considered, and details are given of design and development in innovative policy infrastructure, and the SHINE 21 project supported by the EU's ADAPT programme and the UK Department of Trade and Industry involving collaboration between the solar water heating and plumbing industries. Developments in the new build sectors including in-roof solar collector products and the increasing number of solar water heating systems installed in UK houses are discussed along with the promising future for the market

  17. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  18. A solar assisted heat-pump dryer and water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chou, S.K.; Jahangeer, K.A.; Rahman, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern about the depletion of conventional energy resources has provided impetus for considerable research and development in the area of alternative energy sources. A solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater found to be one of the solutions while exploring for alternative energy sources. The heat pump system is used for drying and water heating applications with the major share of the energy derived from the sun and the ambient. The solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been investigated under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. The system consists of a variable speed reciprocating compressor, evaporator-collector, storage tank, air cooled condenser, auxiliary heater, blower, dryer, dehumidifier, and air collector. The drying medium used is air and the drying chamber is configured to carry out batch drying of good grains. A water tank connected in series with the air cooled condenser delivers hot water for domestic applications. The water tank also ensures complete condensation of the refrigerant vapour. A simulation program is developed using Fortran language to evaluate the performance of the system and the influence of different variables. The performance indices considered to evaluate the performance of the system are: Solar Fraction (SF), Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Specific Moisture Extraction Rate (SMER). A COP value of 7.5 for a compressor speed of 1800 rpm was observed. Maximum collector efficiencies of 0.86 and 0.81 have been found for evaporator-collector and air collector, respectively. A value of the SMER of 0.79 has been obtained for a load of 20 kg and a compressor speed of 1200 rpm

  19. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  20. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluid circulating pump operated by same incident solar energy which heats energy collection fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The application of using a spacecraft solar powered pump terrestrially to reduce or eliminate the need for fossil fuel generated electricity for domestic solar hot water systems was investigated. A breadboard prototype model was constructed utilizing bimetals to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion by means of a toggle operated shutter mechanism. Although it did not meet expected thermal efficiency, the prototype model was sufficient to demonstrate the mechanical concept.

  2. Performance study of heat-pipe solar photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongbing; Zhang, Lei; Jie, Pengfei; Xiong, Yaxuan; Xu, Peng; Zhai, Huixing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The testing device of HPS PV/T heat pump system was established by a finished product of PV panel. • A detailed mathematical model of heat pump was established to investigate the performance of each component. • The dynamic and static method was combined to solve the mathematical model of HPS PV/T heat pump system. • The HPS PV/T heat pump system was optimized by the mathematical model. • The influence of six factors on the performance of HPS PV/T heat pump system was analyzed. - Abstract: A heat-pipe solar (HPS) photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) heat pump system, combining HPS PV/T collector with heat pump, is proposed in this paper. The HPS PV/T collector integrates heat pipes with PV panel, which can simultaneously generate electricity and thermal energy. The extracted heat from HPS PV/T collector can be used by heat pump, and then the photoelectric conversion efficiency is substantially improved because of the low temperature of PV cells. A mathematical model of the system is established in this paper. The model consists of a dynamic distributed parameter model of the HPS PV/T collection system and a quasi-steady state distributed parameter model of the heat pump. The mathematical model is validated by testing data, and the dynamic performance of the HPS PV/T heat pump system is discussed based on the validated model. Using the mathematical model, a reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s dynamic performance with a relative error within ±15.0% can be obtained. The capacity of heat pump and the number of HPS collectors are optimized to improve the system performance based on the mathematical model. Six working modes are proposed and discussed to investigate the effect of solar radiation, ambient temperature, supply water temperature in condenser, PV packing factor, heat pipe pitch and PV backboard absorptivity on system performance by the validated model. It is found that the increase of solar radiation, ambient temperature and PV

  3. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  4. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  5. Heating of Solar Wind Ions via Cyclotron Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, R.; Moya, P. S.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Munoz, V.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Remote and in situ observations in the solar wind show that ion and electron velocity distributions persistently deviate from thermal equilibrium in the form of relative streaming between species components, temperature anisotropy, etc. These non-thermal features represent a source of free energy for the excitation of kinetic instabilities and fluctuations in the plasma. In this regard, it is believed that plasma particles can be heated, through a second order Fermi acceleration process, by multiple resonances with unstable counter-propagating field-aligned Ion-cyclotron waves. For multi-species plasmas, several collective wave modes participate in this process. In this work, we test this model by studying the percentage of ions that resonate with the waves modes described by the proper kinetic multi-species dispersion relation in a solar-wind-like plasma composed of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. Numerical results are compared with WIND spacecraft data to test its relevance for the existence of thresholds for the preferential perpendicular heating of He+2 ions as observed in the solar wind fast streams.

  6. Integrating Solar Heating into an Air Handling Unit to Minimize Energy Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test a method of integrating solar heating with a small commercial air handling unit (AHU). In order to accomplish this a heat exchanger was placed in the reheat position of the AHU and piped to the solar heating system. This heat exchanger is used to supplement or replace the existing electric reheat. This method was chosen for its ability to utilize solar energy on a more year round basis when compared to a traditional heating system. It allows solar h...

  7. Synergistic effect of solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    Waterborne diseases are still common in developing countries as drinking water sources are contaminated and feasible means to reliably treat and disinfect these waters are not available. Many of these developing countries are in the tropical regions of the world where sunlight is plentiful. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect contaminated water using a modified Family Sol*Saver System (FSP). The non-UV transmittable cover sheet of the former FSP system was replaced with an UV transmittable plastic cover sheet to enable more wavelengths of sunlight to treat the water. Disinfection efficiency of both systems was evaluated based on reduction of the natural populations of faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, total heterotrophic bacteria, hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria and FRNA virus. The results showed that under sunny and partly sunny conditions, water was heated to critical temperature (60 degrees C) in both the FSP systems inactivating more than 3 log (99.9%) of the concentrations of faecal coliform and E. coli to undetectable levels of heat worked synergistically to enhance the inactivation of faecal indicator bacteria. The relative log removal of indicator microorganism in the FSP treated water was total heterotrophic bacteria heat and radiation effects of sunlight were important in disinfecting water by solar units. The data indicated that direct radiation of sunlight worked synergistically with solar heating of the water to disinfect the water. Thus, effective disinfection was observed even when the water temperature did not reach 60 degrees C. Finally, the hydrogen sulphide test is a simple and reliable test that householders can use to determine whether their water had been sufficiently disinfected.

  8. PCM-air heat exchangers for free-cooling applications in buildings: Experimental results of two real-scale prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Marin, Jose M.; Zalba, Belen

    2009-01-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCM) can be used for free-cooling. In this application low air temperature is used to solidify the PCM during the night and then during the next day, the inside air of a building can be cooled down by exchanging heat with PCM. Short times for charging and discharging the PCM are required. PCM have in general low thermal conductivity, therefore the heat exchanger design is very important to fulfil free-cooling requirements. This paper presents an experimental setup for testing PCM-air real-scale heat exchangers and the results for two real-scale prototypes. Results show that a heat exchanger using a PCM with lower thermal conductivity and lower total stored energy, but adequately designed, has higher cooling power and can be applied for free-cooling

  9. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR DRYER WITH INDIRECT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryana Brashlyanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performed tests were designed to identify and analyze the parameters of drying in a authors model solar dryer. They to be the basis for constructing of an improved model. Drying was carried out in a pilot model solar dryer with prunes in two cycles. Both samples were run under steady sunshine in outdoor air temperature ranging between 20-22°C in the morning and 33-35°C in the early afternoon hours. Depending on the ambient conditions, the drying temperature was found in the range of 30 to 50°C. The dried samples had a water activity Aw> 0.9, due to which the storage is at -18°C. The duration of the drying process of prunes was inconstant and lasted from 2 to 3 days, depending on the final moisture content of the product and the external temperature, humidity, and intensity of solar radiation. The obtained two products intermediate moisture prunes, in addition to direct human consumption could be used as a base for incorporation into other products. Prunes with intermediate moisture content 40% could be consumed directly at ambient temperature or after freezing and tempering at -6 to -5ºC. Based on the established parameters we are to design and produce an improved solar dryer model that allows better utilization of heat and shortening the process duration.

  10. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  11. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  12. Solar water heating for small cheese factories in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros Donohue, A A

    1982-03-01

    Plans are described for the implementation of 40 small plants to be used for cheese production. As a start, a demonstration plant has been built in San Juan de Chuquibambilla-Puno, Peru. Design and testing of a flat plate solar collector, to be used for water heating purposes, are described. The cheese making process is discussed. Essentially two pots are required, one at 32/sup 0/C and one at 80/sup 0/. Two flat plate collectors (1.12 m/sup 2/ each) are connected to a 150 l storage tank. Instrumentation and results are discussed. Total efficiency of the process is given as 40%. It is concluded that future installations should consider using biogas digesters and wind driven water pumps in addition to the solar collectors. A brief discussion of the climate, population distribution, and economy of Peru is given. (MJJ)

  13. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1986-01-01

    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  14. Estimation of the economical and ecological efficiency of the solar heat supply in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.; Solomin, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    One carried out numerical study of application efficiency of solar heat supply systems in the climatic conditions of Russia with regard to their economical competitiveness with organic fuel heat conventional sources and role in reduction of greenhouse gas releases. One defined the regions where (under certain conditions) application of solar energy to generate low-potential heat may be reasonable [ru

  15. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  16. Solar heating for an electronics manufacturing plant--Blue Earth, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Partial space heating for 97,000 square foot plant is supplied by 360 flat plate solar collectors; energy is sorted as heat in indoor 20,000 gallon water tank. System includes all necessary control electronics for year round operation. During December 1978, solar energy supplied 24.4 percent of building's space heating load.

  17. Solar process heat for industry, seawater desalination and solar chemistry; Solare Prozesswaerme fuer Industrie, Meerwasserentsalzung und Solarchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, K. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany); Lokurlu, A. [Solitem GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Spaete, F. [Fachhochschule Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Solar-Institut Juelich

    2006-02-15

    The examples discussed in this paper show that solar process heat can make an important contribution to climate protection and resource conservation. Marketable technologies providing temperatures up to approx. 200 C will be available in the short to medium term future. Continue low prices for fossil fuels and high consulting and planning costs impede the further spread of these technologies. Politicians must be called upon to facilitate the development of the market through suitable promotion programmes. There is still a long-term requirement for research, especially regarding high-temperature applications and solar chemistry.

  18. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  19. Experimental studies of solar heat pipe used to operate absorption chiller in conditions of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiep, Le Chi [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Quoc, Hoang An [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech. Education, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hung, Hoang Duong [Danang Univ. of Tech., Danang City (Viet Nam)

    2008-07-01

    Several models of solar heat pipe have been fabricated and tested. The experiments show that the flat plate model could be used to operate absorption chiller in the climate of southern part of Vietnam. Two main advantages of the selected solar heat pipe are low cost and easy fabrication at local conditions. It is expected that the selected solar heat pipe could attract attention of the community to develop the application of solar energy in Vietnam. Based on the current demand, the paper presents the experimental studies of the first generation of low cost solar heat pipe. The paper also discusses the ability of application of solar air conditioning in Vietnam and recommends the suitable diagram mixing solar energy with other heat source to operate stably the system. (orig.)

  20. Heat loss investigation from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, V. C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NDMVPS KBT College of Engineering, Nashik (India); Dongarwar, P. R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Military Engineering, Pune (India); Gawande, R. P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, B.D.C.O.E. Wardha, Nagpur University, NagpurI (India)

    2016-11-15

    The heat losses are mainly affects on the performance of cavity receiver of solar concentrator. In this paper, the experimental and numerical study is carried out for different heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of 0.385 m cavity diameter and 0.154 m opening diameter. The total and convection losses are studied experimentally to no wind and wind conditions for the temperature range of 150 °C to 300 °C at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° inclination angle of cavity receiver. The experimental set up mainly consists of copper tube material cavity receiver wrapped with nichrome heating coil to heat the cavity and insulated with glasswool insulation. The numerical analysis was carried out with Fluent Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to study connective heat losses for no wind condition only. The numerical results are compared with experimental results and found good agreement with maximum deviation of 12 %. The effect of inclination angle of cavity receiver on total losses and convection losses shows that as the inclination angle increases from 0o to 90o, both losses decreased due to decreased in convective zone into the cavity receiver. The effect of operating temperature of cavity shows that as the temperature of cavity receiver increases, the total and convective losses goes on increasing. The effect of external wind at 2 m/s and 4 m/s in two directions (side-on wind and head-on wind) is also studied experimentally for total and convective heat losses. The result shows that the heat losses are higher for head-on wind condition compared to side-on wind and no wind condition at all inclination angle of cavity receiver. The present results are also compared to the convective losses obtained from the correlations of Stine and Mcdonald and M. Prakash. The convective loss from these correlations shows nearest prediction to both experimental and numerical results.

  1. Heat loss investigation from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewale, V. C.; Dongarwar, P. R.; Gawande, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    The heat losses are mainly affects on the performance of cavity receiver of solar concentrator. In this paper, the experimental and numerical study is carried out for different heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of 0.385 m cavity diameter and 0.154 m opening diameter. The total and convection losses are studied experimentally to no wind and wind conditions for the temperature range of 150 °C to 300 °C at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° inclination angle of cavity receiver. The experimental set up mainly consists of copper tube material cavity receiver wrapped with nichrome heating coil to heat the cavity and insulated with glasswool insulation. The numerical analysis was carried out with Fluent Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to study connective heat losses for no wind condition only. The numerical results are compared with experimental results and found good agreement with maximum deviation of 12 %. The effect of inclination angle of cavity receiver on total losses and convection losses shows that as the inclination angle increases from 0o to 90o, both losses decreased due to decreased in convective zone into the cavity receiver. The effect of operating temperature of cavity shows that as the temperature of cavity receiver increases, the total and convective losses goes on increasing. The effect of external wind at 2 m/s and 4 m/s in two directions (side-on wind and head-on wind) is also studied experimentally for total and convective heat losses. The result shows that the heat losses are higher for head-on wind condition compared to side-on wind and no wind condition at all inclination angle of cavity receiver. The present results are also compared to the convective losses obtained from the correlations of Stine and Mcdonald and M. Prakash. The convective loss from these correlations shows nearest prediction to both experimental and numerical results

  2. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  3. Solar Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Hans-Martin; Döll, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the concept of net zero energy buildings has become a major topic in the R&D work on future buildings. In order to achieve a zero energy balance on annual level energy saving and energy efficiency measures have to be fully exploited. However, a demand for active heating and/or cooling will remain in most buildings and under most climatic conditions. Solar energy is the main on-site renewable energy source which can be used to achieve a high fraction of renewable energies to cover th...

  4. Combined use of solar heat and cogeneration - a perspective for district heating?; Kombinierter Einsatz von solarer Waerme und Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung - eine Perspektive fuer die Nahwaerme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entress, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung; Steinborn, F. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Systemanalyse

    1998-02-01

    With Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP), climate-endangering CO{sub 2}-emissions can be reduced singificantly. The heat produced can be delivered at prices comparable to those of conventionally produced heat. With solar district heating, yet higher CO{sub 2}-savings are possible but at higher cost. Promising is a combination of CHP and solar district heating: The heat storage of the solar system can be used to level out heat demand, leading to smooth CHP operation, while heat generated by CHP can be used to substitute for low irradiation during the winter period. However, calculations together with simulation and optimization indicate that combining CHP and solar district heating is not the optimal solution in all cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von Blockheizkraftwerken (BHKW) kann zu einer deutlichen Reduzierung der klimagefaehrdenden CO{sub 2}-Emissionen beitragen. Dabei kann die ausgekoppelte Waerme etwa zum gleichen Preis wie konventionell erzeugte Waerme abgegeben werden. Hoehere CO{sub 2}-Einsparungen lassen sich hingegen mit solarer Nahwaerme erzielen, allerdings zu hoeheren Kosten. Eine Kombination dieser beiden Waermetechniken verspricht Vorteile: Einerseits kann der Waermespeicher des Solarsystems auch zum Ausgleich von Lastspitzen beim Betrieb des BHKW`s genutzt werden. Andererseits kann die waehrend der einstrahlungsarmen Wintermonate fehlende solare Waerme durch das BHKW erzeugt werden. Detaillierte Simulations- und Optimierungsrechnungen zeigen jedoch, dass eine Kombination dieser Waermetechniken nicht immer empfehlenswert ist. (orig.)

  5. Parametric simulation and experimental analysis of earth air heat exchanger with solar air heating duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Jakhar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth air heat exchanger (EAHE systems are insufficient to meet the thermal comfort requirements in winter conditions. The low heating potential of such systems can be improved by integrating the system with solar air heating duct (SAHD. The aim of this paper is to present a model to estimate the heating potential for EAHE system with and without SAHD. The model is generated using TRNSYS 17 simulation tool and validated against experimental investigation on an experimental set-up in Ajmer, India. The experiment was done during the winter season, where the system was evaluated for different inlet flow velocities, length and depth of buried pipe. From the experimentation, it was observed that the depth of 3.7 m is sufficient for pipe burial and the 34 m length of pipe is sufficient to get optimum EAHE outlet temperature. It is also observed that increase in flow velocity results in drop in EAHE outlet temperature, while room temperature is found to increase for higher velocities (5 m/s. The COP of the system also increased up to 6.304 when assisted with solar air heating duct. The results obtained from the experiment data are in good agreement with simulated results within the variation of up to 7.9%.

  6. Heating of the solar chromosphere by ionization pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A new theory is proposed to explain the heating of the solar chromosphere, and possibly the corona, by the dissipation of hydrodynamic compression waves. The basis of the dissipative mechanism, here referred to as ionization pumping, is hysteresis caused by irreversible relaxation of the chromospheric medium to ionization equilibrium following pressure perturbations. In the middle chromosphere, where hydrogen is partially ionized, it is shown that ionization pumping will cause strong dissipation of waves whose periods are 200s or less. This could cause heating of the chromosphere sufficient to compensate for the radiative losses. The mechanism retains a high efficiency for waves of arbitrarily small amplitude and, thus, can be more efficient than shock dissipation for small perturbations in pressure. The formation of shocks therefore is not required for the dissipation of waves whose periods are several minutes or less.

  7. Intermittent heating of the solar corona by MHD turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Buchlin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As the dissipation mechanisms considered for the heating of the solar corona would be sufficiently efficient only in the presence of small scales, turbulence is thought to be a key player in the coronal heating processes: it allows indeed to transfer energy from the large scales to these small scales. While Direct numerical simulations which have been performed to investigate the properties of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the corona have provided interesting results, they are limited to small Reynolds numbers. We present here a model of coronal loop turbulence involving shell-models and Alfvén waves propagation, allowing the much faster computation of spectra and turbulence statistics at higher Reynolds numbers. We also present first results of the forward-modelling of spectroscopic observables in the UV.

  8. Heating of the solar chromosphere by ionization pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new theory is proposed to explain the heating of the solar chromosphere, and possibly the corona, by the dissipation of hydrodynamic compression waves. The basis of the disspative mechanism, here referred to as ''ionization pumping,'' is hysteresis caused by irresversible relaxation of the chromospheric medium to ionization equilibrium following pressure perturbations. In the middle chromosphere, where hydrogen is partially ionized, it is shown that ionization pumping will cause strong dissipation of waves whose periods are approx.200 s or less. This could cause heating of the chromosphere sufficient to compensate for the radiative losses. The mechanism retains a high efficiency for waves of arbitrarily small amplitude and, thus, can be more efficient than shock dissipation for small perturbations in pressure. The formation of shocks therefore is not required for the dissipation of waves whose periods are several minutes or less

  9. SOLAR HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH HDPC AND COPPER PIPE USING DIFFERENT FLUIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Muzamil Wani*, Karan Negi, Prince Mehandiratta

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non -renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy; solar water heating is the prime application of solar energy. The problem faced by the existing solar water heating system is periodic inspections, maintenance, time to time component may need repair or replacement and also sufficient quantity of hot water is not available during clou...

  10. Chromospheric heating during flux emergence in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaarts, Jorrit; de la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime; Danilovic, Sanja; Scharmer, Göran; Carlsson, Mats

    2018-04-01

    Context. The radiative losses in the solar chromosphere vary from 4 kW m-2 in the quiet Sun, to 20 kW m-2 in active regions. The mechanisms that transport non-thermal energy to and deposit it in the chromosphere are still not understood. Aim. We aim to investigate the atmospheric structure and heating of the solar chromosphere in an emerging flux region. Methods: We have used observations taken with the CHROMIS and CRISP instruments on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope in the Ca II K , Ca II 854.2 nm, Hα, and Fe I 630.1 nm and 630.2 nm lines. We analysed the various line profiles and in addition perform multi-line, multi-species, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) inversions to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the chromospheric structure. Results: We investigate which spectral features of Ca II K contribute to the frequency-integrated Ca II K brightness, which we use as a tracer of chromospheric radiative losses. The majority of the radiative losses are not associated with localised high-Ca II K-brightness events, but instead with a more gentle, spatially extended, and persistent heating. The frequency-integrated Ca II K brightness correlates strongly with the total linear polarization in the Ca II 854.2 nm, while the Ca II K profile shapes indicate that the bulk of the radiative losses occur in the lower chromosphere. Non-LTE inversions indicate a transition from heating concentrated around photospheric magnetic elements below log τ500 = -3 to a more space-filling and time-persistent heating above log τ500 = -4. The inferred gas temperature at log τ500 = -3.8 correlates strongly with the total linear polarization in the Ca II 854.2 nm line, suggesting that that the heating rate correlates with the strength of the horizontal magnetic field in the low chromosphere. Movies attached to Figs. 1 and 4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org/

  11. Wallboard with Latent Heat Storage for Passive Solar Applications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedl, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin[melting point-23 C (73.5 F)] is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM (melting point, melting range, and heat of fusion), as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. The confirmed computer model may now be used in conjunction with a building heating and cooling code to evaluate design parameters and operational characteristics of latent heat storage wallboard for passive solar applications

  12. Theoretical investigation of the performance of a novel loop heat pipe solar water heating system for use in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xudong; Wang Zhangyuan; Tang Qi

    2010-01-01

    A novel loop heat pipe (LHP) solar water heating system for typical apartment buildings in Beijing was designed to enable effective collection of solar heat, distance transport, and efficient conversion of solar heat into hot water. Taking consideration of the heat balances occurring in various parts of the loop, such as the solar absorber, heat pipe loop, heat exchanger and storage tank, a computer model was developed to investigate the thermal performance of the system. With the specified system structure, the efficiency of the solar system was found to be a function of its operational characteristics - working temperature of the loop heat pipe, water flow rate across the heat exchanger, and external parameters, including ambient temperature, temperature of water across the exchanger and solar radiation. The relationship between the efficiency of the system and these parameters was established, analysed and discussed in detail. The study suggested that the loop heat pipe should be operated at around 72 deg. C and the water across the heat exchanger should be maintained at 5.1 l/min. Any variation in system structure, i.e., glazing cover and height difference between the absorber and heat exchanger, would lead to different system performance. The glazing covers could be made using either borosilicate or polycarbonate, but borosilicate is to be preferred as it performs better and achieves higher efficiency at higher temperature operation. The height difference between the absorber and heat exchanger in the design was 1.9 m which is an adequate distance causing no constraint to heat pipe heat transfer. These simulation results were validated with the primary testing results.

  13. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  14. Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Lotfizadeh; André McDonald; Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (n...

  15. Solar assisted conditioning of residences with floor heating and ceiling cooling: review and simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    Egrican, Nilufer; Korkmaz, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Solar or solar assisted heating and cooling systems are becoming widespread to reduce CO2 emissions. Efficient radiant space heating and cooling systems can be used to decrease the energy bills and improve occupant thermal comfort in buildings. This study uses the TRNSYS program, for the modeling and simulation of solar assisted radiant heating and cooling of a building with the domestic hot water supply, to examine the effects of various parameters on energy consumption. Calculations are per...

  16. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  17. Performance analysis of a solar still coupled with evacuated heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, B. V. N.; Prudhvi Raj, J.; Krishnan, S. S. Hari; Kotebavi, Vinod

    2018-02-01

    In developing countries the need for better quality drinking water is increasing steadily. We can overcome this need by using solar energy for desalination purpose. This process includes fabrication and analysis of a pyramid type solar still coupled with evacuated heat pipes. This experiment using evacuated heat pipes are carried in mainly three modes namely 1) Still alone 2) Using heat pipe with evacuated tubes 3)Using evacuated heat pipe. For this work single basin pyramid type solar still with 1m2 basin area is fabricated. Black stones and Black paint are utilised in solar still to increase evaporation rate of water in basin. The heat pipe’s evaporator section is placed inside evacuated tube and the heat pipe’s condenser section is connected directly to the pyramid type solar still’s lower portion. The output of distillate water from still with evacuated heat pipe is found to be 40% more than the still using only evacuated tubes.

  18. Basic lay-out, arrangement and design criteria of heat components of the ''nuclear coal gasification prototype plant (PNP)''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruschek, R.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1975, the companies Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, GHT Gesellschaft fuer Hochtemperaturreaktor-Technik mbH, Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau GmbH, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH und Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG are working jointly on the Project ''Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat (PNP)'', with promotion of the ''Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie'' and of the ''Minister fuer Wirtschaft, Mittelstand und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen''. The objectives of the project are the development of a high-temperature reactor, with a core outlet temperature of 950 0 C, suitable for various process heat applications, and the development and testing of the appropriate coal gasification technology. The applied gasifications methods comprise endothermal and exothermal reactions. Therefore, various heat transfer components are to be developed. In the context of this Specialists Meeting, only those components will be discussed by which heat is transferred from primary helium to secondary helium or from helium to the working or process fluid

  19. Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in a solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The hard and soft x ray and microwave emissions from a solar flare (May 14, 1980) were analyzed and interpreted in terms of Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft x ray emitting plasma can only be heated by a single current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity of 10(exp 7) K, 10(exp 11)/cu cm plasma. If the hard x ray emission is from thermal electrons, anomalous resistivity or densities exceeding 3 x 10(exp 12)/cu cm are required. If the hard x ray emission is from nonthermal electrons, the emissions can be produced with classical resistivity in the current sheets if the heating rate is approximately 4 times greater than that deduced from the soft x ray data (with a density of 10(exp 10)/cu cm in the soft x ray emitting region), if there are at least 10(exp 4) current sheets, and if the plasma properties in the sheets are characteristic of the superhot plasma observed in some flares by Lin et al., and with Hinotori. Most of the released energy goes directly into bulk heating, rather than accelerated particles.

  20. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  1. Numerical simulation of a heat pump assisted regenerative solar still with PCM heat storage for cold climates of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir Yessen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been proposed in this work for predicting the energy performances of the heat pump assisted regenerative solar still with phase changing material heat storage under Kazakhstan climates. The numerical model is based on energy and mass balance. A new regenerative heat pump configuration with phase changing material heat storage is proposed to improve the performance. A comparison of results has been made between the conventional solar still and heat pump assisted regenerative solar still with phase changing material. The numerical simulation was performed for wide range of ambient temperatures between -30 and 30°C with wide range of solar intensities between 100 and 900 W/m2. The numerical simulation results showed that heat pump assisted regenerative solar still is more energy efficient and produce better yield when compared to the conventional simple solar still. The influences of solar intensity, ambient temperature, different phase changing materials, heat pump operating temperatures are discussed. The predicted values were found to be in good agreement with experimental results reported in literature.

  2. Plasma Heating in Solar Microflares: Statistics and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirichenko, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of an analysis of 481 weak solar flares, from A0.01 class flares to the B GOES class, that were observed during the period of extremely low solar activity from 2009 April to July. For all flares we measured the temperature of the plasma in the isothermal and two-temperature approximations and tried to fit its relationship with the X-ray class using exponential and power-law functions. We found that the whole temperature distribution in the range from A0.01 to X-class cannot be fit by one exponential function. The fitting for weak flares below A1.0 is significantly steeper than that for medium and large flares. The power-law approximation seems to be more reliable: the corresponding functions were found to be in good agreement with experimental data both for microflares and for normal flares. Our study predicts that evidence of plasma heating can be found in flares starting from the A0.0002 X-ray class. Weaker events presumably cannot heat the surrounding plasma. We also estimated emission measures for all flares studied and the thermal energy for 113 events.

  3. Concrete Hydration Heat Analysis for RCB Basemat Considering Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong-Cheol; Son, Yong-Ki; Choi, Seong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The NPP especially puts an emphasis on concrete durability for structural integrity. It has led to higher cementitious material contents, lower water-cementitious-material ratios, and deeper cover depth over reinforcing steel. These requirements have resulted in more concrete placements that are subject to high internal temperatures. The problem with high internal temperatures is the increase in the potential for thermal cracking that can decrease concrete's long-term durability and ultimate strength. Thermal cracking negates the benefits of less permeable concrete and deeper cover by providing a direct path for corrosion-causing agents to reach the reinforcing steel. The purpose of this study is to develop how to analyze and estimate accurately concrete hydration heat of the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane. An analysis method considering concrete placement sequence was studied and solar radiation effects on the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane were reviewed through the analytical method. In this study, the measured temperatures at the real scale structure and the analysis results of concrete hydration heat were compared. And thermal stress analysis was conducted. Through the analysis, it was found that concrete placement duration, sequence and solar radiation effects should be considered to get the accurate concrete peak temperature, maximum temperature differences and crack index

  4. Combination of a gas heat pump with geothermal energy and solar heat utilisation; Kombination einer Gaswaermepumpe mit Geothermie und Solarwaermenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Andreas [Robur GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A home for handicapped persons in Berlin was modernised. This included the installation of a gas-fuelled absorption heat pump combined with geothermal heat supply and solar heating. CO2 emissions and primary energy consumption were reduced considerably by this concept. (orig.)

  5. Solar heating still in the early stages. Changes for hot water production - VDI meeting 'Efficient heating systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehringer, P

    1976-10-01

    More and more realism replaces the initial euphoria concerning the discussion on solar heating. Not only the possibilities are considered these days, but also the limits of this still controversial way of heating. This impression was deepened by a meeting of the VDI-Gesellschaft Technische Gebaeudeausruestung (Society for the technical equipment of buildings) held in Bonn. The heating of water with solar energy during the summer is viewed optimistically by the experts - as far as space heating is concerned, the sun collector is conceded only a very modest position in Central Europe within integrated heating systems. It is true that solar technology in the USA is already very sophisticated and economically feasible in many cases; however, techniques cannot be adopted unconditionally for Europe, as the average values of global solar radiation are much lower here. Thus, different technologies will be required.

  6. Solar collectors and heat pump: Market review and preliminary simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, Rainer; Roennelid, Mats

    2002-01-01

    Heating systems that combine solar collectors and a heat pump available on the market in Sweden have been studied. A majority of the systems found combine the solar collectors with a ground source heat pump. The technology for combining the collectors and the heat pump does however vary considerably. In the most simple systems, the collectors heat the return water from the heat pump, i.e. the collectors are used for raising the temperature in the boreholes for the heat pump. In the advanced systems, the solar heat is used for tap water, space heating and for raising the temperature of the heat pump's evaporator. There exist only very few comparative evaluations of the contributions from solar collectors in heat pump systems, and there is a need for finding the potential for this technique. In the present study, results are reported from preliminary simulations of solar collectors and ground source heat pumps installed in one-family houses. Simulations are made for two heating loads: 8,650 and 16,500 kWh/year resp., and a hot water load of 3,000 kWh/year. The study shows that: the temperature of the borehole decreases when solar collectors are not used (about 1.2 deg C in three years): 8 m 2 glazed solar collectors used for hot water production can reduce the electricity consumption with up to 13%, with best results in the house with low heating load: 50 m 2 unglazed solar collectors coupled to the evaporator or the borehole can give reductions of up to 14%, largest reduction in the house with high heating load, where the heat extraction from the borehole is large: the unglazed collectors have the highest economic potential, and can be cost effective for houses with high heating load: the simulations do not include a thorough system optimization, better results can be expected from continued optimization work

  7. A Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermal Receiver with High-temperature Heat Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Hark; Jung, Eui Guk; Boo, Joon Hong

    2007-01-01

    A numerical analysis was conducted to predict the heat transfer characteristics of a solar receiver which is subject to very high heat fluxes and temperatures for solar thermal applications. The concentration ratio of the solar receiver ranges from 200 to 1000 and the concentrated heat is required to be transported to a certain distance for specific applications. The study deals with a solar receiver incorporating high-temperature sodium heat pipe as well as typical one that employs a molten-salt circulation loop. The isothermal characteristics in the receiver section is of major concern. The diameter of the solar thermal receiver was 120 mm and the length was 400 mm. For the molten-salt circulation type receiver, 48 axial channels of the same dimensions were attached to the outer wall of the receiver with even spacing in the circumferential direction. The molten salt fed through the channels by forced convection using a special pump. For the heat pipe receiver, the channels are changed to high-temperature sodium heat pipes. Commercial softwares were employed to deal with the radiative heat transfer inside the receiver cavity and the convection heat transfer along the channels. The numerical results are compared and analyzed from the view point of high-temperature solar receiver

  8. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  9. Test results on prototype 50-kA conductors for tokamak induction heating coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollan, J.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Turck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Fabricability of a very large, 50-kA superconducting cable has been demonstrated. Test results of critical current and stability measurements are presented. The design critical current of 55 kA at 7 T was met. The recovery current was degraded as a result of the expectedly poor insulation system. Energy loss measurements on prototype advanced mixed matrix conductors, which will be incorporated into a second prototype cable, are presented

  10. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar......In year 2000 a 336 m² solar domestic hot water system was built in Sundparken, Elsinore, Denmark. The solar heating system is a low flow system with a 10000 l hot-water tank. Due to the orientation of the buildings half of the solar collectors are facing east, half of the solar collectors...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...

  11. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  13. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  14. Steam generator design for solar towers using solar salt as heat transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Pedro Ángel; Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Briongos, Javier Villa; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Since the operation of a concentrating solar power plant depends on the intermittent character of solar energy, the steam generator is subject to daily start-ups, stops and load variations. Faster start-up and load changes increase the plant flexibility and the daily energy production. However, it involves high thermal stresses on thick-walled components. Continuous operational conditions may eventually lead to a material failure. For these reasons, it is important to evaluate the transient behavior of the proposed designs in order to assure the reliability. The aim of this work is to analyze different steam generator designs for solar power tower plants using molten salt as heat transfer fluid. A conceptual steam generator design is proposed and associated heat transfer areas and steam drum size are calculated. Then, dynamic models for the main parts of the steam generator are developed to represent its transient performance. A temperature change rate that ensures safe hot start-up conditions is studied for the molten salt. The thermal stress evolution on the steam drum is calculated as key component of the steam generator.

  15. Results and analysis of high heat flux tests on a full scale vertical target prototype of ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.; Bobin-Vastra, I.

    2004-01-01

    After an extensive development program, a Full-Scale Divertor Target prototype (VTFS) manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor, was intensively tested in the high heat flux FE200 facility. The prototype consists of four units having a full mono-block geometry. The lower part (CFC armour) and the upper part (W armour) of each mono-block were joined to the solution annealed, quenched and cold worked CuCrZr tube by HIP technique. The CFC mono-block was successfully tested up to 1000 cycles at 23 MW/m 2 without any indication of failure. This value is well beyond the ITER design target of 300 cycles at 20 MW/m 2 . The W mono-block endured ∼600 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 . This value of flux is one order of magnitude higher than the ITER design target for the upper part of the vertical target. Fatigue damage is observed when pursuing the cycling up to 15 MW/m 2 . A first stress analysis seems to predict these factual results. However, macro-graphic examinations should bring a better damage valuation. Meanwhile, the fatigue testing will continue on the W healthy part of the VTFS prototype with castellation located on the heated surface (reducing the stresses close to the W-Cu interface). (authors)

  16. Results and analysis of high heat flux tests on a full scale vertical target prototype of ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Merola, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Bobin-Vastra, I. [Framatome, 71 - Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    After an extensive development program, a Full-Scale Divertor Target prototype (VTFS) manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor, was intensively tested in the high heat flux FE200 facility. The prototype consists of four units having a full mono-block geometry. The lower part (CFC armour) and the upper part (W armour) of each mono-block were joined to the solution annealed, quenched and cold worked CuCrZr tube by HIP technique. The CFC mono-block was successfully tested up to 1000 cycles at 23 MW/m{sup 2} without any indication of failure. This value is well beyond the ITER design target of 300 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}. The W mono-block endured {approx}600 cycles at 10 MW/m{sup 2}. This value of flux is one order of magnitude higher than the ITER design target for the upper part of the vertical target. Fatigue damage is observed when pursuing the cycling up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}. A first stress analysis seems to predict these factual results. However, macro-graphic examinations should bring a better damage valuation. Meanwhile, the fatigue testing will continue on the W healthy part of the VTFS prototype with castellation located on the heated surface (reducing the stresses close to the W-Cu interface). (authors)

  17. Test and evaluation of Fern Engineering Company, Incorporated, solar heating and hot water system. [structural design criteria and system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Tests, test results, examination and evaluation by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., of a single family solar heating and hot water system consisting of collector, storage, control, transport, and data acquisition are presented. The structural characteristics of the solar flat plate collectors were evaluated according to snow and wind loads indicated in various building codes to determine their suitability for use both Michigan and Pennsylvania where prototype systems were installed. The flame spread classification of the thermal insulation is discussed and the fire tests conducted on components are described. The operation and dielectrics withstand tests of the energy transport module indicate the module is capable of rated air delivery. Tests of the control panel indicate the relay coil temperatures exceed the temperature limits allowed for the insulating materials involved.

  18. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  19. Thermal design heat sinks, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, compact heat exchangers, and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H S

    2010-01-01

    The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design cours

  20. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T; Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. improvement to the design of a solid absorption solar refrigerator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    on the coupling of auxiliary heating systems to the solar powered refrigerator. ... the efficiency, developing a field prototype and providing auxiliary heating to the ... of a selective surface for the collector plate, air leakages and low absorber ...

  2. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of a solar-assisted combined cooling, heating and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Lu, Yanchao; Yang, Ying; Mao, Tianzhi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to present a thermodynamic performance analysis and to optimize the configurations of a hybrid combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system incorporating solar energy and natural gas. A basic natural gas CCHP system containing a power generation unit, a heat recovery system, an absorption cooling system and a storage tank is integrated with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and/or a heat collector. Based on thermodynamic modeling, the thermodynamic performance, including energy and exergy efficiencies, under variable work conditions, such as electric load factor, solar irradiance and installation ratio, of the solar PV panels and heat collector is investigated and analyzed. The results of the energy supply side analysis indicate that the integration of solar PV into the CCHP system more efficiently improves the exergy efficiency, whereas the integration of a solar heat collector improves the energy efficiency. To match the building loads, the optimization method combined with the operation strategy is employed to optimize the system configurations to maximize the integrated benefits of energy and economic costs. The optimization results of demand–supply matching demonstrate that the integration of a solar heat collector achieves a better integrated performance than the solar PV integration in the specific case study. - Highlights: • Design a CCHP system integrated with solar PV and heat collector. • Present the energy and exergy analyses under variable work conditions. • Propose an optimization method of CCHP system for demand-supply matching.

  3. Flower garden trees' ability to absorb solar radiation heat for local heat reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Hamdani

    2017-06-01

    Banda Aceh as an urban area tends to have a high air temperature than its rural surroundings. A simple way to cool Banda Aceh city is by planting urban vegetation such as home gardens or parks. In addition to aesthetics, urban vegetation plays an important role as a reducer of air pollution, oxygen producer, and reducer of the heat of the environment. To create an ideal combination of plants, knowledge about the ability of plants to absorb solar radiation heat is necessary. In this study, some types of flowers commonly grown by communities around the house, such as Michelia Champaka, Saraca Asoka, Oliander, Adenium, Codiaeum Variegatum, Jas Minum Sambac, Pisonia Alba, Variegata, Apium Graveolens, Elephantopus Scaber, Randia, Cordylin.Sp, Hibiscus Rosasinensis, Agave, Lili, Amarilis, and Sesamum Indicum, were examined. The expected benefit of this research is to provide information for people, especially in Banda Aceh, on the ability of each plant relationship in absorbing heat for thermal comfort in residential environments. The flower plant which absorbs most of the sun's heat energy is Hibiscus Rosasinensis (kembang sepatu) 6.2 Joule, Elephantopus Scaber.L (tapak leman) 4.l Joule. On the other hand, the lowest heat absorption is Oliander (sakura) 0.9 Joule.

  4. Performance of the second generation solar heating system in the solar house of the Eindhoven University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, R.W.G.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Veltkamp, W.B.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    Summer 1981 a new solar heating system has been installed in the Solar House at the E.U.T. The principal features of the system are Philips VTR 261 evacuated tube collectors, integration of the auxiliary heater with the (stratified water) storage and application of the new, balanced flow control

  5. Effectiveness of solar heating systems for the regeneration of adsorbents in recessed fruit and vegetable storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuzhakulov, S.M.; Uzakov, G.N.; Vardiyashvili, A.B

    2013-01-01

    A new method for the regeneration of adsorbents using solar heating systems is proposed. It provides energy saving through the control of the gas composition and humidity in recessed fruit and vegetable storages. The effectiveness of solar heating systems, such as a 'hot box' for the regeneration of adsorbents in fruit and vegetable storages is shown. (author)

  6. Design of a Solar Water Heating System for Kuti Hall, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly average daily irradiance in plane of solar collector and Cold water temperature calculated from weather data collated to determine heating load. Mathematical model was developed based on heat transfer, thermal and optical and energy performance of collector. The absorber plate area, dimensions of solar ...

  7. System performance and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Wu, J.H.; Yen, R.H.; Wang, J.H.; Hsu, H.Y.; Hsia, C.J.; Yen, C.W.; Chang, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term system simulation and economic analysis of solar-assisted cooling/heating system (SACH-2) was carried out in order to find an economical design. The solar heat driven ejector cooling system (ECS) is used to provide part of the cooling

  8. An evaluation of solar energy for heating a highway maintenance headquarters building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A highway maintenance area headquarters building having overall dimensions of 64 ft - 8 in by 42 ft - 0 in was equipped with an active solar heating system to assist in heating space and domestic hot water. The solar system was instrumented and its o...

  9. First Experience from the World Largest fully commercial Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m.......The first experience from the largest solar heating plant in the world is given. The plant is situated in Marstal and is has a total area of 8000 square m....

  10. Testing of Solar Heated Domestic Hot Water System for Solahart Scandinavia ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report.......The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report....

  11. Use of solar energy for heat supply under conditions of the Socialist Federated Republic of Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, B.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of a flat solar energy collector are used to determine the specific heat productivity of the solar unit under meteorological conditions of Belgrade. The evaluation is made with regard for experimental data of year-round operation of hot water supply units and the seasonal use of heating units.

  12. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  13. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  14. Solar heat collector-generator for cooling purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, K.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of an experimental LiBr-H2O solar collector powered absorption cooling system is described. A numerical model was developed of the energy, mass, and momentum balances across the heat-exchange loop to obtain the refrigerant vapor generation rate. The mechanism works by the thermosiphon principle, which eliminates mechanical devices from the loop. All leaks were fixed before measurements began with a test apparatus comprising a pyrex tube 1.87 m long with a 2.7 i.d. The refrigerant flow rate was monitored, along with temperature changes in the fluid and across the tube. Bubble initiation was observed from the free surface extending downward in the tube. Reynolds numbers varied from 6-43 in the liquid phase and 81-204 in the vapor phase. A formulation was made for the low-velocity two-phase flow and good agreement was demonstrated with the simulation.

  15. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  16. Heating an aquaculture pond with a solar pool blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisely, B; Holliday, J E; MacDonald, R E

    1982-01-01

    A floating solar blanket of laminated bubble plastic was used to heat a 0.11 ha seawater pond of 1.3 m depth. The covered pond maintained daily temperatures 6 to 9/sup 0/C above two controls. Local air temperatures averaged 14 to 19/sup 0/C. Oysters, prawns, seasquirts, and fish in the covered pond all survived. After three weeks, the blanket separated. This was the result of pond temperatures exceeding 30/sup 0/C, the maximum manufacturer's specification. Floating blankets fabricated to higher specifications would be useful for maintaining above-ambient temperatures in small ponds or tanks in temporary situations during cold winter months and might have a more permanent use.

  17. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  18. The heating of the solar corona. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, R.W.P.; Thonemann, P.C.; Wilson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The density and temperature distribution of the solar corona is calculated assuming an energy balance between thermal conduction and radiated power loss with the primary heating of the corona by the dissipation of sound-waves propagated upwards from below the sun's surface. A sharp transition region is found and the calculated results are compared with observations. A detailed model atmosphere for the transition region and corona is derived using the Harvard Smithsonian Reference Atmosphere (for the chromosphere) as starting point. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed in the calculations but it is also shown that a pressure arises because of the sound-waves which is of comparable magnitude to hydrostatic pressure. The inclusion of this pressure introduces difficulties that are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Modeling of solar heating and air conditioning. Progress report, October 31, 1974--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffie, J.A.; Beckman, W.A.

    1975-12-31

    The principal objective of the research is to develop the means to identify and optimize practical systems for heating and cooling of buildings with solar energy in the United States. This will be done through simulation methods. Secondary objectives are to: extend and refine TRNSYS (a modular solar energy system simulation program); develop the means of supporting TRNSYS users in other laboratories; use TRNSYS (and other simulation programs) to develop design procedures for solar heating and cooling processes; design and evaluate an experimental solar heating system on a Wisconsin farm residence.

  20. Large solar heating system with seasonal storage for buld drying in Lisse, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, T.P.; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design

  1. Seven Operation Modes and Simulation Models of Solar Heating System with PCM Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical model and dynamic simulation models of a solar phase-change heat storage heating system with a plate solar collector, phase-change material (PCM storage tank, plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary heat sources were established. A control strategy and numerical models for each of seven different operation modes that cover the entire heating season of the system were developed for the first time. The seven proposed operation modes are Mode 1: free cooling; Mode 2: reservation of heat absorbed by the solar collector in the PCM storage tank when there is no heating demand; Mode 3: direct supply of the heating demand by the solar collector; Mode 4: use of the heat absorbed by the solar collector to meet the heating demands, with the excess heat stored in the PCM storage tank; Mode 5: use of heat stored in the PCM storage tank to meet the heating demands, Mode 6: combined use of heat stored in the PCM storage tank and the auxiliary heating sources to meet the heating demands; and Mode 7: exclusive use of the auxiliary heat sources in order to meet the heating demands. Mathematical models were established for each of the above seven operation modes, taking into consideration the effects of the outdoor meteorological parameters and terminal load on the heating system. The real-time parameters for the entire heating season of the system with respect to the different operation modes can be obtained by solving the simulation models, and used as reference for the optimal design and operation of the actual system.

  2. Transition region, coronal heating and the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing

    2003-07-01

    It is assumed that magnetic flux tubes are strongly concentrated at the boundaries of supergranule convection cells. A power law spectrum of high frequency Alfvén waves with a spectral index -1 originating from the sun is assumed to supply all the energy needed to energize the plasma flowing in such magnetic flux tubes. At the high frequency end, the waves are eroded by ions due to ion cyclotron resonance. The magnetic flux concentration is essential since it allows a sufficiently strong energy flux to be carried by high frequency ion cyclotron waves and these waves can be readily released at the coronal base by cyclotron resonance. The main results are: 1. The waves are capable of creating a steep transition region, a hot corona and a fast solar wind if both the wave frequency is high enough and the magnetic flux concentration is sufficiently strong in the boundaries of the supergranule convection zone. 2. By primarily heating alpha particles only, it is possible to produce a steep transition region, a hot corona and a fast solar wind. Coulomb coupling plays a key role in transferring the thermal energy of alpha particles to protons and electrons at the corona base. The electron thermal conduction then does the remaining job to create a sharp transition region. 3. Plasma species (even ions) may already partially lose thermal equilibrium in the transition region, and minor ions may already be faster than protons at the very base of the corona. 4. The model predicts high temperature alpha particles (Talpha ~ 2 x 107 K) and low proton temperatures (Tp solar radii, suggesting that hydrogen Lyman lines observed by UVCS above coronal holes may be primarily broadened by Alfvén waves in this range.

  3. NPS-SCAT (Solar Cell Array Tester), The Construction of NPS' First Prototype CubeSat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Alexander L

    2008-01-01

    .... This Master's Thesis describes the NPS-SCAT (solar cell array tester) project, including the author's experience as program manager of the project, responsible for budget, schedule and technical deliverables...

  4. SIMS Prototype System 4: performance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-09

    The results obtained during testing of a self-contained, preassembled air type solar system, designed for installation remote from the dwelling, to provide space heating and hot water are presented. Data analysis is included which documents the system performance and verifies the suitability of SIMS Prototype System 4 for field installation.

  5. Thermal Efficiency of Power Module “Boiler with Solar Collectors as Additional Heat Source” For Combined Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova A.E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to increase the efficiency of the combined heat supply system with solar collectors as additional thermal generators. In order to optimize the parameters of combined heat supply system the mathematical modeling of thermal processes in multi module solar collectors as additional thermal generators for preheating of the water for boiler have been done. The method of calculation of multi-module solar collectors working with forced circulation for various configurations of hydraulic connection of solar collector modules as the new result of our work have been proposed. The results of numerical simulation of thermal efficiency of solar heat source for boiler of combined heat supply system with the account of design features of the circuit; regime parameters of thermal generators that allow establishing rational conditions of its functioning have been worked out. The conditions of functioning that provide required temperature of heat carrier incoming to boiler and value of flow rate at which the slippage of heat carrier is not possible for different hydraulic circuits of solar modules have been established.

  6. Solar-energy heats a transportation test center--Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Petroleum-base, thermal energy transport fluid circulating through 583 square feet of flat-plate solar collectors accumulates majority of energy for space heating and domestic hot-water of large Test Center. Report describes operation, maintenance, and performance of system which is suitable for warehouses and similar buildings. For test period from February 1979 to January 1980, solar-heating fraction was 31 percent, solar hot-water fraction 79 percent.

  7. Experimental investigation and feasibility analysis on a capillary radiant heating system based on solar and air source heat pump dual heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Gu, Z.L.; Kang, W.B.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.Y.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, Q.L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Vertical temperature gradient in Case 3, (b) PMV and PPD of the test room in Case 3, (c) operating time of SPCTS and ASHP systems in Case 3 and (d) the proportion of SPCTS operating time. - Highlights: • A capillary heating system based on solar and air source heat pump was developed. • Influence of supply water temperature on solar energy saving rate was investigated. • Heating performance and thermal comfort of capillary heating system were analyzed. • Low temperature heating with capillary is suitable for solar heating system. - Abstract: Due to sustainable development, solar energy has drawn much attention and been widely applied in buildings. However, the application of solar energy is limited because of its instability, intermittency and low energy density in winter. In order to use low density and instable solar energy source for heating and improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy, a solar phase change thermal storage (SPCTS) heating system using a radiant-capillary-terminal (RCT) to effectively match the low temperature hot water, a phase change thermal storage (PCTS) to store and continuously utilize the solar energy, and an air source heat pump (ASHP) as an alternate energy, was proposed and set up in this research. Series of experiments were conducted to obtain the relation between the solar radiation utilization rate and the heating supply temperatures, and to evaluate the performance of the RCT module and the indoor thermal environment of the system for its practical application in a residential building in the north-western City of Xi’an, China. The results show that energy saving of the solar heating system can be significantly improved by reducing the supplied water temperature, and the supplied water temperature of the RCT would be no more than 35 °C. The capillary radiation heating can adopt a lower water temperature and create a good thermal comfort environment as well. These results may lead to the

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was investigated theoretically and experimentally under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The author's earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar water heaters was modified to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. For verifying the modified simulation program, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was designed, constructed, and tested at different meteorological conditions and operating parameters. These parameters include different cooling water mass flow rates and different inlet cooling water temperatures. The comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones showed considerable agreement. Under different climatic conditions, the experimental and theoretical results showed that the optimal mass flow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass flow rate for testing conventional flat plate solar collectors. Also, the experimental and theoretical results indicated that the number of wickless heat pipes has a significant effect on the collector efficiency

  9. Modelling and Control of Collecting Solar Energy for Heating Houses in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dehghan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a new model was developed and modified with a combined solar heating system which works with solar radiation and electricity. In order to model the system, the outdoor temperature of the location and solar irradiance has been considered. The case study of this research has been done in Porsgrunn City in the south of Norway. The building which was modelled in this research is a passive solar building which is able to store heat by using phase change materials, which are mounted on the floor and release the heat when the temperature of the house decreases. The model of the house was designed based on some assumptions about ambient temperature, solar collector size, transmitting lines length and some specific properties like air density and specific heat. The results of this research show that a solar heating system which is working with electricity can provide a sufficient temperature for the house in winter time. With using the phase change materials in order to have a passive solar building design, an improvement in the temperature inside the house was seen. Based on the simulation results which were achieved, a solar heating system which works with electricity can be an efficient system to heat the house, especially in the winter times.

  10. Experimental investigation of a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zheng, Hongfei; Ma, Xinglong; Kutlu, Cagri; Su, Yuehong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar desalination system heated directly by curved Fresnel lens concentrator. • Desalination system is based on the humidification-dehumidification process. • Four-stage multi-effect desalination system is proposed. • Condensation latent heat and residual heat in the brine are recycled and reutilized. • The maximum yield and GOR of the unit can reach 3.4 kg/h and 2.1, respectively. - Abstract: This study demonstrates a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator. In this novel system, the solar radiation is sent directly into desalination unit. That is to say, the solar receiver and the evaporator of the system are a whole in which the black fillers in seawater directly absorb the concentrated solar lights to heat the seawater film to produce the evaporation. The configuration and working processes of the proposed design are described in detail. In order to analyze its performance, a small solar desalination prototype unit incorporated with a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator was designed and built in our laboratory. Using three-stage isothermal tandem heating mode, the variation of the fresh water yield rate and the absorber temperature with time were measured experimentally and were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental results show that the maximum yield of the unit is about 3.4 kg/h, the maximum gained output ratio (GOR) is about 2.1, when the average intensity of solar radiation is about 867 W/m"2. This study indicates that the proposed system has the characteristics of compact structure and GOR high. It still can be improved when the design and operation are optimized further.

  11. Investigation of a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Sol&Træ A.m.b.a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility.......A solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from "Sol&Træ A.m.b.a." was tested in a laboratory test facility....

  12. Investigation of a low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply for Aidt Miljø A/S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1997-01-01

    A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility.......A low flow solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply from Aidt Miljø A/Swas tested in a laboratory test facility....

  13. The sizes of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tube Collectors with Heat Pipe area as a function of the share of solar system in the heat demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of solar collectors in Poland is still increasing. The correct location of the collectors and a relatively high density of solar radiation allow delivering heat even in spite of relatively low ambient temperature. Moreover, solar systems used for heating domestic heat water (DHW in summer allow nearly complete elimination of conventional energy sources (e.g. gas, coal. That is why more and more house owners in Poland decide to install solar system installations. In Poland the most common types of solar collectors are flat plate collectors (FPC and evacuated tube collectors with heat pipe (ETCHP; both were selected for the analysis. The heat demand related to the preparation of hot water, connected with the size of solar collectors’ area, has been determined. The analysis includes FPC and ETCHP and heat demand of less than 10 000 kWh/year. Simulations were performed with the Matlab software and using data from a typical meteorological year (TMY. In addition, a 126–year period of measurements of insolation for Krakow has been taken into account. The HDKR model (Hay, Davis, Klucher, Reindl was used for the calculation of solar radiation on the absorber surface. The monthly medium temperature of the absorber depends on the amount of solar system heat and on the heat demand. All the previously mentioned data were used to determine solar efficiency. Due to the fact that solar efficiency and solar system heat are connected, the calculations were made with the use of an iterative method. Additionally, the upper limit for monthly useful solar system heat is resulted from the heat demand and thus the authors prepared a model of statistical solar system heat deviations based on the Monte Carlo method. It has been found that an increase in the useful solar system heat in reference to the heat demand is associated with more than proportional increase in the sizes of the analyzed surfaces of solar collector types.

  14. Performance evaluation of a state-of-the-art solar air-heating system with auxiliary heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The system in Solar House 2 consists of 57.9 sq. m. of Solaron Series 300 Collectors, 10.3 cu. m. of pebble bed storage, domestic water preheating capability and a Carrier air-to-air heat pump as an auxiliary heater. Although the control subsystem was specially constructed to facilitate experimental changes and data reduction, the balance of the solar system was assembled with off-the-shelf components. Since all components of the system are commercially available the system is considered to be a state of the art solar air-heating system. The system design is one that is recommended for residential and small office buildings.

  15. Final Technical Report: Using Solid Particles as Heat Transfer Fluid for use in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Aaron [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hrenya, Christine [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In today’s industrial economy, energy consumption has never been higher. Over the last 15 years the US alone has consumed an average of nearly 100 quadrillion BTUs per year [21]. A need for clean and renewable energy sources has become quite apparent. The SunShot Initiative is an ambitious effort taken on by the United States Department of Energy that targets the development of solar energy that is cost-competitive with other methods for generating electricity. Specifically, this work is concerned with the development of concentrating solar power plants (CSPs) with granular media as the heat transfer fluid (HTF) from the solar receiver. Unfortunately, the prediction of heat transfer in multiphase flows is not well understood. For this reason, our aim is to fundamentally advance the understanding of multiphase heat transfer, particularly in gas-solid flows, while providing quantitative input for the design of a near black body receiver (NBB) that uses solid grains (like sand) as the HTF. Over the course of this three-year project, a wide variety of contributions have been made to advance the state-of-the art description for non-radiative heat transfer in dense, gas-solid systems. Comparisons between a state-of-the-art continuum heat transfer model and discrete element method (DEM) simulations have been drawn. The results of these comparisons brought to light the limitations of the continuum model due to inherent assumptions in its derivation. A new continuum model was then developed for heat transfer at a solid boundary by rigorously accounting for the most dominant non-radiative heat transfer mechanism (particle-fluid-wall conduction). The new model is shown to be in excellent agreement with DEM data and captures the dependence of heat transfer on particle size, a dependency that previous continuum models were not capable of. DEM and the new continuum model were then employed to model heat transfer in a variety of receiver geometries. The results provided crucial

  16. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-07-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  17. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  18. Solar district heating system `Schillerstrasse` in Schwaebisch-Gmuend; Solare Nahwaerme ``Schillerstrasse`` in Schwaebisch Gmuend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Mangold, D. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-12-31

    The construction project Schillerstrasse in Schwaebisch-Gmuend was planned and realised by the Siedlungswerk Stuttgart from 1993 until 1996. Like in earlier projects in Ravensburg and Koengen the Siedlungswerk wanted to use new technologies in the field of thermal insulation and heat supply at the construction of this new residential area in order to stay considerably below the former construction standards (WSVO 1982). One part of this energy concept is a large solar plant to support warm water supply. Good experience had been made with flat solar collectors at the three plants in Ravensburg and Koengen. In Schwaebisch-Gmuend vacuum pipe collectors were utilised for the first time. They were the only type of collectors which could be installed on the flat roofs without being visible from the ground. The solar-assisted district heating system was put in operation in May 1996. A new method that controls the system by measuring data acquisition enabled to measure and optimise the thermal performance of the plant. At the beginning of 1998 the plant was modified in order to improve the use of the solar plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bauvorhaben Schillerstrasse in Schwaebisch Gmuend wurde in den Jahren 1993-1996 vom Siedlungswerk Stuttgart geplant und gebaut. Aehnlich wie bei frueheren Projekten in Ravensburg und Koengen war es das Ziel des Siedlungswerks, in diesem Neubauvorhaben neue Wege beim Waermeschutz und bei der Waermeversorgung der Wohnanlage zu gehen, um den damaligen Baustandard (WSVO 1982) deutlich zu unterschreiten. Ein Element dieses Energiekonzepts ist eine grosse Solaranlage zur Unterstuetzung der Warmwasserbereitung. Nach guten Erfahrungen mit Flachkollektoren in den drei Anlagen in Ravensburg und Koengen wurden in Schwaebisch Gmuend zum ersten Mal Vakuum-Roehrenkollektoren eingesetzt. Fuer die Wahl der Vakuumroehren waren nicht zuletzt die stadtpolitischen Randbedingungen ausschlaggebend, die nur eine von unten nicht sichtbare Aufstellung auf dem

  19. Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. A.

    1991-12-01

    Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100 C currently exist within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100 to 350 C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several features relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long term planning horizon with well defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies that are different from those of other sectors, and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds.

  20. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    corporations and utilities. Several of these companies embarked on a concerted public misinformation campaign designed to downplay the potential of solar energy, and these actions undermined the development of the nascent solar industries. Solar heating equipment relied on federal stimulus to compete in the market. Yet, federal support for research and development, commercialization, and market facilitation withered under the Reagan administration. Solar occupied a point of convergence for several of Reagan's targets: solar represented Carter, represented big government intervention in the market, and represented environmentalism. Reagan's administration reduced solar funding, redirected and reorganized solar agencies, and repressed solar information. By the early 1980s, Carter's 20% solar goal was dead, and, as a result, the nation's efforts toward developing solar energy were set back decades.