WorldWideScience

Sample records for prototype penn-pet scanner

  1. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Yukio; Gomi, Shiho; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Hirobumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Aso, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Tochigi, Naobumi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT) scanners. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm × 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm × 16 or 0.5 mm × 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images fr...

  2. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Yukio; Gomi, Shiho; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Hirobumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Aso, Tomohiko; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Tsuta, Koji; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Tochigi, Naobumi; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Sugihara, Naoki; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Saito, Yasuo; Kazama, Masahiro; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Awai, Kazuo; Honda, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Naoya; Komoto, Daisuke; Moriya, Hiroshi; Oda, Seitaro; Oshiro, Yasuji; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Asamura, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT) scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT) scanners. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner. Results The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU]) was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001). The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001) for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures. Conclusion Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners. PMID:26352144

  3. Ultra-High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lung: Image Quality of a Prototype Scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Kakinuma

    Full Text Available The image noise and image quality of a prototype ultra-high-resolution computed tomography (U-HRCT scanner was evaluated and compared with those of conventional high-resolution CT (C-HRCT scanners.This study was approved by the institutional review board. A U-HRCT scanner prototype with 0.25 mm x 4 rows and operating at 120 mAs was used. The C-HRCT images were obtained using a 0.5 mm x 16 or 0.5 mm x 64 detector-row CT scanner operating at 150 mAs. Images from both scanners were reconstructed at 0.1-mm intervals; the slice thickness was 0.25 mm for the U-HRCT scanner and 0.5 mm for the C-HRCT scanners. For both scanners, the display field of view was 80 mm. The image noise of each scanner was evaluated using a phantom. U-HRCT and C-HRCT images of 53 images selected from 37 lung nodules were then observed and graded using a 5-point score by 10 board-certified thoracic radiologists. The images were presented to the observers randomly and in a blinded manner.The image noise for U-HRCT (100.87 ± 0.51 Hounsfield units [HU] was greater than that for C-HRCT (40.41 ± 0.52 HU; P < .0001. The image quality of U-HRCT was graded as superior to that of C-HRCT (P < .0001 for all of the following parameters that were examined: margins of subsolid and solid nodules, edges of solid components and pulmonary vessels in subsolid nodules, air bronchograms, pleural indentations, margins of pulmonary vessels, edges of bronchi, and interlobar fissures.Despite a larger image noise, the prototype U-HRCT scanner had a significantly better image quality than the C-HRCT scanners.

  4. Recent developments with a prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. G.; Jirasek, A.; Wells, D.

    2013-06-01

    The latest design of a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner is presented. A new beam creation system consists of a 635 nm laser diode module with variable, DC voltage-controlled beam intensity. A change in scanner alignment allows for the elimination of ring artefacts caused by data corruption that is spaced symmetrically across the detector array. These artefacts, as well as a pair of streaking artefacts caused by flask seams, are removed in sinogram space. A flask registration technique has been developed that allows for accurate, reproducible dosimeter placement. Protocol investigations with gel dosimeters have indicated the importance of: i) proper cooling techniques during gel manufacture, and ii) scanning the dosimeter while it is at room temperature. Latest reconstructions of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter are presented as an indicator of current system performance.

  5. Recent developments with a prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W G; Jirasek, A; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The latest design of a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner is presented. A new beam creation system consists of a 635 nm laser diode module with variable, DC voltage-controlled beam intensity. A change in scanner alignment allows for the elimination of ring artefacts caused by data corruption that is spaced symmetrically across the detector array. These artefacts, as well as a pair of streaking artefacts caused by flask seams, are removed in sinogram space. A flask registration technique has been developed that allows for accurate, reproducible dosimeter placement. Protocol investigations with gel dosimeters have indicated the importance of: i) proper cooling techniques during gel manufacture, and ii) scanning the dosimeter while it is at room temperature. Latest reconstructions of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter are presented as an indicator of current system performance.

  6. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed

  7. Mechanical Design and Evaluation of the MP-11-Like Wire Scanner Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Maestas, Alfred J.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Smith, Brian G.; Raybun, Joseph L.; Martinez, Jason P.; Sattler, F.D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    A wire scanner (WS) is a linearly actuated diagnostic device that uses fiber wires (such as Tungsten or Silicon Carbide) to obtain the position and intensity profile of the proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) particle accelerator. LANSCE will be installing approximately 86 new WS in the near future as part of the LANSCE Risk Mitigation project. These 86 new WS include the replacement of many current WS and some newly added to the current linear accelerator and other beam lines. The reason for the replacement and addition of WS is that many of the existing actuators have parts that are no longer readily available and are difficult to find, thus making maintenance very difficult. One of the main goals is to construct the new WS with as many commercially-available-off-the-shelf components as possible. In addition, faster beam scans (both mechanically and in term of data acquisition) are desired for better operation of the accelerator. This document outlines the mechanical design of the new MP-11-like WS prototype and compares it to a previously built and tested SNS-like WS prototype.

  8. Mechanical Design and Evaluation of the MP-11-Like Wire Scanner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jason P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    A wire scanner (WS) is a linearly actuated diagnostic device that uses fiber wires (such as Tungsten or Silicon Carbide) to obtain the position and intensity profile of the proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) particle accelerator. LANSCE will be installing approximately 86 new WS in the near future as part of the LANSCE Risk Mitigation project. These 86 new WS include the replacement of many current WS and some newly added to the current linear accelerator and other beam lines. The reason for the replacement and addition of WS is that many of the existing actuators have parts that are no longer readily available and are difficult to find, thus making maintenance very difficult. One of the main goals is to construct the new WS with as many commercially-available-off-the-shelf components as possible. In addition, faster beam scans (both mechanically and in term of data acquisition) are desired for better operation of the accelerator. This document outlines the mechanical design of the new MP-11-like WS prototype and compares it to a previously built and tested SNS-like WS prototype.

  9. A combined positron emission tomography (PET)- electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) system: initial evaluation of a prototype scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark; Stolin, Alexander V; Guggilapu, Priyaankadevi; Bobko, Andrey A; Khramtsov, Valery V; Tseytlin, Oxana; Raylman, Raymond R

    2018-04-20

    The advent of hybrid scanners, combining complementary modalities, has revolutionized imaging; enhancing clinical practice and biomedical research. In this project, we investigated the melding of two complementary, functional imaging methods: positron emission tomography (PET) and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI). The PET radiotracers can provide important information about cellular parameters, such as glucose metabolism. While EPR probes can provide assessment of tissue microenvironment, measuring parameters such as oxygenation and pH, for example. A combined PET/EPRI scanner has the promise to provide new insights not attainable with current imagers by simultaneous acquisition of multiple components of tissue microenvironments. In this investigation, a prototype system was created by combing two existing scanners, modified for simultaneous imaging. Specifically, a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based PET scanner ring designed as a portable scanner was combined with an EPRI scanner designed for the imaging of small animals. The ability of the system to obtain simultaneous images was assessed with a small phantom consisting of four cylinders containing both PET and EPR tracers. The resulting images demonstrated the ability to obtain contemporaneous PET and ERP images without cross-modality interference. The next step in this project is the construction of pre-clinical PET/EPRI scanner for multi-parametric assessment of physiologically important parameters of tissue microenvironments. . © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  10. A combined positron emission tomography (PET)-electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) system: initial evaluation of a prototype scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark; Stolin, Alexander V.; Guggilapu, Priyaankadevi; Bobko, Andrey A.; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Tseytlin, Oxana; Raylman, Raymond R.

    2018-05-01

    The advent of hybrid scanners, combining complementary modalities, has revolutionized the application of advanced imaging technology to clinical practice and biomedical research. In this project, we investigated the melding of two complementary, functional imaging methods: positron emission tomography (PET) and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI). PET radiotracers can provide important information about cellular parameters, such as glucose metabolism. While EPR probes can provide assessment of tissue microenvironment, measuring oxygenation and pH, for example. Therefore, a combined PET/EPRI scanner promises to provide new insights not attainable with current imagers by simultaneous acquisition of multiple components of tissue microenvironments. To explore the simultaneous acquisition of PET and EPR images, a prototype system was created by combining two existing scanners. Specifically, a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based PET scanner ring designed as a portable scanner was combined with an EPRI scanner designed for the imaging of small animals. The ability of the system to obtain simultaneous images was assessed with a small phantom consisting of four cylinders containing both a PET tracer and EPR spin probe. The resulting images demonstrated the ability to obtain contemporaneous PET and EPR images without cross-modality interference. Given the promising results from this initial investigation, the next step in this project is the construction of the next generation pre-clinical PET/EPRI scanner for multi-parametric assessment of physiologically-important parameters of tissue microenvironments.

  11. A study of artefacts in simultaneous PET and MR imaging using a prototype MR compatible PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.B.; Farahani, K.; Marsden, P.K.; Taylor, J.; Summers, P.E.; Williams, S.; Beech, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have assessed the possibility of artefacts that can arise in attempting to perform simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a small prototype MR compatible PET scanner (McPET). In these experiments, we examine MR images for any major artefacts or loss in image quality due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field, radiofrequency interference or susceptibility effects caused by operation of the PET system inside the MR scanner. In addition, possible artefacts in the PET images caused by the static and time-varying magnetic fields or radiofrequency interference from the MR system were investigated. Biological tissue and a T 2 -weighted spin echo sequence were used to examine susceptibility artefacts due to components of the McPET scanner (scintillator, optical fibres) situated in the MR field of view. A range of commonly used MR pulse sequences was studied while acquiring PET data to look for possible artefacts in either the PET or MR images. Other than a small loss in signal-to-noise using gradient echo sequences, there was no significant interaction between the two imaging systems. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging of simple phantoms was also carried out in different MR systems with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 T. The results of these studies demonstrate that it is possible to acquire PET and MR images simultaneously, without any significant artefacts or loss in image quality, using our prototype MR compatible PET scanner. (author)

  12. Performance assesment of pre-series beam wire scanner prototypes for the LHC injectors upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2243534

    The BEAM department (BE), is in charge of the development and operation of the accelerator components. Inside this department, the Beam Instrumentation group (BE-BI) works on the instruments that allows the operators and scientists to observe the accelerated beam and its characteristics. Finally, the Profile Measurement section (BE-BI-PM) deals with all the instruments capable of measuring the particles transverse distribution (often called transverse beam profile). Among the different systems developed and maintained by the section, the Beam Wire Scanners (BWS) are particularly relevant, because ensures the accurate beam profile measurements in all the circular accelerators and serves as calibration for other instruments. A total of 31 BWS are installed in the PS, PSB, SPS and LHC (see Fig. 1 to recognize the different accelerators). All of these instruments present a different design, depending on their location, and are not satisfying the HL-LHC needs. In order to harmonize the CERN’s BWS with a single d...

  13. Evaluation of New Inorganic Scintillators for Application in a Prototype Small Animal PET Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntner, C

    2003-01-01

    In the study of new pharmaceuticals as well as brain and genetic research, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a useful method. It has also recently entered the clinical domain in cardiology and particularly in oncology. Small animals such as mice, are often used to validate sophisticated models of human disease. High spatial resolution PET instrumentation is therefore necessary due to the reduced dimensions of the organs. Inorganic scintillators are employed in most of the diagnostic imaging devices. The ultimate performance of the PET scanner is tightly bound to the scintillation properties of the crystals. In the last years there has been an effort to develop new scintillating materials characterized by high light output, high detection efficiency and fast decay time. The most studied systems are mainly Ce3+-doped crystals such as LSO:Ce, YAP:Ce, LuAP:Ce, and recently also mixed Lux(RE3+)1-xAlO3:Ce crystals. These crystals are very attractive for medical application because of their high density (with th...

  14. An X-ray scanner prototype based on a novel hybrid gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a new type of hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall (few μm) edge- illuminated lead glass capillary plate (acting as a converter of X-rays photons to primary electrons) combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0° to 90°. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon's energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between a few and 40%. The position resolution achieved was 50 μm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon's energy or gas mixture. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.

  15. SU-F-I-54: Spatial Resolution Studies in Proton CT Using a Phase-II Prototype Head Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plautz, Tia E.; Johnson, R. P.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, R. F.; Schulte, R. W. [Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Piersimoni, P. [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Giacometti, V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the pre-clinical (phase II) head scanner developed for proton computed tomography (pCT) by the pCT collaboration. To evaluate the spatial resolution achievable by this system. Methods: Our phase II proton CT scanner prototype consists of two silicon telescopes that track individual protons upstream and downstream from a phantom, and a 5-stage scintillation detector that measures a combination of the residual energy and range of the proton. Residual energy is converted to water equivalent path length (WEPL) of the protons in the scanned object. The set of WEPL values and associated paths of protons passing through the object over a 360° angular scan is processed by an iterative parallelizable reconstruction algorithm that runs on GP-GPU hardware. A custom edge phantom composed of water-equivalent polymer and tissue-equivalent material inserts was constructed. The phantom was first simulated in Geant4 and then built to perform experimental beam tests with 200 MeV protons at the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center. The oversampling method was used to construct radial and azimuthal edge spread functions and modulation transfer functions. The spatial resolution was defined by the 10% point of the modulation transfer function in units of lp/cm. Results: The spatial resolution of the image was found to be strongly correlated with the radial position of the insert but independent of the relative stopping power of the insert. The spatial resolution varies between roughly 4 and 6 lp/cm in both the the radial and azimuthal directions depending on the radial displacement of the edge. Conclusion: The amount of image degradation due to our detector system is small compared with the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering, pixelation of the image and the reconstruction algorithm. Improvements in reconstruction will be made in order to achieve the theoretical limits of spatial resolution.

  16. A prototype PET/SPECT/X-rays scanner dedicated for whole body small animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchota, Maritina; Georgiou, Maria; Fysikopoulos, Eleftherios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini; Mikropoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Kagadis, George; Loudos, George

    2017-01-01

    To present a prototype tri-modal imaging system, consisting of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPET), a positron emission tomography (PET), and a computed tomography (CT) subsystem, evaluated in planar mode. The subsystems are mounted on a rotating gantry, so as to be able to allow tomographic imaging in the future. The system, designed and constructed by our group, allows whole body mouse imaging of competent performance and is currently, to the best of our knowledge, unequaled in a national and regional level. The SPET camera is based on two Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT), coupled to a pixilated Sodium Iodide activated with Thallium (NaI(Tl)) scintillator, having an active area of 5x10cm 2 . The dual head PET camera is also based on two pairs of PSPMT, coupled to pixelated berillium germanium oxide (BGO) scintillators, having an active area of 5x10cm 2 . The X-rays system consists of a micro focus X-rays tube and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) detector, having an active area of 12x12cm 2 . The scintigraphic mode has a spatial resolution of 1.88mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and a sensitivity of 107.5cpm/0.037MBq at the collimator surface. The coincidence PET mode has an average spatial resolution of 3.5mm (FWHM) and a peak sensitivity of 29.9cpm/0.037MBq. The X-rays spatial resolution is 3.5lp/mm and the contrast discrimination function value is lower than 2%. A compact tri-modal system was successfully built and evaluated for planar mode operation. The system has an efficient performance, allowing accurate and informative anatomical and functional imaging, as well as semi-quantitative results. Compared to other available systems, it provides a moderate but comparable performance, at a fraction of the cost and complexity. It is fully open, scalable and its main purpose is to support groups on a national and regional level and provide an open technological platform to study different detector components and

  17. Contrast-enhanced near-infrared laser mammography with a prototype breast scanner: feasibility study with tissue phantoms and preliminary results of imaging experimental tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, T; Hochmuth, A; Malich, A; Reichenbach, J R; Fleck, M; Kaiser, W A

    2001-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical mammography without contrast has a low specificity. The application of optical contrast medium may improve the performance. The concentration-dependent detectability of a new NIR contrast medium was determined with a prototype optical breast scanner. In vivo imaging of experimental tumors was performed. The NIR contrast agent NIR96010 is a newly synthesized, hydrophilic contrast agent for NIR mammography. A concentration-dependent contrast resolution was determined for tissue phantoms consisting of whole milk powder and gelatin. A central part of the phantoms measuring 2 x 2 cm2 without contrast was replaced with phantom material containing 1 micromol/L to 25 nmol/L NIR96010. The composite phantoms were measured with a prototype NIR breast scanner with lasers of lambda1 = 785 nm and lambda2 = 850 nm wavelength. Intensity profiles and standard deviations of the transmission signal in areas with and without contrast were determined by linear fit procedures. Signal-to-noise ratios and spatial resolution as a function of contrast concentration were determined. Near-infrared imaging of five tumor-bearing SCID mice (MX1 breast adenocarcinoma, tumor diameter 5-10 mm) was performed before and after intravenous application of 2 micromol/kg NIR96010. Spectrometry showed an absorption maximum of the contrast agent at 755 nm. No spectral shifts occurred in protein-containing solution. Signal-to-noise ratio in the transmission intensity profiles ranged from 1.1 at 25 nmol/L contrast to 28 at 1 micromol/L. At concentrations contrast-enhanced images, with better delineation after contrast administration. In postcontrast absorption profiles, a 44.1% +/- 11.3% greater absorption increase was seen in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue. The laser wavelength lambda1 of the prototype laser mammography device was not situated at maximum absorption of the contrast agent NIR96010 but on the descending shoulder of the absorption spectrum. This implies a 20

  18. Development of a prototype PET scanner with depth-of-interaction measurement using solid-state photomultiplier arrays and parallel readout electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lan, Kejian A; Bircher, Chad; Lou, Kai; Deng, Zhi

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we developed a prototype animal PET by applying several novel technologies to use solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) and improve imaging performance. Each PET detector has an 8 × 8 array of about 1.9 × 1.9 × 30.0 mm(3) lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scintillators, with each end optically connected to an SSPM array (16 channels in a 4 × 4 matrix) through a light guide to enable continuous DOI measurement. Each SSPM has an active area of about 3 × 3 mm(2), and its output is read by a custom-developed application-specific integrated circuit to directly convert analogue signals to digital timing pulses that encode the interaction information. These pulses are transferred to and are decoded by a field-programmable gate array-based time-to-digital convertor for coincident event selection and data acquisition. The independent readout of each SSPM and the parallel signal process can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and enable the use of flexible algorithms for different data processes. The prototype PET consists of two rotating detector panels on a portable gantry with four detectors in each panel to provide 16 mm axial and variable transaxial field-of-view (FOV) sizes. List-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction was implemented. The measured mean energy, coincidence timing and DOI resolution for a crystal were about 17.6%, 2.8 ns and 5.6 mm, respectively. The measured transaxial resolutions at the center of the FOV were 2.0 mm and 2.3 mm for images reconstructed with and without DOI, respectively. In addition, the resolutions across the FOV with DOI were substantially better than those without DOI. The quality of PET images of both a hot-rod phantom and mouse acquired with DOI was much higher than that of images obtained without DOI. This study demonstrates that SSPM arrays and advanced readout/processing electronics can be used to develop a practical DOI

  19. Scintillation scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrbrodt, A.W.; Mog, W.F.; Brunnett, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scintillation scanner having a visual image producing means coupled through a lost motion connection to the boom which supports the scintillation detector is described. The lost motion connection is adjustable to compensate for such delays as may occur between sensing and recording scintillations. 13 claims, 5 figures

  20. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  1. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  2. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  3. Use of Radioactive Ion Beams for Biomedical Research 2. in-vivo dosimetry using positron emitting rare earth isotopes with the rotating prototype PET scanner at the Geneva Cantonal Hospital

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS331 \\\\ \\\\ The use of radioactive metal ions (such as $^{90}$Y, $^{153}$Sm or $^{186}$Re) in cancer therapy has made some progress, but has been hampered by factors that could be addressed at CERN with a greater likelihood of success than at any other installation in the world. The present proposal seeks to use the unique advantage of CERN ISOLDE to get round these problems together with the PET scanners at the Cantonal Hospital Geneva (PET~=~positron emission tomography). Radioisotope production by spallation at ISOLDE makes available a complete range of isotopes having as complete a diversity of types and energy of radiation, of half-life, and of ionic properties as one would wish. Among these isotopes several positron-emitters having clinical relevance are available.\\\\ \\\\Some free rare earth chelatas are used presently in palliation of painful bone metastases. Curative effects are not able for the moment with this kind of radiopharmaceuticals. More and better data on the biokinetics and bio-distribution...

  4. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, C.; Ramusino, A.C.A. Cotta; Malaguti, R.; Guerra, A. Del; Domenico, G. Di; Zavattini, G.

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper

  5. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  6. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  7. NMR-CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, Katsumi; Sato, Kozo; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Masataka.

    1983-01-01

    A brief explanation is made on the imaging methods for a practical diagnostic NMR-CT scanner : A whole-body NMR-CT scanner utilizing a resistive magnet has been developed by Toshiba in cooperation with the Institute for Solid State Physics, the University of Tokyo. Typical NMR-CT images of volunteers and patients obtained in the clinical experiments using this device are presented. Detailed specifications are also shown about the practical NMR-CTs which are to be put on the market after obtaining the government approval. (author)

  8. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  9. Scanner calibration revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozhitkov Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2. reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Methods Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. Results We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Conclusions Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  10. Efficient system modeling for a small animal PET scanner with tapered DOI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yongfeng; Qi, Jinyi; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    A prototype small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for mouse brain imaging has been developed at UC Davis. The new scanner uses tapered detector arrays with depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this paper, we present an efficient system model for the tapered PET scanner using matrix factorization and a virtual scanner geometry. The factored system matrix mainly consists of two components: a sinogram blurring matrix and a geometrical matrix. The geometric matrix is based on a virtual scanner geometry. The sinogram blurring matrix is estimated by matrix factorization. We investigate the performance of different virtual scanner geometries. Both simulation study and real data experiments are performed in the fully 3D mode to study the image quality under different system models. The results indicate that the proposed matrix factorization can maintain image quality while substantially reduce the image reconstruction time and system matrix storage cost. The proposed method can be also applied to other PET scanners with DOI measurement. (paper)

  11. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  12. A Cost Effective Multi-Spectral Scanner for Natural Gas Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudaya Sivathanu; Jongmook Lim; Vinoo Narayanan; Seonghyeon Park

    2005-12-07

    The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a cost effective, multi-spectral scanner for natural gas leak detection in transmission and distribution pipelines. During the first year of the project, a laboratory version of the multi-spectral scanner was designed, fabricated, and tested at EnUrga Inc. The multi-spectral scanner was also evaluated using a blind Department of Energy study at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The performance of the scanner was inconsistent during the blind study. However, most of the leaks were outside the view of the multi-spectral scanner that was developed during the first year of the project. Therefore, a definite evaluation of the capability of the scanner was not obtained. Despite the results, sufficient number of plumes was detected fully confirming the feasibility of the multi-spectral scanner. During the second year, the optical design of the scanner was changed to improve the sensitivity of the system. Laboratory tests show that the system can reliably detect small leaks (20 SCFH) at 30 to 50 feet. A prototype scanner was built and evaluated during the second year of the project. Only laboratory evaluations were completed during the second year. The laboratory evaluations show the feasibility of using the scanner to determine natural gas pipeline leaks. Further field evaluations and optimization of the scanner are required before commercialization of the scanner can be initiated.

  13. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.E.; Rainey, S.; Stevens, R.J.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  14. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.E. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Rainey, S. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Stevens, R.J. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sowerby, B.D. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: brian.sowerby@csiro.au; Tickner, J.R. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005.

  15. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  16. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  17. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  18. Whole body line scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A bar-shaped scintillator converts incident collimated gamma rays to light pulses which are detected by a row of photoelectric tubes positioned along the output face of the scintillator wherein each tube has a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to the output of phototubes develops the scintillation event x-axis position coordinate electrical signal with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as possible to obtain reduced distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution. A mechanical drive of the scanner results in an image of the gamma ray source being formed by sequencing the developed scintillation position coordinate signals in the y-axis dimension

  19. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  20. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  1. The cobalt-60 container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jigang, A.; Liye, Z.; Yisi, L.; Haifeng, W.; Zhifang, W.; Liqiang, W.; Yuanshi, Z.; Xincheng, X.; Furong, L.; Baozeng, G.; Chunfa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) has successfully designed and constructed a container (cargo) scanner, which uses cobalt-60 of 100-300 Ci as radiation source. The following performances of the Cobalt-60 container scanner have been achieved at INET: a) IQI (Image Quality Indicator) - 2.5% behind 100 mm of steel; b) CI (Contrast Indicator) - 0.7% behind 100 mm of steel; c) SP (Steel Penetration) - 240 mm of steel; d) Maximum Dose per Scanning - 0.02mGy; e) Throughput - twenty 40-foot containers per hour. These performances are equal or similar to those of the accelerator scanners. Besides these nice enough inspection properties, the Cobalt-60 scanner possesses many other special features which are better than accelerator scanners: a) cheap price - it will be only or two tenths of the accelerator scanner's; b) low radiation intensity - the radiation protection problem is much easier to solve and a lot of money can be saved on the radiation shielding building; c) much smaller area for installation and operation; d) simple operation and convenient maintenance; e) high reliability and stability. The Cobalt-60 container (or cargo) scanner is satisfied for boundary customs, seaports, airports and railway stations etc. Because of the nice special features said above, it is more suitable to be applied widely. Its high properties and low price will make it have much better application prospects

  2. Side scanner for supermarkets: a new scanner design standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles K.; Cheng, J. K.

    1996-09-01

    High speed UPC bar code has become a standard mode of data capture for supermarkets in the US, Europe, and Japan. The influence of the ergonomics community on the design of the scanner is evident. During the past decade the ergonomic issues of cashier in check-outs has led to occupational hand-wrist cumulative trauma disorders, in most cases causing carpal tunnel syndrome, a permanent hand injury. In this paper, the design of a side scanner to resolve the issues is discussed. The complex optical module and the sensor for aforesaid side scanner is described. The ergonomic advantages offer the old counter mounted vertical scanner has been experimentally proved by the industrial funded study at an independent university.

  3. A 3D airborne ultrasound scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capineri, L.; Masotti, L.; Rocchi, S.

    1998-06-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of an ultrasound scanner designed to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles of objects in air. There are many industrial applications in which it is important to obtain quickly and accurately the digital reconstruction of solid objects with contactless methods. The final aim of this project was the profile reconstruction of shoe lasts in order to eliminate the mechanical tracers from the reproduction process of shoe prototypes. The feasibility of an ultrasonic scanner was investigated in laboratory conditions on wooden test objects with axial symmetry. A bistatic system based on five airborne polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) transducers was mechanically moved to emulate a cylindrical array transducer that can host objects of maximum width and height 20 cm and 40 cm respectively. The object reconstruction was based on a simplified version of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT): the time of flight (TOF) of the first in time echo for each receiving transducer was taken into account, a coarse spatial sampling of the ultrasonic field reflected on the array transducer was delivered and the reconstruction algorithm was based on the ellipsoidal backprojection. Measurements on a wooden cone section provided submillimetre accuracy in a controlled environment.

  4. Nogle muligheder i scanner data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    2000-01-01

    I artiklen gives en diskussion af en række af de muligheder for effektivisering af marketingaktiviteter, der er til stede for såvel mærkevareudbyder som detaillist, ved udnyttelse af information fra scanner data......I artiklen gives en diskussion af en række af de muligheder for effektivisering af marketingaktiviteter, der er til stede for såvel mærkevareudbyder som detaillist, ved udnyttelse af information fra scanner data...

  5. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  6. Experimental developments in dedicated scanners for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Chiara

    2001-01-01

    The thesis describes a prototype of a new read out electronics developed for the YAPPET small animal PET tomograph at the Physics Laboratory of the University of Ferrara. The purpose of the new electronics was to make the YAPPET scanner easier to use and more suitable for duplication at other research institutes. The results of tests of the new electronics over a 3 year period are presented. The new electronics prototype attained the same performance as the present YAPPET electronics in energy, position, and time measurements. In addition, a significant improvement in count rate capability is now being studied. The second major component of this thesis is a description of the development of a new scanner prototype incorporating a PET detection system based on YAP:Ce scintillator matrix crystals and wave length shifting (WLS) fibers. Two ribbons of WLS fibers are mounted on the opposite sides of the scintillator matrix in order to read out the columns and the rows of the matrix and recognize the interaction point XY position. The thesis describes the investigation of the materials and methods to be used in this new design. The first tests with the new prototype detector are described in detail: the main result of these preliminary measurements is the evaluation of the light yield of the system which is a signal of about 10 photoelectrons on the detector for 511 keV photoelectric interactions. The new scanner design uses the YAPPET basic principles, but it should have improved performance with applicability to other fields such as scinti-mammography. Copies of this thesis can be obtained from the Department of Physics of the University of Pisa or the author

  7. Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Marco; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Katoh, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Gietema, H.A.; Prokop, Mathias; Czech, Andre; Diederich, Stefan; Bakai, Annemarie; Salganicoff, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of an automated volumetry software for phantom pulmonary nodules across various 16-slice multislice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners from different vendors. A lung phantom containing five different nodule categories (intraparenchymal, around a vessel, vessel attached, pleural, and attached to the pleura), with each category comprised of 7-9 nodules (total, n = 40) of varying sizes (diameter 3-10 mm; volume 6.62 mm 3 -525 mm 3 ), was scanned with four different 16-slice MSCT scanners (Siemens, GE, Philips, Toshiba). Routine and low-dose chest protocols with thin and thick collimations were applied. The data from all scanners were used for further analysis using a dedicated prototype volumetry software. Absolute percentage volume errors (APE) were calculated and compared. The mean APE for all nodules was 8.4% (±7.7%) for data acquired with the 16-slice Siemens scanner, 14.3% (±11.1%) for the GE scanner, 9.7% (±9.6%) for the Philips scanner and 7.5% (±7.2%) for the Toshiba scanner, respectively. The lowest APEs were found within the diameter size range of 5-10 mm and volumes >66 mm 3 . Nodule volumetry is accurate with a reasonable volume error in data from different scanner vendors. This may have an important impact for intraindividual follow-up studies. (orig.)

  8. Radiographic scanners and shutter mechanisms in CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, A.B.; Kuwik, J.J.; Taylor, S.K.; Covic, J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim relates especially to the design of a shutter mechanism in a CT scanner having a rotatable source of radiation and a series of stationary radiation detectors coplanar with the path of the source and spaced about the axis of rotation of the source, and only partially encircling the path of the source. (U.K.)

  9. Compensation strategies for PET scanners with unconventional scanner geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gundlich, B; Oehler, M

    2006-01-01

    The small animal PET scanner ClearPET®Neuro, developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH in cooperation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CERN), represents scanners with an unconventional geometry: due to axial and transaxial detector gaps ClearPet®Neuro delivers inhomogeneous sinograms with missing data. When filtered backprojection (FBP) or Fourier rebinning (FORE) are applied, strong geometrical artifacts appear in the images. In this contribution we present a method that takes the geometrical sensitivity into account and converts the measured sinograms into homogeneous and complete data. By this means artifactfree images are achieved using FBP or FORE. Besides an advantageous measurement setup that reduces inhomogeneities and data gaps in the sinograms, a modification of the measured sinograms is necessary. This modification includes two steps: a geometrical normalization and corrections for missing data. To normalize the measured sinograms, computed sinograms are used that describe the geometric...

  10. NMR of geophysical drill cores with a mobile Halbach scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talnishnikh, E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to a mobile NMR with an improved Halbach scanner. This is a lightweight tube-shaped magnet with sensitive volume larger and a homogeneity of the magnetic field higher than the previous prototype version. The improved Halbach scanner is used for analysis of water-saturated drill cores and plugs with diameters up to 60 mm. To provide the analysis, the standard 1D technique with the CPMG sequence as well as 2D correlation experiments were successfully applied and adapted to study properties of fluid-saturated sediments. Afterwards the Halbach scanner was calibrated to fast non-destructive measurements of porosity, relaxation time distributions, and estimation of permeability. These properties can be calculated directly from the NMR data using the developed methodology. Any independent measurements of these properties with other methods are not needed. One of the main results of this work is the development of a new NMR on-line core scanner for measurements of porosity in long cylindrical and semi cylindrical drill cores. Also dedicated software was written to operate the NMR on-line core scanner. The physical background of this work is the study of the diffusion influence on transverse relaxation. The diffusion effect in the presence of internal gradients in porous media was probed by 1D and 2D experiments. The transverse relaxation time distributions obtained from 1D and from 2D experiments are comparable but different in fine details. Two new methodologies were developed based on the results of this study. First is the methodology quantifying the influence of diffusion in the internal gradients of water-saturated sediments on transverse relaxation from 2D correlation experiments. The second one is the correction of the permeability estimation from the NMR data taking in account the influence of the diffusion. Furthermore, PFG NMR technique was used to study restricted diffusion in the same kind of samples. Preliminary results are reported

  11. NMR of geophysical drill cores with a mobile Halbach scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talnishnikh, E.

    2007-08-21

    This thesis is devoted to a mobile NMR with an improved Halbach scanner. This is a lightweight tube-shaped magnet with sensitive volume larger and a homogeneity of the magnetic field higher than the previous prototype version. The improved Halbach scanner is used for analysis of water-saturated drill cores and plugs with diameters up to 60 mm. To provide the analysis, the standard 1D technique with the CPMG sequence as well as 2D correlation experiments were successfully applied and adapted to study properties of fluid-saturated sediments. Afterwards the Halbach scanner was calibrated to fast non-destructive measurements of porosity, relaxation time distributions, and estimation of permeability. These properties can be calculated directly from the NMR data using the developed methodology. Any independent measurements of these properties with other methods are not needed. One of the main results of this work is the development of a new NMR on-line core scanner for measurements of porosity in long cylindrical and semi cylindrical drill cores. Also dedicated software was written to operate the NMR on-line core scanner. The physical background of this work is the study of the diffusion influence on transverse relaxation. The diffusion effect in the presence of internal gradients in porous media was probed by 1D and 2D experiments. The transverse relaxation time distributions obtained from 1D and from 2D experiments are comparable but different in fine details. Two new methodologies were developed based on the results of this study. First is the methodology quantifying the influence of diffusion in the internal gradients of water-saturated sediments on transverse relaxation from 2D correlation experiments. The second one is the correction of the permeability estimation from the NMR data taking in account the influence of the diffusion. Furthermore, PFG NMR technique was used to study restricted diffusion in the same kind of samples. Preliminary results are reported

  12. Monte Carlo dose calibration in CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Ramasubramanian, V.; Subbaiah, K.V.; Thayalan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) scanner is a high radiation imaging modality compared to radiography. The dose from a CT examination can vary greatly depending on the particular CT scanner used, the area of the body examined, and the operating parameters of the scan. CT is a major contributor to collective effective dose in diagnostic radiology. Apart from the clinical benefits, the widespread use of multislice scanner is increasing radiation level to patient in comparison with conventional CT scanner. So, it becomes necessary to increase awareness about the CT scanner. (author)

  13. Geometric calibration between PET scanner and structured light scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    Head movements degrade the image quality of high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) brain studies through blurring and artifacts. Manny image reconstruction methods allows for motion correction if the head position is tracked continuously during the study. Our method for motion tracking...... is a structured light scanner placed just above the patient tunnel on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT, Siemens). It continuously registers point clouds of a part of the patient's face. The relative motion is estimated as the rigid transformation between frames. A geometric calibration between...

  14. Complete-arch accuracy of intraoral scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treesh, Joshua C; Liacouras, Peter C; Taft, Robert M; Brooks, Daniel I; Raiciulescu, Sorana; Ellert, Daniel O; Grant, Gerald T; Ye, Ling

    2018-04-30

    Intraoral scanners have shown varied results in complete-arch applications. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the complete-arch accuracy of 4 intraoral scanners based on trueness and precision measurements compared with a known reference (trueness) and with each other (precision). Four intraoral scanners were evaluated: CEREC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam, TRIOS Color, and Carestream CS 3500. A complete-arch reference cast was created and printed using a 3-dimensional dental cast printer with photopolymer resin. The reference cast was digitized using a laboratory-based white light 3-dimensional scanner. The printed reference cast was scanned 10 times with each intraoral scanner. The digital standard tessellation language (STL) files from each scanner were then registered to the reference file and compared with differences in trueness and precision using a 3-dimensional modeling software. Additionally, scanning time was recorded for each scan performed. The Wilcoxon signed rank, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests were used to detect differences for trueness, precision, and scanning time (α=.05). Carestream CS 3500 had the lowest overall trueness and precision compared with Bluecam and TRIOS Color. The fourth scanner, Omnicam, had intermediate trueness and precision. All of the scanners tended to underestimate the size of the reference file, with exception of the Carestream CS 3500, which was more variable. Based on visual inspection of the color rendering of signed differences, the greatest amount of error tended to be in the posterior aspects of the arch, with local errors exceeding 100 μm for all scans. The single capture scanner Carestream CS 3500 had the overall longest scan times and was significantly slower than the continuous capture scanners TRIOS Color and Omnicam. Significant differences in both trueness and precision were found among the scanners. Scan times of the continuous capture scanners were faster than the single capture scanners

  15. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  16. Gamma scanner conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will include several stations for the nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels. One of these stations will be the gamma scanner which will be employed to detect gamma radiation from the irradiated fuel pins. The conceptual design of the gamma scan station is described. The gamma scanner will use a Standard Exam Stage (SES) as a positioner and transport mechanism for the fuel pins which it will obtain from a magazine. A pin guide mechanism mounted on the face of the collimator will assure that the fuel pins remain in front of the collimator during scanning. The collimator has remotely adjustable tungsten slits and can be manually rotated to align the slit at various angles. A shielded detector cart located in the operating corridor holds an intrinsic germanium detector and associated sodium-iodide anticoincidence detector. The electronics associated with the counting system consist of standard NIM modules to process the detector signals and a stand-alone multichannel analyzer (MCA) for counting data accumulation. Data from the MCA are bussed to the station computer for analysis and storage on magnetic tape. The station computer controls the collimator, the MCA, a source positioner and the SES through CAMAC-based interface hardware. Most of the electronic hardware is commercially available but some interfaces will require development. Conceptual drawings are included for mechanical hardware that must be designed and fabricated

  17. Experience with a fuel rod enrichment scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, R.N.; Pettus, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    This enrichment scanner views all fuel rods produced at B and W's Commercial Nuclear Fuel Plant. The scanner design is derived from the PAPAS System reported by R. A. Forster, H. D. Menlove, and their associates at Los Alamos. The spatial resolution of the system and smoothing of the data are discussed in detail. The cost-effectiveness of multi-detector versus single detector scanners of this general design is also discussed

  18. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  19. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  20. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  1. Robotic Prostate Biopsy in Closed MRI Scanner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    .... This work enables prostate brachytherapy and biopsy procedures in standard high-field diagnostic MRI scanners through the development of a robotic needle placement device specifically designed...

  2. Multi-parameter CAMAC compatible ADC scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, G J; Ingebretsen, F [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.; Johnsen, P J [Norsk Data A.S., Box 163, Oekern, Oslo 5, Norway

    1979-02-15

    A fast ADC scanner for multi-parameter nuclear physics experiments is described. The scanner is based on a standard CAMAC crate, and data from several different experiments can be handled simultaneously through a direct memory access (DMA) channel. The implementation on a PDP-7 computer is outlined.

  3. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  4. A stereotaxic frame and computer software for use with CT body scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.; Roberts, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype stereotaxic frame for use in conjunction with CT body scanners has been developed and is illustrated. Such a frame may be rigidly attached to the patient's cranium prior to CT scanning and kept attached until completion of the stereotaxic procedure. The frame produces landmarks in each CT slice which allow the CT scanner computer to calculate the spatial orientation of the slice with respect to the frame. Thus the computer may transfer information from the CT slice coordinate system to the frame coordinate system. Using this type of stereotaxic frame it is possible to complete the stereotaxic procedure either in the CT scanner or in the neurosurgery operating suite. In a series of 20 experiments with a target phantom the tip of the probe was placed at a target point with a mean error of 2.0 millimeters. (Auth.)

  5. Risks of exposure to ionizing and millimeter-wave radiation from airport whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, John E

    2012-06-01

    Considerable public concern has been expressed around the world about the radiation risks posed by the backscatter (ionizing radiation) and millimeter-wave (nonionizing radiation) whole-body scanners that have been deployed at many airports. The backscatter and millimeter-wave scanners currently deployed in the U.S. almost certainly pose negligible radiation risks if used as intended, but their safety is difficult-to-impossible to prove using publicly accessible data. The scanners are widely disliked and often feared, which is a problem made worse by what appears to be a veil of secrecy that covers their specifications and dosimetry. Therefore, for these and future similar technologies to gain wide acceptance, more openness is needed, as is independent review and regulation. Publicly accessible, and preferably peer-reviewed evidence is needed that the deployed units (not just the prototypes) meet widely-accepted safety standards. It is also critical that risk-perception issues be handled more competently.

  6. Design of a high-precision fast wire scanner for the SPS at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Herranz Alvarez, J; Koujili, M; Samuelsson, S; Sirvent, J-L

    2012-01-01

    Studies are going on of a new wire scanner concept. All moving parts are inside the beam vacuum and it is specified for use in all the machines across the CERN accelerator complex. Key components have been developed and tested. Work is now focussing on the installation of a prototype for test in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator. This article presents the specification of the device and constraints on the design for integration in the different accelerators at CERN. The design issues of the mechanical components are discussed and optimisation work shown. Finally, the prototype design, integrating the several components into the vacuum tank is presented.

  7. Development of ultrasonic testing scanner for NPP steam generator tubes (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. I.; Huh, H.

    1998-12-01

    Testing tubes are designed and fabricated to investigate the optimum test conditions through the various experiments. The proto-type P/C-controlled automatic rotating scanner is fabricated to obtain the ultrasonic data automatically from test tubes. It was attempted to visualize the shape of defects presented inside the specimen using peak amplitude at each point. However, further research works will be needed to be applied at the plant site as a more reliable technology

  8. Three-dimensional rectilinear scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, W.J.; Strange, D.R.; Miller, A.

    1976-01-01

    A rectilinear scanner for detecting radiation in a plurality of channels utilizing a collimator is described. Each of the channels receives information from a different portion of the collimator. Information separately received is separately messaged and later collated to present a common image. The information is processed by apparatus in a data processing system. This system has means for messaging analog signals corresponding to gamma radiation counts and converting such analog signals to digital signals. This system has means interfacing the digital signals into an address register that communicates directly via data busses to core memory of a central processing unit by cycle stealing and deriving clinically significant information by computation on the resultant digital data. This system has means for storing, retrieving, and displaying the resultant digital data and the resultant derivations therefrom collectively. This is done in such a manner as to allow time sequencing of the aforementioned operations such that the aforementioned operations can be interleaved on a real time basis. 13 claims, 44 figures

  9. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline

  10. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline.

  11. Imagining the prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten, M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the participants with the prototype and how they explicate the points they make in the discussion with or without making use of the prototype. Three techniques for explicating design issues that exploit the proto...

  12. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  13. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  14. Product development of Indian cargo scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    A cargo scanner is required for nonintrusive screening of suspected cargo containers in trade, using high energy X-ray, to detect any mis-declarations, contraband goods concealment or hidden ammunition or explosives. The cargo scanners help authorities to process large number of suspected cargo with a high level of confidence with other additional benefit of faster clearance, minimised intrusive inspection and generating secured digital record of the process. BARC is in process of developing Indian Cargo Scanner with indigenous X-ray source. Proof of concept and conformance of the results to the international standards has been demonstrated in laboratory. Full scale equipment named as Portal scanner shall be demonstrated at Gamma field Trombay in year 2017. Subsequently the technology transfer may be done to a suitable Indian vendor

  15. A Cross-Platform Smartphone Brain Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Stahlhut, Carsten

    We describe a smartphone brain scanner with a low-costwireless 14-channel Emotiv EEG neuroheadset interfacingwith multiple mobile devices. This personal informaticssystem enables minimally invasive and continuouscapturing of brain imaging data in natural settings. Thesystem applies an inverse...

  16. Usage of Microsoft Kinect for augmented prototyping speed-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Landa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical model is a common tool for testing of the product features during the design process. This model is usually made of clay or plastic because of the modifiability of these materials. Therefore, the designer could easily adjust the model shape to enhance the look or ergonomics of the product. Nowadays, some companies use augmented reality to enhance their design process. This concept is called augmented prototyping. Common approach uses artificial markers to augment the product prototype by digital 3D models. These 3D models that are shown on the markers positions can represent e.g. car spare parts such as different lights, wheels, spoiler etc. This allows the designer interactively change the look of the physical model. Further, it is also necessary to transfer physical adjustments made on the model surface back to the computer digital model. Well-known tool for this purpose a professional 3D scanner. Nevertheless, the cost of such scanner is substantial. Therefore, we focused on different solution – a motion capture device Microsoft Kinect that is used for computer games. This article outlines a new augmented prototyping approach that directly updates the digital model during the design process using Kinect depth camera. This solution is a cost effective alternative to the professional 3D scanners. Our article describes especially how depth data can be obtained by the Kinect and also provides an evaluation of depth measurement precision.

  17. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  18. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  19. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  20. EPCiR prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage.......A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage....

  1. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  2. Neurosurgical operating computerized tomographic scanner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudera, Hiroshi; Sugita, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Kimishima, Sakae; Yoshida, Hisashi.

    1988-01-01

    A neurosurgical operating computerized tomography scanner system is presented. This system has been developed for obtaining intra- and postoperative CT images in the operating room. A TCT-300 scanner (manufactured by the Toshiba Co., Tokyo) is placed in the operating room. The realization of a true intraoperative CT image requires certain improvements in the CT scanner and operating table. To adjust the axis of the co-ordinates of the motor system of the MST-7000 microsurgical operating table (manufactured by the Mizuho Ika Co., Tokyo) to the CT scanner, we have designed an interface and a precise motor system so that the computer of the CT scanner can directly control the movement of the operating table. Furthermore, a new head-fixation system has been designed for producing artifact-free intraoperative CT images. The head-pins of the head-fixation system are made of carbon-fiber bars and titanium tips. A simulation study of the total system in the operating room with the CT scanner, operating table, and head holder using a skull model yielded a degree of error similar to that in the phantom testing of the original scanner. Three patients underwent resection of a glial tumor using this system. Intraoperative CT scans taken after dural opening showed a bulging of the cortex, a shift in the central structure, and a displacement of the cortical subarachnoid spaces under the influence of gravity. With a contrast medium the edge of the surrounding brain after resection was enhanced and the residual tumor mass was demonstrated clearly. This system makes it possible to obtain a noninvasive intraoperative image in a situation where structural shifts are taking place. (author)

  3. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  4. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  5. A flexible and wearable terahertz scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D.; Oda, S.; Kawano, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging technologies based on terahertz (THz) waves have great potential for use in powerful non-invasive inspection methods. However, most real objects have various three-dimensional curvatures and existing THz technologies often encounter difficulties in imaging such configurations, which limits the useful range of THz imaging applications. Here, we report the development of a flexible and wearable THz scanner based on carbon nanotubes. We achieved room-temperature THz detection over a broad frequency band ranging from 0.14 to 39 THz and developed a portable THz scanner. Using this scanner, we performed THz imaging of samples concealed behind opaque objects, breakages and metal impurities of a bent film and multi-view scans of a syringe. We demonstrated a passive biometric THz scan of a human hand. Our results are expected to have considerable implications for non-destructive and non-contact inspections, such as medical examinations for the continuous monitoring of health conditions.

  6. Quality assurance of computed tomography (CT) scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.; Sanu, K.K. . Email : a_sankaran@vsnl.com

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the present status of research work and development of various test objects, phantoms and detector/instrumentation systems for quality assurance (QA) of computed tomography (CT) scanners, carried out in advanced countries, with emphasis on similar work done in this research centre. CT scanner is a complex equipment and routine quality control procedures are essential to the maintenance of image quality with optimum patient dose. Image quality can be ensured only through correlation between prospective monitoring of system components and tests of overall performance with standard phantoms. CT examinations contribute a large share to the population dose in advanced countries. The unique dosimetry problems in CT necessitate special techniques. This article describes a comprehensive kit developed indigenously for the following QA and type approval tests as well as for research studies on image quality/dosimetry on CT scanners

  7. Manually operated small envelope scanner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, Charles Keith

    2017-04-18

    A scanner system and method for acquisition of position-based ultrasonic inspection data are described. The scanner system includes an inspection probe and a first non-contact linear encoder having a first sensor and a first scale to track inspection probe position. The first sensor is positioned to maintain a continuous non-contact interface between the first sensor and the first scale and to maintain a continuous alignment of the first sensor with the inspection probe. The scanner system may be used to acquire two-dimensional inspection probe position data by including a second non-contact linear encoder having a second sensor and a second scale, the second sensor positioned to maintain a continuous non-contact interface between the second sensor and the second scale and to maintain a continuous alignment of the second sensor with the first sensor.

  8. Multimodality Registration without a Dedicated Multimodality Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Beattie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality scanners that allow the acquisition of both functional and structural image sets on a single system have recently become available for animal research use. Although the resultant registered functional/structural image sets can greatly enhance the interpretability of the functional data, the cost of multimodality systems can be prohibitive, and they are often limited to two modalities, which generally do not include magnetic resonance imaging. Using a thin plastic wrap to immobilize and fix a mouse or other small animal atop a removable bed, we are able to calculate registrations between all combinations of four different small animal imaging scanners (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography [CT] at our disposal, effectively equivalent to a quadruple-modality scanner. A comparison of serially acquired CT images, with intervening acquisitions on other scanners, demonstrates the ability of the proposed procedures to maintain the rigidity of an anesthetized mouse during transport between scanners. Movement of the bony structures of the mouse was estimated to be 0.62 mm. Soft tissue movement was predominantly the result of the filling (or emptying of the urinary bladder and thus largely constrained to this region. Phantom studies estimate the registration errors for all registration types to be less than 0.5 mm. Functional images using tracers targeted to known structures verify the accuracy of the functional to structural registrations. The procedures are easy to perform and produce robust and accurate results that rival those of dedicated multimodality scanners, but with more flexible registration combinations and while avoiding the expense and redundancy of multimodality systems.

  9. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Battum, L. J.; Huizenga, H.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Heukelom, S.

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2-2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red-green-blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film.

  10. How flatbed scanners upset accurate film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Battum, L J; Verdaasdonk, R M; Heukelom, S; Huizenga, H

    2016-01-01

    Film is an excellent dosimeter for verification of dose distributions due to its high spatial resolution. Irradiated film can be digitized with low-cost, transmission, flatbed scanners. However, a disadvantage is their lateral scan effect (LSE): a scanner readout change over its lateral scan axis. Although anisotropic light scattering was presented as the origin of the LSE, this paper presents an alternative cause. Hereto, LSE for two flatbed scanners (Epson 1680 Expression Pro and Epson 10000XL), and Gafchromic film (EBT, EBT2, EBT3) was investigated, focused on three effects: cross talk, optical path length and polarization. Cross talk was examined using triangular sheets of various optical densities. The optical path length effect was studied using absorptive and reflective neutral density filters with well-defined optical characteristics (OD range 0.2–2.0). Linear polarizer sheets were used to investigate light polarization on the CCD signal in absence and presence of (un)irradiated Gafchromic film. Film dose values ranged between 0.2 to 9 Gy, i.e. an optical density range between 0.25 to 1.1. Measurements were performed in the scanner’s transmission mode, with red–green–blue channels. LSE was found to depend on scanner construction and film type. Its magnitude depends on dose: for 9 Gy increasing up to 14% at maximum lateral position. Cross talk was only significant in high contrast regions, up to 2% for very small fields. The optical path length effect introduced by film on the scanner causes 3% for pixels in the extreme lateral position. Light polarization due to film and the scanner’s optical mirror system is the main contributor, different in magnitude for the red, green and blue channel. We concluded that any Gafchromic EBT type film scanned with a flatbed scanner will face these optical effects. Accurate dosimetry requires correction of LSE, therefore, determination of the LSE per color channel and dose delivered to the film. (paper)

  11. A simple scanner for Compton tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Golosio, B; Castellano, A

    2002-01-01

    A first generation CT-scanner was designed and constructed to carry out Compton images. This CT-scanner is composed of a 80 kV, 5 mA X-ray tube and a NaI(Tl) X-ray detector; the tube is strongly collimated, generating a X-ray beam of 2 mm diameter, whilst the detector is not collimated to collect Compton photons from the whole irradiated cylinder. The performances of the equipment were tested contemporaneous transmission and Compton images.

  12. Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, J M; Bobbio, S M; Goodwin-Johansson, S; Smith, S W

    2000-01-01

    Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2 mm by 2 mm square, 75 mum thick polyimide table that pivots on 3-mum thick gold plated polyimide hinges. The hinges also serve as the electrical connections to the transducer. This table-mounted transducer is tilted using a miniature linear actuator to produce a sector scan. This linear actuator is an integrated force array (IFA), which is an example of a micromachine, i.e., a microelectromechanical system (MEMS). The IFA is a thin (2.2 mum) polyimide membrane, which consists of a network of hundreds of thousands of micron scale deformable capacitors made from pairs of metallized polyimide plates. IFAs contract with an applied voltage of 30-120 V and have been shown to produce strains as large as 20% and forces of up to 8 dynes. The prototype transducer and actuator assembly was fabricated and interfaced with a GagePCI analog to digital conversion board digitizing 12 bit samples at a rate of 100 MSamples/second housed in a personal computer to create a single channel ultrasound scanner. The deflection of the table transducer in a low viscosity insulating fluid (HFE 7100, 3M) is up to +/-10 degrees at scan rates of 10-60 Hz. Software has been developed to produce real-time sector scans on the PC monitor.

  13. Inter laboratory comparison of industrial CT scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; Cantatore, Angela; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    In this report results from an intercomparison of industrial CT scanners are presented. Three audit items, similar to common industrial parts, were selected for circulation: a single polymer part with complex geometry (Item 1), a simple geometry part made of two polymers (Item 2) and a miniature...

  14. Developments in holographic-based scanner designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David M.

    1997-07-01

    Holographic-based scanning systems have been used for years in the high resolution prepress markets where monochromatic lasers are generally utilized. However, until recently, due to the dispersive properties of holographic optical elements (HOEs), along with the high cost associated with recording 'master' HOEs, holographic scanners have not been able to penetrate major scanning markets such as the laser printer and digital copier markets, low to mid-range imagesetter markets, and the non-contact inspection scanner market. Each of these markets has developed cost effective laser diode based solutions using conventional scanning approaches such as polygon/f-theta lens combinations. In order to penetrate these markets, holographic-based systems must exhibit low cost and immunity to wavelength shifts associated with laser diodes. This paper describes recent developments in the design of holographic scanners in which multiple HOEs, each possessing optical power, are used in conjunction with one curved mirror to passively correct focal plane position errors and spot size changes caused by the wavelength instability of laser diodes. This paper also describes recent advancements in low cost production of high quality HOEs and curved mirrors. Together these developments allow holographic scanners to be economically competitive alternatives to conventional devices in every segment of the laser scanning industry.

  15. A PET scanner developed by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This image shows a Position Emission Tomography (PET) scanner at the Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Genève. Development of the multiwire proportional chamber at CERN in the mid-1970s was soon seen as a potential device for medical imaging. It is much more sensitive than previous devices and greatly reduced the dose of radiation received by the patient.

  16. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  17. Learning and Teaching with a Computer Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, G.; Gregorcic, B.; Etkina, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the readers to simple inquiry-based activities (experiments with supporting questions) that one can do with a computer scanner to help students learn and apply the concepts of relative motion in 1 and 2D, vibrational motion and the Doppler effect. We also show how to use these activities to help students think like…

  18. Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance

  19. Get Mobile – The Smartphone Brain Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Petersen, Michael Kai

    This demonstration will provide live-interaction with a smartphone brain scanner consisting of a low-cost wireless 14-channel EEG headset (Emotiv Epoc) and a mobile device. With our system it is possible to perform real-time functional brain imaging on a smartphone device, including stimulus...

  20. Scanner and irradiation: optimization of protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, J.; Martine-Rollet, B.; Lienart, S.; Mobailly, M.; Florin, J.P.; Beregi, J.P.; Puech, N.

    2006-01-01

    The irradiation of the patient or the personnel increased with the arrival of the multi-detector scanners. The objective of this work is to realize a didactic poster to inform and make sensitive on the irradiation with scan so that to propose solutions of protection. (N.C.)

  1. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  2. Evaluation of Handheld Scanners for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadea Ameen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of generating a computerized geometric model for an existing part is known as Reverse Engineering (RE. It is a very useful technique in product development and plays a significant role in automotive, aerospace, and medical industries. In fact, it has been getting remarkable attention in manufacturing industries owing to its advanced data acquisition technologies. The process of RE is based on two primary steps: data acquisition (also known as scanning and data processing. To facilitate point data acquisition, a variety of scanning systems is available with different capabilities and limitations. Although the optical control of 3D scanners is fully developed, still several factors can affect the quality of the scanned data. As a result, the proper selection of scanning parameters, such as resolution, laser power, shutter time, etc., becomes very crucial. This kind of investigation can be very helpful and provide its users with guidelines to identify the appropriate factors. Moreover, it is worth noting that no single system is ideal in all applications. Accordingly, this work has compared two portable (handheld systems based on laser scanning and white light optical scanning for automotive applications. A car door containing a free-form surface has been used to achieve the above-mentioned goal. The design of experiments has been employed to determine the effects of different scanning parameters and optimize them. The capabilities and limitations have been identified by comparing the two scanners in terms of accuracy, scanning time, triangle numbers, ease of use, and portability. Then, the relationships between the system capabilities and the application requirements have been established. The results revealed that the laser scanner performed better than the white light scanner in terms of accuracy, while the white light scanner performed better in terms of acquisition speed and triangle numbers.

  3. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...... Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned....

  4. Body scanners: are they dangerous for health?; Scanners corporels: dangereux pour la sante?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    As there is a debate about the risk of cancer and of congenital malformation associated with the use of body scanners, notably in airports, this document recalls and comments the IAEA statement on this issue. According to a study performed by this international agency, the irradiation dose is very low. But the French IRSN is more prudent and recommends not to use X ray scanner, but to look for technologies which do not use ionizing radiation

  5. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, Victor; Alexeev, Gennady; Alexeev, Maxim; Frolov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Georgy; Kutuzov, Sergey; Piskun, Alexei; Samartsev, Alexander; Tokmenin, Valeri; Verkheev, Alexander; Vertogradov, Leonid; Zhuravlev, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  6. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  7. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazov Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  8. Occurrence and characteristics of mutual interference between LIDAR scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Seonghyeon; Park, Yongwan

    2015-05-01

    The LIDAR scanner is at the heart of object detection of the self-driving car. Mutual interference between LIDAR scanners has not been regarded as a problem because the percentage of vehicles equipped with LIDAR scanners was very rare. With the growing number of autonomous vehicle equipped with LIDAR scanner operated close to each other at the same time, the LIDAR scanner may receive laser pulses from other LIDAR scanners. In this paper, three types of experiments and their results are shown, according to the arrangement of two LIDAR scanners. We will show the probability that any LIDAR scanner will interfere mutually by considering spatial and temporal overlaps. It will present some typical mutual interference scenario and report an analysis of the interference mechanism.

  9. Development of a MPPC-based prototype gantry for future MRI-PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurei, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kato, T.; Fujita, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a high spatial resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module designed for small animals and intended for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. This module consists of large-area, 4 × 4 ch MPPC arrays (S11830-3344MF; Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) optically coupled with Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) scintillators fabricated into 16 × 16 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 pixels. We set the temperature sensor (LM73CIMK-0; National Semiconductor Corp.) at the rear of the MPPC acceptance surface, and apply optimum voltage to maintain the gain. The eight MPPC-based PET modules and coincidence circuits were assembled into a gantry arranged in a ring 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. We have developed two types PET gantry: one made of non-magnetic metal and the other made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins. The PET gantry was positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point }22Na source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure the interference between the MPPC-based PET and MRI. The spatial resolution of PET imaging in a transaxial plane of about 1 mm (FWHM) was achieved in all cases. Operating with PET made of ABS has no effect on MR images, while operating with PET made of non-magnetic metal has a significant detrimental effect on MR images. This paper describes our quantitative evaluations of PET images and MR images, and presents a more advanced version of the gantry for future MRI/DOI-PET systems.

  10. 21 CFR 882.1925 - Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. 882... Ultrasonic scanner calibration test block. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic scanner calibration test block is a block of material with known properties used to calibrate ultrasonic scanning devices (e.g., the...

  11. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  12. Imagining the prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the

  13. MIND performance and prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10 -3 . A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping

  14. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  15. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  16. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  17. Cockroft Walton accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of a Cockroft Walton generator using ceramic and plastic capacitors is discussed. Compared to the previous generator, the construction and components are much more improved. Pralon is used for the high voltage insulation column and plastic is used as a dielectric material for the high voltage capacitor. Cockroft Walton generator is used as a high tension supply for an accelerator. (author)

  18. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  19. Surrogates-based prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Bois, E.; Horvath, I.

    2014-01-01

    The research is situated in the system development phase of interactive software products. In this detailed design phase, we found a need for fast testable prototyping to achieve qualitative change proposals on the system design. In this paper, we discuss a literature study on current software

  20. Z Andromedae: the prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viotti, R.; Giangrande, A.; Ricciardi, O.; Cassatella, A.

    1982-01-01

    Z And is considered as the ''prototype'' of the symbiotic stars. Besides its symbiotic spectrum, the star is also known for its characteristic light curve (and for the related spectral variations). Since many theoretical speculations on Z And and similar objects have been based on the luminosity and spectral variations of this star, the authors critically analyse the observational data concerning it. (Auth.)

  1. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  2. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  3. Laser scanner 3D terrestri e mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciamba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente si è svolto a Roma un evento dimostrativo per informare, professionisti e ricercatori del settore inerente il rilievo strumentale, sulle recenti innovazioni che riguardano i laser scanner 3d. Il mercato della strumentazione dedicata al rilevamento architettonico e dell'ambiente, offre molte possibilità di scelta. Oggi i principali marchi producono strumenti sempre più efficienti ed ideati per ambiti di applicazione specifici, permettendo ai professionisti, la giusta scelta in termini di prestazioni ed economia. A demonstration event was recently held in Rome with the aim to inform professionals and researchers on recent innovations on instrumental survey related to the 3d laser scanner. The market of instrumentation for architectural survey offers many possibilitiesof choice. Today the major brands produce instruments that are more efficient and designed for specific areas of application, allowing the right choice in terms of performance and economy.

  4. Laser scanner 3D terrestri e mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciamba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente si è svolto a Roma un evento dimostrativo per informare, professionisti e ricercatori del settore inerente il rilievo strumentale, sulle recenti innovazioni che riguardano i laser scanner 3d. Il mercato della strumentazione dedicata al rilevamento architettonico e dell'ambiente, offre molte possibilità di scelta. Oggi i principali marchi producono strumenti sempre più efficienti ed ideati per ambiti di applicazione specifici, permettendo ai professionisti, la giusta scelta in termini di prestazioni ed economia.A demonstration event was recently held in Rome with the aim to inform professionals and researchers on recent innovations on instrumental survey related to the 3d laser scanner. The market of instrumentation for architectural survey offers many possibilitiesof choice. Today the major brands produce instruments that are more efficient and designed for specific areas of application, allowing the right choice in terms of performance and economy.

  5. Detector Position Estimation for PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

    2012-06-11

    Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks.

  6. Detector position estimation for PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Physical positioning of scintillation crystal detector blocks in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners is not always exact. We test a proof of concept methodology for the determination of the six degrees of freedom for detector block positioning errors by utilizing a rotating point source over stepped axial intervals. To test our method, we created computer simulations of seven Micro Crystal Element Scanner (MiCES) PET systems with randomized positioning errors. The computer simulations show that our positioning algorithm can estimate the positions of the block detectors to an average of one-seventh of the crystal pitch tangentially, and one-third of the crystal pitch axially. Virtual acquisitions of a point source grid and a distributed phantom show that our algorithm improves both the quantitative and qualitative accuracy of the reconstructed objects. We believe this estimation algorithm is a practical and accurate method for determining the spatial positions of scintillation detector blocks.

  7. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  8. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  9. Development of high pressure pipe scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes an automatic ultrasonic scanning system for pressure pipe welds, which was developed in this project using recent advanced technologies on mobile robot and computer. The system consists of two modules: a robot scanner module which navigates and manipulates scanning devices, and a data acquisition module which generates ultrasonic signal and processes the data from the scanner. The robot has 4 magnetic wheels and 2 -axis manipulator on which ultrasonic transducer attached. The wheeled robot can navigate curved surface such as outer wall of circular pipes. Magnetic wheels were optimally designed through magnetic field analysis. Free surface sensing and line tracking control algorithm were developed and implemented, and the control devices and software can be used in practical inspection works. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results

  10. Imaging Scanner Usage in Radiochemical Purity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhafizah Othman; Yahaya Talib; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Imaging Scanner model BIOSCAN AR-2000 has been used in the radiochemical purity test for the product of Mo-99/ Tc-99m generator. Result from this test was produced directly where the percentage of pertechnetate was calculated based on width peak area by thin layer chromatography. This paperwork will explain the function, procedure, calibration of the instrument and discussed the advantages compared to the previous method. (author)

  11. Neurosurgical operating computerized tomographic scanner system. The CT scanner in the operating theater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okudera, Hiroshi; Sugita, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Kimishima, Sakae; Yoshida, Hisashi

    1988-12-01

    A neurosurgical operating computerized tomography scanner system is presented. This system has been developed for obtaining intra- and postoperative CT images in the operating room. A TCT-300 scanner (manufactured by the Toshiba Co., Tokyo) is placed in the operating room. The realization of a true intraoperative CT image requires certain improvements in the CT scanner and operating table. To adjust the axis of the co-ordinates of the motor system of the MST-7000 microsurgical operating table (manufactured by the Mizuho Ika Co., Tokyo) to the CT scanner, we have designed an interface and a precise motor system so that the computer of the CT scanner can directly control the movement of the operating table. Furthermore, a new head-fixation system has been designed for producing artifact-free intraoperative CT images. The head-pins of the head-fixation system are made of carbon-fiber bars and titanium tips. A simulation study of the total system in the operating room with the CT scanner, operating table, and head holder using a skull model yielded a degree of error similar to that in the phantom testing of the original scanner. Three patients underwent resection of a glial tumor using this system. Intraoperative CT scans taken after dural opening showed a bulging of the cortex, a shift in the central structure, and a displacement of the cortical subarachnoid spaces under the influence of gravity. With a contrast medium the edge of the surrounding brain after resection was enhanced and the residual tumor mass was demonstrated clearly. This system makes it possible to obtain a noninvasive intraoperative image in a situation where structural shifts are taking place.

  12. Laser measuring scanners and their accuracy limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Ryszard

    1993-09-01

    Scanning methods have gained the greater importance for some years now due to a short measuring time and wide range of application in flexible manufacturing processes. This paper is a summing up of the autho?s creative scientific work in the field of measuring scanners. The research conducted allowed to elaborate the optimal configurations of measuring systems based on the scanning method. An important part of the work was the analysis of a measuring scanner - as a transducer of an angle rotation into the linear displacement which resulted in obtaining its much higher accuracy and finally in working out a measuring scanner eliminating the use of an additional reference standard. The completion of the work is an attempt to determine an attainable accuracy limit of scanning measurement of both length and angle. Using a high stability deflector and a corrected scanning lens one can obtain the angle determination over 30 (or 2 mm) to an accuracy 0 (or 0 tm) when the measuring rate is 1000 Hz or the range d60 (4 mm) with accuracy 0 " (0 jim) and measurement frequency 6 Hz.

  13. The CT scanner as a therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, K.S.; Norman, A.

    1990-01-01

    Many tumors in the brain and in other tissues can be delineated precisely in images obtained with a CT scanner. After the scan is obtained the patient is taken to another room for radiation therapy and is positioned in the beam with the aid of external markers, simulators or stereotactic devices. This procedure is time consuming and subject to error when precise localization of the beam is desired. The CT scanner itself, with the addition of the collimator, is capable of delivering radiation therapy with great precision without the need for external markers. The patient can be scanned and treated on the same table, the isocenter of the beam can be placed precisely in the center of the lesion, the beam can be restricted to just those planes in which the lesion appears, several arcs can be obtained by simply tilting the gantry, and the position of the patient in the beam can be monitored continuously during therapy. The authors describe the properties of the CTX, the CT scanner modified for therapy. (author). 6 refs.; 6 figs

  14. A scanner for single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Cumpstey, D.E.; Evans, N.T.S.; Coleman, J.D.; Ettinger, K.V.; Mallard, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of single photon ECT has now been available for some eighteen years, but has yet still to be exploited fully. The difficulties of doing this lie in the need for gathering data of sufficiently good statistical accuracy in a reasonable counting time, in the uniformity of detector sensitivity, and in the means for correcting the image satisfactorily for photon attenuation within the body. The relative ease with which a general purpose gamma camera can be adapted to give rotation around the patient makes this an attractive practical approach to the problem. However, the sensitivity of gamma cameras over their field of view is by no means uniform, and their sensitivity is less good than that of purpose-designed scanners when no more than about ten sections through the body are required. There is therefore a need to assess the clinical usefulness of a whole body tomographic scanner of high sensitivity and uniformity. Such a machine is the Aberdeen Section Scanner Mark II described

  15. A near-infrared confocal scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

    2014-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface. (paper)

  16. Impedance Characterisation of the SPS Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091911; Prof. Sillanpää, Mika

    As a beam diagnostic tool, the SPS wire scanner interacts with the proton bunches traversing the vacuum pipes of the Super Proton Synchrotron particle accelerator. Following the interaction, the bunches decelerate or experience momentum kicks off-axis and couple energy to the cavity walls, resonances and to the diagnostic tool, the scanning wire. The beam coupling impedance and, in particular, the beam induced heating of the wire motivate the characterisation and redesign of the SPS wire scanner. In this thesis, we characterise RF-wise the low frequency modes of the SPS wire scanner. These have the highest contribution to the impedance. We measure the cavity modes in terms of resonance frequency and quality factor by traditional measurement techniques and data analysis. We carry out a 4-port measurement to evaluate the beam coupling to the scanning wire, that yields the spectral heating power. If combined with the simulations, one is able to extract the beam coupling impedance and deduce the spectral dissipa...

  17. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  18. Particle discrimination by an automatic scanner for nuclear emulsion plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, W.; Fischer, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic scanner for nuclear emulsion plates has been improved by adding particle discrimination. By determination of the mean luminosity of tracks in darkfield illumination in addition to the track length a clear discrimination has been obtained, at least for lighter particles. The scanning speed of the original automatic scanner has not been reduced. The scanner works up to 200 times faster than a human scanner. Besides the particle discrimination the determination of the mean track luminosity led to a lower perturbation sensitivity with respect to a high background of accidentally developed silvergrains, scratches in emulsion etc. The reproducibility of the results obtained by the automatic scanner is better than 5%. (Auth.)

  19. Scanners for analytic print measurement: the devil in the details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Eric K.; Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.; Kress, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Inexpensive and easy-to-use linear and area-array scanners have frequently substituted as colorimeters and densitometers for low-frequency (i.e., large area) hard copy image measurement. Increasingly, scanners are also being used for high spatial frequency, image microstructure measurements, which were previously reserved for high performance microdensitometers. In this paper we address characteristics of flatbed reflection scanners in the evaluation of print uniformity, geometric distortion, geometric repeatability and the influence of scanner MTF and noise on analytic measurements. Suggestions are made for the specification and evaluation of scanners to be used in print image quality standards that are being developed.

  20. The number and distribution of computerised tomography scanners in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, S.; Amato, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the number and distribution of CT scanners in Turkey. Our results show 173 CT scanners in Turkey in 1994, which equals 2.9 scanners per million people. All of the scanners are located in 45 cities, where 81 % of the population resides. The other 31 cities in Turkey have no scanners. Of the 173 scanners, 103 (59.6 %) are owned by the private sector and the other 70 are owned by the public sector. Of Turkey's CT scanners, 49.2 % are located in private health centres, 21.9 % in university hospitals, 16.7 % in Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals, 10.4 % in private hospitals and 1.8 % in social security hospitals. (orig.)

  1. Database Replication Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewall, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Replication Framework that facilitates the implementation and com-parison of database replication techniques. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation of a Database Replication Prototype and compares the performance measurements of two replication techniques based on the Atomic Broadcast communication primitive: pessimistic active replication and optimistic active replication. The main contributions of this report can be split into four parts....

  2. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  3. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  4. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  5. A prototype analysis of vengeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Maartje; Nelissen, Rob; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the concept of vengeance from a prototype perspective. In 6 studies, the prototype structure of vengeance was mapped. Sixty-nine features of vengeance were identified (Study 1), and rated on centrality (Study 2). Further studies confirmed the prototype structure. Compared to

  6. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierick, Manuel, E-mail: Manuel.Dierick@UGent.be [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Loo, Denis, E-mail: info@XRE.be [XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Masschaele, Bert [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); XRE, X-Ray Engineering bvba, De Pintelaan 111, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van den Bulcke, Jan [UGCT-Woodlab-UGent, Department of Forest and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Acker, Joris, E-mail: Joris.VanAcker@UGent.be [UGCT-Woodlab-UGent, Department of Forest and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, Veerle, E-mail: Veerle.Cnudde@UGent.be [UGCT-SGIG, Department of Geology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc, E-mail: Luc.VanHoorebeke@UGent.be [UGCT-Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography ( (www.ugct.ugent.be)) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kV{sub max}) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results.

  7. Recent micro-CT scanner developments at UGCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierick, Manuel; Van Loo, Denis; Masschaele, Bert; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Cnudde, Veerle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two X-ray micro-CT scanners which were recently developed to extend the experimental possibilities of microtomography research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography ( (www.ugct.ugent.be)) of the Ghent University (Belgium). The first scanner, called Nanowood, is a wide-range CT scanner with two X-ray sources (160 kV max ) and two detectors, resolving features down to 0.4 μm in small samples, but allowing samples up to 35 cm to be scanned. This is a sample size range of 3 orders of magnitude, making this scanner well suited for imaging multi-scale materials such as wood, stone, etc. Besides the traditional cone-beam acquisition, Nanowood supports helical acquisition, and it can generate images with significant phase-contrast contributions. The second scanner, known as the Environmental micro-CT scanner (EMCT), is a gantry based micro-CT scanner with variable magnification for scanning objects which are not easy to rotate in a standard micro-CT scanner, for example because they are physically connected to external experimental hardware such as sensor wiring, tubing or others. This scanner resolves 5 μm features, covers a field-of-view of about 12 cm wide with an 80 cm vertical travel range. Both scanners will be extensively described and characterized, and their potential will be demonstrated with some key application results

  8. Recent advances in segmented gamma scanner analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Hsue, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    The segmented gamma scanner (SGS) is used in many facilities to assay low-density scrap and waste generated in the facilities. The procedures for using the SGS can cause a negative bias if the sample does not satisfy the assumptions made in the method. Some process samples do not comply with the assumptions. This paper discusses the effect of the presence of lumps on the SGS assay results, describes a method to detect the presence of lumps, and describes an approach to correct for the lumps. Other recent advances in SGS analysis are also discussed

  9. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20  m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell’s high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  10. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  11. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  12. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  13. Circumference estimation using 3D-whole body scanners and shadow scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Clothing designers and manufacturers use traditional body dimensions as their basis. When 3D-whole body scanners are introduced to determine the body dimensions, a conversion has to be made, since scan determined circumference measures are slightly larger than the traditional values. This pilot

  14. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  15. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  16. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  17. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Kaloshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5–10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km.

  18. Interferometric Laser Scanner for Direction Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, Gennady; Lukin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential capabilities of new laser scanning-based method for direction determination. The method for fully coherent beams is extended to the case when interference pattern is produced in the turbulent atmosphere by two partially coherent sources. The performed theoretical analysis identified the conditions under which stable pattern may form on extended paths of 0.5–10 km in length. We describe a method for selecting laser scanner parameters, ensuring the necessary operability range in the atmosphere for any possible turbulence characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the mean intensity of interference pattern, formed by two partially coherent sources of optical radiation. Visibility of interference pattern is estimated as a function of propagation pathlength, structure parameter of atmospheric turbulence, and spacing of radiation sources, producing the interference pattern. It is shown that, when atmospheric turbulences are moderately strong, the contrast of interference pattern of laser scanner may ensure its applicability at ranges up to 10 km. PMID:26805841

  19. DataCollection Prototyping

    CERN Multimedia

    Beck, H.P.

    DataCollection is a subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project responsible for the movement of event data from the ROS to the High Level Triggers. This includes data from Regions of Interest (RoIs) for Level 2, building complete events for the Event Filter and finally transferring accepted events to Mass Storage. It also handles passing the LVL1 RoI pointers and the allocation of Level 2 processors and load balancing of Event Building. During the last 18 months DataCollection has developed a common architecture for the hardware and software required. This involved a radical redesign integrating ideas from separate parts of earlier TDAQ work. An important milestone for this work, now achieved, has been to demonstrate this subsystem in the so-called Phase 2A Integrated Prototype. This prototype comprises the various TDAQ hardware and software components (ROSs, LVL2, etc.) under the control of the TDAQ Online software. The basic functionality has been demonstrated on small testbeds (~8-10 processing nodes)...

  20. OMS FDIR: Initial prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric W.; Hanson, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Operations Management System (OMS) will automate major management functions which coordinate the operations of onboard systems, elements and payloads. The objectives of OMS are to improve safety, reliability and productivity while reducing maintenance and operations cost. This will be accomplished by using advanced automation techniques to automate much of the activity currently performed by the flight crew and ground personnel. OMS requirements have been organized into five task groups: (1) Planning, Execution and Replanning; (2) Data Gathering, Preprocessing and Storage; (3) Testing and Training; (4) Resource Management; and (5) Caution and Warning and Fault Management for onboard subsystems. The scope of this prototyping effort falls within the Fault Management requirements group. The prototyping will be performed in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of an onboard communications network fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system. Phase 2 will incorporate global FDIR for onboard systems. Research into the applicability of expert systems, object-oriented programming, fuzzy sets, neural networks and other advanced techniques will be conducted. The goals and technical approach for this new SSFP research project are discussed here.

  1. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  2. Was the Scanner Calibration Slide used for its intended purpose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Yaping

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the article, Scanner calibration revisited, BMC Bioinformatics 2010, 11:361, Dr. Pozhitkov used the Scanner Calibration Slide, a key product of Full Moon BioSystems to generate data in his study of microarray scanner PMT response and proposed a mathematic model for PMT response 1. In the end, the author concluded that "Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration," and recommended "against using these slides." We found these conclusions are seriously flawed and misleading, and his recommendation against using the Scanner Calibration Slide was not properly supported.

  3. SCT-4800T whole body X-ray CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yukio; Kuwahara, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    A whole body X-ray CT scanner, the SCT-4800T (trade name: INTELLECT series), has been developed. This system is the first CT scanner that is combined with general radiographic functions. The general radiographic functions include a patient couch with film casette and several tube support systems along with the CT scanner. This newly designed CT scanner also features a compact and light-weight gantry with a 700 mm diameter apperture and user-friendly operater's console. The SCT-4800T brings a new level of patient and operator comfort to the emergency radiology examination site. (author)

  4. Input Scanners: A Growing Impact In A Diverse Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kevin E.

    1989-08-01

    Just as newly invented photographic processes revolutionized the printing industry at the turn of the century, electronic imaging has affected almost every computer application today. To completely emulate traditionally mechanical means of information handling, computer based systems must be able to capture graphic images. Thus, there is a widespread need for the electronic camera, the digitizer, the input scanner. This paper will review how various types of input scanners are being used in many diverse applications. The following topics will be covered: - Historical overview of input scanners - New applications for scanners - Impact of scanning technology on select markets - Scanning systems issues

  5. TU-F-18A-01: Preliminary Results of a Prototype Quality Control Process for Spectral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nute, J; Jacobsen, M; Pennington, J; Cody, D; Chandler, A; Imai, Y; Baiu, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A prototype quality control (QC) phantom and analysis process has been designed specifically to monitor dual-energy CT and address the current lack of quantitative oversight of the spectral capabilities of these scanners. Methods: A prototype solid water phantom was designed with multiple material inserts, and to support both head and body protocols. Inserts included tissue equivalent and material rods (iodine, iron, calcium) at various concentrations. The oval body phantom, measuring 30cm×40cm×15cm, was scanned using four dual-energy protocols with CTDIvol ranges of 19.6–62mGy (0.516 pitch) and 10.3–32.5mGy (0.984 pitch), and rotation times ranging from 0.5-1sec. The circular head phantom, measuring 22cm in diameter by 15cm, was scanned using three dual-energy protocols with CTDIvol ranges of 67–132.6mGy (0.531 pitch) and 36.7–72.7mGy (0.969 pitch), and rotation times ranging from 0.5–0.9sec. All images were reconstructed at 50, 70, 110 and 140 keV, and using a water-iodine material basis pair. The images were evaluated for iodine quantification accuracy and stability of monoenergetic reconstructions. The phantom was scanned twice on ten GE 750HD CT scanners to evaluate inter-scanner agreement, as well as ten times on a single scanner over a oneweek period to evaluate intra-scanner repeatability. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed consistent (inter- and intra-scanner) iodine quantification accuracy within 10% was only achieved for protocols in the upper half of dose levels assessed when grouped by pitch. Although all scanners undergo rigorous daily single-energy QC, iodine quantification accuracy from one scanner unexpectedly deviated from the other nine substantially. In general, inter-scanner agreement and intra-scanner repeatability varied with dose, rotation time and reconstructed keV. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicate the need for a dual-energy QC process to ensure inter-scanner agreement and intra-scanner repeatability. In

  6. Prototypes as Platforms for Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Willem

    developers, and design it accordingly. Designing a flexible prototype in combination with supportive tools to be used by both interaction designers and non-designers during development is introduced as a way to open up the prototyping process to these users. Furthermore I demonstrate how such a flexible...... on prototyping, by bringing to attention that the prototype itself is an object of design, with its users and use context, which deserves further attention. Moreover, in this work I present concrete tools and methods that can be used by interaction designers in practice. As such this work addresses both......The development of interactive products in industry is an activity involving different disciplines – such as different kinds of designers, engineers, marketers and managers – in which prototypes play an important role. On the one hand, prototypes can be powerful boundary objects and an effective...

  7. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  8. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus. Using action-research techniques, with this simulator it was possible to validate that the human nerve response can be replicated, which will aid the training of health professionals, reducing possible risks in a surgical environment.

  9. Scanner OPC signatures: automatic vendor-to-vendor OPE matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Stephen P.

    2009-03-01

    As 193nm lithography continues to be stretched and the k1 factor decreases, optical proximity correction (OPC) has become a vital part of the lithographer's tool kit. Unfortunately, as is now well known, the design variations of lithographic scanners from different vendors cause them to have slightly different optical-proximity effect (OPE) behavior, meaning that they print features through pitch in distinct ways. This in turn means that their response to OPC is not the same, and that an OPC solution designed for a scanner from Company 1 may or may not work properly on a scanner from Company 2. Since OPC is not inexpensive, that causes trouble for chipmakers using more than one brand of scanner. Clearly a scanner-matching procedure is needed to meet this challenge. Previously, automatic matching has only been reported for scanners of different tool generations from the same manufacturer. In contrast, scanners from different companies have been matched using expert tuning and adjustment techniques, frequently requiring laborious test exposures. Automatic matching between scanners from Company 1 and Company 2 has remained an unsettled problem. We have recently solved this problem and introduce a novel method to perform the automatic matching. The success in meeting this challenge required three enabling factors. First, we recognized the strongest drivers of OPE mismatch and are thereby able to reduce the information needed about a tool from another supplier to that information readily available from all modern scanners. Second, we developed a means of reliably identifying the scanners' optical signatures, minimizing dependence on process parameters that can cloud the issue. Third, we carefully employed standard statistical techniques, checking for robustness of the algorithms used and maximizing efficiency. The result is an automatic software system that can predict an OPC matching solution for scanners from different suppliers without requiring expert intervention.

  10. Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line

  11. Development of scintillation materials for PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, Mikhail; Annenkov, Alexander N; Borissevitch, Andrei; Dossovitski, Alexei; Missevitch, Oleg; Lecoq, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The growing demand on PET methodology for a variety of applications ranging from clinical use to fundamental studies triggers research and development of PET scanners providing better spatial resolution and sensitivity. These efforts are primarily focused on the development of advanced PET detector solutions and on the developments of new scintillation materials as well. However Lu containing scintillation materials introduced in the last century such as LSO, LYSO, LuAP, LuYAP crystals still remain the best PET species in spite of the recent developments of bright, fast but relatively low density lanthanum bromide scintillators. At the same time Lu based materials have several drawbacks which are high temperature of crystallization and relatively high cost compared to alkali-halide scintillation materials. Here we describe recent results in the development of new scintillation materials for PET application.

  12. Compact beamforming in medical ultrasound scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2003-01-01

    for high-quality imaging is large, and compressing it leads to better compactness of the beamformers. The existing methods for compressing and recursive generation of focusing data, along with original work in the area, are presented in Chapter 4. The principles and the performance limitations...... quality is comparable to that of the very good scanners currently on the market. The performance results have been achieved with the use of a simple oversampled converter of second order. The use of a higher order oversampled converter will allow higher pulse frequency to be used while the high dynamic...... channels, and even more channels are necessary for 3-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, there is a demand for inexpensive portable devices for use outside hospitals, in field conditions, where power consumption and compactness are important factors. The thesis starts...

  13. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  14. A megavoltage CT scanner for radiotherapy verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.G.; Swindell, W.; Morton, E.J.; Evans, P.M.; Xiao, Z.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have developed a system for generating megavoltage CT images immediately prior to the administration of external beam radiotherapy. The detector is based on the scanner of Simpson (Simpson et al 1982) - the major differences being a significant reduction in dose required for image formation, faster image formation and greater convenience of use in the clinical setting. Attention has been paid to the problem of ring artefacts in the images. Specifically, a Fourier-space filter has been applied to the sinogram data. After suitable detector calibration, it has been shown that the device operates close to its theoretical specification of 3 mm spatial resolution and a few percent contrast resolution. Ring artefacts continue to be a major source of image degradation. A number of clinical images are presented. (author)

  15. A clinical molecular scanner: the Melanie project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstrasser, D F; Appel, R D; Vargas, R; Perrier, R; Vurlod, J F; Ravier, F; Pasquali, C; Funk, M; Pellegrini, C; Muller, A F

    1991-01-01

    We developed an expert system to analyze and interpret protein maps. This system, Melanie (medical electrophoresis analysis interactive expert), can distinguish between normal and cirrhotic liver and identify various types of cancer on the basis of protein patterns in biopsy specimens. Our findings suggest that some diseases associated with toxic compounds or modifications of the human genome can be diagnosed by expert systems that analyze protein maps. The combination of protein mapping and computer analysis could result in a clinically useful "molecular scanner". The massive amount of information analyzed and stored in such studies requires new strategies, including centralized databases and image transmission over networks. Increased understanding of protein expression and regulation will enhance the importance of the human genome project in medicine and biology.

  16. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  17. Mobile prototyping with Axure 7

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, Will

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial which includes hands-on examples and downloadable Axure files to get you started with mobile prototyping immediately. You will learn how to develop an application from scratch, and will be guided through each and every step.If you are a mobile-centric developer/designer, or someone who would like to take their Axure prototyping skills to the next level and start designing and testing mobile prototypes, this book is ideal for you. You should be familiar with prototyping and Axure specifically, before you read this book.

  18. Verification of a CT scanner using a miniature step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.; Carmignato, S.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with performance verification of a CT scanner using a 42mm miniature replica step gauge developed for optical scanner verification. Errors quantification and optimization of CT system set-up in terms of resolution and measurement accuracy are fundamental for use of CT scanning...

  19. Quantitative Assay for Starch by Colorimetry Using a Desktop Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kurt R.; Landmark, James D.; Stickle, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    The procedure to produce standard curve for starch concentration measurement by image analysis using a color scanner and computer for data acquisition and color analysis is described. Color analysis is performed by a Visual Basic program that measures red, green, and blue (RGB) color intensities for pixels within the scanner image.

  20. Vision Assisted Laser Scanner Navigation for Autonomous Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a navigation method based on road detection using both a laser scanner and a vision sensor. The method is to classify the surface in front of the robot into traversable segments (road) and obstacles using the laser scanner, this classifies the area just in front of the robot ...

  1. Radiation dosimetry of computed tomography x-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.; Williamson, B.D.P.; Le Heron, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of the methods employed in National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) surveys of computed tomography x-ray scanners (CT scanners). It includes descriptions of the phantoms and equipment used, discussion of the various dose parameters measured, the principles of the various dosimetry systems employed and some indication of the doses to occupationally exposed personnel

  2. Computer Tomography Scanners in Portugal (1990-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Crispim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Computed Tomography (CT has increased every year since its introduction into medicine in 1972. Technological developments have made CT one of the most important imaging modalities in modern medicine. This importance is evidenced in the increasing demand and number of CT scanners installed in Portugal and worldwide. This review compiles the most recent national statistics from official publications on the number of CT scanners installed in Portugal and compares them with data available in international publications. We conclude that the number of CT scanners installed in Portugal exceeded the EU27 average by 61.5 % and the OECD average by 78.2 %, and that in 2011 there were 203 CT scanners installed in hospitals in Portugal, which equated to 19.23 CT scanners per million inhabitants.

  3. MRI-assisted PET motion correction for neurologic studies in an integrated MR-PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Benner, Thomas; van der Kouwe, Andre; Byars, Larry; Hamm, Michael; Chonde, Daniel B; Michel, Christian J; El Fakhri, Georges; Schmand, Matthias; Sorensen, A Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Head motion is difficult to avoid in long PET studies, degrading the image quality and offsetting the benefit of using a high-resolution scanner. As a potential solution in an integrated MR-PET scanner, the simultaneously acquired MRI data can be used for motion tracking. In this work, a novel algorithm for data processing and rigid-body motion correction (MC) for the MRI-compatible BrainPET prototype scanner is described, and proof-of-principle phantom and human studies are presented. To account for motion, the PET prompt and random coincidences and sensitivity data for postnormalization were processed in the line-of-response (LOR) space according to the MRI-derived motion estimates. The processing time on the standard BrainPET workstation is approximately 16 s for each motion estimate. After rebinning in the sinogram space, the motion corrected data were summed, and the PET volume was reconstructed using the attenuation and scatter sinograms in the reference position. The accuracy of the MC algorithm was first tested using a Hoffman phantom. Next, human volunteer studies were performed, and motion estimates were obtained using 2 high-temporal-resolution MRI-based motion-tracking techniques. After accounting for the misalignment between the 2 scanners, perfectly coregistered MRI and PET volumes were reproducibly obtained. The MRI output gates inserted into the PET list-mode allow the temporal correlation of the 2 datasets within 0.2 ms. The Hoffman phantom volume reconstructed by processing the PET data in the LOR space was similar to the one obtained by processing the data using the standard methods and applying the MC in the image space, demonstrating the quantitative accuracy of the procedure. In human volunteer studies, motion estimates were obtained from echo planar imaging and cloverleaf navigator sequences every 3 s and 20 ms, respectively. Motion-deblurred PET images, with excellent delineation of specific brain structures, were obtained using these 2 MRI

  4. MR-assisted PET Motion Correction for eurological Studies in an Integrated MR-PET Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Benner, Thomas; van der Kouwe, Andre; Byars, Larry; Hamm, Michael; Chonde, Daniel B.; Michel, Christian J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Schmand, Matthias; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Head motion is difficult to avoid in long PET studies, degrading the image quality and offsetting the benefit of using a high-resolution scanner. As a potential solution in an integrated MR-PET scanner, the simultaneously acquired MR data can be used for motion tracking. In this work, a novel data processing and rigid-body motion correction (MC) algorithm for the MR-compatible BrainPET prototype scanner is described and proof-of-principle phantom and human studies are presented. Methods To account for motion, the PET prompts and randoms coincidences as well as the sensitivity data are processed in the line or response (LOR) space according to the MR-derived motion estimates. After sinogram space rebinning, the corrected data are summed and the motion corrected PET volume is reconstructed from these sinograms and the attenuation and scatter sinograms in the reference position. The accuracy of the MC algorithm was first tested using a Hoffman phantom. Next, human volunteer studies were performed and motion estimates were obtained using two high temporal resolution MR-based motion tracking techniques. Results After accounting for the physical mismatch between the two scanners, perfectly co-registered MR and PET volumes are reproducibly obtained. The MR output gates inserted in to the PET list-mode allow the temporal correlation of the two data sets within 0.2 s. The Hoffman phantom volume reconstructed processing the PET data in the LOR space was similar to the one obtained processing the data using the standard methods and applying the MC in the image space, demonstrating the quantitative accuracy of the novel MC algorithm. In human volunteer studies, motion estimates were obtained from echo planar imaging and cloverleaf navigator sequences every 3 seconds and 20 ms, respectively. Substantially improved PET images with excellent delineation of specific brain structures were obtained after applying the MC using these MR-based estimates. Conclusion A novel MR-based MC

  5. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  6. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  7. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  8. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  9. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  10. Experimental validation of a method characterizing bow tie filters in CT scanners using a real-time dose probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, Sarah E.; Nosratieh, Anita; Gelskey, Dale; Yang Kai; Huang Shinying; Chen Lin; Boone, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Beam-shaping or ''bow tie'' (BT) filters are used to spatially modulate the x-ray beam in a CT scanner, but the conventional method of step-and-shoot measurement to characterize a beam's profile is tedious and time-consuming. The theory for characterization of bow tie relative attenuation (COBRA) method, which relies on a real-time dosimeter to address the issues of conventional measurement techniques, was previously demonstrated using computer simulations. In this study, the feasibility of the COBRA theory is further validated experimentally through the employment of a prototype real-time radiation meter and a known BT filter. Methods: The COBRA method consisted of four basic steps: (1) The probe was placed at the edge of a scanner's field of view; (2) a real-time signal train was collected as the scanner's gantry rotated with the x-ray beam on; (3) the signal train, without a BT filter, was modeled using peak values measured in the signal train of step 2; and (4) the relative attenuation of the BT filter was estimated from filtered and unfiltered data sets. The prototype probe was first verified to have an isotropic and linear response to incident x-rays. The COBRA method was then tested on a dedicated breast CT scanner with a custom-designed BT filter and compared to the conventional step-and-shoot characterization of the BT filter. Using basis decomposition of dual energy signal data, the thickness of the filter was estimated and compared to the BT filter's manufacturing specifications. The COBRA method was also demonstrated with a clinical whole body CT scanner using the body BT filter. The relative attenuation was calculated at four discrete x-ray tube potentials and used to estimate the thickness of the BT filter. Results: The prototype probe was found to have a linear and isotropic response to x-rays. The relative attenuation produced from the COBRA method fell within the error of the relative attenuation measured with the step-and-shoot method

  11. A Quadratic Model with Nonpolynomial Terms for Remote Colorimetric Calibration of 3D Laser Scanner Data Based on Piecewise Cubic Hermite Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Danielis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of intensity data from terrestrial laser scanners has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Accurate calibrated intensity could give added value for laser scanning campaigns, for example, in producing faithful 3D colour models of real targets and classifying easier and more reliable automatic tools. In cultural heritage area, the purely geometric information provided by the vast majority of currently available scanners is not enough for most applications, where indeed accurate colorimetric data is needed. This paper presents a remote calibration method for self-registered RGB colour data provided by a 3D tristimulus laser scanner prototype. Such distinguishing colour information opens new scenarios and problems for remote colorimetry. Using piecewise cubic Hermite polynomials, a quadratic model with nonpolynomial terms for reducing inaccuracies occurring in remote colour measurement is implemented. Colorimetric data recorded by the prototype on certified diffusive targets is processed for generating a remote Lambertian model used for assessing the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results concerning laser scanner digitizations of artworks are reported to confirm the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Comparison of Epson scanner quality for radiochromic film evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnawaf, Hani; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin

    2012-09-06

    Epson Desktop scanners have been quoted as devices which match the characteristics required for the evaluation of radiation dose exposure by radiochromic films. Specifically, models such as the 10000XL have been used successfully for image analysis and are recommended by ISP for dosimetry purposes. This note investigates and compares the scanner characteristics of three Epson desktop scanner models including the Epson 10000XL, V700, and V330. Both of the latter are substantially cheaper models capable of A4 scanning. As the price variation between the V330 and the 10000XL is 20-fold (based on Australian recommended retail price), cost savings by using the cheaper scanners may be warranted based on results. By a direct comparison of scanner uniformity and reproducibility we can evaluate the accuracy of these scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry. Results have shown that all three scanners can produce adequate scanner uniformity and reproducibility, with the inexpensive V330 producing a standard deviation variation across its landscape direction of 0.7% and 1.2% in the portrait direction (reflection mode). This is compared to the V700 in reflection mode of 0.25% and 0.5% for landscape and portrait directions, respectively, and 0.5% and 0.8% for the 10000XL. In transmission mode, the V700 is comparable in reproducibility to the 10000XL for portrait and landscape mode, whilst the V330 is only capable of scanning in the landscape direction and produces a standard deviation in this direction of 1.0% compared to 0.6% (V700) and 0.25% (10000XL). Results have shown that the V700 and 10000XL are comparable scanners in quality and accuracy with the 10000XL obviously capable of imaging over an A3 area as opposed to an A4 area for the V700. The V330 scanner produced slightly lower accuracy and quality with uncertainties approximately twice as much as the other scanners. However, the results show that the V330 is still an adequate scanner and could be used for radiation

  13. Whole-body 35-GHz security scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roger; Anderton, Rupert N.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Coward, Peter R.

    2004-08-01

    A 35GHz imager designed for Security Scanning has been previously demonstrated. That imager was based on a folded conical scan technology and was constructed from low cost materials such as expanded polystyrene and printed circuit board. In conjunction with an illumination chamber it was used to collect indoor imagery of people with weapons and contraband hidden under their clothing. That imager had a spot size of 20mm and covered a field of view of 20 x 10 degrees that partially covered the body of an adult from knees to shoulders. A new variant of this imager has been designed and constructed. It has a field of view of 36 x 18 degrees and is capable of covering the whole body of an adult. This was achieved by increasing the number of direct detection receivers from the 32 used in the previous design to 58, and by implementing an improved optical design. The optics consist of a front grid, a polarisation device which converts linear to circular polarisation and a rotating scanner. This new design uses high-density expanded polystyrene as a correcting element on the back of the front grid. This gives an added degree of freedom that allows the optical design to be diffraction limited over a very wide field of view. Obscuration by the receivers and associated components is minimised by integrating the post detection electronics at the receiver array.

  14. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  15. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  16. APLIKASI INFO HALAL MENGGUNAKAN BARCODE SCANNER UNTUK SMARTPHONE ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beki Subeki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – In the production and trade of food products in the era of globalization, people are consuming, especially Muslims need to be given the knowledge, information and access to adequate in order to obtain the correct information about the halal status of products bought. The use of barcode scanners halal product information using the mobile platform is effective and useful for the public to find out information on a product. Barcode scanners can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers or scanned from an image by special software. In Indonesia, most mobile phones have the scanning software for 2D codes, and similar devices available via smartphone.   Keywords : Barcode Scanner, Mobile Platform, Halal Products, Smartphone     Abstrak - Dalam kegiatan produksi dan perdagangan produk pangan di era globalisasi ini, masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi, khususnya umat islam perlu diberikan pengetahuan tentang kehalalan produk, informasi dan akses yang memadai agar memperoleh informasi yang benar tentang status kehalalan produk yang dibelinya. Penggunaan barcode scanner informasi produk halal dengan menggunakan mobile platform dinilai cukup efektif dan berguna bagi masyarakat luas untuk mengetahui informasi sebuah produk. Barcode scanner dapat dibaca oleh pemindai optik yang disebut pembaca kode batang atau dipindai dari sebuah gambar oleh perangkat lunak khusus. Di Indonesia, kebanyakan telepon genggam memiliki perangkat lunak pemindai untuk kode 2D, dan perangkat sejenis tersedia melalui smartphone.   Kata Kunci: Barcode Scanner, Mobile Platform, Produk Halal, Smartphone

  17. Microcontroller USB interfacing with MATLAB GUI for low cost medical ultrasound scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Rossario Raj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an 8051 microcontroller-based control of ultrasound scanner prototype hardware from a host laptop MATLAB GUI. The hardware control of many instruments is carried out by microcontrollers. These microcontrollers are in turn controlled from a GUI residing in a computing machine that is connected over the USB interface. Conventionally such GUIs are developed using ‘C’ language or its variants. But MATLAB GUI is a better tool, when such GUI programs need to do huge image/video processing. However interfacing MATLAB with the microcontroller is a challenging task. Here, MATLAB interfacing through an intermediate MEX ‘C’ language program is presented. This paper outlines the MEX programming methods for achieving the smooth interfacing of microcontrollers with MATLAB GUI.

  18. Design of a Piezoelectric-Driven Tilt Mirror for a Fast Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Ho; Lee, Hu-Seung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, So-Nam; Ham, Young-Bog; Yun, Dong-Won

    2012-09-01

    Recently, laser scanners have been used for laser processing such as cutting, welding, and grooving, especially in the automotive industry. The laser scanners need a high-speed driving to minimize cracks caused by thermal shock of brittle materials. Therefore, a novel laser processing system that is composed of a laser source and a piezoelectric-driven tilt mirror to control the reflection angle of the laser beam, and a stage equipped with the tilt mirror has been investigated. In this study, a piezoelectric-driven tilt mirror is designed and analyzed for scanning performance to achieve a beam spot of 30 µm, a pattern width of 1 mm, an overlap ratio of 70% of the circle area, and a scanning speed of 1 m/s. Then, structural analysis of the tilt mirror with three piezoelectric actuators is performed to determine the maximum reflection angle and resonance frequency. Finally, a prototype tilt mirror is fabricated and its basic characteristics are experimentally investigated and discussed.

  19. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work was to design a prototype fusion reactor based on fusion plasmas confined as ''Compact Toruses.' Six major criteria guided the prototype design. The prototype must: (1) produce net electricity decisively (P/sub net/ >70% of P/sub gross/), with P/sub net/ approximately 100 MW(e); (2) have small physical size (low project cost) but commercial plant; (3) have all features required of commerical plants; (4) avoid unreasonable extrapolation of technology; (5) minimize nuclear issues substantially, i.e. accident and waste issues of public concern, and (6) be modular (to permit repetitive fabrication of parts) and be maintainable with low occupational radiological exposures

  20. Restoration of Hyperspectral Push-Broom Scanner Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut

    1997-01-01

    Several effects combine to distort the multispectral data that are obtained from push-broom scanners. We develop an algorithm for restoration of such data, illustrated on images from the ROSIS scanner. In push-broom scanners variation between elements in the detector array results in a strong...... back into the original spectral space results in noise corrected variables. The noise components will now have been removed from the entire original data set by working on a smaller set of noise contaminated transformed variables only. The application of the above techniques results in a dramatic...

  1. Learning Axure RP interactive prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Krahenbuhl, John Henry

    2015-01-01

    If you are a user experience professional, designer, information architect, or business analyst who wants to gain interactive prototyping skills with Axure, then this book is ideal for you. Some familiarity with Axure is preferred but not essential.

  2. Architectural Prototyping in Industrial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system......, in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, in addressing architectural risks, and in addressing the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. Little work has been reported so far on the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping. In this paper, we report from an ethnographical study...... and focus group involving architects from four companies in which we have focused on architectural prototypes. Our findings conclude that architectural prototypes play an important role in resolving problems experimentally, but less so in exploring alternative solutions. Furthermore, architectural...

  3. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  4. Tangiplay: prototyping tangible electronic games

    OpenAIRE

    Boileau, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Tangible electronic games currently exist in research laboratories around the world but have yet to transition to the commercial sector. The development process of a tangible electronic game is one of the factors preventing progression, as it requires much time and money. Prototyping tools for tangible hardware and software development are becoming more available but are targeted to programmers and technically trained developers. Paper prototyping board and video games is a proven and rapid m...

  5. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  6. Landsat 1-5 Multispectral Scanner V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) was a sensor onboard Landsats 1 through 5 and acquired images of the Earth nearly continuously from July 1972 to...

  7. Fast-prototyping of VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucier, G.; Read, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fast-prototyping will be a reality in the very near future if both straightforward design methods and fast manufacturing facilities are available. This book focuses, first, on the motivation for fast-prototyping. Economic aspects and market considerations are analysed by European and Japanese companies. In the second chapter, new design methods are identified, mainly for full custom circuits. Of course, silicon compilers play a key role and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques sheds a new light on the subject. At present, fast-prototyping on gate arrays or on standard cells is the most conventional technique and the third chapter updates the state-of-the art in this area. The fourth chapter concentrates specifically on the e-beam direct-writing for submicron IC technologies. In the fifth chapter, a strategic point in fast-prototyping, namely the test problem is addressed. The design for testability and the interface to the test equipment are mandatory to fulfill the test requirement for fast-prototyping. Finally, the last chapter deals with the subject of education when many people complain about the lack of use of fast-prototyping in higher education for VLSI

  8. Design Optimization of a TOF, Breast PET Scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunsin; Werner, Matthew E.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2013-01-01

    A dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanner with limited angle geometry can provide flexibility in detector placement around the patient as well as the ability to combine it with other imaging modalities. A primary challenge of a stationary limited angle scanner is the reduced image quality due to artifacts present in the reconstructed image leading to a loss in quantitative information. Previously it has been shown that using time-of-flight (TOF) information in image recons...

  9. A fast ADC scanner for multiparameter nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, G.; Ingebretsen, F.; Holt, K.; Skaali, B.

    1983-04-01

    A fast readout system for multiparameter experiments in nuclear physics is described. The central part of the CAMAC aquisition hardware is an ADC scanner module. The scanner incorporates a new arbitration logic and direct memory access for simultaneous transfer of singles and correlated data. Together with specially designed ADC interfaces the system can be set up for any configuration of singles and multiparameter events from 1 up to 15 ADC's in one crate

  10. A fast ADC scanner for multiparameter nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, G.; Holt, K.; Ingebretsen, F.; Skaali, B.

    1983-01-01

    A fast readout system for multiparameter experiments in nuclear physics is described. The central part of the CAMAC aquisition hardware is an ADC scanner module. The scanner incorporates a new arbitration logic and direct memory access for simultaneous transfer of singles and correlated data. Together with specially designed ADC interfaces the system can be set up for any configurations of singles and multiparameter events from 1 up to 15 ADC's in one crate

  11. Utilization pattern of whole body computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Chul Ho; Lee, Sang Suk

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography scanner (CT scanner) is one of the most expensive and sophisticated diagnostic tool and has already been utilized in many hospitals in Korea. The price as well as operating costs of CT scanner is so expensive as to regulate its installment by government even in the United States. In order to identify the efficient utilization of the CT scanner, the utilization pattern for CT scanning was analyzed at three general hospital in seoul. The results are as follows: 1. Five out of one thousand outpatients and five out of one hundred inpatients were CT scanned. 2. Eighty percent of patients who were scanned were those of inpatients of the hospitals where the scanned are installed. 3. Head standings constitute 45.6 percent of examinations, internal medicine 63.8 percent, and 38.5 percent neurosurgery respectively. 4. The rate of indication for CT scanning showed no statistically significant difference between insured and non-insured groups. 5. Computed tomography scanner units were operated 5.5 days a week in average and full operation rate was 79.5% in average. 6. The major diagnoses mode by head scanning were: hematoma (56.7%), infarction (12.6%), tumor (8.2%), and hydrocephalus (4.4%). 7. Number of patients taken CT Scanning was 43 persons a week in average for each whole body scanner unit

  12. Advanced high speed X-ray CT scanner for measurement and visualization of multi-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Tetsuro; Kawanishi, Kohei; Nishikawa, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    The development of an ultra-fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner has been performed. The object of interest is in a transient or unsettled state, which makes the conventional CT scanner inappropriate. A concept of electrical switching of electron beam of X-ray generation unit is adopted to reduce the scanning time instead of a mechanical motion adopted by a conventional CT scanner. The mechanical motion is a major obstacle to improve the scanning speed. A prototype system with a scanning time of 3.6 milliseconds was developed at first. And, the feasibility was confirmed to measure the dynamic events of two-phase flow. However, faster scanning speed is generally required for the practical use in the thermalhydraulics research field. Therefore, the development of advanced type has been performed. This advanced type can operate under the scanning time of 0.5 milliseconds and is applicable for the measurement of the multi-phase flow with velocity up to 4-5 m/s. (author)

  13. A cradle-shaped gradient coil to expand the clear-bore width of an animal MRI scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, K M; Gati, J S; Klassen, L M; Menon, R S [Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario, N6A 5K8 (Canada)], E-mail: kgilbert@imaging.robarts.ca

    2010-01-21

    The never ending quest for higher magnetic field strengths in MRI and MRS has led to small and medium bore scanners at 9.4 T and above for both human and animal use; however, these bore diameters restrict the size of object that can be accommodated when using a conventional gradient coil. By replacing a cylindrical gradient-coil insert with a single-sided gradient coil, the scanner's functionality can be extended to include localized imaging of wider samples. As a prototype, a three-axis, cradle-shaped gradient coil was designed, fabricated and implemented in a 9.4 T animal MRI scanner. Since gradient fields are required only to be monotonic over the desired field of view, the cradle gradient coil was designed to produce high gradient efficiencies (up to 2.25 mT m{sup -1} A{sup -1} over a 5 cm imaging region) at the expense of gradient linearity. A dedicated three-dimensional algorithm was developed to correct the resultant image distortion. Preliminary images of a grid phantom and a mouse demonstrated the fidelity of the algorithm in correcting image distortion of greater than 200%. Eddy currents were measured along each gradient axis. A large 65.2 (Hz mT{sup -1} m) B{sub 0} eddy current was produced by the y-axis, suggesting potential limitations of single-sided gradient coils.

  14. Prototypes in engineering design: Definitions and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing literature, we investigate types, purposes and definitions of prototypes. There is no overarching definition of a prototype, but we identify five categories of prototypes in litterature. We further synthesize and reference previous work to create an overview of aspects in prototyping...

  15. Prototyping in theory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Brem, Alexander; Pasinell, Michele

    2018-01-01

    and functions of a prototype and needed to meet specific goals in order to push the process forward. Designers, on the other hand, used prototypes to investigate the design space for new possibilities, and were more open to a variety of prototyping materials and tools, especially for low-fidelity prototypes...

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Formally Modelled Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Didier; Buffo, Mathieu; Titsworth, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents various kinds of prototypes, used in the prototyping of formally modelled distributed systems. It presents the notions of prototyping techniques and prototype evolution, and shows how to relate them to the software life-cycle. It is illustrated through the use of the formal modelling language for distributed systems CO-OPN/2.

  17. Towards an Operational Framework for Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes.......We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes....

  18. Scanner qualification with IntenCD based reticle error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elblinger, Yair; Finders, Jo; Demarteau, Marcel; Wismans, Onno; Minnaert Janssen, Ingrid; Duray, Frank; Ben Yishai, Michael; Mangan, Shmoolik; Cohen, Yaron; Parizat, Ziv; Attal, Shay; Polonsky, Netanel; Englard, Ilan

    2010-03-01

    Scanner introduction into the fab production environment is a challenging task. An efficient evaluation of scanner performance matrices during factory acceptance test (FAT) and later on during site acceptance test (SAT) is crucial for minimizing the cycle time for pre and post production-start activities. If done effectively, the matrices of base line performance established during the SAT are used as a reference for scanner performance and fleet matching monitoring and maintenance in the fab environment. Key elements which can influence the cycle time of the SAT, FAT and maintenance cycles are the imaging, process and mask characterizations involved with those cycles. Discrete mask measurement techniques are currently in use to create across-mask CDU maps. By subtracting these maps from their final wafer measurement CDU map counterparts, it is possible to assess the real scanner induced printed errors within certain limitations. The current discrete measurement methods are time consuming and some techniques also overlook mask based effects other than line width variations, such as transmission and phase variations, all of which influence the final printed CD variability. Applied Materials Aera2TM mask inspection tool with IntenCDTM technology can scan the mask at high speed, offer full mask coverage and accurate assessment of all masks induced source of errors simultaneously, making it beneficial for scanner qualifications and performance monitoring. In this paper we report on a study that was done to improve a scanner introduction and qualification process using the IntenCD application to map the mask induced CD non uniformity. We will present the results of six scanners in production and discuss the benefits of the new method.

  19. Quality assurance for MR stereotactic imaging for three Siemens scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubikova, P.; Novotny, J. Jr.; Kulhova, K.; Mihalova, P.; Tamasova, J.; Veselsk, T.

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance of stereotactic imaging, especially with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), is a complex issue. It can be divided in the basic verification and commissioning of a particular new scanner or a new scanning MRI protocol that is being implemented into a clinical practice and the routine quality assurance performed for each single radiosurgical case. The aim of this study was geometric distortion assessment in MRI with a special PTGR (Physikalisch-Technische Gesellschaft fuer Radiologie - GmbH, Tuebingen, Germany) target phantom. PTGR phantom consists of 21 three-dimensional cross-hairs filled with contrast medium. Cross hairs are positioned at known Leksell coordinates with a precision of better than 0.1 mm and covering the whole stereotactic space. The phantom can be fixed in the Leksell stereotactic frame and thus stereotactic imaging procedures can be reproduced following exactly the same steps as for a real patient, including also the stereotactic image definition in the Leksell GammaPlan. Since the geometric position (stereotactic coordinates) of each cross-hair is known based on the construction of the phantom, it can be compared with the actual measured Leksell coordinates based on the stereotactic MRI. Deviations between expected and actual coordinates provide information about the level of distortion. The measured distortions proved satisfactory accuracy precision for stereotactic localization at 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom Avanto scanner, Siemens Magnetom Symphony scanner and 3T Siemens Magnetom Skyra scanner (Na Homolce Hospital, Prague). The mean distortion for these MR scanners for standard imaging protocol (T1 weighted 3D images) were 0.8 mm, 1.1 mm and 1.1 mm and maximum distortions were 1.3 mm, 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively.There was detected dependence of the distortions on the slice orientation and the type of imaging protocol. Image distortions are also property of each particular scanner, the worst distortion were observed for 3T

  20. Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed

  1. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  2. Science with the ASTRI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a “Flagship Project” financed by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. It represents the Italian proposal for the development of the Small Size Telescope system of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, the next generation observatory for Very High Energy gamma-rays (20 GeV - 100 TeV). The ASTRI end-to-end prototype will be installed at Serra La Nave (Catania, Italy) and it will see the first light at the beginning of 2014. We describe the expected performance of the prototype on few selected test cases of the northern emisphere. The aim of the prototype is to probe the technological solutions and the nominal performance of the various telescope's subsystems

  3. Flight Telerobotic Servicer prototype simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Rob; Krauze, Linda; Hartley, Craig; Dickenson, Alan; Lavecchia, Tom; Working, Bob

    A prototype simulator for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) system is described for use in the design development of the FTS, emphasizing the hand controller and user interface. The simulator utilizes a graphics workstation based on rapid prototyping tools for systems analyses of the use of the user interface and the hand controller. Kinematic modeling, manipulator-control algorithms, and communications programs are contained in the software for the simulator. The hardwired FTS panels and operator interface for use on the STS Orbiter are represented graphically, and the simulated controls function as the final FTS system configuration does. The robotic arm moves based on the user hand-controller interface, and the joint angles and other data are given on the prototype of the user interface. This graphics simulation tool provides the means for familiarizing crewmembers with the FTS system operation, displays, and controls.

  4. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  5. A prototype table-top inverse-geometry volumetric CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Star-Lack, Josh; Bennett, N. Robert; Mazin, Samuel R.; Solomon, Edward G.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2006-01-01

    A table-top volumetric CT system has been implemented that is able to image a 5-cm-thick volume in one circular scan with no cone-beam artifacts. The prototype inverse-geometry CT (IGCT) scanner consists of a large-area, scanned x-ray source and a detector array that is smaller in the transverse direction. The IGCT geometry provides sufficient volumetric sampling because the source and detector have the same axial, or slice direction, extent. This paper describes the implementation of the table-top IGCT scanner, which is based on the NexRay Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray system (NexRay, Inc., Los Gatos, CA) and an investigation of the system performance. The alignment and flat-field calibration procedures are described, along with a summary of the reconstruction algorithm. The resolution and noise performance of the prototype IGCT system are studied through experiments and further supported by analytical predictions and simulations. To study the presence of cone-beam artifacts, a ''Defrise'' phantom was scanned on both the prototype IGCT scanner and a micro CT system with a ±5 deg.cone angle for a 4.5-cm volume thickness. Images of inner ear specimens are presented and compared to those from clinical CT systems. Results showed that the prototype IGCT system has a 0.25-mm isotropic resolution and that noise comparable to that from a clinical scanner with equivalent spatial resolution is achievable. The measured MTF and noise values agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions and computer simulations. The IGCT system was able to faithfully reconstruct the laminated pattern of the Defrise phantom while the micro CT system suffered severe cone-beam artifacts for the same object. The inner ear acquisition verified that the IGCT system can image a complex anatomical object, and the resulting images exhibited more high-resolution details than the clinical CT acquisition. Overall, the successful implementation of the prototype system supports the IGCT concept for

  6. A Computer-Controlled Laser Bore Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Charles C.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of a laser scanning system for production applications. The laser scanning techniques, the timing control, the logic design of the pattern recognition subsystem, the digital computer servo control for the loading and un-loading of parts, and the laser probe rotation and its synchronization will be discussed. The laser inspection machine is designed to automatically inspect the surface of precision-bored holes, such as those in automobile master cylinders, without contacting the machined surface. Although the controls are relatively sophisticated, operation of the laser inspection machine is simple. A laser light beam from a commercially available gas laser, directed through a probe, scans the entire surface of the bore. Reflected light, picked up through optics by photoelectric sensors, generates signals that are fed to a mini-computer for processing. A pattern recognition techniques program in the computer determines acceptance or rejection of the part being inspected. The system's acceptance specifications are adjustable and are set to the user's established tolerances. However, the computer-controlled laser system is capable of defining from 10 to 75 rms surface finish, and voids or flaws from 0.0005 to 0.020 inch. Following the successful demonstration with an engineering prototype, the described laser machine has proved its capability to consistently ensure high-quality master brake cylinders. It thus provides a safety improvement for the automotive braking system. Flawless, smooth cylinder bores eliminate premature wearing of the rubber seals, resulting in a longer-lasting master brake cylinder and a safer and more reliable automobile. The results obtained from use of this system, which has been in operation about a year for replacement of a tedious, manual operation on one of the high-volume lines at the Bendix Hydraulics Division, have been very satisfactory.

  7. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  8. Astrometric properties of the Tautenburg Plate Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens; Meusinger, Helmut

    The Tautenburg Plate Scanner (TPS) is an advanced plate-measuring machine run by the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Karl Schwarzschild Observatory), where the machine is housed. It is capable of digitising photographic plates up to 30 cm × 30 cm in size. In our poster, we reported on tests and preliminary results of its astrometric properties. The essential components of the TPS consist of an x-y table movable between an illumination system and a direct imaging system. A telecentric lens images the light transmitted through the photographic emulsion onto a CCD line of 6000 pixels of 10 µm square size each. All components are mounted on a massive air-bearing table. Scanning is performed in lanes of up to 55 mm width by moving the x-y table in a continuous drift-scan mode perpendicular to the CCD line. The analogue output from the CCD is digitised to 12 bit with a total signal/noise ratio of 1000 : 1, corresponding to a photographic density range of three. The pixel map is produced as a series of optionally overlapping lane scans. The pixel data are stored onto CD-ROM or DAT. A Tautenburg Schmidt plate 24 cm × 24 cm in size is digitised within 2.5 hours resulting in 1.3 GB of data. Subsequent high-level data processing is performed off-line on other computers. During the scanning process, the geometry of the optical components is kept fixed. The optimal focussing of the optics is performed prior to the scan. Due to the telecentric lens refocussing is not required. Therefore, the main source of astrometric errors (beside the emulsion itself) are mechanical imperfections in the drive system, which have to be divided into random and systematic ones. The r.m.s. repeatability over the whole plate as measured by repeated scans of the same plate is about 0.5 µm for each axis. The mean plate-to-plate accuracy of the object positions on two plates with the same epoch and the same plate centre has been determined to be about 1 µm. This accuracy is comparable to

  9. Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Ezra

    2012-01-01

    Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials is a detailed, practical primer on the leading rapid prototyping tool. Short on jargon and high on concepts, real-life scenarios and step-by-step guidance through hands-on examples, this book will show you how to integrate Axure into your UX workflow. This book is written for UX practitioners, business analysts, product managers, and anyone else who is involved in UX projects. The book assumes that you have no or very little familiarity with Axure. It will help you if you are evaluating the tool for an upcoming project or are required to quickly get up to spee

  10. Miniaturized Fourier-plane fiber scanner for OCT endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilches, Sergio; Kretschmer, Simon; Ataman, Çağlar; Zappe, Hans

    2017-01-01

    A forward-looking endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe featuring a Fourier-plane fiber scanner is designed, manufactured and characterized. In contrast to common image-plane fiber scanners, the Fourier-plane scanner is a telecentric arrangement that eliminates vignetting and spatial resolution variations across the image plane. To scan the OCT beam in a spiral pattern, a tubular piezoelectric actuator is used to resonate an optical fiber bearing a collimating GRIN lens at its tip. The free-end of the GRIN lens sits at the back focal plane of an objective lens, such that its rotation replicates the beam angles in the collimated region of a classical telecentric 4f optical system. Such an optical arrangement inherently has a low numerical aperture combined with a relatively large field-of-view, rendering it particularly useful for endoscopic OCT imaging. Furthermore, the optical train of the Fourier-plane scanner is shorter than that of a comparable image-plane scanner by one focal length of the objective lens, significantly shortening the final arrangement. As a result, enclosed within a 3D printed housing of 2.5 mm outer diameter and 15 mm total length, the developed probe is the most compact forward-looking endoscopic OCT imager to date. Due to its compact form factor and compatibility with real-time OCT imaging, the developed probe is also ideal for use in the working channel of flexible endoscopes as a potential optical biopsy tool. (paper)

  11. Miniaturized Fourier-plane fiber scanner for OCT endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Sergio; Kretschmer, Simon; Ataman, Çağlar; Zappe, Hans

    2017-10-01

    A forward-looking endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe featuring a Fourier-plane fiber scanner is designed, manufactured and characterized. In contrast to common image-plane fiber scanners, the Fourier-plane scanner is a telecentric arrangement that eliminates vignetting and spatial resolution variations across the image plane. To scan the OCT beam in a spiral pattern, a tubular piezoelectric actuator is used to resonate an optical fiber bearing a collimating GRIN lens at its tip. The free-end of the GRIN lens sits at the back focal plane of an objective lens, such that its rotation replicates the beam angles in the collimated region of a classical telecentric 4f optical system. Such an optical arrangement inherently has a low numerical aperture combined with a relatively large field-of-view, rendering it particularly useful for endoscopic OCT imaging. Furthermore, the optical train of the Fourier-plane scanner is shorter than that of a comparable image-plane scanner by one focal length of the objective lens, significantly shortening the final arrangement. As a result, enclosed within a 3D printed housing of 2.5 mm outer diameter and 15 mm total length, the developed probe is the most compact forward-looking endoscopic OCT imager to date. Due to its compact form factor and compatibility with real-time OCT imaging, the developed probe is also ideal for use in the working channel of flexible endoscopes as a potential optical biopsy tool.

  12. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Buchmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  13. Characterization of a Large, Low-Cost 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imagery-based 3D scanning can be performed by scanners with multiple form factors, ranging from small and inexpensive scanners requiring manual movement around a stationary object to large freestanding (nearly instantaneous units. Small mobile units are problematic for use in scanning living creatures, which may be unwilling or unable to (or for the very young and animals, unaware of the need to hold a fixed position for an extended period of time. Alternately, very high cost scanners that can capture a complete scan within a few seconds are available, but they are cost prohibitive for some applications. This paper seeks to assess the performance of a large, low-cost 3D scanner, presented in prior work, which is able to concurrently capture imagery from all around an object. It provides the capabilities of the large, freestanding units at a price point akin to the smaller, mobile ones. This allows access to 3D scanning technology (particularly for applications requiring instantaneous imaging at a lower cost. Problematically, prior analysis of the scanner’s performance was extremely limited. This paper characterizes the efficacy of the scanner for scanning both inanimate objects and humans. Given the importance of lighting to visible light scanning systems, the scanner’s performance under multiple lighting configurations is evaluated, characterizing its sensitivity to lighting design.

  14. Evaluation of GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Fischer, M.; Cremers, F.; Thom, E.; Schmidt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The capability of the new GafChromic EBT prototype B for external beam dose verification is investigated in this paper. First the general characteristics of this film (dose response, postirradiation coloration, influence of calibration field size) were derived using a flat-bed scanner. In the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy, the sensitivity of the EBT prototype B film is ten times higher than the response of the GafChromic HS, which so far was the GafChromic film with the highest sensitivity. Compared with the Kodak EDR2 film, the response of the EBT is higher by a factor of 3 in the dose range from 0.1 to 8 Gy. The GafChromic EBT almost does not show a temporal growth of the optical density and there is no influence of the chosen calibration field size on the dose response curve obtained from this data. A MatLab program was written to evaluate the two-dimensional dose distributions from treatment planning systems and GafChromic EBT film measurements. Verification of external beam therapy (SRT, IMRT) using the above-mentioned approach resulted in very small differences between the planned and the applied dose. The GafChromic EBT prototype B together with the flat-bed scanner and MatLab is a successful approach for making the advantages of the GafChromic films applicable for verification of external beam therapy

  15. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  16. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  17. The OPAL vertex detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, J.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Giles, G.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; McPherson, A.C.; Pinfold, J.L.; Waterhouse, J.; Godfrey, L.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype test results of a high resolution charged particle tracking detector are reported. The detector is designed to measure vertex topologies of particles produced in the e + e - collisions of the OPAL experiment at LEP. The OPAL vertex detector is a 1 m long, 0.46 m diameter cylindrical drift chamber consisting of an axial and stereo layer each of which is divided into 36 jet cells. A prototype chamber containing four axial and two stereo cells was studied using a pion test beam at CERN. The studies examined the prototype under a variety of operating conditions. An r-Φ resolution of 60 μm was obtained when the chamber was operated with argon (50%)-ethane (50%) at 3.75 bar, and when CO 2 (80%)-isobutane (20%) at 2.5 bar was used a 25 μm resolution was achieved. A z measurement using end-to-end time difference has a resolution of 3.5 cm. The details of these prototype studies are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  18. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  19. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  20. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  1. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  2. Dental impressions using 3D digital scanners: virtual becomes reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Nathan S; Aaronson, Heidi B

    2008-10-01

    The technologies that have made the use of three-dimensional (3D) digital scanners an integral part of many industries for decades have been improved and refined for application to dentistry. Since the introduction of the first dental impressioning digital scanner in the 1980s, development engineers at a number of companies have enhanced the technologies and created in-office scanners that are increasingly user-friendly and able to produce precisely fitting dental restorations. These systems are capable of capturing 3D virtual images of tooth preparations, from which restorations may be fabricated directly (ie, CAD/CAM systems) or fabricated indirectly (ie, dedicated impression scanning systems for the creation of accurate master models). The use of these products is increasing rapidly around the world and presents a paradigm shift in the way in which dental impressions are made. Several of the leading 3D dental digital scanning systems are presented and discussed in this article.

  3. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    The method of diagnosing patients used since the early 1980s in psychiatry, which involves evaluating each of several hundred symptoms for their presence or absence and then applying idiosyncratic rules for combining them for each of several hundred disorders, has led to great advances in research over the last 30 years. However, its problems have become increasingly apparent, particularly for clinical practice. An alternative approach, designed to maximize clinical utility, is prototype matching. Instead of counting symptoms of a disorder and determining whether they cross an arbitrary cutoff, the task of the diagnostician is to gauge the extent to which a patient’s clinical presentation matches a paragraph-length description of the disorder using a simple 5-point scale, from 1 (“little or no match”) to 5 (“very good match”). The result is both a dimensional diagnosis that captures the extent to which the patient “has” the disorder and a categorical diagnosis, with ratings of 4 and 5 corresponding to presence of the disorder and a rating of 3 indicating “subthreshold” or “clinically significant features”. The disorders and criteria woven into the prototypes can be identified empirically, so that the prototypes are both scientifically grounded and clinically useful. Prototype diagnosis has a number of advantages: it better captures the way humans naturally classify novel and complex stimuli; is clinically helpful, reliable, and easy to use in everyday practice; facilitates both dimensional and categorical diagnosis and dramatically reduces the number of categories required for classification; allows for clinically richer, empirically derived, and culturally relevant classification; reduces the gap between research criteria and clinical knowledge, by allowing clinicians in training to learn a small set of standardized prototypes and to develop richer mental representations of the disorders over time through clinical experience; and can help

  4. Prototype Effect and the Persuasiveness of Generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually has. This prototype effect increases the persuasiveness of the argument in situations where the audience finds the judgment more warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (positive prototype effect), but decreases persuasiveness in situations where the audience finds the judgment less warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (negative prototype effect).

  5. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  6. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  7. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  8. Cyclone: A laser scanner for mobile robot navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjiv; West, Jay

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at Carnegie Mellon's Field Robotics Center have designed and implemented a scanning laser rangefinder. The device uses a commercially available time-of-flight ranging instrument that is capable of making up to 7200 measurements per second. The laser beam is reflected by a rotating mirror, producing up to a 360 degree view. Mounted on a robot vehicle, the scanner can be used to detect obstacles in the vehicle's path or to locate the robot on a map. This report discusses the motivation, design, and some applications of the scanner.

  9. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  10. Development of the Shimadzu computed tomographic scanner SCT-200N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    The Shimadzu Computed Tomographic Scanner SCT-200N has been developed as an ideal CT scanner for diagnosing the head and spine. Due to the large aperture, moderate scan time and the Zoom Scan Mode, any part of the body can be scanned. High quality image can be obtained by adopting the precisely stabilized X-ray unit and densely packed array of 64-detectors. As for its operation, capability of computed radiography (CR) prior to patient positioning and real time reconstruction ensure efficient patient through-put. Details of the SCT-200N are described in this paper. (author)

  11. Isocount scintillation scanner with preset statistical data reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, J.; Yamaguchi, H.; Nawa, O.A.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation detector scans an object such as a live body along horizontal straight scanning lines in such a manner that the scintillation detector is stopped at a scanning point during the time interval T required for counting a predetermined number of N pulses. The rate R/sub N/ = N/T is then calculated and the output signal pulses the number of which represents the rate R or the corresponding output signal is used as the recording signal for forming the scintigram. In contrast to the usual scanner, the isocount scanner scans an object stepwise in order to gather data with statistically uniform reliability

  12. Design in action: From prototyping by demonstration to cooperative prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    ... the development of any computer-based system will have to proceed in a cycle from design to experience and back again. It is impossible to anticipate all of the relevant breakdown and their domains. They emerge gradually in practice. Winograd and Flores, 1986. p.171 Some time ago we worked wi...... with a group of dental assistants, designing a prototype case record system to explore the possibility of using computer support in public dental clinics. ...

  13. An MRI-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the MRI Scanner Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J.; Watkins, Ronald D.; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Guttman, Michael A.; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within an MRI scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, prior to delivery of CPR and defibrillation, potentially increasing risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute-ischemic, acute-stroke) patients from undergoing MRI imaging and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the MRI seconds after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. Methods and Results A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by addition of novel Radio-Frequency (RF) filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface-pads. The RF filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner, and prevented cable/surface-pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator’s monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high Specific-Absorption-Rate sequences to validate MRI image quality (IQ) and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (N=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI IQ was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface-pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6mm below the skin surface. RF heating was within FDA guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. Conclusions A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading image quality, or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. PMID:27729363

  14. Potential of a novel airborne hydrographic laser scanner for capturing shallow water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlburger, G.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Steinbacher, F.; Pfeifer, N.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present the general design of a hydrographic laser scanner (prototype instrument) manufactured by the company Riegl Laser Measurement Systems in cooperation with the University of Innsbruck, Unit of Hydraulic Engineering. The instrument utilizes very short laser pulses (1 ns) in the green wavelength domain (λ=532 nm) capable of penetrating the water column. The backscattered signal is digitized in a waveform recorder at high frequency enabling sophisticated waveform processing, both, online during the flight and in post processing. In combination with a traditional topographic airborne laser scanner (λ=1500 nm) mounted on the same platform a complete hydrographic and topographic survey of the riparian foreland, the water surface and river bed can be carried out in a single campaign. In contrast to existing bathymetric LiDAR systems, the presented system uses only medium pulse energy but a high pulse repetition rate of up to 250 kHz and, thus, focuses on a detailed description of shallow water bodies under clear water conditions. Different potential fields of applications of the instrument (hydraulic modelling, hydro-morphology, hydro-biology, ecology, river restoration and monitoring) are discussed and the results of first real-world test flights in Austria and Germany are presented. It is shown that: (i) the high pulse repetition rate enables a point density on the ground of the water body of 10-20 pts/m2, (ii) the short laser pulses together with waveform processing enable a discrimination between water and ground reflections at a water depth of less than 25 cm, (iii) the combination of a topographic and hydrographic laser scanner enable the acquisition of the geometry data for hydraulic modeling in a single survey, thus, providing a much more homogeneous data basis compared to traditional techniques, and (iv) the high point density and the ranging accuracy of less than 10 cm enable a detailed and precise description of the river bed

  15. The feasibility of a scanner-independent technique to estimate organ dose from MDCT scans: Using CTDIvol to account for differences between scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Adam C.; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J.; Cagnon, Chris H.; Zhang Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDI vol measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDI vol values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDI vol value for those acquisition conditions. Results: CTDI vol values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses

  16. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  18. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  19. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  20. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  1. Prototype and proposed ISABELLE dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Sampson, W.B.; Robins, K.E.; Dahl, P.F.; Damm, R.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the latest dipole prototypes to update the operational parameters possible for ISABELLE. This data base will constantly expand until the start of construction of the storage rings. The data will include field quality, stray field magnitudes, quench temperature and propagation times, protection capabilities singly and in multiple units, maximum central fields obtained and training behavior. Performance of the dipoles versus temperature and mode of refrigeration will be discussed. The single layer cosine theta turns distribution coils' parameters are better than those required for the operation of the 200 x 200 GeV version of ISABELLE. The double layer prototype has exceeded the magnetic field performance and two dimensional quality of field needed for the 400 x 400 GeV version of ISABELLE

  2. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report

  3. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  4. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  6. Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

  7. Feature-space transformation improves supervised segmentation across scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Opbroek, Annegreet; Achterberg, Hakim C.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Image-segmentation techniques based on supervised classification generally perform well on the condition that training and test samples have the same feature distribution. However, if training and test images are acquired with different scanners or scanning parameters, their feature distributions...

  8. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  9. Sea surface temperature mapping using a thermal infrared scanner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R; Pandya, R; Mathur, K.M.; Charyulu, R; Rao, L.V.G.

    1 metre water column below the sea surface. A thermal infrared scanner developed by the Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad was operated on board R.V. Gaveshani in April/May 1984 for mapping SST over the eastern Arabian Sea. SST values...

  10. The economic potential of CT scanners for hardwood sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald G. Hodges; Walter C. Anderson; Charles W. McMillin

    1990-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a knowledge of internal log defects prior to sawing could improve lumber value yields significantly. This study evaluated the potential economic returns from investments in computerized tomographic (CT) scanners to detect internal defects in hardwood logs at southern sawmills. The results indicate that such investments would be profitable...

  11. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  12. Benchmarking Advanced Control Algorithms for a Laser Scanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Ordys, A.W.; Smillie, I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes tests performed on the laser scanner system toassess feasibility of modern control techniques in achieving a requiredperformance in the trajectory following problem. The two methods tested areQTR H-infinity and Predictive Control. The results are ilustated ona simulation example....

  13. Scanner image methodology (SIM) to measure dimensions of leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A scanner image methodology was used to determine plant dimensions, such as leaf area, length and width. The values obtained using SIM were compared with those recorded by the LI-COR leaf area meter. Bias, linearity, reproducibility and repeatability (R&R) were evaluated for SIM. Different groups of leaves were ...

  14. Algorithms for Coastal-Zone Color-Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Software for Nimbus-7 Coastal-Zone Color-Scanner (CZCS) derived products consists of set of scientific algorithms for extracting information from CZCS-gathered data. Software uses CZCS-generated Calibrated RadianceTemperature (CRT) tape as input and outputs computer-compatible tape and film product.

  15. Demonstration: A smartphone 3D functional brain scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    We demonstrate a fully portable 3D real-time functional brain scanner consisting of a wireless 14-channel ‘Neuroheadset‘ (Emotiv EPOC) and a Nokia N900 smartphone. The novelty of our system is the ability to perform real-time functional brain imaging on a smartphone device, including stimulus...

  16. Design of active-neutron fuel rod scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1996-01-01

    An active-neutron fuel rod scanner has been designed for the assay of fissile materials in mixed oxide fuel rods. A 252 Cf source is located at the center of the scanner very near the through hole for the fuel rods. Spontaneous fission neutrons from the californium are moderated and induce fissions within the passing fuel rod. The rod continues past a combined gamma-ray and neutron shield where delayed gamma rays above 1 MeV are detected. We used the Monte Carlo code MCNP to design the scanner and review optimum materials and geometries. An inhomogeneous beryllium, graphite, and polyethylene moderator has been designed that uses source neutrons much more efficiently than assay systems using polyethylene moderators. Layers of borated polyethylene and tungsten are used to shield the detectors. Large NaI(Tl) detectors were selected to measure the delayed gamma rays. The enrichment zones of a thermal reactor fuel pin could be measured to within 1% counting statistics for practical rod speeds. Applications of the rod scanner include accountability of fissile material for safeguards applications, quality control of the fissile content in a fuel rod, and the verification of reactivity potential for mixed oxide fuels. (orig.)

  17. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  18. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  19. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  20. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  1. Using prototyping in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Miha

    2010-01-01

    Today the business system changers faster than the usual conventional cascade life cycle. Because of that, we can conclude, that today's programming system will no longer be presented as the answer to this topic in the developing age of ever changing user requirements. Neither increased performance or higher productivity will decrease the problem. The appropriate solution to this stated problem is prototyping. Instead of building and developing the whole system, we build a module that can...

  2. Iteration and Prototyping in Creating Technical Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that the development process for computer software can be greatly aided by the writers of specifications if they employ basic iteration and prototyping techniques. Asserts that computer software configuration management practices provide ready models for iteration and prototyping. (HB)

  3. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  4. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  5. Prototype effect and the persuasiveness of generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually ...

  6. In vivo cellular imaging with microscopes enabled by MEMS scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun

    High-resolution optical imaging plays an important role in medical diagnosis and biomedical research. Confocal microscopy is a widely used imaging method for obtaining cellular and sub-cellular images of biological tissue in reflectance and fluorescence modes. Its characteristic optical sectioning capability also enables three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction. However, its use has mostly been limited to excised tissues due to the requirement of high numerical aperture (NA) lenses for cellular resolution. Microscope miniaturization can enable in vivo imaging to make possible early cancer diagnosis and biological studies in the innate environment. In this dissertation, microscope miniaturization for in vivo cellular imaging is presented. The dual-axes confocal (DAC) architecture overcomes limitations of the conventional single-axis confocal (SAC) architecture to allow for miniaturization with high resolution. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner is the central imaging component that is key in miniaturization of the DAC architecture. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the two-dimensional (2-D) MEMS scanner are presented. The gimbaled MEMS scanner is fabricated on a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives. The imaging performance of the MEMS scanner in a DAC configuration is shown in a breadboard microscope setup, where reflectance and fluorescence imaging is demonstrated. Then, the MEMS scanner is integrated into a miniature DAC microscope. The whole imaging system is integrated into a portable unit for research in small animal models of human biology and disease. In vivo 3-D imaging is demonstrated on mouse skin models showing gene transfer and siRNA silencing. The siRNA silencing process is sequentially imaged in one mouse over time.

  7. Method for calibration of an axial tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The method of calibrating an axial tomographic scanner including frame means having an opening therein in which an object to be examined is to be placed, source and detector means mounted on the frame means for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector means, and means to rotate the scanner including the source and detector means about the object whereby a plurality of sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption by the object of a plurality of beams of penetrating radiation are collected; the calibration method comprising mounting calibration means supporting an adjustable centering member onto the frame means, positioning the adjustable centering member at approximately the center of rotation of the scanner, placing position-sensitive indicator means adjacent the approximately centered member, rotating the scanner and the calibration means mounted thereon at least one time and, if necessary, adjusting the positioning of the centering member until the centering member is coincident with the center of rotation of the scanner as determined by minimum deflection of the position-sensitive indicator means, rotating and translating the source and detector means and determining for each angular orientation of the frame means supporting the source and detector means the central position of each translational scan relative to the centered member and/or if a plurality of detectors are utilized with the detector means for each planar slice of the object being examined, the central position of each translational scan for each detector relative to the centered member

  8. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  10. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  11. [Reliability of three dimensional resin model by rapid prototyping manufacturing and digital modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fei-huang; Xu, Yuan-zhi; Fang, Li; Tang, Xiao-shan

    2012-02-01

    To describe a new technique for fabricating an 3D resin model by 3D reconstruction and rapid prototyping, and to analyze the precision of this method. An optical grating scanner was used to acquire the data of silastic cavity block , digital dental cast was reconstructed with the data through Geomagic Studio image processing software. The final 3D reconstruction was saved in the pattern of Stl. The 3D resin model was fabricated by fuse deposition modeling, and was compared with the digital model and gypsum model. The data of three groups were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software package. No significant difference was found in gypsum model,digital dental cast and 3D resin model (P>0.05). Rapid prototyping manufacturing and digital modeling would be helpful for dental information acquisition, treatment design, appliance manufacturing, and can improve the communications between patients and doctors.

  12. Defense Commissaries: Issues Related to the Sale of Electronic Scanner Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    In response to your request that we review DeCA'S sale of scanner data and its implementation of category management, this report identifies DeCA'S total revenue from selling scanner data and compares license revenues...

  13. A new generation of PET scanners for small animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyesi, G.; Imrek, J.; Kalinka, G.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Valastyan, I.; Balkay, L.; Emri, M.; Kis, S.; Tron, L.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Research on small animal PET scanners has been a hot topic in recent years. These devices are used in the preclinical phases of drug tests and during the development of new radiopharmaceuticals. They also provide a cost efficient way to test new materials, new design concepts and new technologies that later can be used to build more efficient human medical imaging devices. The development of a PET scanner requires expertise on different fields, therefore a consortium was formed that brought together Hungarian academic and industrial partners: the Nuclear Research Institute (which has experience in the development of nuclear detectors and data acquisition systems), the PET Center of the University of Debrecen (which has clinical experience in the application of nuclear imaging devices and background in image processing software), Mediso Ltd. (which has been developing, manufacturing, selling and servicing medical imaging devices since 1990) and other academic partners. This consortium has been working together since 2003: the knowledge base acquired during the development of our small animal PET scanners (miniPET-I and miniPET-II) is now being utilized to build a commercial multimodal human PET scanner. The operation of a PET scanner is based on the simultaneous detection ('coincidence') of two gamma photons originating from a positron annihilation. In traditional PET scanners coincidence is detected by a central unit during the measurement. In our system there is no such central module: all detected single gamma events are recorded (list mode data acquisition), and the list of events are processed using a computer cluster (built from PCs). The usage of independent detector modules and commercial components reduce both development and maintenance costs. Also, this mode of data acquisition is more suitable for development purposes, since once the data is collected and stored it can be used many times to test different signal

  14. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  15. Digital Data Matrix Scanner Developnent At Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has resulted in a system for reading hidden identification codes using a hand-held magnetic scanner. It's an invention that could help businesses improve inventory management, enhance safety, improve security, and aid in recall efforts if defects are discovered. Two-dimensional Data Matrix symbols consisting of letters and numbers permanently etched on items for identification and resembling a small checkerboard pattern are more efficient and reliable than traditional bar codes, and can store up to 100 times more information. A team led by Fred Schramm of the Marshall Center's Technology Transfer Department, in partnership with PRI,Torrance, California, has developed a hand-held device that can read this special type of coded symbols, even if covered by up to six layers of paint. Before this new technology was available, matrix symbols were read with optical scanners, and only if the codes were visible. This latest improvement in digital Data Matrix technologies offers greater flexibility for businesses and industries already using the marking system. Paint, inks, and pastes containing magnetic properties are applied in matrix symbol patterns to objects with two-dimensional codes, and the codes are read by a magnetic scanner, even after being covered with paint or other coatings. The ability to read hidden matrix symbols promises a wide range of benefits in a number of fields, including airlines, electronics, healthcare, and the automotive industry. Many industries would like to hide information on a part, so it can be read only by the party who put it there. For instance, the automotive industry uses direct parts marking for inventory control, but for aesthetic purposes the marks often need to be invisible. Symbols have been applied to a variety of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, paper, fabric and foam, on everything from electronic parts to pharmaceuticals to livestock. The portability of the hand

  16. A dedicated tool for PET scanner simulations using FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P.G.; Boehlen, T.T.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.P.W.; Ferrari, A.; Mancini, C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Mairani, A.; Sala, Paola R.

    2013-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a well-established medical imaging technique. It is based on the detection of pairs of annihilation gamma rays from a beta+-emitting radionuclide, usually inoculated in the body via a biologically active molecule. Apart from its wide-spread use for clinical diagnosis, new applications are proposed. This includes notably the usage of PET for treatment monitoring of radiation therapy with protons and ions. PET is currently the only available technique for non-invasive monitoring of ion beam dose delivery, which was tested in several clinical pilot studies. For hadrontherapy, the distribution of positron emitters, produced by the ion beam, can be analyzed to verify the correct treatment delivery. The adaptation of previous PET scanners to new environments and the necessity of more precise diagnostics by better image quality triggered the development of new PET scanner designs. The use of Monte Carlo (MC) codes is essential in the early stages of the scanner design to simulate the transport of particles and nuclear interactions from therapeutic ion beams or radioisotopes and to predict radiation fields in tissues and radiation emerging from the patient. In particular, range verification using PET is based on the comparison of detected and simulated activity distributions. The accuracy of the MC code for the relevant physics processes is obviously essential for such applications. In this work we present new developments of the physics models with importance for PET monitoring and integrated tools for PET scanner simulations for FLUKA, a fully-integrated MC particle-transport code, which is widely used for an extended range of applications (accelerator shielding, detector and target design, calorimetry, activation, dosimetry, medical physics, radiobiology, ...). The developed tools include a PET scanner geometry builder and a dedicated scoring routine for coincident event determination. The geometry builder allows the efficient

  17. Results from the FDIRC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A., E-mail: roberts@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K.; Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Va’vra, J. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment, and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage with partial electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking with an angular resolution of ∼1.5 mrad, track position resolution of 5–6 mm, start time resolution of 70 ps, and a muon low-energy cutoff of ∼2 GeV provided by an iron range stack. The quartz focusing photon camera couples to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and is read out by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 MaPMTs providing 768 pixels. We used IRS2 waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that the new optics design works very well, including: (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) S/N ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which consists primarily of ambiguities in possible photon paths to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured}–TOP{sub expected} resolutions, and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds. We also describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance. - Highlights: • We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). • The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking. • We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that new optics design works very well. • We describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance.

  18. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  19. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  20. Prototype system of secure VOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Harumi; Yamaguchi, Tomohisa

    1997-12-01

    Secure digital contents delivery systems are to realize copyright protection and charging mechanism, and aim at secure delivery service of digital contents. Encrypted contents delivery and history (log) management are means to accomplish this purpose. Our final target is to realize a video-on-demand (VOD) system that can prevent illegal usage of video data and manage user history data to achieve a secure video delivery system on the Internet or Intranet. By now, mainly targeting client-server systems connected with enterprise LAN, we have implemented and evaluated a prototype system based on the investigation into the delivery method of encrypted video contents.

  1. CERN LHC dipole prototype success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In a crash programme, the first prototype superconducting dipole magnet for CERN's LHC protonproton collider was successfully powered for the first time at CERN on 14 April, eventually sailing to 9T, above the 8.65T nominal LHC field, before quenching for the third time. The next stage is to install the delicate measuring system for making comprehensive magnetic field maps in the 10 m long, 50 mm diameter twin-apertures of the magnet. These measurements will check that the required LHC field quality has been achieved at both the nominal and injection fields

  2. Prototype plutonium-storage monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.; Warner, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate scintillating fibers via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have an operational transmission length (e -1 length) of greater than 2 meters. This permits the fabrication of devices that, hitherto, were not possible to consider. A prototype neutron monitor for scrap Pu-storage containers was fabricated and tested for 70 days, taking data with a variety of sources in a high-background environment. These data and their implication in the context of a storage-monitor situation are discussed

  3. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  4. Rapid prototyping of robotic platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ronde, Willis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of thickness up to 200mm can be cut to create prototype chassis/ bodies or even the final product. One of the few limitations is the cutting of certain laminated materials, as this tends to produce delaminated cutting edges or even fractures in the case... mine inspection robot (Shongololo). Shongololo’s frame is made from engineering plastics while the chassis of Dassie was made from aluminium and cut using abrasive waterjet machining. The advantage of using abrasive waterjet machining is the speed...

  5. Addressing Spatial Variability of Surface-Layer Wind with Long-Range WindScanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    of the WindScanner data is high, although the fidelity of the estimated vertical velocity component is significantly limited by the elevation angles of the scanner heads. The system of long-range WindScanners presented in this paper is close to being fully operational, with the pilot study herein serving...

  6. Processing optimization with parallel computing for the J-PET scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzemień Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jagiellonian Positron Emission Tomograph (J-PET collaboration is developing a prototype time of flight (TOF-positron emission tomograph (PET detector based on long polymer scintillators. This novel approach exploits the excellent time properties of the plastic scintillators, which permit very precise time measurements. The very fast field programmable gate array (FPGA-based front-end electronics and the data acquisition system, as well as low- and high-level reconstruction algorithms were specially developed to be used with the J-PET scanner. The TOF-PET data processing and reconstruction are time and resource demanding operations, especially in the case of a large acceptance detector that works in triggerless data acquisition mode. In this article, we discuss the parallel computing methods applied to optimize the data processing for the J-PET detector. We begin with general concepts of parallel computing and then we discuss several applications of those techniques in the J-PET data processing.

  7. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskal, P.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Bednarski, T.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kubicz, E.; Moskal, I.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Sharma, N.G.; Silarski, M.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.; Białas, P.; Gajos, A.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.

    2014-01-01

    A Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this paper we report on tests of a single detection module built out from the BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5×19×300 mm 3 ) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68 Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80 ps (σ) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93 cm (σ) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to σ(E)/E≈0.044/√(E(MeV)) and corresponds to the σ(E)/E of 7.5% at the Compton edge

  8. Aircraft scanner data availability via the version 0 Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) development, NASA and other government agencies have developed an operational prototype of the Information Management System (IMS). The IMS provides access to the data archived at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) that allows users to search through metadata describing the (image) data. Criteria based on sensor name or type, date and time, and geographic location are used to search the archive. Graphical representations of coverage and browse images are available to further refine a user's selection. previously, the EROS Data Center (EDC) DAAC had identified the Advanced SOlid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS), Airborne Visible and infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), NS-001, and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) as precursor data sets similar to those the DAAC will handle in the Earth Observing System era. Currently, the EDC DAAC staff, in cooperation with NASA, has transcribed TIMS, NS-001, and Thematic Mapper Simulation (TMS) data from Ames Research Center and also TIMS data from Stennis Space Center. During the transcription process, the IMS metadata and browse images were created to populate the inventory at the EDC DAAC. These data sets are now available in the IMS and may be requested from the any of the DAAC's via the IMS.

  9. WindS@UP: The e-Science Platform for WindScanner.eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Filipe; Palma, José Laginha; Lopes, João Correia; Ribeiro, Luís Frölén

    2014-01-01

    The WindScanner e-Science platform architecture and the underlying premises are discussed. It is a collaborative platform that will provide a repository for experimental data and metadata. Additional data processing capabilities will be incorporated thus enabling in-situ data processing. Every resource in the platform is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), enabling an unequivocally identification of the field(s) campaign(s) data sets and metadata associated with the data set or experience. This feature will allow the validation of field experiment results and conclusions as all managed resources will be linked. A centralised node (Hub) will aggregate the contributions of 6 to 8 local nodes from EC countries and will manage the access of 3 types of users: data-curator, data provider and researcher. This architecture was designed to ensure consistent and efficient research data access and preservation, and exploitation of new research opportunities provided by having this C ollaborative Data Infrastructure . The prototype platform-WindS@UP-enables the usage of the platform by humans via a Web interface or by machines using an internal API (Application Programming Interface). Future work will improve the vocabulary ( a pplication profile ) used to describe the resources managed by the platform

  10. Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, P.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Bednarski, T.; Czerwiński, E.; Kapłon, Ł.; Kubicz, E.; Moskal, I.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Sharma, N. G.; Silarski, M.; Zieliński, M.; Zoń, N.; Białas, P.; Gajos, A.; Kochanowski, A.; Korcyl, G.; Kowal, J.; Kowalski, P.; Kozik, T.; Krzemień, W.; Molenda, M.; Pałka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Słomski, A.; Smyrski, J.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.

    2014-11-01

    A Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography scanner based on plastic scintillators is being developed at the Jagiellonian University by the J-PET collaboration. The main challenge of the conducted research lies in the elaboration of a method allowing application of plastic scintillators for the detection of low energy gamma quanta. In this paper we report on tests of a single detection module built out from the BC-420 plastic scintillator strip (with dimensions of 5×19×300 mm3) read out at two ends by Hamamatsu R5320 photomultipliers. The measurements were performed using collimated beam of annihilation quanta from the 68Ge isotope and applying the Serial Data Analyzer (Lecroy SDA6000A) which enabled sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. The time resolution of the prototype module was established to be better than 80 ps (σ) for a single level discrimination. The spatial resolution of the determination of the hit position along the strip was determined to be about 0.93 cm (σ) for the annihilation quanta. The fractional energy resolution for the energy E deposited by the annihilation quanta via the Compton scattering amounts to σ(E) / E ≈ 0.044 /√{ E(MeV) } and corresponds to the σ(E) / E of 7.5% at the Compton edge.

  11. Qualification test of a MPPC-based PET module for future MRI-PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurei, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kato, T.; Fujita, T.; Funamoto, H.; Tsujikawa, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a high-resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module for future use in MRI-PET scanners. The module consists of large-area, 4×4 ch MPPC arrays (Hamamatsu S11827-3344MG) optically coupled with Ce:LYSO scintillators fabricated into 12×12 matrices of 1×1 mm2 pixels. At this stage, a pair of module and coincidence circuits was assembled into an experimental prototype gantry arranged in a ring of 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. The PET detector ring was then positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point 22Na source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure interference between the MPPC-based PET and the MRI. We only found a slight degradation in the spatial resolution of the PET image from 1.63 to 1.70 mm (FWHM; x-direction), or 1.48-1.55 mm (FWHM; y-direction) when operating with the MRI, while the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI image was only degraded by 5%. These results encouraged us to develop a more advanced version of the MRI-PET gantry with eight MPPC-based PET modules, whose detailed design and first qualification test are also presented in this paper.

  12. WindS@UP: The e-Science Platform for WindScanner.eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Filipe; Correia Lopes, João; Laginha Palma, José; Frölén Ribeiro, Luís

    2014-06-01

    The WindScanner e-Science platform architecture and the underlying premises are discussed. It is a collaborative platform that will provide a repository for experimental data and metadata. Additional data processing capabilities will be incorporated thus enabling in-situ data processing. Every resource in the platform is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), enabling an unequivocally identification of the field(s) campaign(s) data sets and metadata associated with the data set or experience. This feature will allow the validation of field experiment results and conclusions as all managed resources will be linked. A centralised node (Hub) will aggregate the contributions of 6 to 8 local nodes from EC countries and will manage the access of 3 types of users: data-curator, data provider and researcher. This architecture was designed to ensure consistent and efficient research data access and preservation, and exploitation of new research opportunities provided by having this "Collaborative Data Infrastructure". The prototype platform-WindS@UP-enables the usage of the platform by humans via a Web interface or by machines using an internal API (Application Programming Interface). Future work will improve the vocabulary ("application profile") used to describe the resources managed by the platform.

  13. A new crystal whole-body scanner for positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.; Kubesch, R.; Lorenz, W.J.; Woerner, P.

    1980-01-01

    A multicrystal whole body scanner for positron emitters has been constructed. The annihilation quanta are measured in two opposing detector banks. Each detector bank consists of 64 NaI crystals of 1.5'' diameter x 3'' length. Directly opposing single detectors are in coincidence. The patient moves linearly between the stationary transverse detector banks. The scanning area of the system is 64 x 192 cm 2 . The spatial resolution is 2 cm at a sampling distance of 1 cm. The sensitivity is 6400 counts/s for a pure positron flood source with 1 μCi/cm 2 . The system is controlled by a microcomputer (DEC LSI-11). The scintigrams are shown on a display. Absolute activities can be calculated by mathematical comparison of consecutive emission and transmission scans. The design of the positron scanner and its capacibilities are described. Experimental and initial clinical results are presented. (author)

  14. Beam Dumping Ghost Signals in Electric Sweep Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure low-energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates

  15. Beam dumping ghost signals in electric sweep scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.; SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Tennessee U.; Leitner, M.; LBL, Berkeley; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; LBL, Berkeley; Welton, R.F.; SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years many labs started to use Allison scanners to measure loW--energy ion beam emittances. We show that large trajectory angles produce ghost signals due to the impact of the beamlet on the electric deflection plates. The strength of the ghost signal is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions and their velocity, ghost signals can have the opposite polarity as the main beam signals or the same polarity. These ghost signals are easily overlooked because they partly overlap the real signals, they are mostly below the 1% level, and they are often hidden in the noise. However, they cause significant errors in emittance estimates because they are associated with large trajectory angles. The strength of ghost signals, and the associated errors, can be drastically reduced with a simple modification of the deflection plates

  16. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gonzales, Fermin; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin; Sedillo, James Daniel; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H - beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  17. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  18. Linac beam core modeling from wire-scanner data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1977-08-01

    This study introduces mathematical modeling of accelerator beams from data collected by wire scanners. Details about a beam core D(x,x',y,y') are examined in several situations: (a) for a discretization of the projection into xy-space, a maximum-entropy solution and a minimum-norm solution are developed and discussed, (b) for undiscretized xy-subspace, a two-dimensional Gaussian approximation D(x,.,y,.) = a exp [α(x-x 0 ) 2 + β(x-x 0 )(y-y 0 ) + γ(y-y 0 ) 2 ] is obtained by least squares, and (c) for four-dimensional space, the fit of a single Gaussian to data from a succession of wire scanners is investigated

  19. Shielding design for testing room of large container scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yisi; Miao Qitian; Zhou Liye

    1997-01-01

    Testing facility for large container scanner is a most advanced anti-smuggle tool. The X-ray scanning principle is adopted in this system. The X-ray was collimated a ted as a fan-shape beam. The accelerator only supplies the ray beam when the container is scanned. The irradiation time is less than one minute per test. The X-ray burst irradiation and highly collimated a ted scanning beam of this system is different from the common industrial irradiation accelerator. The shielding design of the 1:1 large container scanner introduced has better collimation level because of tri-collimation. The irradiation dose is less than 150 μGy per test, which is obviously lower than importations

  20. Robust Object Segmentation Using a Multi-Layer Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomseong; Choi, Baehoon; Yoo, Minkyun; Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    The major problem in an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) is the proper use of sensor measurements and recognition of the surrounding environment. To this end, there are several types of sensors to consider, one of which is the laser scanner. In this paper, we propose a method to segment the measurement of the surrounding environment as obtained by a multi-layer laser scanner. In the segmentation, a full set of measurements is decomposed into several segments, each representing a single object. Sometimes a ghost is detected due to the ground or fog, and the ghost has to be eliminated to ensure the stability of the system. The proposed method is implemented on a real vehicle, and its performance is tested in a real-world environment. The experiments show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance in many real-life situations. PMID:25356645

  1. A Novel Atomic Force Microscope with Multi-Mode Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chun; Zhang, Haijun; Xu, Rui; Han, Xu; Wang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    A new type of atomic force microscope (AFM) with multi-mode scanner is proposed. The AFM system provides more than four scanning modes using a specially designed scanner with three tube piezoelectric ceramics and three stack piezoelectric ceramics. Sample scanning of small range with high resolution can be realized by using tube piezos, meanwhile, large range scanning can be achieved by stack piezos. Furthermore, the combination with tube piezos and stack piezos not only realizes high-resolution scanning of small samples with large- scale fluctuation structure, but also achieves small range area-selecting scanning. Corresponding experiments are carried out in terms of four different scanning modes showing that the AFM is of reliable stability, high resolution and can be widely applied in the fields of micro/nano-technology. (paper)

  2. Low-friction nanojoint prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassov, Sergei; Oras, Sven; Antsov, Mikk; Butikova, Jelena; Lõhmus, Rünno; Polyakov, Boris

    2018-05-01

    High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an operational prototype of a low-friction nanojoint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from a gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in the formation of rounded bulbs on their ends. The nano-pin is then manipulated into the inverted pyramid (i-pyramids) specially etched in a Si wafer. Due to the small contact area, the nano-pin can be repeatedly tilted inside an i-pyramid as a rigid object without noticeable deformation. At the same time in the absence of external force the nanojoint is stable and preserves its position and tilt angle. Experiments are performed inside a scanning electron microscope and are supported by finite element method simulations.

  3. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  4. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  5. Enhanced methodology of focus control and monitoring on scanner tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Jen; Kim, Young Ki; Hao, Xueli; Gomez, Juan-Manuel; Tian, Ye; Kamalizadeh, Ferhad; Hanson, Justin K.

    2017-03-01

    As the demand of the technology node shrinks from 14nm to 7nm, the reliability of tool monitoring techniques in advanced semiconductor fabs to achieve high yield and quality becomes more critical. Tool health monitoring methods involve periodic sampling of moderately processed test wafers to detect for particles, defects, and tool stability in order to ensure proper tool health. For lithography TWINSCAN scanner tools, the requirements for overlay stability and focus control are very strict. Current scanner tool health monitoring methods include running BaseLiner to ensure proper tool stability on a periodic basis. The focus measurement on YIELDSTAR by real-time or library-based reconstruction of critical dimensions (CD) and side wall angle (SWA) has been demonstrated as an accurate metrology input to the control loop. The high accuracy and repeatability of the YIELDSTAR focus measurement provides a common reference of scanner setup and user process. In order to further improve the metrology and matching performance, Diffraction Based Focus (DBF) metrology enabling accurate, fast, and non-destructive focus acquisition, has been successfully utilized for focus monitoring/control of TWINSCAN NXT immersion scanners. The optimal DBF target was determined to have minimized dose crosstalk, dynamic precision, set-get residual, and lens aberration sensitivity. By exploiting this new measurement target design, 80% improvement in tool-to-tool matching, >16% improvement in run-to-run mean focus stability, and >32% improvement in focus uniformity have been demonstrated compared to the previous BaseLiner methodology. Matching control and monitoring on multiple illumination conditions, opens an avenue to significantly reduce Focus-Exposure Matrix (FEM) wafer exposure for new product/layer best focus (BF) setup.

  6. Automatic inventory of components by laser 3D scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Garcia, R.; Munoz Prieto, C.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the existing needs in nuclear decommissioning projects is to provide an inventory of components to be dismantled, which is available from its spatial location and elements that exist in your environment. The Laser scanner technology is a system of data acquisition that allows 3D models composed of millions of points, it's models with pinpoint accuracy and are available in a very short space of time. (Author)

  7. Concrete hardened characterization using table scanner and microtomography computed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Pessoa, J.R.; Assis, J.T. de; Dominguez, D.S.; Dias, L.A.; Santana, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of image processing technologies to analyze hardened concrete samples obtained from table scanner and micro tomography. Techniques will be used to obtain numerical data on the distribution and geometry of aggregates and pores of the concrete, as well as their relative position. It is expected that the data obtained can produce information on the research of concrete pathologies such as AAR, and the freeze / thaw process. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic scanner for stainless steel weld inspections. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D. S.; Reimann, K. J.

    1978-09-01

    The large grain size and anisotropic nature of stainless steel weld metal make conventional ultrasonic testing very difficult. A technique is evaluated for minimizing the coherent ultrasonic noise in stainless steel weld metal. The method involves digitizing conventional ''A-scan'' traces and averaging them with a minicomputer. Results are presented for an ultrasonic scanner which interrogates a small volume of the weld metal while averaging the coherent ultrasonic noise.

  9. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho, R; Carrico, B; Ferreira, C S; Frade, M; Ferreira, M; Moura, R; Ortigao, C; Pinheiro, J F; Rodrigues, P; Rolo, I; Silva, J C; Trindade, A; Varela, J [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, 1000-149 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: frade@lip.pt

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 x 2 x 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean C{sub DOI}{sup -1} is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  10. High efficiency conical scanner for earth resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. C.; Dumas, H. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a six-arm conical scanner which was selected to provide a continuous line-of-sight scan. Two versions of the instrument are considered. The two versions differ in their weight. The weight of the heavy version is 600 lbs. A light weight design which employs beryllium and aluminum optical components weighs only 350 lbs. A multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter are to be incorporated into the design. Questions of instrument performance are also discussed.

  11. Design of a laser scanner for a digital mammography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J A; Taylor, J E

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a digital readout system for radiographic images using a scanning laser beam. In this system, electrostatic charge images on amorphous selenium (alpha-Se) plates are read out using photo-induced discharge (PID). We discuss the design requirements of a laser scanner for the PID system and describe its construction from commercially available components. The principles demonstrated can be adapted to a variety of digital imaging systems.

  12. Accuracy of five intraoral scanners compared to indirect digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Runkel, Cornelius; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel; Keul, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Direct and indirect digitalization offer two options for computer-aided design (CAD)/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-generated restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different intraoral scanners and compare them to the process of indirect digitalization. A titanium testing model was directly digitized 12 times with each intraoral scanner: (1) CS 3500 (CS), (2) Zfx Intrascan (ZFX), (3) CEREC AC Bluecam (BLU), (4) CEREC AC Omnicam (OC) and (5) True Definition (TD). As control, 12 polyether impressions were taken and the referring plaster casts were digitized indirectly with the D-810 laboratory scanner (CON). The accuracy (trueness/precision) of the datasets was evaluated by an analysing software (Geomagic Qualify 12.1) using a "best fit alignment" of the datasets with a highly accurate reference dataset of the testing model, received from industrial computed tomography. Direct digitalization using the TD showed the significant highest overall "trueness", followed by CS. Both performed better than CON. BLU, ZFX and OC showed higher differences from the reference dataset than CON. Regarding the overall "precision", the CS 3500 intraoral scanner and the True Definition showed the best performance. CON, BLU and OC resulted in significantly higher precision than ZFX did. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of the ascertained datasets was dependent on the scanning system. The direct digitalization was not superior to indirect digitalization for all tested systems. Regarding the accuracy, all tested intraoral scanning technologies seem to be able to reproduce a single quadrant within clinical acceptable accuracy. However, differences were detected between the tested systems.

  13. Wire scanner data analysis for the SSC Linac emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.Y.; Hurd, J.W.; Sage, J.

    1993-07-01

    The wire scanners are designed in the SSC Linac for measurement of beam emittance at various locations. In order to obtain beam parameters from the scan signal, a data analysis program was developed that considers the problems of noise reduction, machine modeling, parameter fitting, and correction. This program is intended as a tool for Linac commissioning and also as part of the Linac control program. Some of the results from commissioning runs are presented

  14. A novel technique for presurgical nasoalveolar molding using computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Gong, Xin; Wang, Guo-Min; Yu, Zhe-Yuan; Qian, Yu-Fen; Shen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    To establish a new method of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) using computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique in infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Five infants (2 males and 3 females with mean age of 1.2 w) with complete UCLP were recruited. All patients were subjected to NAM before the cleft lip repair. The upper denture casts were recorded using a three-dimensional laser scanner within 2 weeks after birth in UCLP infants. A digital model was constructed and analyzed to simulate the NAM procedure with reverse engineering software. The digital geometrical data were exported to print the solid model with rapid prototyping system. The whole set of appliances was fabricated based on these solid models. Laser scanning and digital model construction simplified the NAM procedure and estimated the treatment objective. The appliances were fabricated based on the rapid prototyping technique, and for each patient, the complete set of appliances could be obtained at one time. By the end of presurgical NAM treatment, the cleft was narrowed, and the malformation of nasoalveolar segments was aligned normally. We have developed a novel technique of presurgical NAM based on a computer-aided design. The accurate digital denture model of UCLP infants could be obtained with laser scanning. The treatment design and appliance fabrication could be simplified with a computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique.

  15. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  16. Quality assurance of computed tomography scanner beams in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    The number of computed tomography (CT) scanners in diagnostic radiology is increasing, to the extent that they are now found in relatively small hospitals. These hospitals do not have local physicists available and so methods must be developed to allow quality assurance to be carried out at distant laboratories. Several different types of solid water phantoms are available with various built-in test objects that may supply sufficient information about the many parameters that must be checked. The dose distributions, however, are usually not so well considered, although the connection between image quality and absorbed dose must be known for optimal use of a CT scanner. By introducing thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) into a commercial phantom (RMI), it was possible to measure the absorbed dose profile and the line integral of the absorbed dose across the slit. The computer-guided readout of the TLDs gives the absorbed dose, the average dose and half maximum width, absorbed dose curve, and also the line integral of the peak. The only modification of the phantom was five holes, drilled at strategic positions, that did not influence the built-in test objects. This single measurement provides an appropriate monthly quality assurance check of the CT scanner with little extra effort. (author)

  17. Erosion can't hide from laser scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstant, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Particles of topsoil blown by wind will bounce along the soil surface and finally escape a field, leaving it less able to support crops. Water will wash away valuable topsoil and nutrients. And how rough the soil surface is influences whether the soil will erode. Until now, soil scientists have had no suitable technique to measure soil roughness - or microtopography - on the small scale. ARS soil scientists Joe M. Bradford and Chi-hua Huang, of the National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory in West Lafayette, Indiana, have developed a portable scanner that can. It measures the tiny ridges left in the soil by tilling or clods of soil particles that clump together naturally. What does the scanner do? It measures soil elevation by shining a low-power laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the laser spot reflected from the soil with a 35-mm camera. In place of film, the scanner camera uses electronic circuitry somewhat similar to that in a video camera to transmit the spot's position to a small computer about 30,000 times a minute. The laser and camera are mounted on the frame of a motor-driven carriage. The computer controls the carriage movement. At the end of a scan, a microtopographic map is stored in the computer. Scientists can analyze it immediately and can compare it to previous maps to see whether erosion has occurred

  18. Advanced optical 3D scanners using DMD technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenstermann, P.; Godding, R.; Hermstein, M.

    2017-02-01

    Optical 3D measurement techniques are state-of-the-art for highly precise, non-contact surface scanners - not only in industrial development, but also in near-production and even in-line configurations. The need for automated systems with very high accuracy and clear implementation of national precision standards is growing extremely due to expanding international quality guidelines, increasing production transparency and new concepts related to the demands of the fourth industrial revolution. The presentation gives an overview about the present technical concepts for optical 3D scanners and their benefit for customers and various different applications - not only in quality control, but also in design centers or in medical applications. The advantages of DMD-based systems will be discussed and compared to other approaches. Looking at today's 3D scanner market, there is a confusing amount of solutions varying from lowprice solutions to high end systems. Many of them are linked to a very special target group or to special applications. The article will clarify the differences of the approaches and will discuss some key features which are necessary to render optical measurement systems suitable for industrial environments. The paper will be completed by examples for DMDbased systems, e. g. RGB true-color systems with very high accuracy like the StereoScan neo of AICON 3D Systems. Typical applications and the benefits for customers using such systems are described.

  19. Evaluation of a LED-based flatbed document scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry in transmission mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel; García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos; Herrera-González, José Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    Flatbed scanners are the most frequently used reading instrument for radiochromic film dosimetry because its low cost, high spatial resolution, among other advantages. These scanners use a fluorescent lamp and a CCD array as light source and detector, respectively. Recently, manufacturers of flatbed scanners replaced the fluorescent lamp by light emission diodes (LED) as a light source. The goal of this work is to evaluate the performance of a commercial flatbed scanner with LED based source light for radiochromic film dosimetry. Film read out consistency, response uniformity, film-scanner sensitivity, long term stability and total dose uncertainty was evaluated. In overall, the performance of the LED flatbed scanner is comparable to that of a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL). There are important spectral differences between LED and CCFL lamps that results in a higher sensitivity of the LED scanner in the green channel. Total dose uncertainty, film response reproducibility and long-term stability of LED scanner are slightly better than those of the CCFL. However, the LED based scanner has a strong non-uniform response, up to 9%, that must be adequately corrected for radiotherapy dosimetry QA. The differences in light emission spectra between LED and CCFL lamps and its potential impact on film-scanner sensitivity suggest that the design of a dedicated flat-bed scanner with LEDs may improve sensitivity and dose uncertainty in radiochromic film dosimetry. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of an improved first generation optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xin; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Adamovics, John

    2013-01-01

    Performance analysis of a modified 3D dosimetry optical scanner based on the first generation optical CT scanner OCTOPUS is presented. The system consists of PRESAGE™ dosimeters, the modified 3D scanner, and a new developed in-house user control panel written in Labview program which provides more flexibility to optimize mechanical control and data acquisition technique. The total scanning time has been significantly reduced from initial 8 h to ∼2 h by using the modified scanner. The functional performance of the modified scanner has been evaluated in terms of the mechanical integrity uncertainty of the data acquisition process. Optical density distribution comparison between the modified scanner, OCTOPUS and the treatment plan system has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the agreement between the modified scanner and treatment plans is comparable with that between the OCTOPUS and treatment plans. (note)

  1. Portable CT scanners for use on live trees and standing columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, M.; Tsao, J.W.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, H.; Kogure, J.; Kawamura, H.; Isono, E.; Maeda, Y.; Matsumoto, S.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a technique to reconstruct a crosssection of a test object from multiple projections obtained using e.g. x-rays. A large number of medical CT scanners and a few industrial CT scanners have been used. Most of these scanners are fixed installations. In contrast, we developed portable CT scanners for nondestructive testing of live trees and standing building columns in field environment. The resolution of these scanners is high enough to reveal details of annual rings of trees and timbers. The scanners have been useful in a wide range of applications. This paper presents two types of scanners with small and large apertures, a system for quick look of reconstruction and a few examples of applications

  2. Does the Use of Body Scanners Discriminate Overweight Flight Passengers? The Effect of Body Scanners on Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Laib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the introduction of body scanners at airports has been accompanied by critical voices raising concerns that body scanners might have a negative impact on different minority groups, it has not been investigated thus far whether they might also have negative impacts on the average flight passenger and if the provision of adequate information might attenuate such negative impacts. Using a pre/post-design the current study examines the effect of a body scan in a controlled laboratory setting on the explicit and implicit body image of normal-weight and overweight people as assessed by questionnaires and an Implicit Association Test. Half of the sample received an information sheet concerning body scanners before they were scanned. While there was a negative impact of the body scan on the implicit body image of overweight participants, there was a positive impact on their explicit body image. The negative effect of the body scan was unaffected by receiving information. This study demonstrates that body scans do not only have negative effects on certain minority groups but potentially on a large proportion of the general public which suggests a critical reconsideration of the control procedures at airports, the training of the airport staff who is in charge of these procedures and the information flight passengers get about these procedures.

  3. WE-AB-207A-03: A CBCT Head Scanner for Point-Of-Care Imaging of Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J; Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Dang, H; Stayman, J; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V; Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, X; Foos, D [Carestream Health, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work reports the design, development, and first technical assessment of a cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanner developed specifically for imaging of acute intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) at the point of care, with target applications in diagnosis and monitoring of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and postsurgical hemorrhage. Methods: System design employed a task-based image quality model to quantify the influence of factors such as additive noise and high-gain (HG) detector readout on ICH detectability. Three bowtie filters with varying bare-beam attenuation strength and curvature were designed to enable HG readout without detector saturation, and a polyenergetic gain correction was developed to minimize artifacts from bowtie flood-field calibration. Image reconstruction used an iterative penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method with artifact correction including Monte Carlo scatter estimation, Joseph-Spital beam hardening correction, and spatiotemporal deconvolution of detector glare and lag. Radiation dose was characterized for half-scan and full-scan protocols at various kV, and imaging performance was assessed in a head phantom presenting simulated ICH with diameter ranging 2–12 mm. Results: The image quality model guided system design and was validated by measurements on a CBCT imaging bench. Compared to low-gain readout without a bowtie filter, the combination of HG readout and a modest bowtie improved the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR per unit square-root dose) by 20% in the center of the image but degraded noise performance near the periphery (20% reduction in CNR). Low-frequency bowtie artifacts (∼100 HU magnitude) were corrected by the polyenergetic gain correction. Image reconstructions on the prototype scanner demonstrate clear visibility of the smallest ICH insert (2 mm diameter) in both HG readout (with a bowtie) and dual-gain readout (without bowtie). Conclusion: Technical assessment of the prototype scanner suggests the capability for

  4. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  5. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  6. Prototype international quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.; Chambless, D.A.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The international community presently lacks the ability to determine the quality and credibility of environmental measurements that is required to make sound decisions in matters related to international security, public health, and investment-related considerations. The ultimate goal of the work described in this article is to develop a credible information base including measurement capability for determination of environmental contamination and the potential for proliferation of material components of chemical or nuclear weapons. This study compared the accuracy obtained by six Russian and six U.S. laboratories for samples representative of classes of trace metals, dioxing-furans, and radioactive substances. The results obtained in this work indicate that current estimates for laboratory accuracy are likely overly optimistic. The weaknesses discovered by this prototype U.S. - Russia study also exist within the broader international community of laboratories. Further work is proposed to address the urgent need for the international community to improve performance evaluations for analytical measurements. (author)

  7. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, V.H.; Valdovinos, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NO x and SO 2 ) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  8. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  9. PEP-II prototype klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  10. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  11. Test case preparation using a prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Treharne, Helen; Draper, J.; Schneider, Steve A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the preparation of test cases using a prototype within the context of a formal development. It describes an approach to building a prototype using an example. It discusses how a prototype contributes to the testing activity as part of a lifecycle based on the use of formal methods. The results of applying the approach to an embedded avionics case study are also presented.

  12. A prototype for JDEM science data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E

    2011-01-01

    Fermilab is developing a prototype science data processing and data quality monitoring system for dark energy science. The purpose of the prototype is to demonstrate distributed data processing capabilities for astrophysics applications, and to evaluate candidate technologies for trade-off studies. We present the architecture and technical aspects of the prototype, including an open source scientific execution and application development framework, distributed data processing, and publish/subscribe message passing for quality control.

  13. Rapid prototyping using CBCT: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovchev, D.; Deliverska, E.; Indjova, J.; Ugrinov, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case of fibrous dysplasia in the left lower jaw of a 12-year-old girl, scanned with CBCT. On the basis of CBCT scan a model of affected jaw was produced using a rapid-prototyping three-dimensional printer. The case demonstrates the possibility to get a prototype by CBCT data. Prototypes can be used to support the diagnosis, planning, training (students and postgraduates) and to obtain informed consent from the patient.

  14. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  15. Methods for CT automatic exposure control protocol translation between scanner platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Sarah E; Seibert, J Anthony; Lamba, Ramit; Boone, John M

    2014-03-01

    An imaging facility with a diverse fleet of CT scanners faces considerable challenges when propagating CT protocols with consistent image quality and patient dose across scanner makes and models. Although some protocol parameters can comfortably remain constant among scanners (eg, tube voltage, gantry rotation time), the automatic exposure control (AEC) parameter, which selects the overall mA level during tube current modulation, is difficult to match among scanners, especially from different CT manufacturers. Objective methods for converting tube current modulation protocols among CT scanners were developed. Three CT scanners were investigated, a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner, a GE VCT scanner, and a Siemens Definition AS+ scanner. Translation of the AEC parameters such as noise index and quality reference mAs across CT scanners was specifically investigated. A variable-diameter poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom was imaged on the 3 scanners using a range of AEC parameters for each scanner. The phantom consisted of 5 cylindrical sections with diameters of 13, 16, 20, 25, and 32 cm. The protocol translation scheme was based on matching either the volumetric CT dose index or image noise (in Hounsfield units) between two different CT scanners. A series of analytic fit functions, corresponding to different patient sizes (phantom diameters), were developed from the measured CT data. These functions relate the AEC metric of the reference scanner, the GE LightSpeed 16 in this case, to the AEC metric of a secondary scanner. When translating protocols between different models of CT scanners (from the GE LightSpeed 16 reference scanner to the GE VCT system), the translation functions were linear. However, a power-law function was necessary to convert the AEC functions of the GE LightSpeed 16 reference scanner to the Siemens Definition AS+ secondary scanner, because of differences in the AEC functionality designed by these two companies. Protocol translation on the basis of

  16. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  17. Test beam measurement of the first prototype of the fast silicon pixel monolithic detector for the TT-PET project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, L.; Bandi, Y.; Benoit, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Débieux, S.; Forshaw, D.; Hayakawa, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Kaynak, M.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Ratib, O.; Ripiccini, E.; Rücker, H.; Valerio, P.; Weber, M.

    2018-04-01

    The TT-PET collaboration is developing a PET scanner for small animals with 30 ps time-of-flight resolution and sub-millimetre 3D detection granularity. The sensitive element of the scanner is a monolithic silicon pixel detector based on state-of-the-art SiGe BiCMOS technology. The first ASIC prototype for the TT-PET was produced and tested in the laboratory and with minimum ionizing particles. The electronics exhibit an equivalent noise charge below 600 e‑ RMS and a pulse rise time of less than 2 ns , in accordance with the simulations. The pixels with a capacitance of 0.8 pF were measured to have a detection efficiency greater than 99% and, although in the absence of the post-processing, a time resolution of approximately 200 ps .

  18. The performance of silicon detectors for the SiliPET project: A small animal PET scanner based on stacks of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auricchio, Natalia; Domenico, Giovanni di; Zavattini, Guido; Milano, Luciano; Malaguti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scanner for small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based on stacks of double sided silicon detectors. Each stack is made of 40 planar detectors with dimension 60x60x1 mm 3 and 128 orthogonal strips on both sides to read the two coordinates of interaction, the third being the detector number in the stack. Multiple interactions in a stack are discarded by an exclusive OR applied between each detector plane of a stack. In this way we achieve a precise determination of the interaction point of the two 511 keV photons. The reduced dimensions of the scanner also improve the solid angle coverage resulting in a high sensitivity. Preliminary results were obtained with MEGA prototype tracker (11 double sided Si detector layers), divided into two stacks 2 cm apart made of, respectively, 5 and 6 prototype layers, placing a small spherical 22 Na source in different positions. We report on the results, spatial resolution, imaging and timing performances obtained with double sided silicon detectors, manufactured by ITC-FBK, having an active area of 3x3 cm 2 , thickness of 1 mm and a strip pitch of 500μm. Two different strip widths of 300 and 200μm equipped with 64 orthogonal p and n strips on opposite sides were read out with the VATAGP2.5 ASIC, a 128-channel 'general purpose' charge sensitive amplifier.

  19. Myocardium scintigraphy and coronaries scanner: results and respective contribution of these two examinations; Scintigraphie myocardique et scanner coronaire: resultats et apport respectif des deux examens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Songy, B.; Balestrini, V.; Sablayrolles, J.L.; Vigoni, F.; Lussato, D. [Centre cardiologique du Nord (CCN), Saint-Denis, (France); Faccio, F. [fondation San Geronimo, Santa Fe, (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    The objective were to evaluate the results and the respective contribution of the myocardium scintigraphy and the coro-scanner. It exists an excellent correlation between a normal scanner and a normal scintigraphy (97%). 30% of patients having non tight stenosis at scanner and 60% of these ones having tight stenosis have a scintigraphy ischemia; An abnormal scanner, whatever be the the degree of stenosis must be completed by a test of myocardium ischemia. The actual limitations of the coro-scanner (64 gills) are in relation with its spatial resolution (quantification) and temporal resolution (right coronary). The choice of the diagnosis examination to realize in first intention must depend on the age and prevalence of the coronary disease. (N.C.)

  20. Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21 °C and 25 °C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21 °C and 24 °C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25 °C is lower than at 21 °C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21 °C to 24 °C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = −0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/

  1. Enhancing experience prototyping by the help of mixed-fidelity prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque

    2007-01-01

    In this research review I undertook the problem related to the usage of a new concept known as the Mixed- Fidelity Prototype which is a mixture of its predecessors Low- and High- Fidelity Prototypes in Experience Prototyping. Experience Prototyping is a good way to explore, communicate and interact with the designs we develop like experiencing cycling on the ice, although the mood, snow conditions, bicycle type and many other factors really matter and tend to change with time. Experience Prot...

  2. Quality control of some CT scanners in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, Ali Mohammed Ali

    2013-06-01

    This study conduced with the aim to evaluate the performance of three CT scanner in Khartoum-Sudan through extensive quality control measurements. Image quality was assessed using a CATPHAN 412 CT image quality phantom. Image quality parameters evaluated were: CT image noise, uniformity, CT number linearity, Low Contrast Resolution, High Contrast Resolution, measurements were performed in accordance with guidelines set out by the Institute of physical science and engineering in medicine (IPEM 91). Image quality parameters tested were within the apoplectic limit specified in the relevant CT guidelines. Measured slice thickness ranged between 9.66-10.5 mm for large slice and 5.25-5.88 for medium slice. The correlation coefficient (R) between the measured and the reference CT number was better than 0.99 for all CT scanners. High resolution for large slice was 7 L P/ cm and 8 L P/ cm for small slice. Low contrast resolution with 1.0% nominal level ranged between 2-3 mm diameter of disc for large slice and 4-7 mm diameter disc for small slice. The measured noise ranged between 1.4-3.4 HU for large slice and 2.92-4.08 HU for small slice. Uniformity ranged between 3.08 to 2.075 HU for large slice and 3.22 to 1.4 HU for small slice thickness. The results indicate that routine maintenance, service and calibration, as well as the frequent quality control of CT scanners play a key rote in achieving the best performance of the system. Since computed tomography (CT) contributes the most to the collective dose compared to other radiological examinations, it is a necessity for quality control and quality assurance programs to be established in each radiology department.(Author)

  3. Comparative evaluation of ultrasound scanner accuracy in distance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, F. P.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and compare two different automatic methods for accuracy evaluation in ultrasound phantom measurements on B-mode images: both of them give as a result the relative error e between measured distances, performed by 14 brand new ultrasound medical scanners, and nominal distances, among nylon wires embedded in a reference test object. The first method is based on a least squares estimation, while the second one applies the mean value of the same distance evaluated at different locations in ultrasound image (same distance method). Results for both of them are proposed and explained.

  4. Quality assurance for CT scanners and NMR imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.; Howarth, W.

    1986-01-01

    Quality Assurance is an essential part of management and the application of its disciplines to the purchase and use of CT and MR scanners is particularly important. The Purchaser and User have the leading role. They must take into account the need for a precise specification which will form part of the contract placed on the Supplier, the basis of acceptance and of maintenance of the equipment. The training of staff is also important. The Scientific and Technical Branch of the DHSS has a programme of work intended to help the Purchaser and User in this role. (author)

  5. Mapping of MAC Address with Moving WiFi Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wifi is one of the most useful technologies that can be used for detecting and counting MAC Address. This paper described using of WiFi scanner which carried out seven times circulated the bus. The method used WiFi and GPS are to counting MAC address as raw data from the pedestrian smartphone, bus passenger or WiFi devices near from the bus as long as the bus going around the route. There are seven processes to make map WiFi data.

  6. Computerized tomographic x-ray scanner system and gantry assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyd, D.P.; Lanzara, G.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a scanner assembly. It comprises: a support head, a C-shaped gantry, means for supporting the gantry in the support head for rotating movement, an x-ray source mounted on one side of the gantry for independent movement with respect to a detector array along the gantry, the x-ray source projecting x-rays across the gantry, and a detector array mounted on the other side of a gantry for independent movement with respect to the x-ray source along the gantry, the detector array serving to receive the projected x-rays

  7. Applicability of optical scanner method for fine root dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tomonori; Ohashi, Mizue; Makita, Naoki; Khoon Kho, Lip; Katayama, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2016-04-01

    Fine root dynamics is one of the important components in forest carbon cycling, as ~60 % of tree photosynthetic production can be allocated to root growth and metabolic activities. Various techniques have been developed for monitoring fine root biomass, production, mortality in order to understand carbon pools and fluxes resulting from fine roots dynamics. The minirhizotron method is now a widely used technique, in which a transparent tube is inserted into the soil and researchers count an increase and decrease of roots along the tube using images taken by a minirhizotron camera or minirhizotron video camera inside the tube. This method allows us to observe root behavior directly without destruction, but has several weaknesses; e.g., the difficulty of scaling up the results to stand level because of the small observation windows. Also, most of the image analysis are performed manually, which may yield insufficient quantitative and objective data. Recently, scanner method has been proposed, which can produce much bigger-size images (A4-size) with lower cost than those of the minirhizotron methods. However, laborious and time-consuming image analysis still limits the applicability of this method. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a new protocol for scanner image analysis to extract root behavior in soil. We evaluated applicability of this method in two ways; 1) the impact of different observers including root-study professionals, semi- and non-professionals on the detected results of root dynamics such as abundance, growth, and decomposition, and 2) the impact of window size on the results using a random sampling basis exercise. We applied our new protocol to analyze temporal changes of root behavior from sequential scanner images derived from a Bornean tropical forests. The results detected by the six observers showed considerable concordance in temporal changes in the abundance and the growth of fine roots but less in the decomposition. We also examined

  8. Coastal Zone Color Scanner data of rich coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Klooster, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons of chlorophyll concentrations and diffuse attenuation coefficients measured from ships off the central California coast were made with satellite derived estimates of the same parameters using data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. Very high chlorophyll concentrations were encountered in Monterey Bay. Although lower chlorophyll values acquired off Pt. Sur agreed satisfactorily with the satellite data, the high chlorophyll values departed markedly from agreement. Two possible causes for the disagreement are suggested. Comparison of diffuse attenuation coefficients from the same data sets showed closer agreement.

  9. Irradiation in helical scanner: doses estimation, parameters choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Boyer, B.; Jouan, E.; Beauvais, H.

    2001-01-01

    The new generation of helical scanners improves the diagnosis abilities and the service done to the patients. The rational use allows to give the patients a ratio benefit/risk far better than the almost medical examinations. It is particularly true for over sixty years old aged people, that have a null genetic risk and a practically null carcinogen risk; However, for young adults and children, it is necessary to banish any useless irradiation and limit exposure to the strict necessary for the diagnosis. It is necessary to develop a radiation protection culture, possible by the radiation doses index display and doses benchmarks knowledge. (N.C.)

  10. Compact implementation of dynamic receive apodization in ultrasound scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    The image quality in medical ultrasound scanners is determined by several factors, one of which is the ability of the receive beamformer to change the aperture weighting function with depth and beam angle. In digital beamformers, precise dynamic apodization can be achieved by representing the fun...... operate at 129.82 MHz and occupies 1.28 million gates. Simulated in Matlab, a 64-channel beamformer provides gray scale image with around 55 dB dynamic range. The beamformed data can also be used for flow estimation....

  11. Construction of a ct scanner using heavy ions or protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    A computed tomography x-ray scanner, in which a monochromatic xray beam is generated by irradiating an x-ray producing target with high energy monoenergetic ions. The ion beam is preferably produced by a cyclotron. The x-ray beam is preferably rotated through an object to be scanned by angularly displacing the ion beam and target about the center axis of the object. A conventional x-ray detector array, a signal and data processor and imaging means are provided to convert detected x-ray absorption measurements into a two-dimensional visual image of the scanned object cross-section

  12. Estimating Daily Inflation Using Scanner Data: A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kota Watanabe; Tsutomu Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    We construct a Törnqvist daily price index using Japanese point of sale (POS) scanner data spanning from 1988 to 2013. We find the following. First, the POS based inflation rate tends to be about 0.5 percentage points lower than the CPI inflation rate, although the difference between the two varies over time. Second, the difference between the two measures is greatest from 1992 to 1994, when, following the burst of bubble economy in 1991, the POS inflation rate drops rapidly and turns negati...

  13. Computed tomography scanner applied to soil compaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, C.M.P.

    1989-11-01

    The soil compaction problem was studied using a first generation computed tomography scanner (CT). This apparatus gets images of soil cross sections samples, with resolution of a few millimeters. We performed the following laboratory and field experiments: basic experiments of equipment calibrations and resolutions studies; measurements of compacted soil thin layers; measurements of soil compaction caused by agricultural tools; stress-strain modelling in confined soil sample, with several moisture degree; characterizations of soil bulk density profile with samples collected in a hole (trench), comparing with a cone penetrometer technique. (author)

  14. Prototyping SOS meta-theory in Maude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Reniers, M.A.; Mosses, P.D.; Ulidowski, I.

    2006-01-01

    We present a prototype implementation of SOS meta-theory in the Maude term rewriting language. The prototype defines the basic concepts of SOS meta-theory (e.g., transition formulae, deduction rules and transition system specifications) in Maude. Besides the basic definitions, we implement methods

  15. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  16. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  17. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  18. Dissipative Prototyping Methods: A Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, P.

    Taking a designer's unique perspective using examples of practice in experimental installation and digital protoyping, this manifesto acts as provocation for change and unlocking new potential by encouraging changes of perspective about the material realm. Diffusive form-language is proposed as a paradigm for architectural design. This method of design is applied through 3D printing and related digital fabrication methods, offering new qualities that can be implemented in design of realms including present earth and future interplanetary environments. A paradigm shift is encouraged by questioning conventional notions of geometry that minimize interfaces and by proposing the alternatives of maximized interfaces formed by effusive kinds of formal composition. A series of projects from the Canadian research studio of the Hylozoic Architecture group are described, providing examples of component design methods employing diffusive forms within combinations of tension-integrity structural systems integrated with hybrid metabolisms employing synthetic biology. Cultural implications are also discussed, drawing from architectural theory and natural philosophy. The conclusion of this paper suggests that the practice of diffusive prototyping can offer formative strategies contributing to design of future living systems.

  19. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  20. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  1. Virtual Video Prototyping of Pervasive Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Madsen, Kim Halskov

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  2. Virtual Video Prototyping for Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  3. High confidence in falsely recognizing prototypical faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.

  4. Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

  5. Commissioning of a passive rod scanner at INB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Fabio da Silva; Oliveira, Carlos A.; Palheiros, Franklin, E-mail: carlossilva@inb.gov.br, E-mail: franklin@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Engenharia do Combustivel; Fernandez, Pablo Jesus Piñer, E-mail: pineiro@tecnatom.es [Tecnatom, San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    For the 21st reload for Angra 1, a shift from Standard to Advanced fuel design will be introduced, where the fuel assemblies under the new design will contain fuel rods with axial blanket, in line with ELETRONUCLEAR's requirement for a higher energy efficient reactor fuel. Additionally, fuel rods for Angra 2 and 3, using gadolinium type burnable poison, have to be submitted to inspections due to the demand for the same type of inspection, which cannot be certified at INB currently. In keeping with CNEN regulations, every fuel-assembly component must be inspected and certified by a qualified method. Nevertheless, INB lacks the means to perform the certification-required inspection aimed at determining the uranium enrichment and presence of gadolinium pellets inside the closed rods. Hence, the use is necessary of a scanner capable of inspecting differently enriched fuel rods and/or gadolinium pellets (axial blanket). This work aims to present the recent Passive Rod Scanner installed at INB with most advance technology in the area, making possible to completely fulfill Angra 1, 2 and 3 rods inspection at INB Resende site. (author)

  6. Scanners and drillers: Characterizing expert visual search through volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Vo, Melissa Le-Hoa; Olwal, Alex; Jacobson, Francine; Seltzer, Steven E.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    Modern imaging methods like computed tomography (CT) generate 3-D volumes of image data. How do radiologists search through such images? Are certain strategies more efficient? Although there is a large literature devoted to understanding search in 2-D, relatively little is known about search in volumetric space. In recent years, with the ever-increasing popularity of volumetric medical imaging, this question has taken on increased importance as we try to understand, and ultimately reduce, errors in diagnostic radiology. In the current study, we asked 24 radiologists to search chest CTs for lung nodules that could indicate lung cancer. To search, radiologists scrolled up and down through a “stack” of 2-D chest CT “slices.” At each moment, we tracked eye movements in the 2-D image plane and coregistered eye position with the current slice. We used these data to create a 3-D representation of the eye movements through the image volume. Radiologists tended to follow one of two dominant search strategies: “drilling” and “scanning.” Drillers restrict eye movements to a small region of the lung while quickly scrolling through depth. Scanners move more slowly through depth and search an entire level of the lung before moving on to the next level in depth. Driller performance was superior to the scanners on a variety of metrics, including lung nodule detection rate, percentage of the lung covered, and the percentage of search errors where a nodule was never fixated. PMID:23922445

  7. Daily quality controls analysis of a CT scanner simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, Maira Milanelo; Santos, Gabriela R.; Furnari, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing technological developments, radiotherapy practices, which allow for better involvement of the tumor with the required therapeutic dose and minimize the complications of normal tissues, have become reality in several Radiotherapy services. The use of these resources in turn, was only possible due to the progress made in planning based on digital volumetric images of good quality, such as computed tomography (CT), which allow the correct delimitation of the tumor volume and critical structures. Specific tests for quality control in a CT scanner used in radiotherapy, named CT simulator, should be applied as part of the institutional Quality Assurance Program. This study presents the methodology used in the Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMUSP) for daily testing of the CT scanner simulator and the results obtained throughout more than two years. The experience gained in the period conducted showed that the tests are easy to perform and can be done in a few minutes by a trained professional. Data analysis showed good reproducibility, which allowed the tests could be performed less frequently, after 16 months of data collection. (author)

  8. Emittance scanner for intense low-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, P.W.; Sherman, J.D.; Holtkamp, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    An emittance scanner has been developed for use with low-energy H - ion beams to satisfy the following requirements: (1) angular resolution of +-1/2 mrad, (2) small errors from beam space charge, and (3) compact and simple design. The scanner consists of a 10-cm-long analyzer containing two slits and a pair of electric deflection plates driven by a +-500-V linear ramp generator. As the analyzer is mechanically driven across the beam, the front slit passes a thin ribbon of beam through the plates. The ion transit time is short compared with the ramp speed; therefore, the initial angle of the ions that pass through the rear slit is proportional to the instantaneous ramp voltage. The current through the rear slit then is proportional to the phase-space density d 2 i/dxdx'. The data are computer-analyzed to give, for example, rms emittance and phase-space density contours. Comparison of measured data with those calculated from a prepared (collimated) phase space is in good agreement

  9. Novel design of a parallax free Compton enhanced PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braem, A.; Chamizo, M.; Chesi, E.; Colonna, N.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Joram, C.; Marrone, S.; Mathot, S.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Zaidi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging by PET is a powerful tool in modern clinical practice for cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, improvements are needed with respect to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the technique for its application to specific human organs (breast, prostate, brain, etc.), and to small animals. Presently, commercial PET scanners do not detect the depth of interaction of photons in scintillators, which results in a not negligible parallax error. We describe here a novel concept of PET scanner design that provides full three-dimensional (3D) gamma reconstruction with high spatial resolution over the total detector volume, free of parallax errors. It uses matrices of long scintillators read at both ends by hybrid photon detectors. This so-called 3D axial concept also enhances the gamma detection efficiency since it allows one to reconstruct a significant fraction of Compton scattered events. In this note, we describe the concept, a possible design and the expected performance of this new PET device. We also report about first characterization measurements of 10 cm long YAP:Ce scintillation crystals

  10. A noble refractive optical scanner with linear response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Yair J.; Lai, Zhenhua; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2013-03-01

    Many applications in various fields of science and engineering use steered optical beam systems. Currently, many methods utilize mirrors in order to steer the beam. However, this approach is an off-axis solution, which normally increases the total size of the system as well as its error and complexity. Other methods use a "Risely Prisms" based solution, which is on-axis solution, however it poses some difficulties from an engineering standpoint, and therefore isn't widely used. We present here a novel technique for steering a beam on its optical axis with a linear deflection response. We derived the formulation for the profile required of the refractive optical component necessary for preforming the beam steering. The functionality of the device was simulated analytically using Matlab, as well as using a ray-tracing software, Zemax, and showed agreement with the analytical model. An optical element was manufactured based on the proposed design and the device was tested. The results show agreement with our hypothesis. We also present some proposed geometries of the several other devices, all based on the same concept, which can be used for higher performance applications such as two-dimensional scanner, video rate scanner etc.

  11. Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Sridharan, Shamira; Liang, Jon; Luo, Zelun; Han, Kevin; Macias, Virgilia; Shah, Anish; Patel, Roshan; Tangella, Krishnarao; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    The current practice of surgical pathology relies on external contrast agents to reveal tissue architecture, which is then qualitatively examined by a trained pathologist. The diagnosis is based on the comparison with standardized empirical, qualitative assessments of limited objectivity. We propose an approach to pathology based on interferometric imaging of "unstained" biopsies, which provides unique capabilities for quantitative diagnosis and automation. We developed a label-free tissue scanner based on "quantitative phase imaging," which maps out optical path length at each point in the field of view and, thus, yields images that are sensitive to the "nanoscale" tissue architecture. Unlike analysis of stained tissue, which is qualitative in nature and affected by color balance, staining strength and imaging conditions, optical path length measurements are intrinsically quantitative, i.e., images can be compared across different instruments and clinical sites. These critical features allow us to automate the diagnosis process. We paired our interferometric optical system with highly parallelized, dedicated software algorithms for data acquisition, allowing us to image at a throughput comparable to that of commercial tissue scanners while maintaining the nanoscale sensitivity to morphology. Based on the measured phase information, we implemented software tools for autofocusing during imaging, as well as image archiving and data access. To illustrate the potential of our technology for large volume pathology screening, we established an "intrinsic marker" for colorectal disease that detects tissue with dysplasia or colorectal cancer and flags specific areas for further examination, potentially improving the efficiency of existing pathology workflows.

  12. A Moving 3D Laser Scanner for Automated Underbridge Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tarabini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have proven that the underbridge geometry can be reconstructed by mounting a 3D laser scanner on a motorized cart travelling on a walkway located under the bridge. The walkway is moved by a truck and the accuracy of the bridge model depends on the accuracy of the trajectory of the scanning head with respect to a fixed reference system. In this paper, we describe a vision-based measurement system that can be used to identify the relative motion of the cart that moves the 3D laser scanner with respect to the walkway. The orientation of the walkway with respect to the bridge is determined using inclinometers and a camera that detect the position of a laser spot, while the position of the truck with respect to the bridge is measured using a conventional odometer. The accuracy of the proposed system was initially evaluated by numerical simulations and successively verified by experiments in laboratory conditions. The complete system has then been tested by comparing the geometry of buildings reconstructed using the proposed system with the geometry obtained with a static scan. Results showed that the error is less than 6 mm; given the satisfying quality of the point clouds obtained, it is also possible to detect small defects on the surface.

  13. Quality control of the Korle Bu rectilinear scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feli, S.K.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    The attainment of high standards of efficiency and reliability in the practice of nuclear medicine requires an appropriate quality assurance programme. Routine monitoring of nuclear medicine instruments, using test procedures that provide check of the quality and reproducibility of instrument performance, aims at giving the user the confidence in the data collected and in updating the performance of the instrument. Quality control testing schedule for rectilinear scanners include weekly density calibration and monthly performance contrast enhancement and collimator evaluation. Discussion in this work is restricted to collimator evaluation which is required to be performed at the initial stages of installation as acceptance reference. However unlike the density, calibration and contrast enhancement, there is no documented work on this for the M800 Scintikart Scanner - a Hungarian Gamma Muvek system belonging to the Korle Bu Hospital, Accra. Tests of linearity of energy, relative sensitivity and resolution including energy and spatial resolutions were conducted in respect of collimator evaluation. In the linearity test it was ascertained that a nonlinear relationship exists between the centre of the window setting and the energy of the photopeak. The spectrometer was calibrated independently for each radionuclide and the position of Tc-99m obtained at 0.45 MeV on the MeV scale. In addition, the F272a13 Collimator offered a better resolution than the routinely used F272a136 collimator which has the highest sensitivity. (author). 10 refs.; 1 tab.; 10 figs

  14. Initial clinical test of a breast-PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Koren, Courtney; Schreiman, Judith S.; Majewski, Stan; Marano, Gary D.; Abraham, Jame; Kurian, Sobha; Hazard, Hannah; Filburn, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this initial clinical study was to test a new positron emission/tomography imager and biopsy system (PEM/PET) in a small group of selected subjects to assess its clinical imaging capabilities. Specifically, the main task of this study is to determine whether the new system can successfully be used to produce images of known breast cancer and compare them to those acquired by standard techniques. The PEM/PET system consists of two pairs of rotating radiation detectors located beneath a patient table. The scanner has a spatial resolution of ∼2 mm in all three dimensions. The subjects consisted of five patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer ranging in age from 40 to 55 years old scheduled for pre-treatment, conventional whole body PET imaging with F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The primary lesions were at least 2 cm in diameter. The images from the PEM/PET system demonstrated that this system is capable of identifying some lesions not visible in standard mammograms. Furthermore, while the relatively large lesions imaged in this study where all visualised by a standard whole body PET/CT scanner, some of the morphology of the tumours (ductal infiltration, for example) was better defined with the PEM/PET system. Significantly, these images were obtained immediately following a standard whole body PET scan. The initial testing of the new PEM/PET system demonstrated that the new system is capable of producing good quality breast-PET images compared standard methods.

  15. X-ray backscatter imaging with a spiral scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Cline, J.L.; Friddell, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging allows radiographic inspections to be performed with access to only one side of the object. A collimated beam of radiation striking an object will scatter x-rays by Compton scatter and x-ray fluorescence. A detector located on the source side of the part will measure the backscatter signal. By plotting signal strength as gray scale intensity vs. beam position on the object, an image of the object can be constructed. A novel approach to the motion of the collimated incident beam is a spiral scanner. The spiral scanner approach, described in this paper, can image an area of an object without the synchronized motion of the object or detector, required by other backscatter imaging techniques. X-ray backscatter is particularly useful for flaw detection in light element materials such as composites. The ease of operation and the ability to operate non-contact from one side of an object make x-ray backscatter imaging of increasing interest to industrial inspection problems

  16. Computed tomographic mammography using a conventional body scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C H; Nesbit, D E; Fisher, D R; Fritz, S L; Dwyer, S J; Templeton, A W; Lin, F; Jewell, W R

    1982-03-01

    The technique for computed tomographic (CT) examination of the breasts using a conventional body scanner is described, and experience with 67 patients is reported. In the diagnosis of both malignant and benign breast lesions, the results with a body scanner were equal to those of a dedicated CT/M mammographic unit. Although the CT study of the breast cannot replace conventional mammography in screening or in routine diagnostic workup, the unique capability of demonstrating both anatomic changes and increased iodide concentration in a cancer provides many advantages over conventional mammography. CT mammography appears to have the capability to detect breast cancers that are occult to other methods. Indications for a CT study of the breasts are: (1) clinically suspected breast cancer, especially with a mammographically occult lesion; (2) questionable mammographic findings, including microcalcifications, tumor shape, architectural distortion, and uncertain lesion location; and (3) evaluation of postbiopsy or postlumpectomy breast cancers when a primary irradiation therapy is contemplated. Breast CT also appears to be a valuable diagnostic tool in searching for a second primary breast cancer, follow-up study of postirradiation of breast cancer, followup study for postmastectomy patients, and screening procedure for genetically high-risk patients, especially those with dense breasts.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of efficient data acquisition for an entire-body PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Conventional PET scanners can image the whole body using many bed positions. On the other hand, an entire-body PET scanner with an extended axial FOV, which can trace whole-body uptake images at the same time and improve sensitivity dynamically, has been desired. The entire-body PET scanner would have to process a large amount of data effectively. As a result, the entire-body PET scanner has high dead time at a multiplex detector grouping process. Also, the entire-body PET scanner has many oblique line-of-responses. In this work, we study an efficient data acquisition for the entire-body PET scanner using the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated entire-body PET scanner based on depth-of-interaction detectors has a 2016-mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and an 80-cm ring diameter. Since the entire-body PET scanner has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits, the NECR of the entire-body PET scanner decreases. But, single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into multiple parts. Our choice of 3 groups of axially-arranged detectors has shown to increase the peak NECR by 41%. An appropriate choice of maximum ring difference (MRD) will also maintain the same high performance of sensitivity and high peak NECR while at the same time reduces the data size. The extremely-oblique line of response for large axial FOV does not contribute much to the performance of the scanner. The total sensitivity with full MRD increased only 15% than that with about half MRD. The peak NECR was saturated at about half MRD. The entire-body PET scanner promises to provide a large axial FOV and to have sufficient performance values without using the full data.

  18. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ''engineering'' prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, the prototype-learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype- and adaptive-learning theories. We refer to our new model as ``prototype-incorporated EmNN''. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely, static hand-gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back-propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional BPNN (EmNN), deep networks, an exemplar classification model, and k-nearest neighbor.

  20. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  1. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  2. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  3. Imaging system models for small-bore DOI-PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Suga, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) information, which improves resolution uniformity in the field of view (FOV), is expected to lead to high-sensitivity PET scanners with small-bore detector rings. We are developing small-bore PET scanners with DOI detectors arranged in hexagonal or overlapped tetragonal patterns for small animal imaging or mammography. It is necessary to optimize the imaging system model because these scanners exhibit irregular detector sampling. In this work, we compared two imaging system models: (a) a parallel sub-LOR model in which the detector response functions (DRFs) are assumed to be uniform along the line of responses (LORs) and (b) a sub-crystal model in which each crystal is divided into a set of smaller volumes. These two models were applied to the overlapped tetragonal scanner (FOV 38.1 mm in diameter) and the hexagonal scanner (FOV 85.2 mm in diameter) simulated by GATE. We showed that the resolution non-uniformity of system model (b) was improved by 40% compared with that of system model (a) in the overlapped tetragonal scanner and that the resolution non-uniformity of system model (a) was improved by 18% compared with that of system model (b) in the hexagonal scanner. These results indicate that system model (b) should be applied to the overlapped tetragonal scanner and system model (a) should be applied to the hexagonal scanner. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a prototype infrasound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, R.; Sandoval, T.; Breding, D.; Kromer, D.

    1997-01-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory cooperated to develop a prototype infrasonic array, with associated documentation, that could be used as part of the International Monitoring System. The United States Government or foreign countries could procure commercially available systems based on this prototype to fulfill their Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) obligations. The prototype is a four-element array in a triangular layout as recommended in CD/NTB/WP.224 with an element at each corner and one in the center. The prototype test configuration utilize an array spacing of 1 km. The prototype infrasound system has the following objectives: (1) Provide a prototype that reliably acquires and transmits near real-time infrasonic data to facilitate the rapid location and identification of atmospheric events. (2) Provide documentation that could be used by the United States and foreign countries to procure infrasound systems commercially to fulfill their CTBT responsibilities. Infrasonic monitoring is an effective, low cost technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. The low frequency components of explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors. Los Alamos National Laboratory's expertise in infrasound systems and phenomenology when combined with Sandia's expertise in providing verification quality system for treaty monitoring make an excellent team to provide the prototype infrasound sensor system. By September 1997, the prototype infrasound system will have been procured, integrated, evaluated and documented. Final documentation will include a system requirements document, an evaluation report and a hardware design document. The hardware design document will describe the various hardware components used in the infrasound prototype and their interrelationships

  5. Eight years' operation of the SGHWR prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience gained of the SGHWR system during the first eight years of operation of the UKAEA's 100 MW(e) prototype at AEE Winfrith is discussed. Modifications and additions have been made to the plant to overcome problems which only operation of a prototype unit can reveal. No problems have arisen which could not be overcome by the application of normal engineering resources, and there is no reason why the commercial successor to the prototype should be other than a fully viable proposition. (author)

  6. Field Data Logger Prototype for Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Ghimire, Pramod; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2014-01-01

    and subsequent analysis of the data. This paper presents the development of a low cost prototype field data logger prototype using Raspberry PI and industrial sensors. The functionalities of the data logger prototype are described. An online rainflow count algorithm has been implemented as well.......Mission profile data is very important for the cost effective and reliable design of power converters. The converter design can be improved on the basis of actual field data. Actual mission profile data can be collected for the power converters using field data loggers over a long period of time...

  7. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations

  8. Rapid prototyping using robot welding : process description

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Norrish, John

    1997-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a relatively recent technique to produce component prototypes for industry in a much shorter period of time, since the time to market a product is essential to its success. A new Rapid Prototyping process which uses metal as the raw material had been under development at Cranfield University in the last few years. The process uses a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. Firstly, a CAD s...

  9. Initial performance of the PIGMI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program at LASL is an accelerator development program aimed at completing the design of an accelerator suitable for use as a pion generator in a hospital-based radiotherapy program. The major thrust of the program has been the design of a 7 MeV prototype accelerator which emphasizes compactness, economy of construction, and operation and reliability. To achieve these goals the design of the prototype has exploited a number of innovations in proton linac technology. An overview of the program discussing the major innovative features of the prototype is presented. The initial operating experience is discussed and initial performance measurements are presented

  10. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  11. Multi-spectral optical scanners for commercial earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Karin; Engel, Wolfgang; Berndt, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, a number of commercial Earth observation missions have been initiated with the aim to gather data in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. Some of these missions aim at medium resolution (5 to 10 m) multi-spectral imaging with the special background of daily revisiting. Typical applications aim at monitoring of farming area for growth control and harvest prediction, irrigation control, or disaster monitoring such as hail damage in farming, or flood survey. In order to arrive at profitable business plans for such missions, it is mandatory to establish the space segment, i.e. the spacecraft with their opto -electronic payloads, at minimum cost while guaranteeing maximum reliability for mission success. As multiple spacecraft are required for daily revisiting, the solutions are typically based on micro-satellites. This paper presents designs for multi-spectral opto-electric scanners for this type of missions. These designs are drive n by minimum mass and power budgets of microsatellites, and the need for minimum cost. As a consequence, it is mandatory to arrive at thermally robust, compact telescope designs. The paper gives a comparison between refractive, catadioptric, and TMA optics. For mirror designs, aluminium and Zerodur mirror technologies are briefly discussed. State-of-the art focal plane designs are presented. The paper also addresses the choice of detector technologies such as CCDs and CMOS Active Pixel Sensors. The electronics of the multi-spectral scanners represent the main design driver regarding power consumption, reliability, and (most often) cost. It can be subdivided into the detector drive electronics, analog and digital data processing chains, the data mass memory unit, formatting and down - linking units, payload control electronics, and local power supply. The paper gives overviews and trade-offs between data compression strategies and electronics solutions, mass memory unit designs, and data formatting approaches

  12. VO for Education: Archive Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella, M.; Iafrate, G.; De Marco, M.; Molinaro, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Cepparo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The number of remote control telescopes dedicated to education is increasing in many countries, leading to correspondingly larger and larger amount of stored educational data that are usually available only to local observers. Here we present the project for a new infrastructure that will allow teachers using educational telescopes to archive their data and easily publish them within the Virtual Observatory (VO) avoiding the complexity of professional tools. Students and teachers anywhere will be able to access these data with obvious benefits for the realization of grander scale collaborative projects. Educational VO data will also be an important resource for teachers not having direct access to any educational telescopes. We will use the educational telescope at our observatory in Trieste as a prototype for the future VO educational data archive resource. The publishing infrastructure will include: user authentication, content and curation validation, data validation and ingestion, VO compliant resource generation. All of these parts will be performed by means of server side applications accessible through a web graphical user interface (web GUI). Apart from user registration, that will be validated by a natural person responsible for the archive (after having verified the reliability of the user and inspected one or more test files), all the subsequent steps will be automated. This means that at the very first data submission through the webGUI, a complete resource including archive and published VO service will be generated, ready to be registered to the VO. The efforts required to the registered user will consist only in describing herself/himself at registration step and submitting the data she/he selects for publishing after each observation sessions. The infrastructure will be file format independent and the underlying data model will use a minimal set of standard VO keywords, some of which will be specific for outreach and education, possibly including VO

  13. Characterization of Prototype LSST CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OCONNOR,P.; FRANK, J.; GEARY, J.C.; GILMORE, D.K.; KOTOV, I.; RADEKA, V.; TAKACS, P.; TYSON, J.A.

    2008-06-23

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be achieved in part by a wide-field imager that will achieve a new level of performance in terms of area, speed, and sensitivity. The instrument performance is dominated by the focal plane sensors, which are now in development. These new-generation sensors will make use of advanced semiconductor technology and will be complemented by a highly integrated electronics package located inside the cryostat. A test laboratory has been set up at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to characterize prototype sensors and to develop test and assembly techniques for eventual integration of production sensors and electronics into modules that will form the final focal plane. As described in [1], the key requirements for LSST sensors are wideband quantum efficiency (QE) extending beyond lpm in the red, control of point spread function (PSF), and fast readout using multiple amplifiers per chip operated in parallel. In addition, LSST's fast optical system (f71.25) places severe constraints on focal plane flatness. At the chip level this involves packaging techniques to minimize warpage of the silicon die, and at the mosaic level careful assembly and metrology to achieve a high coplanarity of the sensor tiles. In view of the long lead time to develop the needed sensor technology, LSST undertook a study program with several vendors to fabricate and test devices which address the most critical performance features [2]. The remainder of this paper presents key results of this study program. Section 2 summarizes the sensor requirements and the results of design optimization studies, and Section 3 presents the sensor development plan. In Section 4 we describe the test bench at BNL. Section 5 reports measurement results obtained to date oh devices fabricated by several vendors. Section 6 presents a summary of the paper and an outlook for the future work. We present characterization methods and results on

  14. The accuracy of the CAD system using intraoral and extraoral scanners for designing of fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Sakura; Shinya, Akikazu; Kuroda, Soichi; Gomi, Harunori

    2017-07-26

    The accuracy of prostheses affects clinical success and is, in turn, affected by the accuracy of the scanner and CAD programs. Thus, their accuracy is important. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of an intraoral scanner with active triangulation (Cerec Omnicam), an intraoral scanner with a confocal laser (3Shape Trios), and an extraoral scanner with active triangulation (D810). The second aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the digital crowns designed with two different scanner/CAD combinations. The accuracy of the intraoral scanners and extraoral scanner was clinically acceptable. Marginal and internal fit of the digital crowns fabricated using the intraoral scanner and CAD programs were inferior to those fabricated using the extraoral scanner and CAD programs.

  15. Accuracy of single-abutment digital cast obtained using intraoral and cast scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Jun; Jeong, Ii-Do; Park, Jin-Young; Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2017-02-01

    Scanners are frequently used in the fabrication of dental prostheses. However, the accuracy of these scanners is variable, and little information is available. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of cast scanners with that of intraoral scanners by using different image impression techniques. A poly(methyl methacrylate) master model was fabricated to replicate a maxillary first molar single-abutment tooth model. The master model was scanned with an accurate engineering scanner to obtain a true value (n=1) and with 2 intraoral scanners (CEREC Bluecam and CEREC Omnicam; n=6 each). The cast scanner scanned the master model and duplicated the dental stone cast from the master model (n=6). The trueness and precision of the data were measured using a 3-dimensional analysis program. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the different sets of scanning data, followed by a post hoc Mann-Whitney U test with a significance level modified by Bonferroni correction (α/6=.0083). The type 1 error level (α) was set at .05. The trueness value (root mean square: mean ±standard deviation) was 17.5 ±1.8 μm for the Bluecam, 13.8 ±1.4 μm for the Omnicam, 17.4 ±1.7 μm for cast scanner 1, and 12.3 ±0.1 μm for cast scanner 2. The differences between the Bluecam and the cast scanner 1 and between the Omnicam and the cast scanner 2 were not statistically significant (P>.0083), but a statistically significant difference was found between all the other pairs (POmnicam, 9.2 ±1.2 μm for cast scanner 1, and 6.9 ±2.6 μm for cast scanner 2. The differences between Bluecam and Omnicam and between Omnicam and cast scanner 1 were not statistically significant (P>.0083), but there was a statistically significant difference between all the other pairs (POmnicam in video image impression had better trueness than a cast scanner but with a similar level of precision. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by

  16. Important considerations for radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed CCD scanners and EBT GAFCHROMIC[reg] film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Bart D.; Kozelka, Jakub; Ranade, Manisha K.; Li, Jonathan G.; Simon, William E.; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present three significant artifacts that have the potential to negatively impact the accuracy and precision of film dosimetry measurements made using GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT radiochromic film when read out with CCD flatbed scanners. Films were scanned using three commonly employed instruments: a Macbeth TD932 spot densitometer, an Epson Expression 1680 CCD array scanner, and a Microtek ScanMaker i900 CCD array scanner. For the two scanners we assessed the variation in optical density (OD) of GAFCHROMIC EBT film with scanning bed position, angular rotation of the film with respect to the scan line direction, and temperature inside the scanner due to repeated scanning. Scanning uniform radiochromic films demonstrated a distinct bowing effect in profiles in the direction of the CCD array with a nonuniformity of up to 17%. Profiles along a direction orthogonal to the CCD array demonstrated a 7% variation. A strong angular dependence was found in measurements made with the flatbed scanners; the effect could not be reproduced with the spot densitometer. An IMRT quality assurance film was scanned twice rotating the film 90 deg. between the scans. For films scanned on the Epson scanner, up to 12% variation was observed in unirradiated EBT films rotated between 0 deg. and 90 deg. , which decreased to approximately 8% for EBT films irradiated to 300 cGy. Variations of up to 80% were observed for films scanned with the Microtek scanner. The scanners were found to significantly increase the film temperature with repeated scanning. Film temperature between 18 and 33 deg. C caused OD changes of approximately 7%. Considering these effects, we recommend adherence to a strict scanning protocol that includes: maintaining the orientation of films scanned on flatbed scanners, limiting scanning to the central portion of the scanner bed, and limiting the number of consecutive scans to minimize changes in OD caused by film heating

  17. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J; Watkins, Ronald D; Zviman, Menekhem M; Guttman, Michael A; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A

    2016-10-01

    Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by the addition of novel radiofrequency filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface pads. The radiofrequency filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner and prevented cable/surface pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high specific absorption rate sequences to validate MRI image quality and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (n=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI image quality was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6 mm below the skin surface. Radiofrequency heating was within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading the image quality or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Jefferson Lab IR demo FEL photocathode quantum efficiency scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Gubeli, J; Grippo, A; Jordan, K; Shinn, M; Siggins, T

    2001-01-01

    Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser (FEL) incorporates a cesiated gallium arsenide (GaAs) DC photocathode gun as its electron source. By using a set of scanning mirrors, the surface of the GaAs wafer is illuminated with a 543.5nm helium-neon laser. Measuring the current flow across the biased photocathode generates a quantum efficiency (QE) map of the 1-in. diameter wafer surface. The resulting QE map provides a very detailed picture of the efficiency of the wafer surface. By generating a QE map in a matter of minutes, the photocathode scanner has proven to be an exceptional tool in quickly determining sensitivity and availability of the photocathode for operation.

  19. Attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Rutao; Liow, JeihSan; Seidel, Jurgen

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated two methods of attenuation correction for the NIH ATLAS small animal PET scanner: 1) a CT-based method that derives 511 keV attenuation coefficients (mu) by extrapolation from spatially registered CT images; and 2) an analytic method based on the body outline of emission images and an empirical mu. A specially fabricated attenuation calibration phantom with cylindrical inserts that mimic different body tissues was used to derive the relationship to convert CT values to (I for PET. The methods were applied to three test data sets: 1) a uniform cylinder phantom, 2) the attenuation calibration phantom, and 3) a mouse injected with left bracket **1**8F right bracket FDG. The CT-based attenuation correction factors were larger in non-uniform regions of the imaging subject, e.g. mouse head, than the analytic method. The two methods had similar correction factors for regions with uniform density and detectable emission source distributions.

  20. Clinical applications of a high quantum utilization scanner. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, P.H.; Cassen, B.

    1973-04-01

    The clinical usefulness of a tomographic imaging process employing a fast rectilinear scanner consisted of a spherical-cap nest of seven individual detectors (3'' x 1 / 2 '' activated sodium iodide) collimated to a common focal point at 10 cm. Hydraulic drives permitted a fast rectilinear scan to be made and, when raised or lowered, at different planes. Patients with well-defined brain lesions were studied using /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate or 203 Hg-chlormerodrin as tracers by measuring three dimensions of their lesions and anatomical location at the time of operation. Brain maps were used to identify this location at operation and also the location of images traced from film density displays of a conventional radioisotopic scan, the tomographic scan, and cerebral angiograms. (U.S.)

  1. Analysis of pellet coating uniformity using a computer scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šibanc, Rok; Luštrik, Matevž; Dreu, Rok

    2017-11-30

    A fast method for pellet coating uniformity analysis, using a commercial computer scanner was developed. The analysis of the individual particle coating thicknesses was based on using a transparent orange colored coating layer deposited on white pellet cores. Besides the analysis of the coating thickness the information of pellet size and shape was obtained as well. Particle size dependent coating thickness and particle size independent coating variability was calculated by combining the information of coating thickness and pellet size. Decoupling coating thickness variation sources is unique to presented method. For each coating experiment around 10000 pellets were analyzed, giving results with a high statistical confidence. Proposed method was employed for the performance evaluation of classical Wurster and swirl enhanced Wurster coater operated at different gap settings and air flow rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crop water-stress assessment using an airborne thermal scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    An airborne thermal scanner was used to measure the temperature of a wheat crop canopy in Phoenix, Arizona. The results indicate that canopy temperatures acquired about an hour and a half past solar noon were well correlated with presunrise plant water tension, a parameter directly related to plant growth and development. Pseudo-colored thermal images reading directly in stress degree days, a unit indicative of crop irrigation needs and yield potential, were produced. The aircraft data showed significant within-field canopy temperature variability, indicating the superiority of the synoptic view provided by aircraft over localized ground measurements. The standard deviation between airborne and ground-acquired canopy temperatures was 2 C or less.

  3. Parameters and design considerations for tomographic transmission scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentlow, K.S.; Beattie, J.W.; Laughlin, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The design of transverse axial transmission scanners for reconstruction tomography involves many interrelated parameters and conflicting requirements. We have investigated some of those parameters and their interactions and, where appropriate, attempted to optimize them. It is convenient to group the considerations under four headings: (1) Geometrical factors (basic configurations, rectilinear and fan geometry, moving detectors or static arrays, spatial response variations and field uniformity, and collimation); (2) Radiation energy and sources (Considerations here include transmission versus sensitivity, detector efficiency, collimator penetration, scattered radiation, patient dose, monochromatic versus polychromatic radiation and X-ray tubes versus radionuclide sources); (3) Detection systems (types of detector, detection modes and the rejection of scatter); and (4) Reconstruction mathematics and quantum noise. As a result of such considerations we have proposed a particular design which should have advantages in certain applications

  4. Development of radioactive source scanner based on PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guogui; Gao Xiang; Guo Hongli

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive radial uniformity of 68 Ge line radioactive sources is a critical quality parameter. The radioactive source scanner with linear scanning function is developed by making use of high-speed pulse counters, high-speed pulse output ports, and the powerful instruction system of Siemens S7-200 series programmable logic controller (PLC). A computer used as a host computer of the instrument communicate with. the PLC by point to point interface (PPI) protocol, The instrument with functions of data collection, transmission, displaying, saving, motion control and instrument parameter settings, can be used to measure the radioactive radial uniformity and total activity of line radioactive source. The advantages of Using the PLC to develop nuclear instrumentation are development speed, strong anti-interference ability, and low-cost. This paper mainly describes the control system implementation and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  5. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm - Multiple scattering effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Castano, Diego J.

    1987-01-01

    Errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm are analyzed. The analysis is based on radiative transfer computations in model atmospheres, in which the aerosols and molecules are distributed vertically in an exponential manner, with most of the aerosol scattering located below the molecular scattering. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates, making it possible to determine the errors along typical CZCS scan lines. Information provided by the analysis makes it possible to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on a variety of applications.

  6. Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, B. A.; Simpson, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Clouds are removed from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using channel 5. Instrumentation problems require pre-processing of channel 5 before an intelligent cloud-screening algorithm can be used. For example, at intervals of about 16 lines, the sensor records anomalously low radiances. Moreover, the calibration equation yields negative radiances when the sensor records zero counts, and pixels corrupted by electronic overshoot must also be excluded. The remaining pixels may then be used in conjunction with the procedure of Simpson and Humphrey to determine the CZCS cloud mask. These results plus in situ observations of phytoplankton pigment concentration show that pre-processing and proper cloud-screening of CZCS data are necessary for accurate satellite-derived pigment concentrations. This is especially true in the coastal margins, where pigment content is high and image distortion associated with electronic overshoot is also present. The pre-processing algorithm is critical to obtaining accurate global estimates of pigment from spacecraft data.

  7. Radiography and scanner: let us ask the right questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    By answering simple questions, this document proposes a brief overview of radiographic and scanner-based examinations. It recalls that these both techniques use X rays, the cumulative dose of which could slightly increase a risk of cancer on a long term. It outlines that the benefits of these examinations are much more important that the related risks. It indicates the received dose (compared to a daily natural irradiation) for different kinds of examination and for different parts of the human body. It outlines the sensitivity of children to X rays, gives some recommendations regarding these examinations (they are not automatic; the doctor must explain why he chooses them, previous examinations and photos must be kept and brought with; the received dose must be specified in the examination report)

  8. Health physics aspects of the EMI computerized tomography brain scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafana, T.; Scouras, J.; Kirkland, L.; McElroy, N.; Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    The EMI computerized tomographic cranial scanner is one of the first radiological systems incorporating an on-line computer. The result is an increase in the ability to visualize such tissues as grey matter and white matter as well as blood pools and tumor volumes. This advance has already begun to revolutionize radiological practice. Because of the totally different configuration of this unit, concern has been expressed over the dosages received by the patient, consequently the health physics aspects of this unit have been studied. Specifically, doses received by the surface of head and interior brain points as well as by the lens of the eye and gonads are reported here. X-ray output, beam half-value layers and barrier shielding requirements are also reported and discussed. (author)

  9. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  10. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-20

    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  11. ARIES segmented gamma-ray scanner user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, R.S.; Sheppard, G.A.; Schneider, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The segmented gamma-ray scatter (SGS) designated as Win SGS at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility has been installed and is intended for use in quantifying the radioisotope content of DOE-STD-3013-96 equivalent containers. The SGS features new software written in C and a new user interface that runs under Microsoft Windows trademark. The operation of the ARIES Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner is documented in this manual. It covers user instructions as well as hardware and software details. Additional information is found in the documentation for the commercially available components and modules that compose the SGS. The objective of the ARIES project is to demonstrate technology to dismantle plutonium pits from excess nuclear weapons, convert the plutonium to a metal ingot or an oxide powder, package the metal or oxide, and verify the contents of the package by nondestructive assay

  12. User prototypes as partly unconscious communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasemann, Marie; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce user prototypes as a technique that supports users’ articulation of emotions relevant for design: dreams, fears, motivations – their feelings and aspirations. Following Bateson’s writings about communication through art, we consider user prototypes as “partly unconscious...... communication” and propose to analyze them by focusing on the emotional articulations integrated in the users’ design language. We illustrate this with an example from a design research project on designing learning technology for young diabetics. The example shows how young people with diabetes can express...... emotional themes related to youth identity, the burden of being young with a chronic illness, and the need to be connected and feel safe through design of prototypes. The new conceptual space that arises from user prototypes shows potential for addressing emotions when designing for health and for further...

  13. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  14. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  15. Gesture recognition for an exergame prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gacem, Brahim; Vergouw, Robert; Verbiest, Harm; Cicek, Emrullah; Kröse, Ben; van Oosterhout, Tim; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    We will demonstrate a prototype exergame aimed at the serious domain of elderly fitness. The exergame incorporates straightforward means to gesture recognition, and utilises a Kinect camera to obtain 2.5D sensory data of the human user.

  16. System design document for the INFLO prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report documents the high level System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and : demonstration of the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) application bundle, with a focus on the Speed : Harmonization (SPD-HARM) and Queu...

  17. Power test for first prototype LIBO module

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Linac Booster (LIBO) is a prototype machine for producing particle beams for cancer therapy. Hadron therapy techniques are able to reach deep tumours with less damage to surrounding tissue than with conventional radiotherapy.

  18. An Empirical Investigation of Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2010-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system...... and in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, architectural risks, and the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. However, the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping has not been thoroughly researched so far. In this article, we report from three studies of architectural prototyping...... in practice. First, we report findings from an ethnographic study of practicing software architects. Secondly, we report from a focus group on architectural prototyping involving architects from four companies. And, thirdly, we report from a survey study of 20 practicing software architects and software...

  19. Presentation Trainer Prototype 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch comprises the first prototype of the presentation trainer. The application uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor and was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  20. Software development for modeling positrons emission tomograph scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Igor Fagner

    2013-01-01

    The Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) is an international platform recognized and used to develop Computational Model Exposure (CME) in the context of Nuclear Medicine, although currently there are dedicated modules for applications in Radiotherapy and Computed Tomography (CT). GATE uses Monte Carlo (MC) methods, and has a scripting language of its own. The writing of scripts for simulation of a PET scanner in GATE involves a number of interrelated steps, and the accuracy of the simulation is dependent on the correct setup of the geometries involved, since the physical processes depend on them, as well as the modeling of electronic detectors in module Digitizer, for example. The manual implementation of this setup can be a source of errors, especially for users without experience in the field of simulations or without any previous knowledge of a programming language, and also due to the the fact that the modeling process in GATE still remains bounded to LINUX / UNIX based systems, an environment only familiar to a few. This becomes an obstacle for beginners and prevents the use of GATE by a larger number of users interested in optimizing their experiments and/or clinical protocols through a more accessible, fast and friendly application. The objective of this work is therefore to develop a user-friendly software for the modeling of Positron Emission Tomography called GUIGATE (Graphical User Interface for GATE), with specific modules dedicated to quality control in PET scanners. The results exhibit the features available in this first version of GUIGATE, present in a set of windows that allow users to create their input files, perform and display in real time the model and analyze its output file in a single environment, allowing so intuitively access the entire architecture of the GATE simulation and to CERN's data analyzer, the ROOT. (author)

  1. Effective dose range for dental cone beam computed tomography scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, Ruben; Beinsberger, Jilke; Collaert, Bruno; Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Rogers, Jessica; Walker, Anne; Cockmartin, Lesley; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Horner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the absorbed organ dose and effective dose for a wide range of cone beam computed tomography scanners, using different exposure protocols and geometries. Materials and methods: Two Alderson Radiation Therapy anthropomorphic phantoms were loaded with LiF detectors (TLD-100 and TLD-100H) which were evenly distributed throughout the head and neck, covering all radiosensitive organs. Measurements were performed on 14 CBCT devices: 3D Accuitomo 170, Galileos Comfort, i-CAT Next Generation, Iluma Elite, Kodak 9000 3D, Kodak 9500, NewTom VG, NewTom VGi, Pax-Uni3D, Picasso Trio, ProMax 3D, Scanora 3D, SkyView, Veraviewepocs 3D. Effective dose was calculated using the ICRP 103 (2007) tissue weighting factors. Results: Effective dose ranged between 19 and 368 μSv. The largest contributions to the effective dose were from the remainder tissues (37%), salivary glands (24%), and thyroid gland (21%). For all organs, there was a wide range of measured values apparent, due to differences in exposure factors, diameter and height of the primary beam, and positioning of the beam relative to the radiosensitive organs. Conclusions: The effective dose for different CBCT devices showed a 20-fold range. The results show that a distinction is needed between small-, medium-, and large-field CBCT scanners and protocols, as they are applied to different indication groups, the dose received being strongly related to field size. Furthermore, the dose should always be considered relative to technical and diagnostic image quality, seeing that image quality requirements also differ for patient groups. The results from the current study indicate that the optimisation of dose should be performed by an appropriate selection of exposure parameters and field size, depending on the diagnostic requirements.

  2. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  3. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstreom, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-05-22

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. The operating experience gathered since the summer of 1984 and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given.

  4. Light Guide Collector Prototype: Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka - Mohelnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the potential of light guide system equipped by a concentrator device capturing daylight applicable for illumination of building interiors and presents results of experiments on performance of its prototype. The main goal is focused on the comparison of traditional solutions and newly developed prototype of the light guide system and presents examination of its light transmission efficiency based on the laboratory experiments.

  5. Light Guide Collector Prototype: Laboratory Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka - Mohelnikova; Stanislav Darula; Ayodeji Omishore; Petr Mohelnik; Denis Micek

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the potential of light guide system equipped by a concentrator device capturing daylight applicable for illumination of building interiors and presents results of experiments on performance of its prototype. The main goal is focused on the comparison of traditional solutions and newly developed prototype of the light guide system and presents examination of its light transmission efficiency based on the laboratory experiments.

  6. Software testing for evolutionary iterative rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Edward V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Rapid prototyping is emerging as a promising software development paradigm. It provides a systematic and automatable means of developing a software system under circumstances where initial requirements are not well known or where requirements change frequently during development. To provide high software quality assurance requires sufficient software testing. The unique nature of evolutionary iterative prototyping is not well-suited for ...

  7. Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada, Nader; Shing, M.; Berzins, V.; Luqi

    2002-01-01

    Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT) is an integrated set of software tools that generate source programs directly from real-time requirements. The APT system uses a fifth-generation prototyping language to model the communication structure, timing constraints, 1/0 control, and data buffering that comprise the requirements for an embedded software system. The language supports the specification of hard real-time systems with reusable components from domain specific component libraries. APT ha...

  8. Prototype_Matematikforløb_Sct-Hans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Helle Munkholm; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Klitø, Nanna Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    Forløbet udgør en prototype på et matematikforløb til 8. klasse, som er udviklet til at styrke og fastholde elevers motivation for læring. Formålet med denne prototype er at styrke motivationen for læring gennem synlige læringsmål, faglig differentiering og elevernes medbestemmelse. Didaktisk mål...

  9. Prototype_Danskforløb_Sct.Hans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Helle Munkholm; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Klitø, Nanna Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    Forløbet udgør en prototype på et danskforløb til 4. klasse, som er udviklet til at styrke og fastholde elevers motivation for læring. Formålet med denne prototype er at styrke motivationen for læring gennem synlige læringsmål, faglig differentiering og elevernes medbestemmelse. Didaktisk mål: at...

  10. A feasibility study of Dynamic Phantom scanner for quality assurance of photon beam profiles at various gantry angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunkai; Hsi, Wen C; Chu, James C H; Bernard, Damian B; Abrams, Ross A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gantry rotation on beam profiles of photon and electron beams is an important issue in quality assurance for radiotherapy. To address variations in the profiles of photon and electron beams at different gantry angles, a Dynamic Phantom scanner composed of a 20 x 12 x 6 cm3 scanning Lucite block was designed as a cross-beam-profile scanner. To our knowledge, differences between scanned profiles acquired at different gantry angles with a small size Lucite block and those acquired a full-size (60 x 60 x 50 cm3) water phantom have not been previously investigated. We therefore performed a feasibility study for a first prototype Dynamic Phantom scanner without a gantry attachment mount. Radiation beams from a Varian LINAC 21EX and 2100C were used. Photon beams (6 MV and 18 MV) were shaped by either collimator jaws or a Varian 120 Multileaf (MLC) collimator, and electron beams (6 MeV, 12 MeV, and 20 MeV) were shaped by a treatment cone. To investigate the effect on profiles by using a Lucite block, a quantitative comparison of scanned profiles with the Dynamic Phantom and a full-size water phantom was first performed at a 0 degrees gantry angle for both photon and electron beams. For photon beam profiles defined by jaws at 1.0 cm and 5.0 cm depths of Lucite (i.e., at 1.1 cm and 5.7 cm depth of water), a good agreement (less than 1% variation) inside the field edge was observed between profiles scanned with the Dynamic Phantom and with a water phantom. The use of Lucite in the Dynamic Phantom resulted in reduced penumbra width (about 0.5 mm out of 5 mm to 8mm) and reduced (1% to 2%) scatter dose beyond the field edges for both 6 MV and 18 MV beams, compared with the water phantom scanner. For profiles of the MLC-shaped 6 MV photon beam, a similar agreement was observed. For profiles of electron beams scanned at 2.9 cm depth of Lucite (i.e., at 3.3 cm depth of water), larger disagreements in profiles (3% to 4%) and penumbra width (3 mm to 4 mm out of 12 mm

  11. A feasibility study of the Dynamic Phantom scanner for quality assurance of beam profiles at various gantry angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunkai; Hsi, Wen C.; Chu, James C.H.; Bernard, Damian B.; Abrams, Ross A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gantry rotation on beam profiles of photon and electron beams is an important issue in quality assurance for radiotherapy. To address variations in the profiles of photon and electron beams at different gantry angles, a Dynamic Phantom scanner composed of a 20×12×6 cm3 scanning Lucite block was designed as a cross‐beam‐profile scanner. To our knowledge, differences between scanned profiles acquired at different gantry angles with a small size Lucite block and those acquired a full‐size (60×60×50 cm3) water phantom have not been previously investigated. We therefore performed a feasibility study for a first prototype Dynamic Phantom scanner without a gantry attachment mount. Radiation beams from a Varian LINAC 21EX and 2100C were used. Photon beams (6 MV and 18 MV) were shaped by either collimator jaws or a Varian 120 Multileaf (MLC) collimator, and electron beams (6 MeV, 12 MeV, and 20 MeV) were shaped by a treatment cone. To investigate the effect on profiles by using a Lucite block, a quantitative comparison of scanned profiles with the Dynamic Phantom and a full‐size water phantom was first performed at a 0° gantry angle for both photon and electron beams. For photon beam profiles defined by jaws at 1.0 cm and 5.0 cm depths of Lucite (i.e., at 1.1 cm and 5.7 cm depth of water), a good agreement (less than 1% variation) inside the field edge was observed between profiles scanned with the Dynamic Phantom and with a water phantom. The use of Lucite in the Dynamic Phantom resulted in reduced penumbra width (about 0.5 mm out of 5 mm to 8 mm) and reduced (1% to 2%) scatter dose beyond the field edges for both 6 MV and 18 MV beams, compared with the water phantom scanner. For profiles of the MLC‐shaped 6 MV photon beam, a similar agreement was observed. For profiles of electron beams scanned at 2.9 cm depth of Lucite (i.e., at 3.3 cm depth of water), larger disagreements in profiles (3% to 4%) and penumbra width (3 mm to 4 mm out of 12 mm

  12. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs

  13. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  14. Investigating the role of implicit prototypes in the prototype willingness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Ratliff, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    One useful theory to predict health behavior is the prototype-willingness model (PWM), which posits that people are more willing to engage in behavior to the extent that they have a positive view of the prototypical person who performs that behavior. The goal of the present research is to test whether adding an implicit measure of prototype favorability might improve explanatory power in the PWM. Two studies examined whether implicit prototype favorability uniquely predicted White women's intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior over the next 3-6 months, and their willingness to engage in risky sun behavior, should the opportunity arise. The results suggested that implicit prototype favorability, particularly implicit prototypes of those who engage in risky UV-related behaviors, uniquely predicted intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior and willingness to engage in risky sun behavior in the PWM.

  15. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. N.; Revet, G.; Fuchs, J. [LULI-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, CEA: Universite Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Universities, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gauthier, M.; Glenzer, S.; Propp, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Bazalova-Carter, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Bolanos, S. [LULI-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, CEA: Universite Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Universities, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riquier, R. [LULI-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, CEA: Universite Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Universities, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Antici, P. [INRS-EMT, Varennes, J3X1S2 Québec (Canada); Morabito, A. [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU non profit kft, Dugonics ter 13, H-6720, Szeged (Hungary); Starodubtsev, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSON V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ∼2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters.

  16. [Practicability of the mobile one-finger scanner Cross Match MV5 in fingerprinting of corpses: are mobile fingerprinting scanners suitable for use in mass disasters?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitmeier, Dirk; Landmesser, Britta; Schulz, Yvonne; Albrecht, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Dactyloscopy is a special field in the police records department and a suitable means for identifying unknown dead persons as well as solving crimes by taking fingerprints from living persons. Apart from the conventional methods of dactyloscopy, mobile and more compact instruments are to facilitate taking prints of fingertips and palms also at the scene of mass disasters. In the presented study, living persons and corpses were examined to find out the possible uses and limits of mobile one-finger scanners. The concrete issue of the investigation was whether the mobile one-finger scanner Cross Match MV5 is suitable for application in mass disasters. The device was used in 12 corpses aged 5 weeks to 76 years (mean postmortem interval 5.5 days) and in 28 living persons aged 6 weeks to 87 years. In summary, the scanner produced qualitatively good prints in all age groups of the living individuals. In the corpses, the prints were only partly evaluable. In particular, fingers and fingertips with soot blackening and livid discoloration were difficult to analyse. Postmortem rigidity also complicated the handling of the scanner. In fresh corpses, the scanner can be recommended without reservation. Even if the epidermis was detached, the scanner was able to produce evaluable prints of the dermis of the hypothenar.

  17. Development of a single-ring OpenPET prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-21

    One of the challenging applications of PET is implementing it for in-beam PET, which is an in situ monitoring method for charged particle therapy. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an open-type PET scanner, OpenPET. The original OpenPET had a physically opened field-of-view (FOV) between two detector rings through which irradiation beams pass. This dual-ring OpenPET (DROP) had a wide axial FOV including the gap. This geometry was not necessarily the most efficient for application to in-beam PET in which only a limited FOV around the irradiation field is required. Therefore, we have proposed a new single-ring OpenPET (SROP) geometry which can provide an accessible and observable open space with higher sensitivity and a reduced number of detectors than the DROP. The proposed geometry was a cylinder shape with its ends cut at a slant, in which the shape of each cut end became an ellipse. In this work, we developed and evaluated a small prototype of the SROP geometry for proof-of-concept. The SROP prototype was designed with 2 ellipse-shaped detector rings of 16 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors each. The DOI detectors consisted of 1024 GSOZ scintillator crystals which were arranged in 4 layers of 16×16 arrays, coupled to a 64-channel FP-PMT. Each ellipse-shaped detector ring had a major axis of 281.6 mm and a minor axis of 207.5 mm. For the slant mode, the rings were placed at a 45-deg slant from the axial direction and for the non-slant mode (used as a reference) they were at 90 deg from the axial direction with no gap. The system sensitivity measured from a {sup 22}Na point source was 5.0% for the slant mode. The average spatial resolutions of major and minor axis directions were calculated as 3.8 mm FWHM and 4.9 mm FWHM, respectively for the slant mode. This difference resulted from the ellipsoidal ring geometry and the spatial resolution of the minor axis direction degraded by the parallax error. Comparison between the slant mode and the non

  18. FormScanner: Open-Source Solution for Grading Multiple-Choice Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chadwick; Lo, Glenn; Young, Kaisa; Borsetta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-choice exam remains a staple for many introductory physics courses. In the past, people have graded these by hand or even flaming needles. Today, one usually grades the exams with a form scanner that utilizes optical mark recognition (OMR). Several companies provide these scanners and particular forms, such as the eponymous…

  19. Validity and Repeatability of the Sizestream 3D Scanner and Poikos Modeling System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, T.E.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) body scanning becomes increasingly important in the medical, ergonomical and apparel industry. The SizeStream 3D body scanner is a 3D body scanner in the shape of a fitting room that can generate a 3D copy of the human body in a few seconds. The Poikos modeling system

  20. Application of intra-oral dental scanners in the digital workflow of implantology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Wicher J; Andriessen, Frank S; Wismeijer, Daniel; Ren, Yijin

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intra-oral scanners will play a central role in digital dentistry in the near future. In this study the accuracy of three intra-oral scanners was compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A master model made of stone was fitted with three high precision manufactured PEEK cylinders and scanned

  1. Digitisation of electron microscope films: Six useful tests applied to three film scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.; Cattermole, D.; McMullan, G.; Scotcher, S.; Fordham, M.; Amos, W.B.; Faruqi, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    A series of simple tests have been used to measure the performance of flat-bed film scanners suitable for digitisation of electron micrographs. Two of the film scanners evaluated are commercially available and one has been constructed in the laboratory paying special attention to the needs of the electron microscopist. The tests may be useful for others

  2. Accuracy and reproducibility of the DAVID SLS-2 scanner in three-dimensional facial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jesper Jared; Darvann, Tron Andre; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: A prospective study was performed to test the accuracy and reproducibility of the DAVID-SLS-2 scanner (SLS-2) [DAVID Vision Systems GmbH], compared to the validated 3dMDtrio scanner (3dMD) [3dMD, LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The accuracy of the SLS-2 was determined thro...

  3. Scanner Uniformity improvements for radiochromic film analysis with matt reflectance backing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.; Yu, P.K.N.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A simple and reproducible method for increasing desktop scanner uniformity for the analysis of radiochromic films is presented. Scanner uniformity, especially in the non-scan direction, for transmission scanning is well known to be problematic for radiochromic film analysis and normally corrections need to be applied. These corrections are dependant on scanner coordinates and dose level applied which complicates dosimetry procedures. This study has highlighted that using reflectance scanning in combination with a matt, white backing material instead of the conventional gloss scanner finish, substantial increases in the scanner uniformity can be achieved within 90% of the scanning area. Uniformity within ±I% over the scanning area for our epsonV700 scanner tested was found. This is compared to within ±3% for reflection scanning with the gloss backing material and within ±4% for transmission scanning. The matt backing material used was simply 5 layers of standard quality white printing paper (80 g/m It was found that 5 layers was the optimal result for backing material however most of the improvements were seen with a minimum of 3 layers. Above 5 layers, no extra benefit was seen. This may eliminate the need to perform scanner corrections for position on the desktop scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry. (author)

  4. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2012-01-01

    to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data...

  5. Accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners: effects of the presence of orthodontic brackets and wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoo-Ran; Park, Ji-Man; Chun, Youn-Sic; Lee, Kkot-Nim; Kim, Minji

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners and the effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire. For this study, three sets of models (Control model, BKT model with buccal bracket, and WBKT model with buccal bracket and orthodontic wire) were scanned using four different types of intraoral scanners: E4D dentist, iTero, Trios, and Zfx IntraScan. The mesiodistal width of the teeth, intercanine width, and intermolar width measured by four scanners were compared. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the brackets were taken using the four scanners. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, independent t test, and post-hoc Tukey test at a significance level of P brackets and orthodontic wire. Comparison of 3D bracket images scanned by the four scanners showed differences in image distortion among the scanners. Bracket characteristics did not affect the 3D bracket images. The four intraoral scanners used in this study differed in accuracy. However, the results acquired by iTero and Trios were more reliable. Effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire on the 3D images taken by intraoral scanners were not clinically significant.

  6. Computer-aided analysis of digital dental impressions obtained from intraoral and extraoral scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Marció, Bruno Silva; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; Sesma, Newton; Tortamano Neto, Pedro

    2017-11-01

    The internal and marginal adaptation of a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) prosthesis relies on the quality of the 3-dimensional image. The quality of imaging systems requires evaluation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the trueness of intraoral and extraoral scanners in scanning prepared teeth. Ten acrylic resin teeth to be used as a reference dataset were prepared according to standard guidelines and scanned with an industrial computed tomography system. Data were acquired with 4 scanner devices (n=10): the Trios intraoral scanner (TIS), the D250 extraoral scanner (DES), the Cerec Bluecam intraoral scanner (CBIS), and the Cerec InEosX5 extraoral scanner (CIES). For intraoral scanners, each tooth was digitized individually. Extraoral scanning was obtained from dental casts of each prepared tooth. The discrepancy between each scan and its respective reference model was obtained by deviation analysis (μm) and volume/area difference (μm). Statistical analysis was performed using linear models for repeated measurement factors test and 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). No significant differences in deviation values were found among scanners. For CBIS and CIES, the deviation was significantly higher (PDentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of intra-oral dental scanners in the digital workflow of implantology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W.J.; Andriessen, F.S.; Wismeijer, D.; Ren, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-oral scanners will play a central role in digital dentistry in the near future. In this study the accuracy of three intra-oral scanners was compared. Materials and methods: A master model made of stone was fitted with three high precision manufactured PEEK cylinders and scanned with three

  8. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Kross, Brain; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm 3 . Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm 3 ) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of ∼60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to ∼85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy

  9. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R. [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States)]. E-mail: rraylman@wvu.edu; Majewski, Stan [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S. Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brain [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wojcik, Randy [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-12-20

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm{sup 3}. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm{sup 3}) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of {approx}60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to {approx}85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy.

  10. Evaluation of wedge-shaped phantoms for assessment of scanner display as a part of quality control of scanner performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.; Havlik, E.

    1981-01-01

    Image manipulation in modern rectilinear scanners comprises background subtraction and contrast enhancement facilities. It has been the aim of this investigation to develop simple quality assurance methods suitable for checking the function of these features on a routine basis. Several types of phantoms have been investigated: an absorption step wedge, an emission step wedge and an emission continuous wedge. The absorption step wedge when used with a usual gamma-camera checking source gave the least satisfactory results. The emission step wedge is best suited for test procedures for background subtraction of the colour printer display and for contrast enhancement of the photo display, whereas the emission continuous wedge gave best results in testing the contrast enhancement of the colour printer display. An evaluation of the relative merits of the phantoms indicates that the emission step wedge is best suited for quality assurance tests. (author)

  11. Out of lab calibration of a rotating 2D scanner for 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rainer; Böttcher, Lena; Jahrsdörfer, Maximilian; Maier, Johannes; Trommer, Malte; May, Stefan; Nüchter, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Mapping is an essential task in mobile robotics. To fulfil advanced navigation and manipulation tasks a 3D representation of the environment is required. Applying stereo cameras or Time-of-flight cameras (TOF cameras) are one way to archive this requirement. Unfortunately, they suffer from drawbacks which makes it difficult to map properly. Therefore, costly 3D laser scanners are applied. An inexpensive way to build a 3D representation is to use a 2D laser scanner and rotate the scan plane around an additional axis. A 3D point cloud acquired with such a custom device consists of multiple 2D line scans. Therefore the scanner pose of each line scan need to be determined as well as parameters resulting from a calibration to generate a 3D point cloud. Using external sensor systems are a common method to determine these calibration parameters. This is costly and difficult when the robot needs to be calibrated outside the lab. Thus, this work presents a calibration method applied on a rotating 2D laser scanner. It uses a hardware setup to identify the required parameters for calibration. This hardware setup is light, small, and easy to transport. Hence, an out of lab calibration is possible. Additional a theoretical model was created to test the algorithm and analyse impact of the scanner accuracy. The hardware components of the 3D scanner system are an HOKUYO UTM-30LX-EW 2D laser scanner, a Dynamixel servo-motor, and a control unit. The calibration system consists of an hemisphere. In the inner of the hemisphere a circular plate is mounted. The algorithm needs to be provided with a dataset of a single rotation from the laser scanner. To achieve a proper calibration result the scanner needs to be located in the middle of the hemisphere. By means of geometric formulas the algorithms determine the individual deviations of the placed laser scanner. In order to minimize errors, the algorithm solves the formulas in an iterative process. First, the calibration algorithm was

  12. High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Arain, Muzammil A; Riza, Nabeel A

    2003-09-10

    A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure for storing multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures in a single PTR glass volume (for normal incidence) in an optimal fashion. Because the scanner design is modular, many PTR glass volumes (each having multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures) can be stacked together, providing an efficient throughput with operations in both the visible and the infrared (IR) regions. A proof-of-concept experimental study is conducted with four Bragg gratings in independent PTR glass plates, and both visible and IR region scanner operations are demonstrated.

  13. The development of a mobile CT-scanner gantry for use in the operating room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okudera, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Koike, Jouji; Harada, Takanobu; Kanemaru, Kei

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of a mobile CT-scanner gantry which uses a gantry platter. This system has been developed for use in the operating room. We designed a small lift to move the gantry unit of the scanner: the gantry carrier. The scanner gantry is fixed to the gantry carrier. A phantom test with a digitalized operating table worked well in the laboratory, and operating-room use showed that there was no deterioration in image quality. The mobile gantry system has been developed to increase the efficiency of the operating CT-scanner system. This system enables us to obtain CT images during surgery of immediately after surgery in the operating room, i.e., in cases that are not transferable to the radiological department. The operability is basically the same as that of a conventional mobile X-ray unit. Theoretically, this unit could be used with any CT scanner and in any operating room. (author)

  14. SU-F-J-196: A Prototype System for Portal Imaging for Intensity Modulated Neutron Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St James, S; Argento, D; DeWitt, D; Miyaoka, R; Stewart, R [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Moffitt, G [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Fast neutron therapy is offered at the University of Washington Medical Center for treatment of selected cancers. The hardware and control systems of the UW Clinical Neutron Therapy System are undergoing upgrades to enable delivery of IMNT. To clinically implement IMNT, dose verification tools need to be developed. We propose a portal imaging system that relies on the creation of positron emitting isotopes ({sup 11}C and {sup 15}O) through (n, 2n) reactions with a PMMA plate placed below the patient. After field delivery, the plate is retrieved from the vault and imaged using a reader that detects the annihilation photons. The pattern of activity produced in the plate provides information to reconstruct the neutron fluence map that can be compared to fluence maps from Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations to verify treatment delivery. We have previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of the portal imaging system (GATE simulations) and the beam line (MCNP simulations). In this work, initial measurements using a prototype system are presented. Methods: Custom electronics were developed for BGO detectors read out with photomultiplier tubes (previous generation PET detectors from a CTI ECAT 953 scanner). Two detectors were placed in coincidence, with a detector separation of 2 cm. Custom software was developed to create the crystal look up tables and perform a limited angle planar reconstruction with a stochastic normalization. To test the initial capabilities of the system, PMMA squares were irradiated with neutrons at a depth of 1.5 cm and read out using the prototype system. Doses ranging from 10–200 cGy were delivered. Results: Using the prototype system, dose differences in the therapeutic range could be determined. Conclusion: The prototype portal imaging system is capable of detecting neutron doses as low as 10–50 cGy and shows great promise as a patient QA tool for IMNT.

  15. Novice designers’ use of prototypes in engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; Daly, Shanna R.; Sienko, Kathleen H.; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2017-01-01

    Prototypes are essential tools in product design processes, but are often underutilized by novice designers. To help novice designers use prototypes more effectively, we must first determine how they currently use prototypes. In this paper, we describe how novice designers conceptualized prototypes and reported using them throughout a design project, and compare reported prototyping use to prototyping best practices. We found that some of the reported prototyping practices by novice designers, such as using inexpensive prototypes early and using prototypes to define user requirements, occurred infrequently and lacked intentionality. Participants’ initial descriptions of prototypes were less sophisticated than how they later described using them and only upon prompted reflection did participants recognize more specific benefits of using prototypes. PMID:29398740

  16. SU-E-P-11: Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Between Different Scanner System in Routine Abdomen CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, S; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of routine abdomen computed tomography exam with the automatic current modulation technique (ATCM) performed in two different brand 64-slice CT scanners in our site. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of routine abdomen CT exam performed with two scanners; scanner A and scanner B in our site. To calculate standard deviation of the portal hepatic level with a region of interest of 12.5 mm x 12.5mm represented to the image noise. The radiation dose was obtained from CT DICOM image information. Using Computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIv) to represented CT radiation dose. The patient data in this study were with normal weight (about 65–75 Kg). Results The standard deviation of Scanner A was smaller than scanner B, the scanner A might with better image quality than scanner B. On the other hand, the radiation dose of scanner A was higher than scanner B(about higher 50–60%) with ATCM. Both of them, the radiation dose was under diagnostic reference level. Conclusion The ATCM systems in modern CT scanners can contribute a significant reduction in radiation dose to the patient. But the reduction by ATCM systems from different CT scanner manufacturers has slightly variation. Whatever CT scanner we use, it is necessary to find the acceptable threshold of image quality with the minimum possible radiation exposure to the patient in agreement with the ALARA principle.

  17. SU-E-P-11: Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose Between Different Scanner System in Routine Abdomen CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of routine abdomen computed tomography exam with the automatic current modulation technique (ATCM) performed in two different brand 64-slice CT scanners in our site. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of routine abdomen CT exam performed with two scanners; scanner A and scanner B in our site. To calculate standard deviation of the portal hepatic level with a region of interest of 12.5 mm x 12.5mm represented to the image noise. The radiation dose was obtained from CT DICOM image information. Using Computed tomography dose index volume (CTDIv) to represented CT radiation dose. The patient data in this study were with normal weight (about 65–75 Kg). Results The standard deviation of Scanner A was smaller than scanner B, the scanner A might with better image quality than scanner B. On the other hand, the radiation dose of scanner A was higher than scanner B(about higher 50–60%) with ATCM. Both of them, the radiation dose was under diagnostic reference level. Conclusion The ATCM systems in modern CT scanners can contribute a significant reduction in radiation dose to the patient. But the reduction by ATCM systems from different CT scanner manufacturers has slightly variation. Whatever CT scanner we use, it is necessary to find the acceptable threshold of image quality with the minimum possible radiation exposure to the patient in agreement with the ALARA principle

  18. Prototyping for surgical and prosthetic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Murillo Rezende; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié

    2011-05-01

    Techniques of rapid prototyping were introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. After its introduction in the biomedical field, several applications were raised for the fabrication of models to ease surgical planning and simulation in implantology, neurosurgery, and orthopedics, as well as for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. Hence, the literature has described the evolution of rapid prototyping technique in health care, which allowed easier technique, improved surgical results, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. Accordingly, a literature review on MEDLINE (PubMed) database was conducted using the keywords rapid prototyping, surgical planning, and maxillofacial prostheses and based on articles published from 1981 to 2010. After reading the titles and abstracts of the articles, 50 studies were selected owing to their correlations with the aim of the current study. Several studies show that the prototypes have been used in different dental-medical areas such as maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery; implantology; neurosurgery; orthopedics; scaffolds of ceramic, polymeric, and metallic materials; and fabrication of personalized maxillofacial prostheses. Therefore, prototyping has been an indispensable tool in several studies and helpful for surgical planning and fabrication of prostheses and implants.

  19. Refrigerating liquid prototype for LED's thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faranda, Roberto; Guzzetti, Stefania; Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Leva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The heat management is the critical factor for high performance operation of LED. A new heat management application of refrigerating liquid integrated within a fabricated prototype is proposed and investigated. A series of experiments considering different heights of liquid level were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance and optical characteristics of the refrigerating liquid based prototype. The results reveal that the junction temperature decreases as the level of refrigerating liquid increases. The experimental results report that the refrigerating liquid reduces the junction temperature, and can positively influence the luminous radiation performances. An optimization investigation of the proposed solution was carried out to find an optimum thermal performance. The experiments indicated that refrigerating liquid cooling is a powerful way for heat dissipation of high power LEDs, and the fabrication of prototype was feasible and useful. - Highlights: ► New heat management application of refrigerating liquid on a fabricated LED prototype. ► Thermal models setup and comparison between the classical and the new solutions. ► The impact of refrigerating liquid level on LED thermal and luminous performances. ► The relationship between different levels of liquid with LED prototype performances.

  20. Prototype superconducting magnet for the FFAG accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.; Mori, Y.; Fujii, T.; Iwasa, M.; Orikasa, T.

    2006-01-01

    A study of a superconducting magnet for the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator has been performed. The FFAG accelerator requires static magnetic field, and it is suitable for superconducting magnet applications, because problems associated with time varying magnetic field such as eddy current loss can be eliminated. The superconducting magnet, which can generate high magnetic field, is possible to realize a higher beam energy with a given accelerator size or the size to be smaller for a given beam energy. The FFAG accelerator magnet is demanded to have a complicated nonlinear magnetic field with high accuracy. As a first prototype superconducting coil, the coil configuration which consists of left-right asymmetric cross-section and large aperture has been designed. The prototype coil has been successfully developed by using a 6-axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) winding machine. The magnetic field of the prototype coil has been demonstrated in warm measurement. As a consequence, the technical feasibility has been verified with the prototype coil development and the performance test. In addition, the technology components developed in the prototype coil have a possibility to transfer to a fusion magnet

  1. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  2. Design and construction of a small animal PET/CT scanner combining scintillation Phoswich modules and hybrid pixels detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, St.

    2010-07-01

    The pathway that has been followed by the imXgam team at CPPM was to combine on a single rotating device the detector modules of the small animal PET scanner ClearPET with a photon counting X-ray detector in order to perform simultaneous acquisition of images from the anatomy (X-ray CT) and from the metabolic function (PET) of the common field-of-view. A preliminary study of the hybrid imaging system ClearPET/XPAD3 carried out using Gate led us to form a new PET detection assembly based on 21 Phoswich modules, to fix the design of the PET/CT device, as well as to study and solve the difficulties arising from simultaneous hybrid imaging. Last but not least, the simulation tool also allowed us for thinking how well such a system could judiciously use the spatial and temporal correlations between anatomic and functional information. From an instrumentation point of view, we succeeded to set up the ClearPET/XPAD3 prototype. Once both imaging systems were operational individually, we demonstrated on one side that the ClearPET prototype was perfectly capable of performing correctly in simultaneous acquisition conditions, providing that the detector modules were appropriately shielded. On the other side, the new generation of the hybrid pixel camera using the XPAD3-S chip proved to be quite promising given the good quality of the first reconstructed images. Finally, the proof of concept of simultaneous PET/CT data acquisition was made using a sealed positron source and an X-ray tube. (author)

  3. Application of rapid prototyping technology in the prototype manufacturing for evaluation of NPP components and equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Shon, H. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yang, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of rapid prototyping technology in which a part with complex shape can be produced easily and rapidly in a layer-by-layer additive manner is given in this article. In addition, a prototype model of a complex fan is manufactured using three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), a rapid prototyping technology. This enables designers to verify and modify design rapidly at an early stage of product development; and the prototype model of a fan can be used as a pattern for various secondary casting process such as vacumm casting, lost-paper casting to make prototypes of a fan. It has been shown that the combination of three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and rapid prototyping technology can reduce greatly the cost and time of prototyping of fans and turbine blades in comparison with conventional CNC machining. It should also be noted that rapid prototyping technology enables the visualization of various physical and chemical defects at a nuclear power plant so that it can help engineers understand those defects in an effective way

  4. The Prototype as Mediator of Embodied Experience in Fashion Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Ræbild, Ulla

    . It is based on photographic material obtained in design studios during prototype development. The prototype is considered a core fashion design competence. Yet, companies increasingly cut costs by reducing or omitting prototype development. We intend to show, how the garment prototype acts as an important...

  5. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  6. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Broekaert, Jan; Gabora, Liane; Sozzo, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper. PMID:27065436

  7. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  8. Mobile Prototyping Platforms for Remote Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a low-cost mobile communication platform as a universal rapid-prototyping system, which is based on the Quadrocopter concept. At the Integrated Hardware and Software Systems Group at the Ilmenau University of Technology these mobile platforms are used to motivate bachelor and master students to study Computer Engineering sciences. This could be done by increasing their interest in technical issues, using this platform as integral part of a new ad-hoc lab to demonstrate different aspects in the area of Mobile Communication as well as universal rapid prototyping nodes to investigate different mechanisms for self-organized mobile communication systems within the International Graduate School on Mobile Communications. Beside the three fields of application, the paper describes the current architecture concept of the mobile prototyping platform as well as the chosen control mechanism and the assigned sensor systems to fulfill all the required tasks.

  9. Iterative Prototyping of Strategy Implementation Workshop Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a strategy implementation workshop design can be developed and tested while minimizing the time spent on developing the design. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study at a diesel engine company shows how iterative prototyping...... can be used to structure the design process of a strategy implementation workshop. Findings: Strategy implementation workshop design can be developed in resource-constrained environments through iterative prototyping of the workshop design. Each workshop iteration can generate value in its own right...... draw on his/her experience as well as add to his/her knowledge base. Originality/value: Introducing iterative prototyping in an organizational context can facilitate fast yet structured development of a rigorous workshop design. Strategy consultants are provided with empirical examples of how...

  10. Generalizing Prototype Theory: A Formal Quantum Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theories of natural language and concepts have been unable to model the flexibility, creativity, context-dependence, and emergence, exhibited by words, concepts and their combinations. The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has instead been successful in capturing these phenomena such as graded membership, situational meaning, composition of categories, and also more complex decision making situations, which cannot be modeled in traditional probabilistic approaches. We show how a formal quantum approach to concepts and their combinations can provide a powerful extension of prototype theory. We explain how prototypes can interfere in conceptual combinations as a consequence of their contextual interactions, and provide an illustration of this using an intuitive wave-like diagram. This quantum-conceptual approach gives new life to original prototype theory, without however making it a privileged concept theory, as we explain at the end of our paper.

  11. Licensing management system prototype system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immerman, W.H.; Arcuni, A.A.; Elliott, J.M.; Chapman, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a design document for a prototype implementation of a licensing management system (LMS) as defined in SAND83-7080. It describes the concept of operations for full implementation of an LMS in accordance with the previously defined functional requirements. It defines a subset of a full LMS suitable for meeting prototype implementation goals, and proposes a system design for this subset. The report describes overall system design considerations consistent with, but more explicit than the general characteristics required by the LMS functional definition. A high level design is presented for just those functions selected for prototype implementation. The report also provides a data element dictionary describing the structured logical data elements required to implement the selected functions

  12. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Rigid Airport Pavement Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, Maurizio; D'Amico, Fabrizio; De Blasiis, Maria Rosaria; Di Benedetto, Alessandro; Fiani, Margherita

    2017-12-26

    The evaluation of the structural efficiency of airport infrastructures is a complex task. Faulting is one of the most important indicators of rigid pavement performance. The aim of our study is to provide a new method for faulting detection and computation on jointed concrete pavements. Nowadays, the assessment of faulting is performed with the use of laborious and time-consuming measurements that strongly hinder aircraft traffic. We proposed a field procedure for Terrestrial Laser Scanner data acquisition and a computation flow chart in order to identify and quantify the fault size at each joint of apron slabs. The total point cloud has been used to compute the least square plane fitting those points. The best-fit plane for each slab has been computed too. The attitude of each slab plane with respect to both the adjacent ones and the apron reference plane has been determined by the normal vectors to the surfaces. Faulting has been evaluated as the difference in elevation between the slab planes along chosen sections. For a more accurate evaluation of the faulting value, we have then considered a few strips of data covering rectangular areas of different sizes across the joints. The accuracy of the estimated quantities has been computed too.

  13. Application of 3D Laser Scanner to Forensic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Seong; Jeon, Hong-Pil; Choi, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jin-Pyo; Park, Nam-Kyu

    2018-05-01

    In the case of building collapses and overturned structures, a three-dimensional (3D) collapse or overturn model is required to reconstruct the accident. As construction sites become increasingly complex and large, 3D laser scanning is sometimes the best tool to accurately document and store the site conditions. This case report presents one case of a structure collapse and one case of an overturned crane reconstructed by a 3D laser scanner. In the case of structural collapse of a prefabricated shoring system, a 3D model reconstructed all the members successfully, a task that is nearly impossible using a scale such as a tape measure. The reconstructed prefabricated shoring system was verified through a structural analysis through comparison with the construction drawings to investigate faults in construction. In the case of the overturned crane, the jib angle and other major dimensions were successfully acquired through 3D laser scanning and used to estimate the working radius. As a result, the propriety of the working radius with the given lifting load was successfully determined. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Rigid Airport Pavement Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Barbarella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the structural efficiency of airport infrastructures is a complex task. Faulting is one of the most important indicators of rigid pavement performance. The aim of our study is to provide a new method for faulting detection and computation on jointed concrete pavements. Nowadays, the assessment of faulting is performed with the use of laborious and time-consuming measurements that strongly hinder aircraft traffic. We proposed a field procedure for Terrestrial Laser Scanner data acquisition and a computation flow chart in order to identify and quantify the fault size at each joint of apron slabs. The total point cloud has been used to compute the least square plane fitting those points. The best-fit plane for each slab has been computed too. The attitude of each slab plane with respect to both the adjacent ones and the apron reference plane has been determined by the normal vectors to the surfaces. Faulting has been evaluated as the difference in elevation between the slab planes along chosen sections. For a more accurate evaluation of the faulting value, we have then considered a few strips of data covering rectangular areas of different sizes across the joints. The accuracy of the estimated quantities has been computed too.

  15. Design of a portable CAT scanner for utility pole inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Work is under way at the University of Missouri, Columbia (UMC) to design, build, and test a portable computerized axial tomography (CAT) device for the nondestructive, field imaging of wooden utility poles. CAT is a well-established medical technology that has recently been applied to a number of industrial applications. Wooden utility poles are prone to rot and decay at ground level; current techniques to assess this loss of strength are relatively primitive, i.e., tapping the pole (hitting the pole with a hammer) or boring into the pole for samples and then testing inside the bore hole with an electrical pulse device. The accuracy in identifying poles needing replacement using these techniques is ∼ 70%. Since the cost of replacing a pole ranges from hundreds to thousands of dollars, an accurate, nondestructive method is needed. CAT can accurately image a wooden utility pole (since the size, density, and atomic elements of a pole are similar to the human head to torso), as was confirmed by imaging poles using the UMC nuclear engineering EMI-1010 medical scanner. Detailed images have been produced showing the ring structure of the wood and voids due to rot or decay. Images approaching this quality have also been produced on living trees using semiportable systems by other researchers

  16. Performance evaluation and calibration of the neuro-pet scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sank, V.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Cascio, H.E.; Di Chiro, G.; Friauf, W.S.; Leighton, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Neuro-PET is a circular ring seven-slice positron emission tomograph designed for imaging human heads and small animals. The scanner uses 512 bismuth germanate detectors 8.25 mm wide packed tightly together in four layers to achieve high spatial resolution (6-7 mm FWHM) without the use of beam blockers. Because of the small 38 cm ring diameter, the sensitivity is also very high: 70,000 c/s per true slice with medium energy threshold (375 keV) for a 20 cm diameter phantom containing 1 μCi/cc of positron-emitting activity, according to a preliminary measurement. There are three switch-selectable thresholds, and the sensitivity will be higher in the low threshold setting. The Neuro-PET is calibrated with a round or elliptical phantom that approximates a patient's head; this method eliminates the effects of scatter and self-attenuation to first order. Further software corrections for these artifacts are made in the reconstruction program, which reduce the measured scatter to zero, as determined with a 5 cm cold spot. With a 1 cm cold spot, the apparent activity at the center of the cold spot is 18% of the surrounding activity, which is clearly a consequence of the limits of spatial resolution, rather than scatter. The Neuro-PET has been in clinical operation since June 1982, and approximately 30 patients have been scanned to date

  17. 2D MEMS scanner integrating a position feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lani Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated position sensor for a dual-axis electromagnetic tilting mirror is presented. This tilting mirror is composed of a silicon based mirror directly assembled on a silicon membrane supported by flexible beams. The position sensors are constituted by 4 Wheatstone bridges of piezoresistors which are fabricated by doping locally the flexible beams. A permanent magnet is attached to the membrane and the scanner is mounted above planar coils deposited on a ceramic substrate to achieve electromagnetic actuation. The performances of the piezoresistive sensors are evaluated by measuring the output signal of the piezoresistors as a function of the tilt of the mirror and the temperature. White light interferometry was performed for all measurement to measure the exact tilt angle. The minimum detectable angle with such sensors was 30μrad (around 13bits in the range of the minimum resolution of the interferometer. The tilt reproducibility was 0.0186%, obtained by measuring the tilt after repeated actuations with a coil current of 50mA during 30 min and the stability over time was 0.05% in 1h without actuation. The maximum measured tilt angle was 6° (mechanical limited by nonlinearity of the MEMS system.

  18. Rail Track Detection and Modelling in Mobile Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oude Elberink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for detecting and modelling rails in mobile laser scanner data. The detection is based on the properties of the rail tracks and contact wires such as relative height, linearity and relative position with respect to other objects. Points classified as rail track are used in a 3D modelling algorithm. The modelling is done by first fitting a parametric model of a rail piece to the points along each track, and estimating the position and orientation parameters of each piece model. For each position and orientation parameter a smooth low-order Fourier curve is interpolated. Using all interpolated parameters a mesh model of the rail is reconstructed. The method is explained using two areas from a dataset acquired by a LYNX mobile mapping system in a mountainous area. Residuals between railway laser points and 3D models are in the range of 2 cm. It is concluded that a curve fitting algorithm is essential to reliably and accurately model the rail tracks by using the knowledge that railways are following a continuous and smooth path.

  19. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  20. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Martinez, Derwin; Pillai, Chandra; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H + LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.