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Sample records for prototype creating visceral

  1. Iteration and Prototyping in Creating Technical Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that the development process for computer software can be greatly aided by the writers of specifications if they employ basic iteration and prototyping techniques. Asserts that computer software configuration management practices provide ready models for iteration and prototyping. (HB)

  2. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  3. Evaluation of a prototype flow cytometry test for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Henrique Gama; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; das Dores Moreira, Nádia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a critical challenge since conventional immunoserological tests still present some deficiencies. The current study evaluated a prototype flow cytometry serology test, using antigens and fluorescent antibodies that had been stored for 1 year at 4°C, on a broad range of serum samples. Noninfected control dogs and Leishmania infantum-infected dogs were tested, and the prototype test showed excellent performance in differentiating these groups with high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy (100% in all analyses). When the CVL group was evaluated according to the dogs' clinical status, the prototype test showed outstanding accuracy in all groups with positive serology (asymptomatic II, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic). However, in dogs which had positive results by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) but negative results by conventional serology (asymptomatic I), serological reactivity was not observed. Additionally, sera from 40 dogs immunized with different vaccines (Leishmune, Leish-Tec, or LBSap) did not present serological reactivity in the prototype test. Eighty-eight dogs infected with other pathogens (Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Babesia canis) were used to determine cross-reactivity and specificity, and the prototype test performed well, particularly in dogs infected with B. canis and E. canis (100% and 93.3% specificities, respectively). In conclusion, our data reinforce the potential of the prototype test for use as a commercial kit and highlight its outstanding performance even after storage for 1 year at 4°C. Moreover, the prototype test efficiently provided accurate CVL serodiagnosis with an absence of false-positive results in vaccinated dogs and minor cross-reactivity against other canine pathogens.

  4. 3D Printing Prototypes for Healthcare Professionals: Creating a Reciprocating Syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Steven; Abdullah, Selwan; Hirsch, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    3D printing (additive manufacturing) has been around since 1984, but interest in the technology has increased exponentially as it has become both accessible and inexpensive. The applications of the technology in healthcare are still being explored; however, initial forays have been encouraging. It has the potential to revolutionize the process of prototyping for healthcare professionals by democratizing the process and enhancing collaboration, making it cheaper to do iterative prototyping with little or no engineering experience. This case report details the creation of a multi-lumen reciprocating syringe with 3D printing. The product has been created and tested using a variety of publicly available resources. It provides a detailed overview of the approach and the framework required to create such a medical device. However, the implications of this report are much larger than this one product, and the fundamental ideas discussed here could be used for creating customized solutions for many healthcare problems.

  5. A three-dimensional mediastinal model created with rapid prototyping in a patient with ectopic thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Tadashi; Nakada, Takeo; Inagaki, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a mediastinal tumor using two-dimensional (2D) axial computed tomography is sometimes difficult, and an unexpected appearance of the tumor may be encountered during surgery. In order to evaluate the preoperative feasibility of a 3D mediastinal model that used the rapid prototyping technique, we created a model and report its results. The 2D image showed some of the relationship between the tumor and the pericardium, but the 3D mediastinal model that was created using the rapid prototyping technique showed the 3D lesion in the outer side of the extrapericardium. The patient underwent a thoracoscopic resection of the tumor, and the pathological examination showed a rare middle mediastinal ectopic thymoma. We believe that the construction of mediastinal models is useful for thoracoscopic surgery and other complicated surgeries of the chest diseases.

  6. Studying the Technology of Creating Cortical Electrode Instruments using the Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ablyaz T. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of studying the technology of manufacturing cortical electrode-instruments (EI with the use of indirect methods of the Rapid Prototyping technology. Functional EI prototypes were made by layered synthesis of the photopolymer material with the use of the stereolithography technology (SLA - Stereo Lithography Apparatus. The article is focused on two methods of indirect EI manufacturing. One of the EI prototypes was used for making a molded wax model for hot investment casting, followed by applying copper coating. The second prototype was used for applying copper plating to a prepared current-conductive layer. As a result of EDMing a steel workpiece, both EIs reached the desired depth, which is 1 mm. The copper plating applied to the EI preserves its integrity. Through the use of the casting technology, there is a possibility to cut the economic costs by 35%. Using a prototype with preliminarily applied conductive coating makes it possible to make geometrically-complex EIs.

  7. The utilization of cranial models created using rapid prototyping techniques in the development of models for navigation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waran, V; Pancharatnam, Devaraj; Thambinayagam, Hari Chandran; Raman, Rajagopal; Rathinam, Alwin Kumar; Balakrishnan, Yuwaraj Kumar; Tung, Tan Su; Rahman, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Navigation in neurosurgery has expanded rapidly; however, suitable models to train end users to use the myriad software and hardware that come with these systems are lacking. Utilizing three-dimensional (3D) industrial rapid prototyping processes, we have been able to create models using actual computed tomography (CT) data from patients with pathology and use these models to simulate a variety of commonly performed neurosurgical procedures with navigation systems. To assess the possibility of utilizing models created from CT scan dataset obtained from patients with cranial pathology to simulate common neurosurgical procedures using navigation systems. Three patients with pathology were selected (hydrocephalus, right frontal cortical lesion, and midline clival meningioma). CT scan data following an image-guidance surgery protocol in DIACOM format and a Rapid Prototyping Machine were taken to create the necessary printed model with the corresponding pathology embedded. The ability in registration, planning, and navigation of two navigation systems using a variety of software and hardware provided by these platforms was assessed. We were able to register all models accurately using both navigation systems and perform the necessary simulations as planned. Models with pathology utilizing 3D rapid prototyping techniques accurately reflect data of actual patients and can be used in the simulation of neurosurgical operations using navigation systems. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Business intelligence tools for radiology: creating a prototype model using open-source tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Hanson, Richard; Kelly, Pauline; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiology departments could benefit from the ability to integrate and visualize data (e.g. information reflecting complex workflow states) from all of their imaging and information management systems in one composite presentation view. Leveraging data warehousing tools developed in the business world may be one way to achieve this capability. In total, the concept of managing the information available in this data repository is known as Business Intelligence or BI. This paper describes the concepts used in Business Intelligence, their importance to modern Radiology, and the steps used in the creation of a prototype model of a data warehouse for BI using open-source tools.

  9. Creating a Prototype Web Application for Spacecraft Real-Time Data Visualization on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jeremy S.; Irving, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices (smart phones, tablets) have become commonplace among almost all sectors of the workforce, especially in the technical and scientific communities. These devices provide individuals the ability to be constantly connected to any area of interest they may have, whenever and wherever they are located. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is attempting to take advantage of this constant connectivity to extend the data visualization component of the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC) to a person's mobile device. POIC users currently have a rather unique capability to create custom user interfaces in order to view International Space Station (ISS) payload health and status telemetry. These displays are used at various console positions within the POIC. The Software Engineering team has created a Mobile Display capability that will allow authenticated users to view the same displays created for the console positions on the mobile device of their choice. Utilizing modern technologies including ASP.net, JavaScript, and HTML5, we have created a web application that renders the user's displays in any modern desktop or mobile web browser, regardless of the operating system on the device. Additionally, the application is device aware which enables it to render its configuration and selection menus with themes that correspond to the particular device. The Mobile Display application uses a communication mechanism known as signalR to push updates to the web client. This communication mechanism automatically detects the best communication protocol between the client and server and also manages disconnections and reconnections of the client to the server. One benefit of this application is that the user can monitor important telemetry even while away from their console position. If expanded to the scientific community, this application would allow a scientist to view a snapshot of the state of their particular experiment at any time or place

  10. [The reliability of dento-maxillary models created by cone-beam CT and rapid prototyping:a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Yan, Bin; Wang, Lin; Lou, Dong-hua

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the reliability of the dento-maxillary models created by cone-beam CT and rapid prototyping (RP). Plaster models were obtained from 20 orthodontic patients who had been scanned by cone-beam CT and 3-D models were formed after the calculation and reconstruction of software. Then, computerized composite models (RP models) were produced by rapid prototyping technique. The crown widths, dental arch widths and dental arch lengths on each plaster model, 3-D model and RP model were measured, followed by statistical analysis with SPSS17.0 software package. For crown widths, dental arch lengths and crowding, there were significant differences(Pmodels, but the dental arch widths were on the contrary. Measurements on 3-D models were significantly smaller than those on other two models(Pmodels, RP models had more numbers which were not significantly different from those on plaster models(P>0.05). The regression coefficient among three models were significantly different(Pmodels was bigger than that between 3-D and plaster models. There is high consistency within 3 models, while some differences were accepted in clinic. Therefore, it is possible to substitute 3-D and RP models for plaster models in order to save storage space and improve efficiency.

  11. Clinical Case. Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Bogadelnikov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a clinical case of visceral leishmaniasis in 9-month-old girl. There is described in detail the change of clinical symptoms, as well as laboratory and instrumental diagnostic technique in this child. Attention was paid to epidemiological history, which made it possible to make a definitive diagnosis (posthumously.

  12. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  13. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  15. Visceral larva migrans: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar, Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs...

  16. EDF-R and D's concept for using 2D drawings as an EAM/EOM solution to create, modify and visualize operation data - First prototype developed using Ventyx EAM/EOM solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionis, Francois; Gex, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, electronic technology has played a very important role in the area of plant maintenance and operation. Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) and Enterprise Operation Management (EOM) have been developed and enhanced to improve plant personnel efficiency, productivity and safety. At the same time, CAD technology has been commonly used in plant maintenance and operation processes mostly in the area of design. In nuclear power plants, 2D CAD drawings (P and ID, electrical, mechanical, etc.) have long been used to represent not only the future plant configuration but also the 'as built' plant configuration. Over the last few years the opportunity to combine the two technologies (EAM/EOM and CAD) has emerge. The question regarding the benefits of displaying and/or updating EAM/EOM data such as clearances/Tagout/lockout, alignment checklist, radiation areas, scaffolding, chemical risks,..in a graphical format using 2D or 3D CAD drawings has often been asked. This is why EDF R and D and Ventyx have collaborated in developing a prototype that allows plant personnel to graphically display, create, and modify alignment procedures and clearances using an EAM (Asset Suite) and EOM (eSOMS) software. This paper describes some of the methodology as well as the tools used to develop such a prototype. (authors)

  17. Prototypes in engineering design: Definitions and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing literature, we investigate types, purposes and definitions of prototypes. There is no overarching definition of a prototype, but we identify five categories of prototypes in litterature. We further synthesize and reference previous work to create an overview of aspects in prototyping...

  18. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  19. Designing Visceral, Behavioural and Reflective Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Mersha; Rusli, Helen Agustin

    2017-09-01

    Designers and manufacturers often see consumption as the primary objective of a product - with implications such as discarded products, obsolete wastes, and ecological degradation. The paper aims to find the answer to the question, how emotional design can adapt the discarded and undesirable products into something valuable in a long term? This paper presents a framework combining Chapman's theory and Norman's theory on three levels of emotional design to highlight what long lasting connection with products entails. A design approach is presented combing the Wabi Sabi philosophy that promotes the celebration of decay and damage. This is used as one of the design principles for the experiments conducted on discarded products. Through constant user interaction before, during and after the experiments the evaluation of design as an agent of transformation is done. The user conducted the evaluation based on the Kansei elements of looks, sound, smell, and feel of the product. The experiments confirmed that a long-term value is only achieved through redesigning and reconstructing the perception of people towards products on a reflective level, rather than the visceral and behavioural elements of the product. The research found attachment to the visceral and behavioural elements of a product instead of an emotional one was causing users to discard products faster than required. The research indicated that many people, including designers and manufacturers, are unconsciously focusing on usability (behavioural level) and physical look (visceral level) of a product that are easily replaced, than on a meaningful way (reflective level) to create and maintain long-lasting emotions. The research concluded with a proposition towards digitization of products which could perhaps be an all round solution to make products more appropriate to human emotions. Digitization could give products the ability to capture, store and then communicate the stories, journey and memories back, in

  20. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  1. Management of chronic visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S

    2016-01-01

    Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological...... and psychological interventions, thereby providing a mechanism-orientated approach to treatment. Patients can frequently become disenfranchised, and subsequently disengaged, with healthcare providers leading to repeated consultations. Thus, a key aspect of management is to break this cycle by validating patients......' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations...

  2. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  3. Creating prototypes for cooling urban water bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesoao, Joao; Klok, E.J.; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Kluck, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract When addressing urban heat problems, climate- conscious urban design has been assuming that urban water bodies such as canals, ditches or ponds cool down their surroundings. Recent research shows that this is not necessarily the case and that urban water bodies may actually have a warming e

  4. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  5. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  7. Neurotrophin signaling and visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li-Ya

    2014-06-01

    Neurotrophin family are traditionally recognized for their nerve growth promoting function and are recently identified as crucial factors in regulating neuronal activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family members including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are reported to have distinct roles in the development and maintenance of sensory phenotypes in normal states and in the modulation of sensory activity in disease. This paper highlights receptor tyrosine kinase (Trk) -mediated signal transduction by which neurotrophins regulate neuronal activity in the visceral sensory reflex pathways with emphasis on the distinct roles of NGF and BDNF signaling in physiologic and pathophysiological processes. Viscero-visceral cross-organ sensitization exists widely in human diseases. The role of neurotrophins in mediating neural cross talk and interaction in primary afferent neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and neurotrophin signal transduction in the context of cross-organ sensitization are also discussed.

  8. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  9. Diagnosis of human visceral pentastomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tappe

    Full Text Available Visceral pentastomiasis in humans is caused by the larval stages (nymphs of the arthropod-related tongue worms Linguatula serrata, Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis, A. grandis, and Porocephalus crotali. The majority of cases has been reported from Africa, Malaysia, and the Middle East, where visceral pentastomiasis may be an incidental finding in autopsies, and less often from China and Latin America. In Europe and North America, the disease is only rarely encountered in immigrants and long-term travelers, and the parasitic lesions may be confused with malignancies, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Since clinical symptoms are variable and serological tests are not readily available, the diagnosis often relies on histopathological examinations. This laboratory symposium focuses on the diagnosis of this unusual parasitic disease and presents its risk factors and epidemiology.

  10. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  11. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  12. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  13. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  14. Molecular diagnosis of visceral herpes zoster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M. D.; Weel, J. F.; van Oers, M. H.; Boom, R.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with disseminated herpes zoster may present with severe abdominal pain that results from visceral involvement of varicella-zoster-virus infection. In the absence of cutaneous eruptions of herpes zoster, visceral herpes zoster is extremely difficult to diagnose. This diagnostic difficulty

  15. [Visceral leishmaniasis. Pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila H, Andrés; Vanzo, Carolina; Garnero, Analía; Peruzzo, Luisina; Badalotti, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos obligados intracelulares pertenecientes al género Leishmania y que reconoce tres formas clínicas principales: cutánea, visceral y mucocutánea. Es una patología del grupo de las "enfermedades desatendidas". Es la única enfermedad tropical transmitida a través de vectores que se ha mantenido endémica por décadas en el sur de Europa. La leishmaniasis visceral representa la forma más grave. Se caracteriza por fiebre, pérdida de peso, anemia y hepatoesplenomegalia. Su período de incubación oscila entre 2 semanas y 18 meses. La leishmaniasis se considera una enfermedad reemergente a nivel mundial. Algunos de los factores que favorecen esta situación son los cambios en las condiciones climáticas, migraciones y urbanizaciones deficitarias en saneamiento ambiental. Se presenta el caso de un niño europeo que estaba vacacionando en Córdoba y fue derivado a nuestro Hospital por fiebre y pancitopenia, lo que generó un abordaje multidisciplinario con resolución clínica favorable. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gawade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is widely prevalent in the eastern states of India namely Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, diagnosing the illness is still difficult. We present a case of a 20-year-old agricultural labourer with a history of recurrent fever, progressive weakness and abdominal discomfort associated with loss of appetite for six months followed by petechial hemorrhages over body.On examination there was hepato-splenomegaly. A diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar was made based on the bone marrow aspiration cytology and epidemiological history of the illness. Routine blood investigations showed pancytopenia and a chest X-ray was normal. The patient was treated by intravenous administration of amphotericine B, the patient responded favourably to treatment.

  17. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  18. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  19. ABOUT MODERN TECHNICAL GRAPHICS USING IN THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

    OpenAIRE

    GHERGHINA George; POPA Dragos; BOGDAN Mihaela; GLUGA Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents aspects concerning the using of modern technical graphics elements in the virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping is a process which uses a virtual prototype in place of physical prototype for the testing and the evaluation of specific features of designed product. The virtual prototype is created by computer such as it could assign the specific features as close as possible to the real conditions which permit its function simulation in the conditions for which is desi...

  20. The Valjean Effect: Visceral States and Cheating

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Elanor F.; Pizarro, David; Ariely, Dan; Weinberg, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral states like thirst, hunger, and fatigue can alter motivations, predictions, and even memory. Across three studies, we demonstrate that such “hot” states can also shift moral standards and increase dishonest behavior. Compared to participants who had just eaten or who had not yet exercised, hungry and thirsty participants were more likely to behave dishonestly in order to win a prize. Consistent with the specificity of motivation that is characteristic of visceral states, participants...

  1. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  2. Immunity and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and visceral leishmaniasis is a form in which the inner organs are affected. Since knowledge about immunity in experimental visceral leishmaniasis is poor, we present here a review on immunity and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis in mouse and hamster models. We show the complexity of the mechanisms involved and differences when compared with the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis. Resistance in visceral leishmaniasis involves both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and interleukin (IL-2, interferon (IFN- gamma, and IL-12, the latter in a mechanism independent of IFN- gamma and linked to transforming growth factor (TGF-ß production. Susceptibility involves IL-10 but not IL-4, and B cells. In immune animals, upon re-infection, the elements involved in resistance are different, i.e., CD8+ T cells and IL-2. Since one of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis in humans is suppression of T-cell responses, many studies have been conducted using experimental models. Immunosuppression is mainly Leishmania antigen specific, and T cells, Th2 cells and adherent antigen-presenting cells have been shown to be involved. Interactions of the co-stimulatory molecule family B7-CTLA-4 leading to increased level of TGF-ß as well as apoptosis of CD4+ T cells and inhibition of macrophage apoptosis by Leishmania infection are other components participating in immunosuppression. A better understanding of this complex immune response and the mechanisms of immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis will contribute to the study of human disease and to vaccine development.

  3. Purinergic mechanosensory transduction and visceral pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnstock Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this review, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that mechanosensory transduction occurs in tubes and sacs and can initiate visceral pain. Experimental evidence for this mechanism in urinary bladder, ureter, gut, lung, uterus, tooth-pulp and tongue is reviewed. Potential therapeutic strategies are considered for the treatment of visceral pain in such conditions as renal colic, interstitial cystitis and inflammatory bowel disease by agents that interfere with mechanosensory transduction in the organs considered, including P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonists that are orally bioavailable and stable in vivo and agents that inhibit or enhance ATP release and breakdown.

  4. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Alexandre Bortoli; El Achkar Marice Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.

  5. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  6. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  7. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  8. Visceral Leishmaniasis : Potential for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. le Rutte (Epke)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past years there has been a steep increase in awareness of visceral leishmaniasis (VL); many large-scale interventions are being implemented and targets for control and elimination have been set. In this thesis the potential of reaching these targets will be explored. To

  9. Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a ...

  10. Colorectal visceral perception in diverticular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathogenesis of asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD) and symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess whether altered visceral perception or abnormal compliance of the colorectal wall play a role in

  11. Biased Intensity Judgements of Visceral Sensations After Learning to Fear Visceral Stimuli: A Drift Diffusion Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Madden, Victoria J; Iven, Julie; Wiech, Katja; Weltens, Nathalie; Ly, Huynh Giao; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with nonpainful esophageal balloon distensions of 2 different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised of preacquisition, acquisition, and postacquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity. The CS+ was always followed by a painful electrical stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) during the acquisition phase and in 60% of the trials during postacquisition. The second stimulus (CS-) was never associated with pain. Analyses of galvanic skin and startle eyeblink responses as physiological markers of successful conditioning showed increased fear responses to the CS+ compared with the CS-, but only in the group with the low-intensity stimulus as CS+. Computational modeling of response times and response accuracies revealed that differential fear learning affected perceptual decision-making about the intensities of visceral sensations such that sensations were more likely to be categorized as more intense. These results suggest that associative learning might indeed contribute to visceral hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders. This study shows that associative fear learning biases intensity judgements of visceral sensations toward perceiving such sensations as more intense. Learning-induced alterations in visceroception might therefore contribute to the development or maintenance of visceral pain. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants for the development of visceral leishmaniasis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Isobel McCall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Among the most important questions in Leishmania research is why some species like L. donovani infect visceral organs, whereas other species like L. major remain in the skin. The determinants of visceral leishmaniasis are still poorly understood, although genomic, immunologic, and animal models are beginning to provide important insight into this disease. In this review, we discuss the vector, host, and pathogen factors that mediate the development of visceral leishmaniasis. We examine the progression of the parasite from the initial site of sand fly bite to the visceral organs and its ability to survive there. The identification of visceral disease determinants is required to understand disease evolution, to understand visceral organ survival mechanisms, and potentially to develop better interventions for this largely neglected disease.

  13. Microscopic anatomy of the visceral fasciae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Carla; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Porzionato, Andrea; Rambaldo, Anna; Albertin, Giovanna; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele

    2017-07-01

    The term 'visceral fascia' is a general term used to describe the fascia lying immediately beneath the mesothelium of the serosa, together with that immediately surrounding the viscera, but there are many types of visceral fasciae. The aim of this paper was to identify the features they have in common and their specialisations. The visceral fascia of the abdomen (corresponding to the connective tissue lying immediately beneath the mesothelium of the parietal peritoneum), thorax (corresponding to the connective tissue lying immediately beneath the mesothelium of the parietal pleura), lung (corresponding to the connective tissue under the mesothelium of the visceral pleura), liver (corresponding to the connective tissue under the mesothelium of the visceral peritoneum), kidney (corresponding to the Gerota fascia), the oesophagus (corresponding to its adventitia) and heart (corresponding to the fibrous layer of the pericardial sac) from eight fresh cadavers were sampled and analysed with histological and immunohistochemical stains to evaluate collagen and elastic components and innervation. Although the visceral fasciae make up a well-defined layer of connective tissue, the thickness, percentage of elastic fibres and innervation vary among the different viscera. In particular, the fascia of the lung has a mean thickness of 134 μm (± 21), that of heart 792 μm (± 132), oesophagus 105 μm (± 10), liver 131 μm (± 18), Gerota fascia 1009 μm (± 105) and the visceral fascia of the abdomen 987 μm (± 90). The greatest number of elastic fibres (9.79%) was found in the adventitia of the oesophagus. The connective layers lying immediately outside the mesothelium of the pleura and peritoneum also have many elastic fibres (4.98% and 4.52%, respectively), whereas the pericardium and Gerota fascia have few (0.27% and 1.38%). In the pleura, peritoneum and adventitia of the oesophagus, elastic fibres form a well-defined layer, corresponding to the

  14. The Valjean Effect: Visceral States and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elanor F.; Pizarro, David; Ariely, Dan; Weinberg, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral states like thirst, hunger, and fatigue can alter motivations, predictions, and even memory. Across three studies, we demonstrate that such “hot” states can also shift moral standards and increase dishonest behavior. Compared to participants who had just eaten or who had not yet exercised, hungry and thirsty participants were more likely to behave dishonestly in order to win a prize. Consistent with the specificity of motivation that is characteristic of visceral states, participants were only more likely to cheat for a prize that could alleviate their current deprived state (such as a bottle of water). Interestingly, this increase in dishonest behavior did not seem to be driven by an increase in the perceived monetary value of the prize. PMID:27148848

  15. Iohexol and diatrizoate: comparison in visceral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.; Hemingway, A.P.; Allison, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Iohexol, a low osmolality, nonionic contrast medium, and diatrizoate, a conventional ionic contrast medium, were evaluated for patient tolerance during visceral arteriography. Almost all the procedures performed with iohexol were painless: most patients given this agent reported only a mild feeling of warmth. Diatrizoate produced some pain and a feeling of intense heat in most patients. Both media produced excellent radiographic results and no serious adverse reactions occurred

  16. Imagining the prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten, M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the participants with the prototype and how they explicate the points they make in the discussion with or without making use of the prototype. Three techniques for explicating design issues that exploit the proto...

  17. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  18. Visceral Afferent Pathways and Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W.G. Derbyshire

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of functional imaging to study painful sensations has generated considerable interest regarding insight into brain dysfunction that may be responsible for functional pain such as that suffered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This review provides a brief introduction to the development of brain science as it relates to pain processing and a snapshot of recent functional imaging results with somatic and visceral pain. Particular emphasis is placed on current hypotheses regarding dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in IBS patients. There are clear and interpretable differences in brain activation following somatic as compared with visceral noxious sensation. Noxious visceral distension, particularly of the lower gastrointestinal tract, activates regions associated with unpleasant affect and autonomic responses. Noxious somatic sensation, in contrast, activates regions associated with cognition and skeletomotor responses. Differences between IBS patients and control subjects, however, were far less clear and interpretable. While this is in part due to the newness of this field, it also reflects weaknesses inherent within the current understanding of IBS. Future use of functional imaging to examine IBS and other functional disorders will be more likely to succeed by describing clear theoretical and clinical endpoints.

  19. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  20. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  1. LHC Create

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  2. Creating Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  3. Rapid prototyping of robotic platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ronde, Willis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of thickness up to 200mm can be cut to create prototype chassis/ bodies or even the final product. One of the few limitations is the cutting of certain laminated materials, as this tends to produce delaminated cutting edges or even fractures in the case... mine inspection robot (Shongololo). Shongololo’s frame is made from engineering plastics while the chassis of Dassie was made from aluminium and cut using abrasive waterjet machining. The advantage of using abrasive waterjet machining is the speed...

  4. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  5. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  6. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  7. EPCiR prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage.......A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage....

  8. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S.; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-01-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena. PMID:26015715

  9. Rapid prototyping and stereolithography in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Bhuminathan, S; Bhat, Wasim Manzoor

    2015-04-01

    The word rapid prototyping (RP) was first used in mechanical engineering field in the early 1980s to describe the act of producing a prototype, a unique product, the first product, or a reference model. In the past, prototypes were handmade by sculpting or casting, and their fabrication demanded a long time. Any and every prototype should undergo evaluation, correction of defects, and approval before the beginning of its mass or large scale production. Prototypes may also be used for specific or restricted purposes, in which case they are usually called a preseries model. With the development of information technology, three-dimensional models can be devised and built based on virtual prototypes. Computers can now be used to create accurately detailed projects that can be assessed from different perspectives in a process known as computer aided design (CAD). To materialize virtual objects using CAD, a computer aided manufacture (CAM) process has been developed. To transform a virtual file into a real object, CAM operates using a machine connected to a computer, similar to a printer or peripheral device. In 1987, Brix and Lambrecht used, for the first time, a prototype in health care. It was a three-dimensional model manufactured using a computer numerical control device, a type of machine that was the predecessor of RP. In 1991, human anatomy models produced with a technology called stereolithography were first used in a maxillofacial surgery clinic in Viena.

  10. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  11. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  12. PEAR: Prototyping Expressive Animated Robots - A framework for social robot prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Balit , Etienne; Vaufreydaz , Dominique; Reignier , Patrick

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Social robots are transitioning from lab experiments to commercial products, creating new needs for proto-typing and design tools. In this paper, we present a framework to facilitate the prototyping of expressive animated robots. For this, we start by reviewing the design of existing social robots in order to define a set of basic components of social robots. We then show how to extend an existing 3D animation software to enable the animation of these components. By co...

  13. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  14. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  15. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  16. Portal pressure correlated to visceral circulation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friman, L [Serafimerlasarettet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    Visceral angiography was performed in 7 patients with normal portal pressure and in 10 with portal hypertension. Circulation times, size of vessels and portal pressure were determined. At celiac angiography, a direct correlation was found between time for maximum filling of portal vein and portal pressure, provided no vascular abnormalities existed. At superior mesenteric angiography such a correlation was not found; loss of flow by shunts in portal hypertension being one explanation. Portocaval shunts are common in the celiac system, but uncommon in the superior mesenteric system.

  17. Portal pressure correlated to visceral circulation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friman, L.

    1979-01-01

    Visceral angiography was performed in 7 patients with normal portal pressure and in 10 with portal hypertension. Circulation times, size of vessels and portal pressure were determined. At celiac angiography, a direct correlation was found between time for maximum filling of portal vein and portal pressure, provided no vascular abnormalities existed. At superior mesenteric angiography such a correlation was not found; loss of flow by shunts in portal hypertension being one explanation. Portocaval shunts are common in the celiac system, but uncommon in the superior mesenteric system. (Auth.)

  18. Influence of exercise on visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Weerdenburg, Laura Jgm; Brock, Christina; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Contradictory results have been found about the effect of different exercise modalities on pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the early effects of aerobic and isometric exercise on different types of experimental pain, including visceral pain, compared...... intervention, psychophysical tests were performed, including electrical stimulation of the esophagus, pressure pain thresholds and the cold pressor test as a measure for conditioned pain modulation. Participants completed the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 and State- Trait Anxiety Inventory prior...

  19. Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Early life stress (ELS is a risk-factor for the development of IBS, however the mechanisms responsible for the persistent effects of ELS on visceral perception in adulthood remain incompletely understood. In rodent models, stress in adult animals induced by restraint and water avoidance has been employed to investigate the mechanisms of stress-induce pain. ELS models such as maternal separation, limited nesting, or odor-shock conditioning, which attempt to model early childhood experiences such as neglect, poverty, or an abusive caregiver, can produce chronic, sexually dimorphic increases in visceral sensitivity in adulthood. Chronic visceral pain is a classic example of gene × environment interaction which results from maladaptive changes in neuronal circuitry leading to neuroplasticity and aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling. One potential mechanism underlying the persistent effects of stress on visceral sensitivity could be epigenetic modulation of gene expression. While there are relatively few studies examining epigenetically mediated mechanisms involved in visceral nociception, stress-induced visceral pain has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns within the brain, leading to increased expression of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. This review will discuss the potential neuronal pathways and mechanisms responsible for

  20. Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early life stress (ELS) is a risk-factor for the development of IBS, however the mechanisms responsible for the persistent effects of ELS on visceral perception in adulthood remain incompletely understood. In rodent models, stress in adult animals induced by restraint and water avoidance has been employed to investigate the mechanisms of stress-induce pain. ELS models such as maternal separation, limited nesting, or odor-shock conditioning, which attempt to model early childhood experiences such as neglect, poverty, or an abusive caregiver, can produce chronic, sexually dimorphic increases in visceral sensitivity in adulthood. Chronic visceral pain is a classic example of gene × environment interaction which results from maladaptive changes in neuronal circuitry leading to neuroplasticity and aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling. One potential mechanism underlying the persistent effects of stress on visceral sensitivity could be epigenetic modulation of gene expression. While there are relatively few studies examining epigenetically mediated mechanisms involved in visceral nociception, stress-induced visceral pain has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns within the brain, leading to increased expression of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. This review will discuss the potential neuronal pathways and mechanisms responsible for stress

  1. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  2. Unsupervised Assessment of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Larsen, Rasmus; Wraae, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a. method for unsupervised assessment of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdominal region by MRI. The identification of the subcutaneous and the visceral regions were achieved by dynamic programming constrained by points acquired from an active shape model...

  3. Sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visceral adipose tissue is considered the most important anatomic site of adipose tissue aggregation and is considered the hall mark of metabolic syndrome (MetS) phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine sexual dimorphism in visceral adiposity measures, parameters and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome ...

  4. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  5. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  6. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  7. Visceral States Call for Visceral Measures: Verbal Overshadowing of Hunger Ratings Across Assessment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger nonverbally and then indicate hunger verbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed.

  8. Patologias genitais associadas à leishmaniose visceral canina Genital pathologies associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Vasconcelos Gomes de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC é uma doença parasitária crônica causada por protozoários pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania. No Brasil, a transmissão se dá, principalmente, pela ação hematófaga de insetos vetores pertencentes à subfamília Phlebotominae, particularmente, a espécie Lutzomyia longipalpis. Todavia, a trasmissão vertical e venérea da LVC está presente. Os principais sinais clínicos observados nos animais acometidos pela LVC são linfoadenomegalia, dermatopatias, hepatoesplenomegalia, onicogrifose e oftalmopatias, contudo quadros atípicos podem ser observados, inclusive com o envolvimento do sistema genital. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste artigo é realizar revisão sobre as principais patologias genitais em cães machos e fêmeas com leishmaniose visceral (LV.The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL is a chronic parasitic disease caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the transmission occurs mainly by the action of blood-sucking insects belonging to the subfamily Phlebotominae, particularly the Lutzomyia longipalpis species. However, the venereal and vertical transmission of the CanL is present. The main clinical signs observed in animals affected by the CanL are lymphadenopathy, skin diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, onychogryphosis and ophthalmopathy, however atypical manifestations can be observed, including the involvement of the genital system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review on the major pathologies in genital male and female dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL.

  9. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Lloyd, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Low temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125 I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125 I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration. (Auth.)

  10. Stress and visceral pain: from animal models to clinical therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larauche, Muriel; Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated stress (psychosocial and physical) as a trigger of first onset or exacerbation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms of which visceral pain is an integrant landmark. A number of experimental acute or chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors induce visceral hyperalgesia in rodents although recent evidence also points to stress-related visceral analgesia as established in the somatic pain field. Underlying mechanisms of stress-related visceral hypersensitivity may involve a combination of sensitization of primary afferents, central sensitization in response to input from the viscera and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate spinal nociceptive transmission or analgesic response. Biochemical coding of stress involves the recruitment of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways. Experimental studies established that activation of brain and peripheral CRF receptor subtype 1 plays a primary role in the development of stress-related delayed visceral hyperalgesia while subtype 2 activation induces analgesic response. In line with stress pathways playing a role in IBS, non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment modalities aimed at reducing stress perception using a broad range of evidence-based mind-body interventions and centrally-targeted medications to reduce anxiety impact on brain patterns activated by visceral stimuli and dampen visceral pain. PMID:21575632

  11. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...... Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned....

  12. Vagus nerve stimulation modulates visceral pain-related affective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Yan, Ni; Liu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Li, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Within a biopsychosocial model of pain, pain is seen as a conscious experience modulated by mental, emotional and sensory mechanisms. Recently, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has become an established therapy for treatment-resistant epilepsy. VNS has also been shown to enhance memory performance in rats and humans. High-intensity VNS (400 μA) immediately following conditional training significantly increases the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, VNS (400 μA) had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593). Low-intensity VNS (40 μA) had no effect on CRD-induced CPA. Electrophysiological recording showed that VNS (400 μA) had no effect on basal and CRD-induced ACC neuronal firing. Further, VNS did not alter CRD-induced visceral pain responses suggesting high intensity VNS facilitates visceral pain aversive memory independent of sensory discriminative aspects of visceral pain processing. The findings that vagus nerve stimulation facilities visceral pain-related affective memory underscore the importance of memory in visceral pain perception, and support the theory that postprandial factors may act on vagal afferents to modulate ongoing nature of visceral pain-induced affective disorder observed in the clinic, such as irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ABOUT MODERN TECHNICAL GRAPHICS USING IN THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHINA George

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects concerning the using of modern technical graphics elements in the virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping is a process which uses a virtual prototype in place of physical prototype for the testing and the evaluation of specific features of designed product. The virtual prototype is created by computer such as it could assign the specific features as close as possible to the real conditions which permit its function simulation in the conditions for which is designed. The virtual prototyping permits the replacing of classical design process, although, and the elaboration of graphicalm documentation, which represent an important work volume – with CAD/CAM systems in the increased efficiency conditions.

  14. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, Victor; Alexeev, Gennady; Alexeev, Maxim; Frolov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Georgy; Kutuzov, Sergey; Piskun, Alexei; Samartsev, Alexander; Tokmenin, Valeri; Verkheev, Alexander; Vertogradov, Leonid; Zhuravlev, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  15. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  16. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazov Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  17. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  18. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  19. Imagining the prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the

  20. MIND performance and prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10 -3 . A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping

  1. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  2. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  3. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  4. Cockroft Walton accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of a Cockroft Walton generator using ceramic and plastic capacitors is discussed. Compared to the previous generator, the construction and components are much more improved. Pralon is used for the high voltage insulation column and plastic is used as a dielectric material for the high voltage capacitor. Cockroft Walton generator is used as a high tension supply for an accelerator. (author)

  5. Surrogates-based prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Bois, E.; Horvath, I.

    2014-01-01

    The research is situated in the system development phase of interactive software products. In this detailed design phase, we found a need for fast testable prototyping to achieve qualitative change proposals on the system design. In this paper, we discuss a literature study on current software

  6. Z Andromedae: the prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viotti, R.; Giangrande, A.; Ricciardi, O.; Cassatella, A.

    1982-01-01

    Z And is considered as the ''prototype'' of the symbiotic stars. Besides its symbiotic spectrum, the star is also known for its characteristic light curve (and for the related spectral variations). Since many theoretical speculations on Z And and similar objects have been based on the luminosity and spectral variations of this star, the authors critically analyse the observational data concerning it. (Auth.)

  7. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  8. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  9. The Effects of Smoking Cessation on Visceral Adiposity Index Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-06-11

    Jun 11, 2018 ... mass index (BMI), and high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol levels .... used to determine the relationship between not normally .... monoxide; VAI=Visceral adiposity index; TG=Triglyceride; HDL‑cholesterol=High density ...

  10. Visceral pain originating from the upper urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian

    2010-01-01

    Pain originating from the upper urinary tract is a common problem and stone colic is one of the most intense pain conditions that can be experienced in the clinic. The pain is difficult to alleviate and often leads to medical attention. In humans, pain mechanisms of the upper urinary tract pain...... are still poorly understood, which often leads to a trial and error approach in clinical pain management. Pain from the upper urinary tract seems to have all the characteristics of pure visceral pain, including referred pain with or without hyperalgesia/trophic changes in somatic tissues and viscero......-visceral hyperalgesia. However, further studies are needed to better understand these visceral pain mechanisms with regard to optimising pain management. This review gives an introduction to visceral pain in general and upper urinary tract pain in particular, with special reference to pain pathways and pharmacological...

  11. Congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis: report of two brazilian human cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrlena Regina Machado Mescouto-Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction.

  12. Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency: Prototyping counterveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gradecki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how an interactive artwork, the Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency (CSIA, can contribute to discussions of Big Data intelligence analytics. The CSIA is a publicly accessible Open Source Intelligence (OSINT system that was constructed using information gathered from technical manuals, research reports, academic papers, leaked documents, and Freedom of Information Act files. Using a visceral heuristic, the CSIA demonstrates how the statistical correlations made by automated classification systems are different from human judgment and can produce false-positives, as well as how the display of information through an interface can affect the judgment of an intelligence agent. The public has the right to ask questions about how a computer program determines if they are a threat to national security and to question the practicality of using statistical pattern recognition algorithms in place of human judgment. Currently, the public’s lack of access to both Big Data and the actual datasets intelligence agencies use to train their classification algorithms keeps the possibility of performing effective sous-dataveillance out of reach. Without this data, the results returned by the CSIA will not be identical to those of intelligence agencies. Because we have replicated how OSINT is processed, however, our results will resemble the type of results and mistakes made by OSINT systems. The CSIA takes some initial steps toward contributing to an informed public debate about large-scale monitoring of open source, social media data and provides a prototype for counterveillance and sousveillance tools for citizens.

  13. Microsurgical head and neck tissue repair by visceral mini-autografting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To minimize surgical trauma in patients with head and neck tumors during microsurgical plasty with visceral autografts.Subjects and methods. Clinical experience has been gained in the treatment of 53 patients with locally advanced craniofascial (n = 27 and oropharyngeal (n = 36 cancers. Abdominal organs were used for plastic closure of extensive defects after surgical resection. Paraumbilical incision allowing for an adequate approach into the abdominal cavity with minimal external trauma in the anterior abdominal wall was chosen as an access procedure. Video-assisted techniques were used to excise the midline aponeurosis. Donor organs, such as the omentum, greater curvature of the stomach, transverse colon, small intestine were taken through a mini-laparotomic incision to the anterior abdominal wall, then the vascular pedicle was exposed and a visceral autograft was made. After forming and cutting off the autograft, organ anastomoses were created extracorporeally.Results. Mini-access surgery could be completed in 50 of the 53 cases (4 patients had previously undergone abdominal interventions. Omental (n = 26, colo-omental (n = 15, gastro-omental (n = 7, and entero-omental (n = 5 flaps were made and prepared for autografting. No intra- or postoperative abdominal complications were found.Conclusion. Minimally invasive technologies used to create visceral authografts for head and neck tissue repair can minimize surgical trauma and reduce treatment duration. The indications for this access are the debilitating state of a cancer patient or the young age of a patient who does not wish to have an additional scar in the donor region.

  14. Subclinical form of the American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL shows nonspecific clinical manifestations, with difficulties being frequently met in its clinical characterization and diagnostic confirmation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to define the clinical-laboratory profile of this clinical form. A cohort study was conducted in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, from January/1998 to December/2000, with monthly follow-up of 784 children aged 0-5 years. Based on the clinical-laboratory parameters reported in the literature, four categories were established, with the children being classified (according to their clinical-evolutive behavior as asymptomatic (N = 144, as having the subclinical form (N = 33 or the acute form (N = 12 or as subjects "without VL" (N = 595. Multiple discriminant analysis demonstrated that the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased blood sedimentation rate (BSR can predict the subclinical form of VL as long as it is not associated with splenomegaly or leukopenia. Subjects with the subclinical form did not show prolonged or intermittent evolution or progression to the acute form of VL. Subclinical cases have a profile differing from the remaining clinical forms of VL, being best characterized by the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased BSR.

  15. Scintiscanning of the jaw and visceral cranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, N.; Hofer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The first eight chapters provide a general survey of basic principles and aspects of bone scintiscanning (radiopharmaceuticals, scintiscanning techniques, examination techniques, analytical criteria), and in contrast to these explain the criteria and limits of skeletal radiology of the skull, from which result the criteria of application of bone scintiscanning in this body region. The information obtainable by radiologic and scintigraphic examination of pathologic bone processes is compared, and the specific evaluation criteria of the scintiscan of the skull are explained as the basis of the clinical diagnosis. The following chapters go into details of combined radiologic and scintigraphic examination of bone tumours and tumour-like bone disease, of ostitis, fractures and osteotomy of the jaw, including cysts and pathologic processes of the mandibular joint. The information is explained by representative examples. Another complete chapter is devoted to the scintiscanning of bone graft and disturbed growth processes of the visceral cranium. The differential diagnostic analysis of the various pathologic processes on the basis of the scintigram is explained along the criteria of dignity, extension, dissemination, early detection, and follow-up checking. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Database Replication Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewall, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Replication Framework that facilitates the implementation and com-parison of database replication techniques. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation of a Database Replication Prototype and compares the performance measurements of two replication techniques based on the Atomic Broadcast communication primitive: pessimistic active replication and optimistic active replication. The main contributions of this report can be split into four parts....

  17. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  18. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  19. A prototype analysis of vengeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Maartje; Nelissen, Rob; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the concept of vengeance from a prototype perspective. In 6 studies, the prototype structure of vengeance was mapped. Sixty-nine features of vengeance were identified (Study 1), and rated on centrality (Study 2). Further studies confirmed the prototype structure. Compared to

  20. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  1. Visceral sensitivity, anxiety, and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Norton, Peter J; Smits, Jasper A J; Buckner, Julia D; Garey, Lorra; Manning, Kara

    2017-12-01

    It is widely recognized that smoking is related to abdominal pain and discomfort, as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Research has shown that visceral sensitivity, experiencing anxiety around gastrointestinal sensations, is associated with poorer gastrointestinal health and related health outcomes. Visceral sensitivity also increases anxiety symptoms and mediates the relation with other risk factors, including gastrointestinal distress. No work to date, however, has evaluated visceral sensitivity in the context of smoking despite the strong association between smoking and poor physical and mental health. The current study sought to examine visceral sensitivity as a unique predictor of cigarette dependence, threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), and perceived barriers for cessation via anxiety symptoms. Eighty-four treatment seeking adult daily smokers (M age =45.1years [SD=10.4]; 71.6% male) participated in this study. There was a statistically significant indirect effect of visceral sensitivity via general anxiety symptoms on cigarette dependence (b=0.02, SE=0.01, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.006, 0.05]), smoking abstinence somatic expectancies (b=0.10, SE=0.03, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.19]), smoking abstinence harmful experiences (b=0.13, SE=0.05, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.25]), and barriers to cessation (b=0.05, SE=0.06, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.01, 0.13]). Overall, the present study serves as an initial investigation into the nature of the associations between visceral sensitivity, anxiety symptoms, and clinically significant smoking processes among treatment-seeking smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which anxiety accounts for relations between visceral sensitivity and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visceral Thromboses in Pancreas Adenocarcinoma: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Angel Mier; DeRosa, Antonio; Raj, Micheal; Do, Richard; Yu, Kenneth H; Lowery, Maeve A; Varghese, Anna; O'Reilly, Eileen M

    2017-12-12

    Within gastrointestinal malignancies, primary hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently associated with visceral thromboses (VT). Thrombus formation in the portal (PVT), mesenteric (MVT), or splenic vein (SVT) system leads to portal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. VT in PDAC may convey a risk of increased distal thrombosis and poses therapeutic uncertainty regarding the role of anticoagulation. An increasing number of reports describe VT associated with PDAC. It is possible that early diagnosis of these events may help reduce morbidity and speculatively improve oncologic outcomes. To perform a systematic review to study PVT, MVT, and SVT associated with PDAC, and to provide a comprehensive review. Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Data Extraction and Assessment: Two blinded independent observers extracted and assessed the studies for diagnosis of PVT, MVT, and SVT in PDAC. Studies were restricted to English-language literature published between 2007 and 2016. Eleven articles were identified. Five case reports and 7 retrospective studies were found, with a total of 127 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 64 years. PVT was found in 35% (n = 46), SVT in 52% (n = 65), and MVT in 13% (n = 15). Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Only 3 of the selected articles studied the impact of anticoagulation in VT. All patients with nonvisceral thrombosis (eg, deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli) were therapeutically treated; in contrast, patients with VT only rarely received treatment. VT in PDAC is a frequent finding at diagnosis or during disease progression. Evidence to guide treatment choices is limited, and current management is based on inferred experience from nononcologic settings. Anticoagulation appears to be safe in VT, with most of the large studies recommending a careful assessment for patients at a high risk of bleeding. Copyright © 2017

  3. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Making Climate Change Visceral Through the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, C.

    2016-12-01

    Through their affective power, the arts offer a more visceral understanding of our global crisis and have a greater potential to inspire people to take action than scientific data alone. In this talk, I will look at three projects that use art to translate scientific data into sensory experiences, galvanize communities around visions of a positive future, and make climate change relevant to our lives. Jill Pelto's work makes science visible. A recent graduate from the University of Maine, Pelto practices what she calls glaciogenic art. As an artist and scientist, she uses her creative skills to communicate information about extreme environmental issues. Pelto's watercolors merge scientific data commonly found on graphs with the interpretation of that data in the form of illustrations. The result is an immediate understanding of the science and its implications. The Land Art Generator Initiative provides a platform for artists, architects, landscape architects, and other creatives working with engineers and scientists to bring forward human-centered solutions for sustainable energy infrastructures that enhance the city as works of public art while cleanly powering thousands of homes. Land Art Generator works are optimistic reminders that there is still time to make positive changes. Climate Change Theatre Action was a series of 100 readings and performances of climate change plays, poems and songs, written by writers from all six continents, presented in over 25 countries in support of the United Nations 2015 Paris Climate Conference. Events ranged from informal readings in classrooms to fully-staged performances, and often included presentations and/or panel conversations with scientists. The project reached people from all walks of life (including homeless youth and refugees) and had a powerful impact on audiences.

  5. A prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.; Bretz, N.L.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer, which is intended to test critical elements of a design for a tangential array interferometer on C-Mod 6 . The prototype uses a pulsed, 35 mJ, 10 Hz multimode, Nd:YAG laser, LiB 3 O 5 doublers, a fan beam created by a cylindrical lens, four retroreflector elements, and a CCD camera as a detector. The prototype also uses a polarization scheme in which the interference information is eventually carried by two second harmonic beams with crossed polarization. These are vector summed and differenced, and separated, by a Wollaston prism, to give two spots on the CCD. There is a pair of these spots for each retroreflector used. The phase information is directly available as the ratio of the difference to sum the intensities of the two spots. We have tested a single channel configuration of this prototype, varying the phase by changing the pressure in an air cell, and we have obtained a 5:1 light to dark ratio, and a clear sinusoidal variation of the ratio as a function of pressure change. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Improving The Prototyping Process In Department Of Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    assessing program feasibility is to objectively and rationally determine the strengths and weakness of a technology. This functional requirement also...prototypes created for the purpose of maturing technology will not be ready for fielding and cannot be deployed ( Plato 1995). Second, there is a risk...pressure to reduce cost and schedule estimates (Weinberg 1991; Plato 1995). The first few iterations of a prototype typically result in immediate high

  7. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  8. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  9. Elective visceral hybrid repair of type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to the classification given by Crawford et al. type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA is dilatation of the aorta from the level of the rib 6 to the separation of the aorta below the renal arteries, capturing all the visceral branch of aorta. Visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA is a procedure developed in recent years in the world, which involves a combination of conventional, open and endovascular aortic reconstruction surgery at the level of separation of the left subclavian artery to the level of visceral branches of aorta. Case report. We presented a 75-years-old man, with elective visceral hybrid reconstruction of type III TAAA. Computerized scanning (CT angiography of the patient showed type III TAAA with the maximum transverse diameter of aneurysm of 92 mm. Aneurysm started at the level of the sixth rib, and the end of the aneurysm was 1 cm distal to the level of renal arteries. Aneurysm compressed the esophagus, causing the patient difficulty in swallowing act, especially solid food, and frequent back pain. From the other comorbidity, the patient had been treated for a long time, due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension. In general endotracheal anesthesia with epidural analgesia, the patient underwent visceral hybrid reconstruction of TAAA, which combines classic, open vascular surgery and endovascular procedures. Classic vascular surgery is visceral reconstruction using by-pass procedure from the distal, normal aorta to all visceral branches: celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and both renal arteries, with ligature of all arteries very close to the aorta. After that, by synchronous endovascular technique a complete aneurysmal exclusion of thoracoabdominal aneurysm with thoracic stent-graft was performed. The postoperative course was conducted properly and the patient left the Clinic for Vascular Surgery on postoperative day 21. Control CT, performed 3 months after the surgery

  10. ADVANCEMENT OF RAPID PROTOTYPING IN AEROSPACE INDUSTRY -A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vineet Kumar Vashishtha,; Rahul Makade,; Neeraj Mehla

    2011-01-01

    Rapid prototyping technology have emerged a new innovation to reduced the time cost of moulds fabrication by creating 3D product directly from computer aided design thus the designer is able to perform design validation and accuracy analysis easily in a virtual environment as if using a physical model. The primary aim of this paper is to give the reader an overview of the current state of the art in rapid prototyping technology .The paper also deal with feature’s of rapid prototyping in Aeros...

  11. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid prototyping model for percutaneous nephrolithotomy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, Franck; Leroux, Cecile; Brunereau, Laurent; Lermusiaux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a technique used for creating computer images in three dimensions more efficiently than classic techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a popular method to remove kidney stones; however, broader use by the urologic community has been hampered by the morbidity associated with needle puncture to gain access to the renal calix (bleeding, pneumothorax, hydrothorax, inadvertent colon injury). A training model to improve technique and understanding of renal anatomy could improve complications related to renal puncture; however, no model currently exists for resident training. We created a training model using the rapid prototyping technique based on abdominal CT images of a patient scheduled to undergo PCNL. This allowed our staff and residents to train on the model before performing the operation. This model allowed anticipation of particular difficulties inherent to the patient's anatomy. After training, the procedure proceeded without complication, and the patient was discharged at postoperative day 1 without problems. We hypothesize that rapid prototyping could be useful for resident education, allowing the creation of numerous models for research and surgical training. In addition, we anticipate that experienced urologists could find this technique helpful in preparation for difficult PCNL operations.

  13. DataCollection Prototyping

    CERN Multimedia

    Beck, H.P.

    DataCollection is a subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project responsible for the movement of event data from the ROS to the High Level Triggers. This includes data from Regions of Interest (RoIs) for Level 2, building complete events for the Event Filter and finally transferring accepted events to Mass Storage. It also handles passing the LVL1 RoI pointers and the allocation of Level 2 processors and load balancing of Event Building. During the last 18 months DataCollection has developed a common architecture for the hardware and software required. This involved a radical redesign integrating ideas from separate parts of earlier TDAQ work. An important milestone for this work, now achieved, has been to demonstrate this subsystem in the so-called Phase 2A Integrated Prototype. This prototype comprises the various TDAQ hardware and software components (ROSs, LVL2, etc.) under the control of the TDAQ Online software. The basic functionality has been demonstrated on small testbeds (~8-10 processing nodes)...

  14. OMS FDIR: Initial prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric W.; Hanson, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Operations Management System (OMS) will automate major management functions which coordinate the operations of onboard systems, elements and payloads. The objectives of OMS are to improve safety, reliability and productivity while reducing maintenance and operations cost. This will be accomplished by using advanced automation techniques to automate much of the activity currently performed by the flight crew and ground personnel. OMS requirements have been organized into five task groups: (1) Planning, Execution and Replanning; (2) Data Gathering, Preprocessing and Storage; (3) Testing and Training; (4) Resource Management; and (5) Caution and Warning and Fault Management for onboard subsystems. The scope of this prototyping effort falls within the Fault Management requirements group. The prototyping will be performed in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of an onboard communications network fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system. Phase 2 will incorporate global FDIR for onboard systems. Research into the applicability of expert systems, object-oriented programming, fuzzy sets, neural networks and other advanced techniques will be conducted. The goals and technical approach for this new SSFP research project are discussed here.

  15. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  16. PEDIATRIC VISCERAL ADIPOSITY INDEX ADAPTATION CORRELATES WITH HOMA-IR, MATSUDA, AND TRANSAMINASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, María José Garcés; Klünder, Miguel; Nieto, Nayely Garibay; Alvarenga, Juan Carlos López; Gil, Jenny Vilchis; Huerta, Samuel Flores; Siccha, Rosa Quispe; Hernandez, Joselin

    2018-03-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes. A cross-sectional design with data from 396 children (age 5 to 17 years) was analyzed with a generalized linear model to find the coefficients for triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and waist circumference-body mass index quotient. The model was constructed according to sex and age and designated PMI. A cross-validation analysis was performed and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine cut-off points. Significant moderate correlation was found between PMI and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( r = 0.452; P = .003), Matsuda ( r = -0.366; P = .019), alanine aminotransferase ( r = 0.315, P = .045), and γ-glutamyltransferase ( r = 0.397; P = .010). A PMI score >1.7 was considered as risk. PMI correlates with HOMA-IR, Matsuda, and hepatic enzymes. It could be helpful for identifying children at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. ALT = alanine transaminase BMI = body mass index GGT = γ-glutamyltransferase HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance hs-CRP = high sensitivity C-reactive protein ISI = insulin sensitivity index NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease PMI = pediatric metabolic index QUICKI = quantitative insulin sensitivity check index ROC = receiver operating characteristic TG = triglyceride TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-alpha VAI = visceral adiposity index VAT = visceral adipose tissue WC = waist circumference.

  17. VISCERAL ABDOMINAL PAIN AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SPASMOLYTIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Kornienko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of treatment of 30 children with visceral abdominal pain caused by different etiological factors with neurotropic selective m9cholinergic antagonist hyoscine butilbromide (buscopan are presented in this article. Two groups of children were treated with hyoscine butilbromide and drotaverine accordingly. Administration of hyoscine butilbromide allows to stop pain in 93% of patients; mean duration of abdominal pain was 3,4 ± 1,2 days (4,2 ± 1,4 days in children treated with drotaverine, р < 0,05. Activity of dyspeptic disorders was decreased at the time of treatment. a tolerance to hyoscine butilbromide was satisfactory, and no adverse events were registered. hyoscine butilbromide is effective in treatment of visceral abdominal pain in children, allowing shortening its duration more actively then drotaverine.Key words: children, visceral abdominal pain, hyoscine butilbromide.

  18. Visceral metabolism and efficiency of energy use by ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozloski Gilberto Vilmar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The visceral system (liver and portal-drained viscera represents an interface between diet and the animal, and it acts as the main site of regulation of nutrients that are used for maintenance, growth, lactation, reproduction, and physical activities of animals. However the functions carried out by visceral organs have, however, a significant energetic cost and are influenced by a variety of factors, such as the level of feed intake and diet composition, among others. As a result, variable quantities of substances are metabolized by them and, thus, the pattern and the quantity of nutrients available to the peripheral tissues can be quite different from those absorbed at the intestinal lumen. Probably, the major source of variation in the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy among feeds is associated mainly with visceral metabolism and it is unlikely that the ratio ketogenic/glucogenic of absorbed substances has determinant effect under physiological conditions.

  19. The modulation of visceral functions by somatic afferent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; Schmidt, R F

    1987-01-01

    We began by briefly reviewing the historical background of neurophysiological studies of the somato-autonomic reflexes and then discussed recent studies on somatic-visceral reflexes in combination with autonomic efferent nerve activity and effector organ responses. Most of the studies that have advanced our knowledge in this area have been carried out on anesthetized animals, thus eliminating emotional factors. We would like to emphasize again that the functions of many, or perhaps all visceral organs can be modulated by somato-sympathetic or somato-parasympathetic reflex activity induced by a appropriate somatic afferent stimulation in anesthetized animals. As mentioned previously, some autonomic nervous outflow, e.g. the adrenal sympathetic nerve activity, is involved in the control of hormonal secretion. John F. Fulton wrote in his famous textbook "Physiology of the Nervous System" (1949) that the posterior pituitary neurosecretion system (i.e. for oxytocin and vasopressin) could be considered a part of the parasympathetic nervous system. In the study of body homeostasis and environmental adaptation it would seem very important to further analyze the contribution of somatic afferent input to the autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation of visceral organ activity. Also, some immunological functions have been found to be influenced by autonomic nerves or hormones (e.g. adrenal cortical hormone and catecholamines). Finally, we must take into account, as we have briefly discussed, that visceral functions can be modulated by somatic afferent input via various degrees of integration of autonomic nerves, hormones, and immunological processes. We trust that such research will be expanded to higher species of mammals, and that ultimately this knowledge of somato-visceral reflexes obtained in the physiological laboratory will become clinically useful in influencing visceral functions.

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  1. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Keohane; Eamonn M M Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists.It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process.The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review,we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  2. Limited scleroderma and early detection of visceral changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyuzhnaya, L.D.; Potsibina, V.V.; Stychinskaya, L.P.; Turik, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    The state of liver, kidneys, osteoarticular apparatus at the early stages of development of limited scleroderma and with the exclusion of visceral changes on the basis of clinical-laboratory studies is investigated. 11 patients with scleroderma in the age of 7-18 years were examined. Osteoscintigraphy with 99m TC-phosphone and dynamic scintigraphy of kidneys without additional introduction of RF, and hepatocholecyctoscintigraphy with 99m tc-HIPA of the patients were realized. The conclusion is made that radionuclide investigation methods permit to reveal various visceral changes, which are not recognizable by clinical methods

  3. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  4. Prototypes as Platforms for Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Willem

    developers, and design it accordingly. Designing a flexible prototype in combination with supportive tools to be used by both interaction designers and non-designers during development is introduced as a way to open up the prototyping process to these users. Furthermore I demonstrate how such a flexible...... on prototyping, by bringing to attention that the prototype itself is an object of design, with its users and use context, which deserves further attention. Moreover, in this work I present concrete tools and methods that can be used by interaction designers in practice. As such this work addresses both......The development of interactive products in industry is an activity involving different disciplines – such as different kinds of designers, engineers, marketers and managers – in which prototypes play an important role. On the one hand, prototypes can be powerful boundary objects and an effective...

  5. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  6. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus. Using action-research techniques, with this simulator it was possible to validate that the human nerve response can be replicated, which will aid the training of health professionals, reducing possible risks in a surgical environment.

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  8. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  9. Mobile prototyping with Axure 7

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, Will

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial which includes hands-on examples and downloadable Axure files to get you started with mobile prototyping immediately. You will learn how to develop an application from scratch, and will be guided through each and every step.If you are a mobile-centric developer/designer, or someone who would like to take their Axure prototyping skills to the next level and start designing and testing mobile prototypes, this book is ideal for you. You should be familiar with prototyping and Axure specifically, before you read this book.

  10. Ultrasonography is not more reliable than anthropometry for assessing visceral fat in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, B. G. P.; Westerhout, R.; Bohte, A. E.; Vinke, S.; Pels Rijcken, T. H.; Nederveen, A. J.; Caan, M. W. A.; van der Baan-Slootweg, O. H.; Merkus, M. P.; Stoker, J.; Benninga, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is a risk factor for obesity-related complications. Waist circumference is used in clinical practice to assess visceral adiposity. Ultrasound is not superior to waist circumference for assessing visceral obesity in obese children. The optimal site for measuring waist

  11. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  12. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Morizot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  13. Visceral Pedagogies: Pornography, Affect, and Safety in the University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the pedagogical choices and the visceral reverberations involved in teaching porn in the university classroom. The author discusses different aims and goals for teaching pornography, as well as the some key pedagogical considerations and options involved in this, drawing on her own experiences teaching porn in Finnish gender…

  14. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  15. Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrathecal tramadol versus intrathecal fentanyl for visceral pain control during bupivacaine subarachnoid block for open appendicectomy. ... Visual analog scale scores and frequency of subjective symptoms among patients in the three groups formed the primary outcome measure of this study. Results: Effective ...

  16. Imaging the Visceral Soma: A Corporeal Feminist Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    interdependence of our inner biology or viscerality with the socio-cultural inscriptions of embodiment. In this .... nature/culture or sex/gender model of conceptualising sexual ..... (brain), knee or torso, and these various body-parts are enclosed ...

  17. Quantification of visceral adipose tissue in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Nylander, Malin Chatarina; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2018-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with frequent overweight and abdominal obesity. Quantifying visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in PCOS patients can be a tool to assess metabolic risk and monitor effects of treatment. The latest dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology...

  18. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  19. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  20. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  1. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  2. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  3. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  4. Spinal microglia: A potential target in the treatment of chronic visceral pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Liang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic visceral pain is the predominant symptom of functional gastrointestinal disorders and chronic pancreatitis. Such pain can impair the patients' quality of life, and can also serve as one of the principal reasons for these patients to seek medical help. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of chronic visceral pain have remained unclear, and much of what we know about visceral pain has been derived from studies of somatic nociception. Current treatment of chronic visceral pain has continued to be unsatisfactory, because of unclear pathophysiology. However, recent progress in pain research has identified the important role of spinal microglia in the development of somatic nociception. For visceral pain, several animal studies have demonstrated that spinal cord microglia is activated during the development of visceral hyperalgesia, which can be induced by neonatal colorectal irritation, psychological stress, and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced pancreatitis. This visceral hyperalgesia is also associated with elevated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Minocycline (a microglia inhibitor reversed the hyperalgesia in rat models of chronic visceral pain, whereas fractalkine (FKN, a microglia activator reproduced the visceral nociception in naïve rats. These preliminary results support the pronociceptive role of spinal microglia in mediating visceral hyperalgesia. Consequently, spinal microglia may serve as a promising target for controlling the chronic visceral pain.

  5. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.Keywords: visceral, leishmaniasis, paromomycin

  6. Adipocitos, obesidad visceral, inflamación y enfermedad cardiovascular Adipocytes, visceral obesity, inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial. Se considera el resultado de la combinación de factores genéticos, alimentación inadecuada y falta de actividad física regular. La ingestión de una dieta de alta densidad energética, es la principal causa de obesidad visceral o central, ya que el exceso de energía se almacena en los adipocitos, que aumentan en tamaño y en número, o ambos, en especial los viscerales, produciendo un incremento en la tasa de lipólisis, que a su vez, estimula la secreción de citoquinas por leucocitos, macrófagos y adipocitos, y conduce a estado proinflamatorio, resistencia a la insulina y disfunción endotelial. Esta última, favorecida por el proceso inflamatorio, puede ser el vínculo de unión entre la obesidad y la enfermedad cardiovascular. Así, la disfunción del tejido adiposo representa el mecanismo etiopatogénico en el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, iniciado por la obesidad visceral.Worldwide obesity is an important health problem that results from the combination of genetic factors, inadequate food intake and lack of regular physical activity. Intake of a high energy-dense diet is the main cause of visceral and central obesity, since energy excess is stored in adipocytes that increase in size and/or number, especially visceral adipocytes, causing an increment in lipolysis rate that in turn stimulates the cytokines secretion from leucocytes, macrophages and adipocytes, leading to a pro-inflammatory state, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial dysfunction favored by the inflammatory process can be the connecting bond between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Thus, adipose tisssue dysfunction constitutes the ethio-pathogenic mechanism in the development of cardiovascular disease, initiated by visceral obesity.

  7. Intact Prototype Formation but Impaired Generalization in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, A. L.; Anderson, J. S.; Bigler, E. D.; Miller, J. S.; Lange, N. T.; DuBray, M. B.; Cooperrider, J. R.; Cariello, A.; Nielsen, J. A.; Lainhart, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive processing in autism has been characterized by a difficulty with the abstraction of information across multiple stimuli or situations and subsequent generalization to new stimuli or situations. This apparent difficulty leads to the suggestion that prototype formation, a process of creating a mental summary representation of multiple…

  8. Prototype water reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    A small-scale water reuse system (150 L/min) was developed to create an environment for observing fish under a variety of temperature regimes. Key concerns of disease control, water quality, temperature control, and efficiency and case of operation were addressed. Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were held at loading densities ranging from 0.11 to 0.97 kg/L per minute and at temperatures from 10 to 20°C for 6 months with no disease problems or degradation ofwater quality in the system. The system required little maintenance during 2 years of operation.

  9. When Prototyping Meets Storytelling. Practices and Malpractices in Innovating Software Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander; Schwabe, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Storytelling is an important but often underestimated practice in software engineering. Whereas existing research widely regards storytelling as creating a common understanding between developers and users, we argue that storytelling and prototyping are intertwined practices for innovators...... to persuade decision makers. Based on a two-year qualitative case study in two innovating software firms, we identify and dialectically examine practices of storytelling and prototyping. Our study implies that storytelling and prototyping should be integrated together into software engineering methods....

  10. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work was to design a prototype fusion reactor based on fusion plasmas confined as ''Compact Toruses.' Six major criteria guided the prototype design. The prototype must: (1) produce net electricity decisively (P/sub net/ >70% of P/sub gross/), with P/sub net/ approximately 100 MW(e); (2) have small physical size (low project cost) but commercial plant; (3) have all features required of commerical plants; (4) avoid unreasonable extrapolation of technology; (5) minimize nuclear issues substantially, i.e. accident and waste issues of public concern, and (6) be modular (to permit repetitive fabrication of parts) and be maintainable with low occupational radiological exposures

  11. Learning Axure RP interactive prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Krahenbuhl, John Henry

    2015-01-01

    If you are a user experience professional, designer, information architect, or business analyst who wants to gain interactive prototyping skills with Axure, then this book is ideal for you. Some familiarity with Axure is preferred but not essential.

  12. Architectural Prototyping in Industrial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system......, in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, in addressing architectural risks, and in addressing the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. Little work has been reported so far on the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping. In this paper, we report from an ethnographical study...... and focus group involving architects from four companies in which we have focused on architectural prototypes. Our findings conclude that architectural prototypes play an important role in resolving problems experimentally, but less so in exploring alternative solutions. Furthermore, architectural...

  13. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  14. Tangiplay: prototyping tangible electronic games

    OpenAIRE

    Boileau, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Tangible electronic games currently exist in research laboratories around the world but have yet to transition to the commercial sector. The development process of a tangible electronic game is one of the factors preventing progression, as it requires much time and money. Prototyping tools for tangible hardware and software development are becoming more available but are targeted to programmers and technically trained developers. Paper prototyping board and video games is a proven and rapid m...

  15. Visceral leishmaniasis in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Silva, Teane M A; Silva, Fabiana L; Motta, Rafael O C; Miranda, Ildikó; Ecco, Roselene; Santos, Renato L

    2008-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil). Leishmania sp. can naturally infect several species of mammals, and the domestic dog is the most important reservoir of the disease in South America. This report describes five cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazilian canids. Among 15 animals kept in captivity in a zoo in Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), two animals, a bush dog (Spheotos venaticos) and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) were serologically positive and developed clinical signs of VL, whereas three other canids, including a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and a hoary zorro (Lycalopex vetulus) had positive serological results without clinical signs.

  16. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America and therapy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Tovar A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum. In this geographical area, main vectors associated with transmission are Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi, with dogs being incriminated as the main reservoir involved in transmission of the disease. This pathology primarily affects children between 0 - 5 years, a highly susceptible population where socio-economic, environmental and nutritional factors affects the pathological outcome and increase the likelihood of vector-human contact. According to the World Health Organization (WHO recommended treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis is liposomal amphotericin B, a drug with a limited and variable availability between countries depending on market prices, which leaves pentavalent antimonial as the most widely used treatment despite the associated toxic effects. In the Americas, evidence on the efficacy of single-dose (monotherapy and combination therapies as options for treating these parasites is required.

  17. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination [fr

  18. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H; Legghe, R; Foucher, C

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  19. Radiological diagnosis of visceral manifestations in Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.; Czembirek, H.; Fridrich, L.; Imhof, H.; Vienna Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of radiological methods in the diagnosis of visceral manifestations of Hippel-Lindau Syndrome is discussed by means of a case report as well as by the results from studies of other authors. The importance of detecting small renal malignancies (often occurring bilaterally and multifocally in this disease) is stressed since benign (cystic, adenomatous, angiomatous) lesions of visceral organs are of minor clinical relevance. Pheochromocytomas, found in about 20% of cases, are primarily diagnosed clinically. The diagnostic goal of precise quantification of neoplastic renal tumors and of unequivocal differentiation between cystic and solid lesions appears to be achieved by the combination of computertomographic and pharmaco-angiographic techniques. A prerequisite for the alternative use of ultrasound is optimal imaging of all parts of renal parenchyma. (orig.) [de

  20. Infecções experimentaes na Leishmaniose visceral americana Experimental infections in american visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Marques da Cunha

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available Passando em revista as experiencias de infecção que effectuamos e que acabamos de relatar, vemos que, as culturas isoladas de casos de Leishmaniose visceral americana quer do homem quer do cão, são capazes de infectar hamsters, rhesus e cães de maneira identica ao que acontece com as outras formas de Kala-Azar. Notamos ainda que a evolução da doença e as lesões observadas nos animaes assim infectados, se assemelham ao que tem sido observado nessa enfermidade aproximando-a de maneira singular do Kala-Azar mediterraneo. É sobretudo no cão que a semelhança se torna mais patente. A infecção da pelle e as lesões por ella provocadas que observamos, não differem em nada das que tem sido descriptas na infecção natural do cão e já assignaladas tambem na infecção experimental desse animal, embora de maneira menos completa do que fazemos agora aqui. As lesões oculares com formação de placas de keratite, a infeccção massiça do intestino nos casos fataes de infecção e até mesmo as lesões do figado descriptas por Adler como peculiares á infecção experimental, (infiltração em torno da veia central do lobulo constituem outros tantos caracteres que mostram a completa analogia entre as infecções do cão que obtivemos e as já observadas no Kala-Azar mediterraneo. Além disso, a presença de Leishmanias na pelle, as vezes em grande numero e a constancia dessa localisação parasitaria, vem mostrar que o cão apresenta as condições necessarias para desempenhar o papel de depositario de virus tal como acontece no Kala-Azar mediterraneo, tanto mais que é elle encontrado naturalmente infectado, nas regiões em que grassa a doença. Mas não é só a infecção do cão que mostra essa semelhança; nos outros animaes tambem se verifica o mesmo facto e até pequenos signaes, taes como a tumefacção das patas assignalada nos hamsters infectados com Leishmania infantum, foram tambem observados aqui. Por outro lado, a reacção de

  1. Fast-prototyping of VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucier, G.; Read, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fast-prototyping will be a reality in the very near future if both straightforward design methods and fast manufacturing facilities are available. This book focuses, first, on the motivation for fast-prototyping. Economic aspects and market considerations are analysed by European and Japanese companies. In the second chapter, new design methods are identified, mainly for full custom circuits. Of course, silicon compilers play a key role and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques sheds a new light on the subject. At present, fast-prototyping on gate arrays or on standard cells is the most conventional technique and the third chapter updates the state-of-the art in this area. The fourth chapter concentrates specifically on the e-beam direct-writing for submicron IC technologies. In the fifth chapter, a strategic point in fast-prototyping, namely the test problem is addressed. The design for testability and the interface to the test equipment are mandatory to fulfill the test requirement for fast-prototyping. Finally, the last chapter deals with the subject of education when many people complain about the lack of use of fast-prototyping in higher education for VLSI

  2. Sexually dimorphic effects of unpredictable early life adversity on visceral pain behavior in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2013-03-01

    Visceral pain is the hallmark feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a gastrointestinal disorder, which is more commonly diagnosed in women. Female IBS patients frequently report a history of early life adversity (ELA); however, sex differences in ELA-induced visceral pain and the role of ovarian hormones have yet to be investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that ELA induces visceral hypersensitivity through a sexually dimorphic mechanism mediated via estradiol. As a model of ELA, neonatal rats were exposed to different pairings of an odor and shock to control for trauma predictability. In adulthood, visceral sensitivity was assessed via a visceromotor response to colorectal distension. Following ovariectomy and estradiol replacement in a separate group of rats, the visceral sensitivity was quantified. We found that females that received unpredictable odor-shock developed visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. In contrast, visceral sensitivity was not significantly different following ELA in adult males. Ovariectomy reversed visceral hypersensitivity following unpredictable ELA, whereas estradiol replacement reestablished visceral hypersensitivity in the unpredictable group. This study is the first to show sex-related differences in visceral sensitivity following unpredictable ELA. Our data highlight the activational effect of estradiol as a pivotal mechanism in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity. This article directly implicates a critical role for ovarian hormones in maintaining visceral hypersensitivity following ELA, specifically identifying the activational effect of estradiol as a key modulator of visceral sensitivity. These data suggest that ELA induces persistent functional abdominal pain in female IBS patients through an estrogen-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Function-oriented display system: background and first prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Friberg, Maarten; Teigen, Arild; Pirus, Dominique

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the function-oriented displays and alarm project is to design, implement and evaluate Human System Interfaces (HSI) based on a function-oriented design philosophy. Function-oriented design is an approach for designing HSIs where the plant's functions, identified through a function analysis, are used for determining the content, organisation, and management of displays. The project has used the 'FITNESS approach', originally developed by EDF in France, as a starting point. FITNESS provides an integrated display system consisting of process operating displays, operating procedures, alarms and trend displays - all based on a functional decomposition of the plant. So far, two prototypes have been implemented on the FRESH PWR simulator in HAMMLAB. The first prototype focused on the condensate pumps. Three process operating displays representing functions at different levels of the functional hierarchy were implemented. Computerised startup and shutdown procedures for the condensate pumps function were also implemented. In the second prototype, the scope was increased to cover the main feedwater system. The displays of the first prototype were redesigned and additional displays were created. In conclusion, the first phase of the project has been completed successfully, and we are now ready to enter the second phase. In the second phase, the scope of the prototype will be increased further to include the steam-generators and function-oriented disturbance operating procedures. The prototype will be evaluated in a user test conducted later in 2004. (Author)

  4. [Chronic visceral leishmaniasis during chemotherapy for metastatic osteosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguglio, A; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F; Chantraine, J M; Thiry, A; Gillet, P

    1998-03-01

    Leishmaniasis refers to a spectrum of diseases caused by Leishmania. Clinically, three types of leishmaniasis can be distinguished: the cutaneous, mucous and visceral leishmaniasis, the latter being caused by Leishmania donovani. An 11-year-old Thai, living in Belgium for 6 years, had surgery for a vertebral osteosarcoma with pulmonary metastases, followed by polychemotherapy, then pulmonary metastasectomy. During a post-chemotherapy bone marrow aplasia, febrile episode with a general condition impairment was noted and first treated by broad-spectrum antibiotherapy, then by amphotericin B, in the absence of any accurate etiology. The outcome first was favorable. Nevertheless, 7 months later, the visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis was made because of the recurrence of the same symptoms. Classical treatments by antimony derivatives (Glucantim), then liposomal amphotericin (Ambisome) proved to be inefficient. A liposomal amphotericin-gamma interferon association suppressed the symptoms without eradicating the parasite. The patient was given a maintenance therapy based on liposomal amphotericin. The stubborn and recurring nature of this chronic visceral leismaniosis can be due to the immune deficit inherent in the polychemotherapy performed in order to treat the metastatic osteosarcoma which currently is in first full remission.

  5. Effects of visceral adiposity on glycerol pathways in gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Ian J; Hughes, Connor; Ayers, Colby R; Malloy, Craig R; Jin, Eunsook S

    2017-02-01

    To determine the feasibility of using oral 13 C labeled glycerol to assess effects of visceral adiposity on gluconeogenic pathways in obese humans. Obese (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ) participants without type 2 diabetes underwent visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessment and stratification by median VAT into high VAT-fasting (n=3), low VAT-fasting (n=4), and high VAT-refed (n=2) groups. Participants ingested [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol and blood samples were subsequently analyzed at multiple time points over 3h by NMR spectroscopy. The fractions of plasma glucose (enrichment) derived from [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol via hepatic gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were assessed using 13 C NMR analysis of glucose. Mixed linear models were used to compare 13 C enrichment in glucose between groups. Mean age, BMI, and baseline glucose were 49years, 40.1kg/m 2 , and 98mg/dl, respectively. Up to 20% of glycerol was metabolized in the TCA cycle prior to gluconeogenesis and PPP activity was minor (gluconeogenesis from glycerol in obese humans. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that excess visceral fat disrupts multiple pathways in hepatic gluconeogenesis from glycerol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  9. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose...... tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio......-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI...

  10. The Fat of the Matter: Obesity and Visceral Adiposity in Treated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jordan E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize knowledge of the prevalence, relevant physiology, and consequences of obesity and visceral adiposity in HIV-infected adults, including highlighting gaps in current knowledge and future research directions. Similar to the general population, obesity prevalence is increasing among HIV-infected persons, and obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory sequelae. However, HIV- and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-specific factors may contribute to fat gain and fat quality in treated HIV infection, particularly to the development of visceral adiposity, and sex differences may exist. Obesity and visceral adiposity commonly occur in HIV-infected persons and have significant implications for morbidity and mortality. Future research should aim to better elucidate the HIV- and ART-specific contributors to obesity and visceral adiposity in treated HIV infection, with the goal of developing targeted therapies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and visceral adiposity in the modern ART era.

  11. Visceral adiposity index as a predictor of clinical severity and therapeutic outcome of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sai-Hua; Li, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine-metabolic disease which often accompany with abnormal fat distribution. Visceral adiposity has association with abnormal lipid metabolic, pro-inflammatory activity, insulin resistance (IR) and hyperandrogenism. Increased visceral adiposity raises the risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular (CV) events, and aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism in PCOS women. Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a simple surrogate maker of visceral adipose dysfunction and visceral adiposity, is a predictor of IR, and link hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. This review aims to discuss the visceral adiposity situation in PCOS women, and suggests that VAI may be a useful predictor of clinical severity and therapeutic outcome of PCOS.

  12. Prototyping in theory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Brem, Alexander; Pasinell, Michele

    2018-01-01

    and functions of a prototype and needed to meet specific goals in order to push the process forward. Designers, on the other hand, used prototypes to investigate the design space for new possibilities, and were more open to a variety of prototyping materials and tools, especially for low-fidelity prototypes...

  13. Rapid Prototyping of Formally Modelled Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Didier; Buffo, Mathieu; Titsworth, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents various kinds of prototypes, used in the prototyping of formally modelled distributed systems. It presents the notions of prototyping techniques and prototype evolution, and shows how to relate them to the software life-cycle. It is illustrated through the use of the formal modelling language for distributed systems CO-OPN/2.

  14. Towards an Operational Framework for Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes.......We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes....

  15. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  16. Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  18. Science with the ASTRI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a “Flagship Project” financed by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. It represents the Italian proposal for the development of the Small Size Telescope system of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, the next generation observatory for Very High Energy gamma-rays (20 GeV - 100 TeV). The ASTRI end-to-end prototype will be installed at Serra La Nave (Catania, Italy) and it will see the first light at the beginning of 2014. We describe the expected performance of the prototype on few selected test cases of the northern emisphere. The aim of the prototype is to probe the technological solutions and the nominal performance of the various telescope's subsystems

  19. Flight Telerobotic Servicer prototype simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Rob; Krauze, Linda; Hartley, Craig; Dickenson, Alan; Lavecchia, Tom; Working, Bob

    A prototype simulator for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) system is described for use in the design development of the FTS, emphasizing the hand controller and user interface. The simulator utilizes a graphics workstation based on rapid prototyping tools for systems analyses of the use of the user interface and the hand controller. Kinematic modeling, manipulator-control algorithms, and communications programs are contained in the software for the simulator. The hardwired FTS panels and operator interface for use on the STS Orbiter are represented graphically, and the simulated controls function as the final FTS system configuration does. The robotic arm moves based on the user hand-controller interface, and the joint angles and other data are given on the prototype of the user interface. This graphics simulation tool provides the means for familiarizing crewmembers with the FTS system operation, displays, and controls.

  20. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  1. Utilization of virtual prototyping in development of CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneda, A.; Pessi, P.; Siuko, M.; Handroos, H.; Palmer, J.; Vilenius, M.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristic advantages of hydraulics (high power density, simple construction and reliability) together with the characteristics of water as the pressure medium (fire and environmentally safe, chemically neutral, not activated nor affected by radiation) are highlighted in critical applications such as remote handling operations in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, component cost and lack of wide selection of water hydraulic components make it difficult to build and to test complex water hydraulic systems. The use of virtual prototyping for the development of water hydraulic tools can be used to address this problem. Rapidly increased computational power has created conditions for extensive numerical calculations, enabling computer aided virtual prototyping to replace physical prototype phases in product development

  2. The stand prototype of minimum power NRE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, A.I.; Grigorenko, L.N.; Mamontov, Yu.I.; Rachuk, V.S.; Stukalov, A.I.; Konyukhov, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    For ensuring of full-scale development of nuclear rocket engine (NRE) reactor was created stand prototype (reactor IRGIT?) The main differences of its are as follows: 1) Fasteners of technologies channels contents fuel assemblies in bottom are worked out the split. It is provides possibility a distance channels change without disassembly of reactor stand prototype from stand; 2) Cooling of the vessels, the moderator, the reflector and the barrel actuate is carried out by hydrogen; 3) The lower bottom modified for organization the hydrogen efflux in the form a reactor jet; 4) Radiation defence is introduced as part of stand prototype for ensuring of serviceability of stand accessories and tests routine service; 5) Each technology channels is provided of critical nozzle; 6) Control, regulation and defence of reactor has being carried out on stand system

  3. Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Ezra

    2012-01-01

    Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials is a detailed, practical primer on the leading rapid prototyping tool. Short on jargon and high on concepts, real-life scenarios and step-by-step guidance through hands-on examples, this book will show you how to integrate Axure into your UX workflow. This book is written for UX practitioners, business analysts, product managers, and anyone else who is involved in UX projects. The book assumes that you have no or very little familiarity with Axure. It will help you if you are evaluating the tool for an upcoming project or are required to quickly get up to spee

  4. Data-sharing protocol: A prototype implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibney, T.; Greenwood, D.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a client/server communication protocol which will allow physicists to access data from cooperating remote experiments. Special low-level ''client'' software within the user's ''home'' data-access library formulates a request for data from the remote experiment. This request is sent over a network to a server at the remote site. The server has specific knowledge about the location and format of the requested data. The server gets the data and sends it over the network to the requesting client, which reformats the data according to the local library's conventions. Our prototype is being developed to suppose remote access to data from ATF, PBX, and micro Vax data from Tore-Supra. We have attempted to create a flexible design which should accommodate data from other experiments as well

  5. [Expansion of the distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the department of Caldas: Increased risk of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Luz Adriana; Mondragón-Shem, Karina; Vergara, Daniela; Vélez-Mira, Andrés; Cadena, Horacio; Carrillo-Bonilla, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Diverse taxonomical and molecular studies suggest that Lutzomyia longipalpis , main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of species widely distributed throughout the continent and adapted to different habitats. To carry out entomological surveillance in the area of influence of the Miel I Hydroelectric Plant. Adhesive traps were used in a transect covering an area of approximately 400 km for the capture of insects, which were then identified using the Young and Duncan taxonomical key. This study reports the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the municipalities of Norcasia at an altitude of 392 masl, and in Marquetalia at 1,387 masl. We suggest that the increase in the geographical and altitudinal distribution could be related to the existence of the Lu. longipalpis species complex, or to environmental factors, such as the rise in temperature due to global climate changes, which create the establishment of Lu. longipalpis , generating a new epidemiological risk for new visceral leishmaniasis foci in the country.

  6. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  7. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis and leishmaniasis-HIV coinfection: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Soares Coriolano Coutinho

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to draw clinical and epidemiological comparisons between visceral leishmaniasis (VL and VL associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. METHOD: Retrospective study. RESULTS: Of 473 cases of VL, 5.5% were coinfected with HIV. The highest proportion of cases of both VL and VL/HIV were found among men. A higher proportion of VL cases was seen in children aged 0-10 years, whereas coinfection was more common in those aged 18-50 years. CONCLUSIONS: VL/HIV coinfected patients presented slightly differently to and had a higher mortality rate than those with VL only.

  9. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  10. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Dutta, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  11. Analgesic properties of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in visceral and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardíaz, Margarita; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Goicoechea, Carlos; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2007-12-15

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a natural fatty acid amide that mainly modulates feeding and energy homeostasis by binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) [Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Navarro M, Gómez R, Escuredo L, Navas F, Fu J, et al. An anorexic lipid mediator regulated by feeding. Nature 2001;414:209-12; Fu J, Gaetani S, Oveisi F, Lo Verme J, Serrano A, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, et al. Oleoylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight through activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha. Nature 2003;425:90-3]. Additionally, it has been proposed that OEA could act via other receptors, including the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) [Wang X, Miyares RL, Ahern GP. Oleoylethanolamide excites vagal sensory neurones, induces visceral pain and reduces short-term food intake in mice via capsaicin receptor TRPV1. J Physiol 2005;564:541-7.] or the GPR119 receptor [Overton HA, Babbs AJ, Doel SM, Fyfe MC, Gardner LS, Griffin G, et al. Deorphanization of a G protein-coupled receptor for oleoylethanolamide and its use in the discovery of small-molecule hypophagic agents. Cell Metab 2006;3:167-175], suggesting that OEA might subserve other physiological roles, including pain perception. We have evaluated the effect of OEA in two types of nociceptive responses evoked by visceral and inflammatory pain in rodents. Our results suggest that OEA has analgesic properties reducing the nociceptive responses produced by administration of acetic acid and formalin in two experimental animal models. Additional research was performed to investigate the mechanisms underlying this analgesic effect. To this end, we evaluated the actions of OEA in mice null for the PPAR-alpha receptor gene and compared its actions with those of PPAR-alpha receptor wild-type animal. We also compared the effect of MK-801 in order to evaluate the role of NMDA receptor in this analgesia. Our data showed that OEA reduced visceral and inflammatory responses through a PPAR

  12. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%).

  13. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-e

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 . In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥100 cm 2 , but not in those with a visceral fat area 2 . These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  14. Leptin in sarcopenic visceral obesity: possible link between adipocytes and myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Kohara

    Full Text Available The combination of sarcopenia, age-related loss of muscle strength and mass, and obesity has been recognized as a new category of obesity among the elderly. Given that leptin has been hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenic obesity, we investigated the relationship between plasma leptin levels and thigh muscle sarcopenia and visceral obesity. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA and visceral fat area were measured using computed tomography as indices for muscle mass and visceral fat, respectively, in 782 middle-aged to elderly subjects (303 men and 479 women, participating in a medical check-up program. Visceral obesity was defined as visceral fat area >100 cm², and sarcopenia was defined as < (one standard deviation--mean of thigh muscle CSA/body weight of young subjects [aged <50 years].Thigh muscle CSA was significantly and negatively associated with plasma levels of leptin in both men (β = -0.28, p<0.0001 and women (β = -0.20, p<0.0001, even after correcting for other confounding parameters, including age, body weight, body height, visceral fat area, blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment index, and high sensitive C reactive protein. Subjects were divided into four groups based on presence or absence of sarcopenia or visceral obesity. Plasma levels of leptin were higher in subjects with sarcopenic visceral obesity than in those with either sarcopenia or visceral obesity alone. These findings indicate that sarcopenic visceral obesity is a more advanced, and suggest that leptin may link visceral obesity and sarcopenia.

  15. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  16. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  17. The OPAL vertex detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, J.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Giles, G.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; McPherson, A.C.; Pinfold, J.L.; Waterhouse, J.; Godfrey, L.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype test results of a high resolution charged particle tracking detector are reported. The detector is designed to measure vertex topologies of particles produced in the e + e - collisions of the OPAL experiment at LEP. The OPAL vertex detector is a 1 m long, 0.46 m diameter cylindrical drift chamber consisting of an axial and stereo layer each of which is divided into 36 jet cells. A prototype chamber containing four axial and two stereo cells was studied using a pion test beam at CERN. The studies examined the prototype under a variety of operating conditions. An r-Φ resolution of 60 μm was obtained when the chamber was operated with argon (50%)-ethane (50%) at 3.75 bar, and when CO 2 (80%)-isobutane (20%) at 2.5 bar was used a 25 μm resolution was achieved. A z measurement using end-to-end time difference has a resolution of 3.5 cm. The details of these prototype studies are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  18. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  19. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  20. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

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  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ...

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  5. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    The method of diagnosing patients used since the early 1980s in psychiatry, which involves evaluating each of several hundred symptoms for their presence or absence and then applying idiosyncratic rules for combining them for each of several hundred disorders, has led to great advances in research over the last 30 years. However, its problems have become increasingly apparent, particularly for clinical practice. An alternative approach, designed to maximize clinical utility, is prototype matching. Instead of counting symptoms of a disorder and determining whether they cross an arbitrary cutoff, the task of the diagnostician is to gauge the extent to which a patient’s clinical presentation matches a paragraph-length description of the disorder using a simple 5-point scale, from 1 (“little or no match”) to 5 (“very good match”). The result is both a dimensional diagnosis that captures the extent to which the patient “has” the disorder and a categorical diagnosis, with ratings of 4 and 5 corresponding to presence of the disorder and a rating of 3 indicating “subthreshold” or “clinically significant features”. The disorders and criteria woven into the prototypes can be identified empirically, so that the prototypes are both scientifically grounded and clinically useful. Prototype diagnosis has a number of advantages: it better captures the way humans naturally classify novel and complex stimuli; is clinically helpful, reliable, and easy to use in everyday practice; facilitates both dimensional and categorical diagnosis and dramatically reduces the number of categories required for classification; allows for clinically richer, empirically derived, and culturally relevant classification; reduces the gap between research criteria and clinical knowledge, by allowing clinicians in training to learn a small set of standardized prototypes and to develop richer mental representations of the disorders over time through clinical experience; and can help

  6. Prototype Effect and the Persuasiveness of Generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually has. This prototype effect increases the persuasiveness of the argument in situations where the audience finds the judgment more warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (positive prototype effect), but decreases persuasiveness in situations where the audience finds the judgment less warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (negative prototype effect).

  7. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  8. Immunoactivation and immunopathogeny during active visceral leishmaniasis Imunoativação e imunopatogenia durante leishmaniose visceral ativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro Goto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. During active disease in humans, high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α detected in blood serum, and high expression of IFN-γ mRNA in samples of the lymphoid organs suggest that the immune system is highly activated. However, studies using peripheral blood mononuclear cells have found immunosuppression specific to Leishmania antigens; this poor immune response probably results from Leishmania antigen-engaged lymphocytes being trapped in the lymphoid organs. To allow the parasites to multiply, deactivating cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β may be acting on macrophages as well as anti-Leishmania antibodies that opsonize amastigotes and induce IL-10 production in macrophages. These high activation and deactivation processes are likely to occur mainly in the spleen and liver and can be confirmed through the examination of organ samples. However, an analysis of sequential data from studies of visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters suggests that factors outside of the immune system are responsible for the early inactivation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which occurs before the expression of deactivating cytokines. In active visceral leishmaniasis, the immune system actively participates in non-lymphoid organ lesioning. While current views only consider immunocomplex deposition, macrophages, T cells, cytokines, and immunoglobulins by diverse mechanism also play important roles in the pathogenesis.A leishmaniose visceral é causada por protozoários do gênero do complexo Leishmania donovani. Durante a doença ativa no homem são detectados altos níveis de IFN-γ e de TNF-α no soro, e elevada expressão de mRNA de IFN-γ em amostras de órgãos linfóides sugerindo um estado intensamente ativado do sistema imunológico. A visão atual, no entanto, refere-se à imunossupressão específica aos antígenos de Leishmania com base em estudos utilizando células mononucleares

  9. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  10. Development of Automatic Visceral Fat Volume Calculation Software for CT Volume Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Nemoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop automatic visceral fat volume calculation software for computed tomography (CT volume data and to evaluate its feasibility. Methods. A total of 24 sets of whole-body CT volume data and anthropometric measurements were obtained, with three sets for each of four BMI categories (under 20, 20 to 25, 25 to 30, and over 30 in both sexes. True visceral fat volumes were defined on the basis of manual segmentation of the whole-body CT volume data by an experienced radiologist. Software to automatically calculate visceral fat volumes was developed using a region segmentation technique based on morphological analysis with CT value threshold. Automatically calculated visceral fat volumes were evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient with the true volumes and the error relative to the true volume. Results. Automatic visceral fat volume calculation results of all 24 data sets were obtained successfully and the average calculation time was 252.7 seconds/case. The correlation coefficients between the true visceral fat volume and the automatically calculated visceral fat volume were over 0.999. Conclusions. The newly developed software is feasible for calculating visceral fat volumes in a reasonable time and was proved to have high accuracy.

  11. Role of insular cortex in visceral hypersensitivity model in rats subjected to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, LiSha; Sun, HuiHui; Ge, Chao; Chen, Ying; Peng, HaiXia; Jiang, YuanXi; Wu, Ping; Tang, YinHan; Meng, QingWei; Xu, ShuChang

    2014-12-30

    Abnormal processing of visceral sensation at the level of the central nervous system has been proven to be important in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of stress related functional gastrointestinal disorders. However, the specific mechanism is still not clear. The insular cortex (IC) was considered as one important visceral sensory area. Moreover, the IC has been shown to be involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as panic disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, whether the IC is important in psychological stress related visceral hypersensitivity has not been studied yet. In our study, through destruction of the bilateral IC, we explored whether the IC played a critical role in the formation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress on rats. Chronic partial restraint stress was used to establish viscerally hypersensitive rat model. Bilateral IC lesions were generated by N-methyl-D-day (door) aspartate. After a recovery period of 7 days, 14-day consecutive restraint stress was performed. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension was monitored by recording electromyogram to measure rats׳ visceral sensitivity. We found that bilateral insular cortex lesion could markedly inhibit the formation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress. The insular cortex plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of stress-related visceral hypersensitivity.

  12. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM.

  13. Comparison of visceral fat with computed tomography and other obesity diagnosis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yoshiyuki; Takada, Koichiro; Shinozaki, Kumiko; Sukegawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Nozomi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuhiko; Imura, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is closely associated with coronary artery disease, and the syndrome is suggested to be based on visceral fat accumulation. Therefore, estimating the amount of visceral fat is important. There is such a background, and institutions enforcing measurement system for visceral fat with computed tomography increase. However, many institutions are diagnosing the obesity in body mass index or %FAT. Therefore, we compared it with visceral fat about other obesity diagnosis methods. We have developed this time a software program that allows automated analysis of computed tomography (CT) image as well as measurement of area of visceral fat, area of subcutaneous fat and abdominal circumference. With this software, we examined 7369 patients who analyzed it in February 2005 from September 2003. An examination item is a coefficient of correlation, sensitivity, specificity, cut-off value. As a result, it was waist that visceral fat and correlation were high. Visceral fat correlation were high in body mass index (BMI) and %FAT, but were not able to satisfy sensitivity and specificity. It is reported that the measurement of visceral fat is effective for a diagnosis of obesity. However, we want to recommend the measurement of waist in such an institution because cannot do it in all institutions. (author)

  14. Assessment of visceral sensitivity using radio telemetry in a rat model of maternal separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welting, O.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; de Jonge, W. J.; Holman, R.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2005-01-01

    Stress plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, a key mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of the irritable bowel syndrome. Visceral sensitivity in rats is generally assessed under restrain conditions. To avoid this potential stress factor, we developed a model

  15. Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Toward Animal Models of Irritable-Bowel Syndrome and Associated Comorbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939

  16. Design in action: From prototyping by demonstration to cooperative prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    ... the development of any computer-based system will have to proceed in a cycle from design to experience and back again. It is impossible to anticipate all of the relevant breakdown and their domains. They emerge gradually in practice. Winograd and Flores, 1986. p.171 Some time ago we worked wi...... with a group of dental assistants, designing a prototype case record system to explore the possibility of using computer support in public dental clinics. ...

  17. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OFPERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreina de Carvalho ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality ofPetrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%. Most of the patients were males (59.4%. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%, with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis in 26 HIV-negative adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrady Rhizlane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis is a notifiable parasitic disease that had increased in incidence in our region on the past few years. It is common in children. In adults, it occurs more on a background of immunodeficiency, and frequently with incomplete clinical manifestations, making the diagnosis complicated. Findings The aim of our study is to reveal different features of visceral leishmaniasis in adults, through the analysis of its epidemiological, clinical and biological parameters, in a group of 26 patients. No one was infected with HIV or under immunosuppressive therapy Clinical presentation was generally conservative, but there was few differences in adults compared to children, concerning both the clinical symptoms and the laboratory parameters. Diagnosis was provided by direct examination of bone marrow smears in 24 cases (sensitivity 92%, and anti-leishmanial serology in the others. Conclusion We should think to the diagnosis of VL even if the patient is not known immunocompromised, and even if the clinical is incomplete, to avoid a delay of care which can lead to serious complications.

  19. Adipocitos, obesidad visceral, inflamación y enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manzur, MD.,FACC.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial. Se considera el resultado de la combinación de factores genéticos, alimentación inadecuada y falta de actividad física regular. La ingestión de una dieta de alta densidad energética, es la principal causa de obesidad visceral o central, ya que el exceso de energía se almacena en los adipocitos, que aumentan en tamaño y en número, o ambos, en especial los viscerales, produciendo un incremento en la tasa de lipólisis, que a su vez, estimula la secreción de citoquinas por leucocitos, macrófagos y adipocitos, y conduce a estado proinflamatorio, resistencia a la insulina y disfunción endotelial. Esta última, favorecida por el proceso inflamatorio, puede ser el vínculo de unión entre la obesidad y la enfermedad cardiovascular. Así, la disfunción del tejido adiposo representa el mecanismo etiopatogénico en el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, iniciado por la obesidad visceral.

  20. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  1. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  2. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  3. Translational pain research: evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can ...... studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.......Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can...... facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical...

  4. The concept of metabolic syndrome: contribution of visceral fat accumulation and its molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Yuji; Funahashi, Tohru; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although abdominal obesity or visceral obesity is considered to be one of the components of metabolic syndrome and to have an important role in a cluster of cardiovascular risks, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic criteria for this syndrome, probably because there is considerable disagreement about the location and definition of abdominal obesity or visceral obesity.In this review article, the important role of visceral fat accumulation in the development of a variety of lifestyle-related diseases is shown, including cardiovascular disease based on our clinical studies using CT scans, and the mechanism of these disorders is discussed, focusing on adipocytokines, especially adiponectin.The importance of diagnosing metabolic syndrome, in which visceral fat accumulation plays an essential role in the development of multiple risk factors, should be emphasized because lifestyle modification for the reduction of visceral fat may be very effective for the reduction of risks of this type, namely metabolic syndrome in the narrow sense.

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning ... serving of dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $50 $100 $250 $500 Other Other Ways ... Meals > Create Your Plate ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  15. Aversive viscerally referred states and thirst accompanying the sating of hunger motivation by rapid digestion of glucosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David A; O'Leary, Gemma; Li, Lixiang; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Associative conditioning of satiety indicates that concentrated maltodextrin (cMD) may induce a mildly aversive visceral signal within 20 min of its ingestion, as well as satiating normally. Individuals' awareness of this adverse state was tested on ratings of statistically distinct descriptions of factors liable to suppress hunger, whether distressing or comfortably satisfying. Wanted amount of a food and the pleasantness of eating it correlated highly for each of five foods, once again refuting the widespread presumption that "pleasant" refers to sensory pleasure; hence, as in previous reports, suppression of hunger was measured as a reduction of the averaged pleasantness of functionally related foods. At 20 min after the start of ingestion of a small meal on a near-empty stomach, cMD reliably reduced hunger. The greatest influence on hunger, besides normal sating, was thirst, but there were also tendencies to nausea and bloat, although all less than after a full sized meal. Visceral processes shortly after a meal can create dissociable conscious states, only one of which is satiety for food. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lathe creates hardwood flakes for manufacture of "super strong" flakeboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1973-01-01

    Most industry members got their first look at a prototype of the Koch lathe at this year's Southern Forest Products Assn. Machinery Exhibition held in Atlanta. With the residue from this machine, Dr. Peter Koch, project leader at the Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, LA thinks it will be possible to create a flake that can be used for making a...

  17. Visceral adiposity index as an indicator of cardiometabolic risk in patients treated for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraù, Francesco; Spagnolo, Federica; Cotta, Oana Ruxandra; Cannavò, Laura; Alibrandi, Angela; Russo, Giuseppina Tiziana; Aversa, Tommaso; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavò, Salvatore

    2017-11-01

    Craniopharyngioma is associated with metabolic alterations leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. Recently, the visceral adiposity index has been proposed as a marker of visceral adipose tissue dysfunction and of the related cardiometabolic risk. The role of the visceral adiposity index has never been explored in craniopharyngioma patients. We assessed the cardiometabolic risk on the basis of the visceral adiposity index in craniopharyngioma patients. We evaluated data of 24 patients treated for craniopharyngioma in a single-centre. We investigated the relationship among patients' clinical and biochemical features, cardiovascular risk -assessed by the Framingham and the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores-, visceral adiposity index and adipose tissue dysfunction severity. Increased visceral adiposity index was found in 8 patients (33%). Adipose tissue dysfunction resulted to be severe, moderate or mild in 5, 2 and 1 cases. Increased visceral adiposity index significantly correlated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (p 0.027), IRI (p 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (p < 0.001) and with lower ISI-Matsuda (p 0.005) and HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001). Higher degree of adipose tissue dysfunction associated with increased insulin resistance. No gender difference was found for visceral adiposity index, adipose tissue dysfunction severity, and cardiovascular risk scores. Patients with adulthood onset craniopharyngioma showed higher Framingham risk score (p 0.004), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease 10-year (p < 0.001) and lifetime (p 0.018) risk scores than those with childhood onset disease. Visceral adiposity index is increased in one third of our patients with craniopharyngioma, even if metabolic syndrome does not occur. Increased visceral adiposity index and adipose tissue dysfunction severity correlate with insulin sensitivity parameters, do not correlate with Framingham or atherosclerotic cardiovascular

  18. Impact of Visceral Obesity and Sarcopenia on Short-Term Outcomes After Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Zhe; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Feng-Min; Lin, Ji; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2018-06-01

    With the increased prevalence of obesity and sarcopenia, those patients with both visceral obesity and sarcopenia were at higher risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the combined impact of visceral obesity and sarcopenia on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We conducted a prospective study from July 2014 to February 2017. Patients' demographic, clinical characteristics, physical performance, and postoperative short-term outcomes were collected. Patients were classified into four groups according to the presence of sarcopenia or visceral obesity. Clinical variables were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating the risk factors for postoperative complications were performed. A total of 376 patients were included; 50.8 and 24.5% of the patients were identified as having "visceral obesity" and "sarcopenia," respectively. Patients with sarcopenia and visceral obesity had the highest incidence of total, surgical, and medical complications. Patients with sarcopenia or/and visceral obesity all had longer hospital stays and higher hospitalization costs. Age ≥ 65 years, visceral obesity, and sarcopenia were independent risk factors for total complications. Rectal cancer and visceral obesity were independent risk factors for surgical complications. Age ≥ 65 years and sarcopenia were independent risk factors for medical complications. Laparoscopy-assisted operation was a protective factor for total and medical complications. Patients with both visceral obesity and sarcopenia had a higher complication rate after colorectal cancer surgery. Age ≥ 65 years, visceral obesity, and sarcopenia were independent risk factors for total complications. Laparoscopy-assisted operation was a protective factor.

  19. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  20. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  1. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  2. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  3. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  4. Prototype and proposed ISABELLE dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Sampson, W.B.; Robins, K.E.; Dahl, P.F.; Damm, R.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the latest dipole prototypes to update the operational parameters possible for ISABELLE. This data base will constantly expand until the start of construction of the storage rings. The data will include field quality, stray field magnitudes, quench temperature and propagation times, protection capabilities singly and in multiple units, maximum central fields obtained and training behavior. Performance of the dipoles versus temperature and mode of refrigeration will be discussed. The single layer cosine theta turns distribution coils' parameters are better than those required for the operation of the 200 x 200 GeV version of ISABELLE. The double layer prototype has exceeded the magnetic field performance and two dimensional quality of field needed for the 400 x 400 GeV version of ISABELLE

  5. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report

  6. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  7. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  8. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  9. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  10. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  11. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  12. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  13. Using prototyping in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Miha

    2010-01-01

    Today the business system changers faster than the usual conventional cascade life cycle. Because of that, we can conclude, that today's programming system will no longer be presented as the answer to this topic in the developing age of ever changing user requirements. Neither increased performance or higher productivity will decrease the problem. The appropriate solution to this stated problem is prototyping. Instead of building and developing the whole system, we build a module that can...

  14. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  15. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  16. Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil: quadro atual, desafios e perspectivas Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: current status, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a importância da leishmaniose visceral reside não somente na sua alta incidência e ampla distribuição, mas também na possibilidade de assumir formas graves e letais quando associada ao quadro de má nutrição e infecções concomitantes. A crescente urbanização da doença ocorrida nos últimos 20 anos coloca em pauta a discussão das estratégias de controle empregadas. Neste artigo foram analisados os principais aspectos biológicos, ambientais e sociais que influenciaram no processo de expansão e urbanização dos focos da doença. Os métodos disponíveis para o diagnóstico e tratamento não apresentam a eficácia e aplicabilidade desejadas, embora avanços promissores tenham sido alcançados com as pesquisas de novos testes diagnósticos e drogas terapêuticas. As medidas de controle da doença até agora implementadas foram incapazes de eliminar a transmissão e impedir a ocorrência de novas epidemias. É feita uma breve análise destas medidas e dos desafios a serem enfrentados. A prevenção da doença nos cães através da imunoprofilaxia aparece como uma alternativa para o controle. Uma nova vacina para cães, já testada em campo, está sendo industrializada e será comercializada no Brasil a partir de 2004. Apesar da existência de inúmeros estudos sobre a leishmaniose visceral humana e canina, muitas lacunas ainda precisam ser preenchidas.Visceral leishmaniasis has assumed an increasing importance in Brazil due to its high incidence and wide geographical distribution. When associated with malnutrition and co-infections it can prove to be fatal. A notable increase in transmission rates related to urbanization has been observed in the past 20 years. A combination of measures is needed to define new methods for reducing transmission. This paper analyzes the main biological, environmental and social aspects that have influenced the spread and urbanization of the disease. The diagnostic tests and drugs available

  17. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Ranky, Richard G; Sivak, Mark L; Patritti, Benjamin L; DiPisa, Joseph; Caddle, Alyssa; Gilhooly, Kara; Govoni, Lauren; Sivak, Seth; Lancia, Michael; Drillio, Robert; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-12

    Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait). The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.

  18. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivak Seth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait. The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.

  19. Prototype effect and the persuasiveness of generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually ...

  20. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  2. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  3. Creating organizational cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration...

  4. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%-6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

  6. Visceral obesity and psychosocial stress: a generalised control theory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-07-01

    The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive - and likely unsustainable - public policy.

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in large Brazilian cities: challenges for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this article were to discuss the rapid spread of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas of Brazil and to raise practical questions and perspectives related to control of the disease. Among the proposed methods, the elimination of seropositive dogs is the most controversial and least accepted by society. Its impact on incidence rates varies among studies (positive in some and relatively unimportant in others. Treatment of infected dogs, although widespread in veterinary practice, is based on studies with weak scientific evidence. Insecticide spraying of areas is more acceptable to the population, but is costly and operationally difficult. Intra and inter-urban factors have scarcely been studied and may affect control of the disease. Finally, the article discusses the use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars and vaccines, with high expectations for impact on disease transmission, although no product currently available on the market has been fully evaluated, so that further studies are required.

  8. Osseous metastatic pattern in breast-cancer - relation between anatomical distribution and ulterior visceral involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, C; Perez, J; Rodriguez, R; Cuevas, M; Machiavelli, M; Lacava, J; Romero, A; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B

    1994-03-01

    The development of ultimate visceral metastases and the visceral metastases-free time interval was evaluated in patients with breast carcinoma bearing bone-only metastases. Ninety patients were identified and were subdivided into three groups according to the anatomic distribution of osseous lesions: group A with osseous involvement cranial to the lumbosacral junction, group B caudal to this, and group C with lesions in both areas. The purpose of this subdivision was to evaluate if there is any correlation between bone-metastases distribution and probability of developing visceral lesions. All patients received systemic therapy consisting of hormonal therapy, chemotherapy or both. The median survival for the whole group was 28 months, whereas it was 33, 43 and 26 months for patients in groups A, B and C, respectively (p=NS). No differences in subsequent visceral involvement and visceral-free time interval were observed among the three groups of patients regardless of tumor burden. In conclusion, our analyses did not show significant differences in the incidence of visceral metastases, visceral metastases-free time interval and overall survival in patients with breast cancer with bone-only lesions independently of anatomic distribution.

  9. Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Implications in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Moloney, R D; Johnson, A C; Vicario, M

    2016-08-01

    Visceral pain is a term describing pain originating from the internal organs of the body and is a common feature of many disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of many visceral pain disorders. Recent evidence suggests that stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviours. The Young Investigator Forum at the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology (ISPNE) annual meeting reported experimental evidence suggesting the gut microbiota can affect the stress response to affect visceral pain. Building upon human imaging data showing abnormalities in the central processing of visceral stimuli in patients with IBS and knowledge that the amygdala plays a pivotal role in facilitating the stress axis, the latest experimental evidence supporting amygdala-mediated mechanisms in stress-induced visceral pain was reviewed. The final part of the session at ISPNE reviewed experimental evidence suggesting that visceral pain in IBS may be a result, at least in part, of afferent nerve sensitisation following increases in epithelial permeability and mucosal immune activation. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  10. GRADING SCALE OF VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE THICKNESS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuino de Oliveira ANDRADE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The mesenteric fat is drained by the portal system, being related to the metabolic syndrome which is an impor­tant risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Objectives Graduate of visceral fat thickness and correlate with the NAFLD degree through ultrasonography method. Methods We studied 352 subjects for age, gender, measures of subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness as well as the presence and degree of liver fatty. Was analyzed the independent relationship between visceral fat thickness and NAFLD, and linear regression analysis was used in order to predict the visceral fat thickness from subcutaneous fat thickness. Results The mean age of 225 women (63.9% and 127 men (36.1% was 47.5 ± 14.0 (18-77 years, 255 subjects had normal examinations, 97 had NAFLD thus distributed, 37 grade 1, 32 grade 2, and 28 grade 3. The subcutaneous fat thickness ranged from 0.26 to 3.50 cm with a mean of 1.3 ± 0.6 cm and visceral fat thickness ranged from 0.83 to 8.86 cm with a mean of 3.6 ± 1.7 cm. Linear regression showed that for every increase of 1 cm in subcutaneous fat thickness the visceral fat thickness will increase 0.9 cm. Conclusions The visceral fat thickness measured by ultrasonography is a useful and seems to be able to help estimate the risk of NAFLD.

  11. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj SHARIFI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has strong links with poverty, substantial medical and veterinary impacts. This review aimed to focus in studies published during 1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran.Methods: The present review is based on expert knowledge and historical studies published during the past 23 yr (1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran. In addition, related literature found in PubMed by using the keywords such as visceral leishmaniasis, kala-azar, and Leishmania infantum are included.Results: Overall, 118 children aged 4.2 yr were detected as infected with human VL (HVL. The majority of the cases were from Orzoieh district (37.1% in southwest of Kerman Province, followed by Sirjan (15.7%, Jiroft (14.8%, Kahnuj (9.3% and to lesser extent from other areas. The male to female ratio was 1.7. The three most frequent clinical features were represented by fever (100.0%, anemia (95.0% and splenomegaly (91.5%. Altogether, 42.0% of the VL cases developed secondary bacterial infections, the overall case-fatality rate was 3.4%, and majorities (88.0% of the VL patients were undernourished. Overall, 733 dogs and wild canines were examined by different techniques with various seroprevalence ranges.Conclusion: In southeastern Iran, VL is endemic in Orzoieh district in Kerman Province. While the dogs are implicated as the main domestic reservoir of VL, wide range of wild canines can serve as a secondary potential reservoir host.

  12. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  13. Neck circumference as an independent indicator of visceral obesity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Huang, Guolan; Xia, Fangzhen; Li, Qin; Han, Bing; Chen, Yi; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Wang, Ningjian; Lu, Yingli

    2018-04-17

    Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015. A total of 9366 participants aged 18-93 were identified for analysis. Anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and clinical characteristics were measured. The NC values were quartered according to sex. Spearman's correlation coefficient was employed to test the correlations between different variables. Linear regression and logistic regression were conducted to explore the relationship of NC with visceral adiposity indices and visceral obesity. Among the 9366 participants, 3938 (42.05%) were male and 5428 (57.95%) were female. NC had a positive correlation with the visceral adiposity indices, regardless of sex. In all quartiles of NC, in both men and women, as NC values increased, the values of all the fatness indices showed a tendency to increase (all P < 0.001). After full adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic factors, linear regression showed that NC was still associated with the fatness indices for visceral obesity (all P < 0.001). In addition, logistic analysis showed that a larger NC was associated with a higher risk of visceral obesity in both males (OR 32.34, 95% CI 24.02-43.53; P < 0.001) and females (OR 21.43, 95% CI 17.30-26.55; P < 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. NC can be a supplemental indicator for identifying visceral obesity in the general Chinese population.

  14. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1 is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods. Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3, the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results. Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion. Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity.

  15. Blockage of High-Affinity Choline Transporter Increases Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Chronic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature of irritable bowel syndrome. Cholinergic system involves in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) is of crucial importance in choline uptake system. However, involvement of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity remains unknown. The research aimed to study the CHT1 expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the role of CHT1 in visceral hypersensitivity. Methods Repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce visceral hypersensitivity in rats. Colorectal distension (CRD) was determined, and the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and threshold intensity data were recorded to measure the visceral sensitivity. After intraperitoneal injection of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), the specific inhibitor of CHT1, CRD data were also recorded. The CHT1 expression of DRGs was investigated by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Acetylcholine levels in the DRGs were detected by the assay kit. Results Repetitive WAS increased the AWR score of CRD at high distension pressure and decreased the mean threshold of rats. The CHT1 expression and acetylcholine concentration of DRG were significantly increased in WAS rats. After the administration of HC-3, the AWR score in WAS group was significantly increased at higher distension pressure while the threshold intensity was significantly reduced compared to the normal saline group. Acetylcholine concentration was significantly lower than the normal saline rats. Conclusion Our research firstly reports that CHT1 is overexpressed in noninflammatory visceral hypersensitivity, and blockage of CHT1 can enhance the visceral hypersensitivity. CHT1 may play an inhibitory role in visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:29849603

  16. Visceral fat accumulation is associated with colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Yon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC, and emerging data suggest that this association is mediated by visceral fat rather than total body fat. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the association between visceral fat area and the prevalence of CRC. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between visceral adiposity and prevalence of CRC, data of 497 women diagnosed with CRC and 318 apparently healthy women were analysed and data of well-balanced 191 pairs of women with CRC and healthy women matched based on propensity scores were additionally analysed. Diagnosis of CRC was confirmed by colonoscopy and histology. Metabolic parameters were assessed, along with body composition, using computed tomography. RESULTS: The median visceral fat area was significantly higher in the CRC group compared with the control group before and after matching. The prevalence of CRC increased significantly with increasing visceral fat tertiles after matching (p for trend <0.01. A multivariate analysis showed that mean visceral fat area of individuals in the 67th percentile or greater group was associated with an increased prevalence of CRC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.91 before matching and adjusted odds ratio: 2.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.38-6.33 compared with that of individuals in the 33th percentile or lower group. CONCLUSION: Thus, we conclude that visceral fat area is positively associated with the prevalence of CRC. Although we could not determine the causality, visceral adiposity may be associated with the risk of CRC. Further prospective studies are required to determine the benefits of controlling visceral obesity for reducing CRC risk.

  17. Effect of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Kim, Young-Woo; Park, Bum Joon; Ryu, Kum Hei; Choi, Il Ju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Hyun Boem

    2017-04-01

    Although abdominal visceral fat has been associated with erosive oesophagitis in cross-sectional studies, there are no data that describe its longitudinal effects. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis in patients who did not have erosive oesophagitis at baseline. This was a single-centre prospective study. A total of 1503 participants without erosive oesophagitis at baseline were followed up for 34 months and they underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography at both baseline and during follow-up. The longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis were evaluated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). New oesophagitis developed in 83 patients. Compared with the first quartile, the third (OR=3.96, 95% CI: 1.54-10.18) and the fourth (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.79-12.23) of baseline visceral fat quartiles, the third (OR=3.03, 95% CI: 1.14-8.04) and the fourth (OR=7.50, 95% CI: 2.92-19.25) follow-up visceral fat quartiles, and the fourth visceral fat change quartile (OR=2.76, 95% CI: 1.47-5.21) were associated with increased development of new erosive oesophagitis, and the P value for each trend was less than 0.001. New erosive oesophagitis was inversely related to the follow-up Helicobacter pylori status and it was associated positively with the presence of a hiatal hernia and smoking during follow-up, but it was not associated with reflux symptoms, the H. pylori status, presence of a hiatal hernia or smoking at baseline. Higher level of visceral fat at baseline and follow-up visceral fat, and greater changes in the visceral level were associated linearly with the development of new erosive oesophagitis in this longitudinal study.

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  19. Creating Customer Delight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jim

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes that college admissions officers interested in improving service should focus on creating customer delight rather than simply satisfaction, studying the system when things go wrong rather than placing blame, establishing employee well-being as the highest priority of the organization, providing necessary tools and training…

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  1. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  2. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  4. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  5. Creating Innovative Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops lessons about how and why the founders and ventures involved in knowledge intensive entrepreneurship (KIE) manage the process of venture creation. The meta-analysis of the 86 case studies is based upon as conceptual model (from a systemic literature review), linked to illustra...... of knowledge networks to create innovative opportunities....

  6. Create Your State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  7. Creating a Third Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author laments higher education's lack of concern towards the development of teaching in the public schools over the last half of the 20th century. Most of academe's work on the topic of teacher training has been done at the branches of state universities that needed to make money and create a niche. The author observes that…

  8. Results from the FDIRC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A., E-mail: roberts@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K.; Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Va’vra, J. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment, and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage with partial electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking with an angular resolution of ∼1.5 mrad, track position resolution of 5–6 mm, start time resolution of 70 ps, and a muon low-energy cutoff of ∼2 GeV provided by an iron range stack. The quartz focusing photon camera couples to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and is read out by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 MaPMTs providing 768 pixels. We used IRS2 waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that the new optics design works very well, including: (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) S/N ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which consists primarily of ambiguities in possible photon paths to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured}–TOP{sub expected} resolutions, and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds. We also describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance. - Highlights: • We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). • The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking. • We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that new optics design works very well. • We describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance.

  9. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  10. Prototype system of secure VOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Harumi; Yamaguchi, Tomohisa

    1997-12-01

    Secure digital contents delivery systems are to realize copyright protection and charging mechanism, and aim at secure delivery service of digital contents. Encrypted contents delivery and history (log) management are means to accomplish this purpose. Our final target is to realize a video-on-demand (VOD) system that can prevent illegal usage of video data and manage user history data to achieve a secure video delivery system on the Internet or Intranet. By now, mainly targeting client-server systems connected with enterprise LAN, we have implemented and evaluated a prototype system based on the investigation into the delivery method of encrypted video contents.

  11. CERN LHC dipole prototype success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In a crash programme, the first prototype superconducting dipole magnet for CERN's LHC protonproton collider was successfully powered for the first time at CERN on 14 April, eventually sailing to 9T, above the 8.65T nominal LHC field, before quenching for the third time. The next stage is to install the delicate measuring system for making comprehensive magnetic field maps in the 10 m long, 50 mm diameter twin-apertures of the magnet. These measurements will check that the required LHC field quality has been achieved at both the nominal and injection fields

  12. Prototype plutonium-storage monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.; Warner, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate scintillating fibers via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have an operational transmission length (e -1 length) of greater than 2 meters. This permits the fabrication of devices that, hitherto, were not possible to consider. A prototype neutron monitor for scrap Pu-storage containers was fabricated and tested for 70 days, taking data with a variety of sources in a high-background environment. These data and their implication in the context of a storage-monitor situation are discussed

  13. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  14. Rapid control prototyping - new technologies and tools; Rapid Control Prototyping - neue Moeglichkeiten und Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterbach, R.; Eckmann, M.; Mertens, F. [dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    The paper presents the status quo in rapid control prototyping (RCP) and discusses further developments of this technology. The complete functional chain, from sensors to data preprocessing and the real-time processor, right through to control of the actuators, is created as an integrated hardware and software solution. The greatest flexibility and configurability are achieved with a modular platform concept that includes signal conditioning and power stages. The architecture of modern microcontrollers and electronic control units (ECUs) result in new requirements in the field of bypassing. These are fulfilled by appropriate solutions based on on-chip debug interfaces and standardized data protocols on serial busses. RCP support for developing networked, time-triggered vehicle systems, and the particular requirements for the tool environment, are described using FlexRay as an example. (orig.)

  15. How Experiments in the Fuzzy Front End Using Prototyping Generates New Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2017-01-01

    be characterized as various forms of prototyping. Interestingly the prototyping and experiments took place in the very early phases of the innovation process, rather than later as often advised and interestingly experimentation in the cases here appears to be a vehicle for creating new options. Furthermore......, the analysis demonstrates that prototyping can be considered as a punctuation device, as it offers those involved the option of opting out of ongoing processes, routines and engage in playful behavior by allowing for a freer experimentation with materials, processes, methods to challenge existing knowledge...

  16. Volumen de grasa visceral como indicador de obesidad en hombres adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana I. García; Laura Niño-Silva; Katherine González-Ruiz; Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia del volumen de grasa visceral estimado por ecuación predictiva en un grupo de adultos de Bogotá, Colombia, además de evaluar la relación de la grasa visceral con factores de riesgo asociados a enfermedad cardiovascular. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal en 413 hombres voluntarios del sector educativo y automotriz de Bogotá, Colombia. El volumen de grasa visceral fue estimado por ecuación predictiva y los resultados fueron divididos por terciles d...

  17. Interventional radiology in the management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms: A review of techniques and embolic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Venkatesh, Hosur Ananthashayana; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Garg, Pramod; Srivastava, Deep Narayan [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2016-06-15

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms occur mostly as a result of inflammation and trauma. Owing to high risk of rupture, they require early treatment to prevent lethal complications. Knowledge of the various approaches of embolization of pseudoaneurysms and different embolic materials used in the management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms is essential for successful and safe embolization. We review and illustrate the endovascular, percutaneous and endoscopic ultrasound techniques used in the treatment of visceral artery pseudoaneurysm and briefly discuss the embolic materials and their benefits and risks.

  18. Clinical Study on the Visceral Differentiation-Based Acupuncture Therapy for Insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Li; JIANG Xin-mei; XUE Jin-wei; WANG Miao; KE Rui

    2008-01-01

    objective;To investigate the clinical effects of acupuncture for insomnia on the basis of visceral differentiation.Methods;Seventy cases of insomnia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group,The former was treated by acupuncture based on visceral differentiation and the latter by the routine acupuncture therapy.Results;The clinical effcts were significantly better in the treatment group than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion;The visceral difrerentiation-based acupuncture therapy may enhance the therapeutic effects for insomnia patients.

  19. INTRODUCTION OF INTERNET OF THING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON PROTOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sutera Genadiarto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of thing has been able to attract people compete to create various devices. Devices developed have various benefits, but the point is to make life easier. So many vendors create products related to the internet of things, so the user gets confused to determine which is good and appropriate for the needs. To simplify the user in choosing IoT product, this research will discuss about technology that is widely used in IoT, the advantages of each technology, in terms of security, operating system, microcontroller, IoT platform, tools and communication technology. This research makes prototype with one of existing technology. The results of this research provide knowledge, skills and experience in the field of IoT as well as information related to IoT technology, which is widely in the market. Furthermore, the prototype also has the expected functionalities, but it does not close the opportunity for further improvements. The results of this research provide knowledge, skills and experience in the field of IoT as well as information related to IoT technology, which is widely in the market. Furthermore, the prototype also has the expected functionalities, but it does not close the opportunity for further improvements.

  20. Low-friction nanojoint prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassov, Sergei; Oras, Sven; Antsov, Mikk; Butikova, Jelena; Lõhmus, Rünno; Polyakov, Boris

    2018-05-01

    High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an operational prototype of a low-friction nanojoint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from a gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in the formation of rounded bulbs on their ends. The nano-pin is then manipulated into the inverted pyramid (i-pyramids) specially etched in a Si wafer. Due to the small contact area, the nano-pin can be repeatedly tilted inside an i-pyramid as a rigid object without noticeable deformation. At the same time in the absence of external force the nanojoint is stable and preserves its position and tilt angle. Experiments are performed inside a scanning electron microscope and are supported by finite element method simulations.

  1. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  2. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  3. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  4. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  5. A case report of visceral leishmaniasis in red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... leishmaniasis has been described in dogs and other ... and anti vector measures have been largely unsuccessful. (Mohebali et al., 2005). Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases worldwide and.

  6. Acute large bowel pseudo-obstruction due to atrophic visceral myopathy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Wrenn

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Atrophic visceral neuropathy is a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. While often presenting with chronic obstruction in younger populations, we present a rare late-onset acute presentation that may have been secondary to underlying hypothyroidism.

  7. The association of visceral adiposity with cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Cronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD suffer from a high incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE. Visceral adiposity has been implicated in promoting CVEs. This study aimed to assess the association of relative visceral adipose volume with incident cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study including 260 patients with PAD who presented between 2003 and 2012. Cases were patients with diagnosed PAD including symptomatic lower limb athero-thrombosis and asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA. Abdominal visceral to total adipose volume ratio (relative visceral adipose volume was estimated from CTAs using a previously validated workstation protocol. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded at entry. The association of visceral adiposity with major CVEs (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke was examined using Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses. RESULTS: A total of 92 major CVEs were recorded in 76 patients during a median follow-up of 2.8 (IQR 1.2 to 4.8 years, including myocardial infarction (n = 26, stroke (n = 10 and death (n = 56. At 3 years the incidence of major CVEs stratified by relative visceral adipose volume quartiles were 15% [Quartile (Q 1], 17% (Q2, 11% (Q3 and 15% (Q4 (P = 0.517. Relative visceral adipose volume was not associated with major CVEs after adjustment for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that visceral adiposity does not play a central role in the predisposition for major CVEs in patients with PAD.

  8. Adrenergic β2-receptors mediates visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypic intermittent stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS. Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of β2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific β-adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by β2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by β1- or β3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective β2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of β-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA. Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by β2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of β2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the

  9. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Piezo2: A Candidate Biomarker for Visceral Hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Tao; Li, Ying; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Yudong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Huan; Qian, Wei; Song, Jun; Hou, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Currently, there exists no biomarker for visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Piezo proteins have been proven to play an important role in the mechanical stimulation to induce visceral pain in other tissues and may also be a biomarker candidate. The aim of this study was to test the expressions of Piezo1 and Piezo2 proteins in the intestinal epithelial cells from different intestinal segments and to explore the correlation between Piezo proteins express...

  11. [Multiple digestive involvement in visceral leishmaniasis in a patient with HIV infection: favourable course with itraconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchade, D; Seurat, L; Discamps, G; Tanière, P H; Du Bourguet, F

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in a 35 year-old patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who complained of chronic diarrhea. Biopsy specimens of gastric and duodenal mucosa and bone marrow aspirate led to the diagnosis. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, fortuitously found in the duodenal mucosa, did not seem to be the causative agent of diarrhea in this case, but its association with visceral leishmaniasis is rare. A treatment with itraconazole brought about a sustained clinical remission.

  12. Nanoliposomal artemisinin for the treatment of murine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Want MY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muzamil Y Want,1 Mohammad Islammudin,1 Garima Chouhan,1 Hani A Ozbak,2 Hassan A Hemeg,2 Asoke P Chattopadhyay,3 Farhat Afrin2 1Parasite Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a fatal, vector-borne disease caused by the intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Most of the therapeutics for VL are toxic, expensive, or ineffective. Sesquiterpenes are a new class of drugs with proven antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with potent antileishmanial activity, but with limited access to infected cells, being a highly lipophilic molecule. Association of artemisinin with liposome is a desirable strategy to circumvent the problem of poor accessibility, thereby improving its efficacy, as demonstrated in a murine model of experimental VL. Nanoliposomal artemisinin (NLA was prepared by thin-film hydration method and optimized using Box–Behnken design with a mean particle diameter of 83±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.2±0.03, zeta potential of -27.4±5.7 mV, and drug loading of 33.2%±2.1%. Morphological study of these nanoliposomes by microscopy showed a smooth and spherical surface. The mechanism of release of artemisinin from the liposomes followed the Higuchi model in vitro. NLA was free from concomitant signs of toxicity, both ex vivo in murine macrophages and in vivo in healthy BALB/c mice. NLA significantly denigrated the intracellular infection of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and the number of infected macrophages ex vivo with an IC50 of 6.0±1.4 µg/mL and 5.1±0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Following treatment in a murine model of VL, NLA demonstrated superior efficacy compared to artemisinin with a

  13. High visceral leishmaniasis mortality rate in Barra Mansa, a new area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nine cases of visceral leishmaniasis occurred recently in Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro, with a high mortality rate. Methods We reviewed the medical records of the patients. Results Eight were male; 7 were adults. Patients who died progressed to death quickly and presented with aggravating factors: systemic steroid therapy before diagnosis, bleeding, severe liver involvement, infection, and/or refusal to receive transfusion. Conclusions We warn clinicians to be aware of the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in new areas and to keep in mind the possibility of atypical clinical pictures and aggravating factors, so timely diagnosis can be made and prompt and adequate treatment can be initiated.

  14. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  15. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  16. Prototype international quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.; Chambless, D.A.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The international community presently lacks the ability to determine the quality and credibility of environmental measurements that is required to make sound decisions in matters related to international security, public health, and investment-related considerations. The ultimate goal of the work described in this article is to develop a credible information base including measurement capability for determination of environmental contamination and the potential for proliferation of material components of chemical or nuclear weapons. This study compared the accuracy obtained by six Russian and six U.S. laboratories for samples representative of classes of trace metals, dioxing-furans, and radioactive substances. The results obtained in this work indicate that current estimates for laboratory accuracy are likely overly optimistic. The weaknesses discovered by this prototype U.S. - Russia study also exist within the broader international community of laboratories. Further work is proposed to address the urgent need for the international community to improve performance evaluations for analytical measurements. (author)

  17. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, V.H.; Valdovinos, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NO x and SO 2 ) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  18. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  19. PEP-II prototype klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  20. Creating a practice website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-26

    A website is a window to the outside world. For a dental practice, it may be the first point of contact for a prospective new patient and will therefore provide them with their 'first impression'; this may be days or weeks before actually visiting the practice. This section considers the different ways of creating a dental practice website and lists some of the main dental website design companies. It also describes what factors make a successful website and offers advice on how to ensure that it complies with current regulations and recommendations.

  1. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  2. Test case preparation using a prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Treharne, Helen; Draper, J.; Schneider, Steve A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the preparation of test cases using a prototype within the context of a formal development. It describes an approach to building a prototype using an example. It discusses how a prototype contributes to the testing activity as part of a lifecycle based on the use of formal methods. The results of applying the approach to an embedded avionics case study are also presented.

  3. A prototype for JDEM science data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E

    2011-01-01

    Fermilab is developing a prototype science data processing and data quality monitoring system for dark energy science. The purpose of the prototype is to demonstrate distributed data processing capabilities for astrophysics applications, and to evaluate candidate technologies for trade-off studies. We present the architecture and technical aspects of the prototype, including an open source scientific execution and application development framework, distributed data processing, and publish/subscribe message passing for quality control.

  4. Rapid prototyping using CBCT: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovchev, D.; Deliverska, E.; Indjova, J.; Ugrinov, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case of fibrous dysplasia in the left lower jaw of a 12-year-old girl, scanned with CBCT. On the basis of CBCT scan a model of affected jaw was produced using a rapid-prototyping three-dimensional printer. The case demonstrates the possibility to get a prototype by CBCT data. Prototypes can be used to support the diagnosis, planning, training (students and postgraduates) and to obtain informed consent from the patient.

  5. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  6. Visceral adipose tissue macrophage-targeted TACE silencing to treat obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Seok-Beom; Song, Yoonsung; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent global health problem. Due to its close relations with metabolic diseases and cancer, new therapeutic approaches for treating obesity and obesity-induced metabolic diseases are required. Visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) has been closely associated with obesity-induced inflammation and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are responsible for obesity-induced inflammation by releasing inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6. TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) is a transmembrane enzyme that induces the enzymatic cleavage and release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we developed a nonviral gene delivery system consisting of an oligopeptide (ATS-9R) that can selectively target visceral ATMs. In here we shows visceral adipose tissue-dominant inflammatory gene over-expressions in obese mouse and our strategy enabled the preferential delivery of therapeutic genes to visceral ATMs and successfully achieved ATM-targeted gene silencing. Finally, ATS-9R-mediated TACE gene silencing in visceral ATMs alleviated visceral fat inflammation and improved type 2 diabetes by reducing whole body inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), develops due not only to a single cardiovascular risk factor but to a variety of complex factors. The concept of the multiple cardiometabolic risk factor clustering syndrome has been proposed as a highly atherogenic state, independent of hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Body fat distribution, especially visceral fat accumulation, is a major correlate of a cluster of diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities referred to as the metabolic syndrome, with dysfunctional adipocytes and dysregulated production of adipocytokines (hypoadiponectinemia). Medical research has focused on visceral adiposity as an important component of the syndrome in Japanese subjects with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects. For the prevention of ACVD at least in Japan, it might be practical to stratify subjects with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease based on visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat reduction through health promotion programs using risk factor-oriented approaches may be effective in reducing ACVD events, as well as producing improvement in risks and hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses visceral adiposity as a key player in the syndrome. Visceral fat reduction with life-style modification is a potentially useful strategy in the prevention of ACVD in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effect of Abdominal Visceral Fat Change on Regression of Erosive Esophagitis: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Kim, Young Woo; Park, Bum Joon; Ryu, Kum Hei; Kim, Hyun Boem

    2018-05-04

    Although abdominal visceral fat has been associated with erosive esophagitis in cross-sectional studies, there are few data on the longitudinal effect. We evaluated the effects of abdominal visceral fat change on the regression of erosive esophagitis in a prospective cohort study. A total of 163 participants with erosive esophagitis at baseline were followed up at 34 months and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography at both baseline and follow-up. The longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the regression of erosive esophagitis were evaluated using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Regression was observed in approximately 49% of participants (n=80). The 3rd (RR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.71) and 4th quartiles (RR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.38) of visceral fat at follow-up were associated with decreased regression of erosive esophagitis. The highest quartile of visceral fat change reduced the probability of the regression of erosive esophagitis compared to the lowest quartile (RR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.28). Each trend showed a dose-dependent pattern (p for trend fat at follow-up and a greater increase in visceral fat reduced the regression of erosive esophagitis in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  10. Cyclooxygenase inhibition improves endothelial vasomotor dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Melissa G.; Tiwari, Stephanie; Karki, Shakun; Ngo, Doan TM; Carmine, Brian; Hess, Donald T.; Zuriaga, Maria A.; Walsh, Kenneth; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Gokce, Noyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclooxygenase inhibition improves vascular dysfunction of adipose microvessels from obese humans. Design and Methods In 20 obese subjects (age 37±12 yrs, BMI 47±8 kg/m2) we collected subcutaneous and visceral fat during bariatric surgery and characterized adipose depot-specific gene expression, endothelial cell phenotype, and microvascular function. Vasomotor function was assessed in response to endothelium-dependent agonists using videomicroscopy of small arterioles from fat. Results Arterioles from visceral fat exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation, compared to the subcutaneous depot (p<0.001). Expression of mRNA transcripts relevant to the cyclooxygenase pathway were upregulated in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. Pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin improved endothelium-dependent vasodilator function of arterioles from visceral fat by 2-fold (p=0.01), whereas indomethacin had no effect in the subcutaneous depot. Indomethacin increased activation via serine-1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in response to acetylcholine in endothelial cells from visceral fat. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abrogated the effects of cyclooxygenase-inhibition suggesting that vascular actions of indomethacin were related to increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cyclooxygenase-mediated vasoconstrictor prostanoids partly contribute to endothelial dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity. PMID:23640904

  11. Creating corporate advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  12. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  13. Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency: Prototyping counterveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Gradecki; Derek Curry

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how an interactive artwork, the Crowd-Sourced Intelligence Agency (CSIA), can contribute to discussions of Big Data intelligence analytics. The CSIA is a publicly accessible Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) system that was constructed using information gathered from technical manuals, research reports, academic papers, leaked documents, and Freedom of Information Act files. Using a visceral heuristic, the CSIA demonstrates how the statistical correlations made by automate...

  14. Visceral leishmaniasis and peritoneal tuberculosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Leishman Denovani is an obligatory intracellular parasite that is seen such as Leishmanbody or Amustigote in intra reticolo-endothelial system. Leishmanenios is seen as sporadic-endemic or epidemic in many places in the world. In Iran in Fars state and west Azarbayjan is endemic and in other places are in sporadic form and is found in rural areas. "nCase report: A four year-old girl was admitted with visceral Leishmaniasis and Subsequently developed peritoneal tuberculosis. The patient who lived in Dashte- Moghan, complained of abdominal pain and distention and weight loss from 1.5 years ago. The titre of IFA test for leishmansis was 1/1280. Leishman body was seen in bone marrow aspiration specimen. Bone marrow culture for leishmania was negative. The specimen of acsities fluid revealed sero- fibrino- purulent exudate with lymphocyic dominancy (over 90%. No response to classic lishmanisis treatment had been started unless the patient treated with anti tuberculoid regimen.  "nConclusion: The function of the T-helper (Tht lymphocytes will decrease in Kala-azar disease. This is why there is no skin reaction to Manteaux (PPD diagnostic test the patient. The patient have been suffering from long-term malnutrition with its consequent immune defect. There was no evidences of cure in our patient during classic Kala-azar therapy. After she received anti tuberculosis therapy she revealed clinical improvement with Glucantim regimen as well.

  15. Clinical and hematological manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis in Yemeni children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Abdul Hamid

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In southeast Yemen, visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in Lahj and Abyan and also in Hagga and Sadah, the areas lacking adequate diagnostic facilities. This study describes the clinical and hematological features in 64 cases of childhood VL.Material and Methods: All children below 12 years of age who were managed as inpatient cases from 1 January to 31 December 2005 were included in this study. The diagnosis of VL was established by demonstration of leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspiration. Demographic information, physical signs at presentation and results of complete blood count were recorded and bone marrow aspirations were done for LD bodies. Results: Mean age of the patients was 30 months, and there were 33 females and 31 males. Fever was seen in 100% of children with duration before diagnosis of 56 days. Splenomegaly was present in all cases and hepatomegaly in 84.4%, with mean enlargement of spleen and liver of 9.3 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Mean hemoglobin level, white blood cell and platelet counts were 6.6 g/dl, 3.58x109 /L and 71.7x109 /L, respectively. Absolute neutrophil count was <0.78x109 /L and mean reticulocyte count was 1.7%.Conclusion: Fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia were the most common clinical and hematological manifestations in Yemeni children with VL.

  16. Control strategies and sensitivity analysis of anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a mathematical model of Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis epidemic with saturated infection rate and recommends different control strategies to manage the spread of this disease in the community. To do this, first, a model formulation is presented to support these strategies, with quantifications of transmission and intervention parameters. To understand the nature of the initial transmission of the disease, the reproduction number [Formula: see text] is obtained by using the next-generation method. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number [Formula: see text], four different control strategies are proposed for managing disease transmission. For quantification of the prevalence period of the disease, a numerical simulation for each strategy is performed and a detailed summary is presented. Disease-free state is obtained with the help of control strategies. The threshold condition for globally asymptotic stability of the disease-free state is found, and it is ascertained that the state is globally stable. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number, it is shown that the disease can be eradicated by using the proposed strategies.

  17. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D Critchley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body, to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviours, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain’s representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.

  18. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Exenatide with Metformin Ameliorated Visceral Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the effectiveness of exenatide with metformin and sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin and their influence on insulin sensitivity and adipose distribution. Methods. 20 newly diagnosed obese type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled, and 2-month washout treatment of metformin, 6-month exenatide treatment, and 6-month glargine treatment were administrated sequentially accompanied with previous metformin. Glucolipid metabolic parameters were compared among groups. Adipose distribution was quantified with computerized tomography according to anatomy, dividing into visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, adding up to total adipose tissue (TAT. Results. The 6-month exenatide treatment dramatically ameliorated the glucose and lipid profile, improved insulin sensitivity, and mainly decreased VAT and also the ratio of VAT/SAT (RVS. The following 6-month glargine treatment increased VAT. The whole 12-month sequential treatment with exenatide and glargine added to metformin basically improved the insulin sensitivity and glucolipid control though VAT rebounded at the end, however without deteriorating the other parameters. Conclusion. Exenatide is an ideal treatment for obese type 2 diabetic patients in the aspect of adipose tissue distribution. Sequential treatment of exenatide and glargine could be an alternative for low-income patients who cannot afford GLP-1 agonist for long time. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-OOC-17013679.

  20. Characterization of Leishmania isolates from Nepalese patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Yanagi, Testuo; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2007-05-01

    In Nepal, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in 13 districts of the central and eastern regions. A total of 166 bone-marrow aspirates were obtained from patients with suspected VL. Ninety-seven were identified as positive by microscopy, and 29 of those were successfully isolated and cultured. We characterized these isolates by molecular analysis and by their ability to infect mice. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the mini-exon and the cysteine proteinase b gene showed that all isolates were Leishmania donovani, and the restriction pattern of the Nepalese isolates corresponded to the standard Indian strain of L. donovani but differed from that of the Kenyan strain. The single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer showed no genetic heterogeneity within Nepalese isolates. Intraperitoneal inoculation with the promastigotes of all isolates resulted in amastigote proliferation in the spleen of 20 nude mice, of which ten isolates were highly infective, and ten were moderately infective, including one BALB/c mouse. Of the 20 amastigotes isolated from the spleen of nude mice, only the ten highly infective isolates infected BALB/c mice, of which, two isolates were considered to have low infectivity, three isolates were considered to be moderately infective, and five isolates were considered to be highly infective.

  1. Association between Blood Mercury Level and Visceral Adiposity in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFew studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations and indices of obesity in adults.MethodsA total of 200 healthy subjects, aged 30 to 64 years, who had no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease, were examined. Anthropometric and various biochemical profiles were measured. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA.ResultsAll subjects were divided into three groups according to blood mercury concentrations. Compared with the subjects in the lowest tertile of mercury, those in the highest tertile were more likely to be male; were current alcohol drinkers and smokers; had a higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and VAT; had higher levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance; and consumed more fish. The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with anthropometric parameters, showing relationships with BMI, WC, and VAT. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios (ORs for high mercury concentration was significantly higher in the highest VAT tertile than in the lowest VAT tertile (OR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 6.62; P<0.05.ConclusionThe blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with VAT in healthy adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  2. The subclinical form of experimental visceral leishmaniasis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. S. Oliveira

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological aspects of a subclinical form of experimental canine leishmaniasis is reported here for the first time. Fifteen mongrel dogs were used in the present study. Eight dogs were infected and seven were used as control. Four of the control dogs were inoculated with spleen cells from non-infected hamsters. The eight mongrel dogs inoculated intravenously with amastigotes forms of Leishmania chagasi envolved for periods as long as 25 months without any clinical characteristic sign of classical Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Most of the laboratory test results were compatible to those of the seven control animals but culture of bone marrow aspirated material and serologic testing (IIF demonstrated or provided evidence that the animals were infected. The most important and predominant histopathological lesion in infected animals were epitheloid granulomas presented in the liver, spleen, adrenal gland and lung of some animals. Channels containing erythrocytes in some granulomas of the liver suggeste that these granulomas are formed inside sinusoidal capillaries. Despite the animals were proved to be infected and presented characteristic histologic lesions, they did not present external signs of disease. The granulomatous aspect of the lesions indicates a good immunologic reactivity and suggest that a host-parasite equilibrium does exist in the dog experimental model

  3. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  4. The PPARγ coding region and its role in visceral obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon Yin, Khoo; Najimudin, Nazalan; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand activated transcription factor, plays many essential roles of biological function in higher organisms. The PPARγ is mainly expressed in adipose tissue. It regulates the transcriptional activity of genes by binding with other transcription factor. The PPARγ coding region has been found to be closest to that of monkey in ours and other research groups. Thus, monkey is a more suitable animal model for future PPARγ studying, although mice and rat are frequently being used. The PPARγ is involved in regulating alterations of adipose tissue masses result from changes in mature adipocyte size and/or number through a complex interplay process called adipogenesis. However, the role of PPARγ in negatively regulating the process of adipogenesis remains unclear. This review may help we investigate the differential expression of key transcription factor in adipose tissue in response to visceral obesity-induced diet in vivo. The study may also provide valuable information to define a more appropriate physiological condition in adipogenesis which may help to prevent diseases cause by negative regulation of the transcription factors in adipose tissue

  5. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calogero Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.

  6. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  7. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Oh, Dae Kun; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  8. Citometria de fluxo no diagnóstico da leishmaniose visceral canina Flow cytometry used in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Carvalho Neta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a padronização de nova metodologia para detecção de anticorpos antiformas promastigotas fixadas de L. (L. chagasi, por citometria de fluxo (AAPF-IgG, sua aplicabilidade e desempenho na identificação de casos de leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC. Foram avaliados dois grupos de cães classificados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, como: não reatores (NR, n=10 e reatores (R, n=50 dos quais foram coletadas amostras de sangue (soro para realização dos testes laboratoriais. Os resultados relacionados ao estabelecimento, aplicabilidade e desempenho da metodologia AAPF-IgG demonstraram que essa metodologia possibilita a identificação de uma região de reatividade diferencial entre cães NR e R, no soro diluído a 1:2048 e o valor de 20% de parasitos fluorescentes positivos (PPFP como ponto de corte entre resultados positivos e negativos, mostrando que a AAPF-IgG aplica-se na identificação de casos de LVC, possibilitando distinguir 96% de cães R como positivos e 100% de cães NR como negativos. Esses resultados em conjunto sugerem que a utilização da AAPF-IgG pode ser um novo instrumento para ensaios clínicos de diagnóstico sorológico da LVC.The current study evaluated the standardization of a new methodology for detection of anti-fixed L. (L. chagasi promastigote antibodies by flow cytometry (AAPF-IgG, as well its applicability and performance in the identification of cases of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL. Two groups of dogs were classified by RIFI (gold standard as no reactors (NR, n=10 and reactors (R, n=50. Blood samples were collected and used for the laboratorial tests (RIFI and AAPF-IgG. The results showed that the new AAPF-IgG assay makes possible the identification of an area of differential reactivity between dogs NR and R at the dilution of 1:2048 and 20% of percentage of positive fluorescent parasite as the cut point among positive and negative results. The AAPF-IgG assay was able to

  9. Creating With Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.

  10. Creating the living brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  11. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  12. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  13. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes. In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. Results In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593. The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change

  14. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xu; Yan, Ni; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Ying

    2012-06-09

    Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes.In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK), which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593). The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change the nociceptive response (visceral pain

  15. Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis Is Associated With Visceral Hypersensitivity in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botschuijver, Sara; Roeselers, Guus; Levin, Evgeni; Jonkers, Daisy M; Welting, Olaf; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; de Weerd, Heleen H; Boekhout, Teun; Fornai, Matteo; Masclee, Ad A; Schuren, Frank H J; de Jonge, Wouter J; Seppen, Jurgen; van den Wijngaard, René M

    2017-10-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in the activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in the development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity). We also compared the mycobiomes of Long-Evans rats separated from their mothers (hypersensitive) with non-handled (normally sensitive) rats. We investigated whether fungi can cause visceral hypersensitivity using rats exposed to fungicide (fluconazole and nystatin). The functional relevance of the gut mycobiome was confirmed in fecal transplantation experiments: adult maternally separated rats were subjected to water avoidance stress (to induce visceral hypersensitivity), then given fungicide and donor cecum content via oral gavage. Other rats subjected to water avoidance stress were given soluble β-glucans, which antagonize C-type lectin domain family 7 member A (CLEC7A or DECTIN1) signaling via spleen-associated tyrosine kinase (SYK), a SYK inhibitor to reduce visceral hypersensitivity, or vehicle (control). The sensitivity of mast cells to fungi was tested with mesenteric windows (ex vivo) and the human mast cell line HMC-1. α diversity (Shannon index) and mycobiome signature (stability selection) of both groups of IBS patients differed from healthy volunteers, and the mycobiome signature of hypersensitive patients differed from that of normally sensitive patients. We observed mycobiome dysbiosis in rats that had been separated from their mothers compared with non-handled rats. Administration of fungicide to hypersensitive rats reduced their visceral hypersensitivity to normal

  16. Developing and Evaluating Prototype of Waste Volume Monitoring Using Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathhan Arief, Mohamad; Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2017-06-01

    In Indonesia, especially Jakarta have a lot of garbage strewn that can be an eyesore and also cause pollution that can carry diseases. Garbage strewn can cause many things, one of her dues is bins are overflowing due to the full so it can not accommodate the waste dumped from other people. Thus, the author created a new method for waste disposal more systematic. In creating new method requires a technology to supports, then the author makes a prototype for waste volume monitoring. By using the internet of things prototype of waste volume monitoring may give notification to the sanitary agency that waste in the trash bin needs to be disposal. In this study, conducted the design and manufactured of prototype waste volume monitoring using LinkItONE board based by Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor for appliance senses. Once the prototype is completed, evaluation in order to determine whether the prototype will function properly. The result showed that the expected function of a prototype waste volume monitoring can work well.

  17. Enhancing experience prototyping by the help of mixed-fidelity prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque

    2007-01-01

    In this research review I undertook the problem related to the usage of a new concept known as the Mixed- Fidelity Prototype which is a mixture of its predecessors Low- and High- Fidelity Prototypes in Experience Prototyping. Experience Prototyping is a good way to explore, communicate and interact with the designs we develop like experiencing cycling on the ice, although the mood, snow conditions, bicycle type and many other factors really matter and tend to change with time. Experience Prot...

  18. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  19. Prototyping SOS meta-theory in Maude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Reniers, M.A.; Mosses, P.D.; Ulidowski, I.

    2006-01-01

    We present a prototype implementation of SOS meta-theory in the Maude term rewriting language. The prototype defines the basic concepts of SOS meta-theory (e.g., transition formulae, deduction rules and transition system specifications) in Maude. Besides the basic definitions, we implement methods

  20. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  1. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  2. Pregabalin Suppresses Spinal Neuronal Hyperexcitability and Visceral Hypersensitivity in the Absence of Peripheral Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Sikandar, Shafaq; Bauer, Claudia S.; Dolphin, Annette C.; Porreca, Frank; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Opioid induced hyperalgesia is recognised in the laboratory and the clinic, generating central hyperexcitability in the absence of peripheral pathology. We investigated pregabalin, indicated for neuropathic pain, and ondansetron, a drug that disrupts descending serotonergic processing in the central nervous system, on spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of opioid induced hyperalgesia. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were implanted with morphine (90μg · μl−1 · hr−1) or saline (0.9% w/v) filled osmotic mini-pumps. On days 7-10 in isoflurane anaesthetized animals we evaluated the effects of (a) systemic pregabalin on spinal neuronal and visceromotor responses and (b) spinal ondansetron on dorsal horn neuronal responses. The messenger RNA levels of α2δ-1, 5HT3A and mu-opioid receptor in the dorsal root ganglia of all animals were analysed. Results In morphine-treated animals the evoked spinal neuronal responses were enhanced to a sub-set of thermal and mechanical stimuli. This activity was attenuated by pregabalin (by at least 71%) and ondansetron (37%), and the visceromotor response to a sub-set of colorectal distension pressures was attenuated by pregabalin (52.8%) (n = 8 for all measures, P < 0.05). Messenger RNA levels were unchanged. Conclusions The inhibitory action of pregabalin in opioid induced hyperalgesia animals is not neuropathy-dependent nor reliant on up-regulation of the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium channels, mechanisms proposed essential for pregabalin’s efficacy in neuropathy. In opioid induced hyperalgesia, which extends to colonic distension, a serotonergic facilitatory system may be upregulated creating an environment that’s permissive for pregabalin-mediated analgesia without peripheral pathology. PMID:21602662

  3. Prototype of generic server for wind power plants using IEC 61400-25 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Andreas K.; Ösdil, B.; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    from interfaces for control and monitoring to a standardized and secure way of handling communication. An analysis focusing on isolating the necessary requirements has been carried out based on the IEC61400-25 in order to create a generic prototype which can be used by WPP vendors. The main...... communications interface of the prototype utilizes web services and the prototype developed is comprised of several independent modules to allow for the possibility of choosing a fully customizable setup by the end user. Configuration of the system needs to be done in a simple way, ensuring a flexible...... and reusable system, where different choices for the system can be added or left out depending on user specifications. From the requirements a prototype with the purpose of examining the key aspects of these definitions has been elaborated....

  4. Identification of cardiometabolic risk: visceral adiposity index versus triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Maciel, Pablo M; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-02-01

    The plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) can identify cardiometabolic risk and cardiovascular disease. The visceral adiposity index is a sex-specific index, in which measurements of body mass index and waist circumference are combined with TG and HDL-C concentrations. The current analysis was initiated to see if the visceral adiposity index would improve the ability of the TG/HDL-C to identify increased cardiometabolic risk and outcome. Cardiometabolic data were obtained in 2003 from 926 apparently healthy individuals, 796 of whom were evaluated in 2012 for evidence of incident cardiovascular disease. The relationship between TG/HDL-C and values for visceral adiposity index was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The relative risks for first cardiovascular event between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C sex-specific cut points, and in the top quartile of visceral adiposity index versus the remaining 3 quartiles, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. TG/HDL-C concentration and visceral adiposity index were highly correlated (r = 0.99) in both men and women. Although more men (133 vs121) and women (73 vs 59) were identified as being at "high risk" by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio, the individual cardiometabolic risk factors were essentially identical with either index used. However, the hazard ratio of developing cardiovascular disease was significantly increased in individuals with an elevated TG/HDL-C, whereas it was not the case when the visceral adiposity index was used to define "high risk." The visceral adiposity index does not identify individuals with an adverse cardiometabolic profile any better than the TG/HDL-C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourdrain, Alex; Lafitte, Sophie; Iquille, Jules; De Dominicis, Florence; Havet, Eric; Peltier, Johann; Bagan, Patrick; Berna, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Although peribronchial lymphatic drainage of the lung has been well characterized, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura is less well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura. Adult, European cadavers were examined. Cadavers with a history of pleural or pulmonary disease were excluded. The cadavers had been refrigerated but not embalmed. The lungs were surgically removed and re-warmed. Blue dye was injected into the subpleural area and into the first draining visceral pleural lymphatic vessel of each lung segment. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males and 14 females; mean age 80.9 years) were dissected an average of 9.8 day postmortem. A total of 380 dye injections (in 95 lobes) were performed. Lymphatic drainage of the visceral pleura followed a segmental pathway in 44.2% of the injections (n = 168) and an intersegmental pathway in 55.8% (n = 212). Drainage was found to be both intersegmental and interlobar in 2.6% of the injections (n = 10). Lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura followed an intersegmental pathway in 22.8% (n = 13) of right upper lobe injections, 57.9% (n = 22) of right middle lobe injections, 83.3% (n = 75) of right lower lobe injections, 21% (n = 21) of left upper lobe injections, and 85.3% (n = 81) of left lower lobe injections. In the lung, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura appears to be more intersegmental than the peribronchial pathway is-especially in the lower lobes. The involvement of intersegmental lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura should now be evaluated during pulmonary resections (and especially sub-lobar resections) for lung cancer.

  6. Dissipative Prototyping Methods: A Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, P.

    Taking a designer's unique perspective using examples of practice in experimental installation and digital protoyping, this manifesto acts as provocation for change and unlocking new potential by encouraging changes of perspective about the material realm. Diffusive form-language is proposed as a paradigm for architectural design. This method of design is applied through 3D printing and related digital fabrication methods, offering new qualities that can be implemented in design of realms including present earth and future interplanetary environments. A paradigm shift is encouraged by questioning conventional notions of geometry that minimize interfaces and by proposing the alternatives of maximized interfaces formed by effusive kinds of formal composition. A series of projects from the Canadian research studio of the Hylozoic Architecture group are described, providing examples of component design methods employing diffusive forms within combinations of tension-integrity structural systems integrated with hybrid metabolisms employing synthetic biology. Cultural implications are also discussed, drawing from architectural theory and natural philosophy. The conclusion of this paper suggests that the practice of diffusive prototyping can offer formative strategies contributing to design of future living systems.

  7. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  8. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  9. Virtual Video Prototyping of Pervasive Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Madsen, Kim Halskov

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  10. Virtual Video Prototyping for Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  11. High confidence in falsely recognizing prototypical faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.

  12. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-01

    A new e + e - linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  13. Performance test for prototype game for children with adhd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahana, R.; Gaol, F. L.; Wiguna, T.; Hendric, S. W. H. L.; Soewito, B.; Nugroho, E.; Dirgantoro, B. P.; Abdurachman, E.

    2018-03-01

    The gaming industry has become one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In recent years there have been several studies that have used games, especially computer-based ones to improve the executive function of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) especially in working memory improvements. There are still several obstacles in using computer-based games that have been circulating today in Indonesia. The aim of this research is to develop and create a prototype game that can be used to improve working memory of children with ADHD using Bahasa Indonesia. The prototype game application is a race game with matching colors and memory work tasks; developed using Construct2. Players will play as a driver, delivering certain fruits to specific homes with different colors. The game also included visuospatial tasks such as remembering the objects. For performance test, CPU utilization, average FPS and image memory usage has been tested in several browsers. In conclusion, the performance tests results show that the first type of the prototype game is good enough to be played in desktop or laptop.

  14. Magnetic field map for a large TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Christian

    2008-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy of up to 1000 GeV is currently being planned: the International Linear Collider (ILC). It will allow high precision measurements of the Higgs boson and physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) -which is one of the proposed detector concepts for the ILC- a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is intended as the main tracking device. Within the EUDET project a large TPC prototype is currently being built as an infrastructure to test different gas amplification and readout technologies. The prototype will be operated in a 1T superconducting solenoid magnet -the PCMAG- at the DESY testbeam area. In order to reach the best possible track reconstruction the magnetic field has to be known very precisely throughout the TPC volume. The magnetic field of PCMAG has been measured in July 2007. In this work the creation of a high precision field map from the measurements is presented. The magnet and modelling techniques for its magnetic field are described. A model of the magnet has been created as a best fit from the measurements and its limitations are investigated. The field map will be included in the reconstruction software for the TPC prototype. (orig.)

  15. Design for effective development and prototyping of the HL-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, David M.; Floreck, Paul A.; McMorris, John A.; Elvin, John D.

    1993-10-01

    A feasibility study of the HL-20 personnel launch system (PLS) concept was conducted by a team which focused on creating a PLS design approach and an accelerated development plan consistent with the historical 'Skunk Works' approach to rapid prototyping. Technical design, manufacturing, system testing, and operations and support elements of the predefined baseline concept were evaluated. An initial phase program, featuring a concurrent system test during design and development, leading to the orbital flight of an unmanned HL-20 prototype on a Titan III launch system, was prescribed. A second-phase development and manufacturing plan leading to system operational status was also formulated. Baseline design feature modifications were made when necessary, without compromise to performance, to satisfy the prototype development plan. Technical design details and off-the-shelf hardware candidates were also identified for several subsystems, including the launch-system interface adapter/emergency escape system. The technical feasibility of the system and applicability of the Skunk Works approach to development of the HL-20/PLS were verified.

  16. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2014-01-01

    are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....

  17. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....

  18. Mild Social Stress in Mice Produces Opioid-Mediated Analgesia in Visceral but Not Somatic Pain States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Mark H; Gonzalez-Cano, Rafael; Vincent, Kathleen; Lehmann, Michael; Cobos, Enrique J; Coderre, Terence J; Baeyens, José M; Cervero, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Visceral pain has a greater emotional component than somatic pain. To determine if the stress-induced analgesic response is differentially expressed in visceral versus somatic pain states, we studied the effects of a mild social stressor in either acute visceral or somatic pain states in mice. We show that the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific mouse (stranger) in an adjacent cubicle of a standard transparent observation box produced elevated plasma corticosterone levels compared with mice tested alone, suggesting that the mere presence of a stranger is stressful. We then observed noxious visceral or somatic stimulation-induced nociceptive behavior in mice tested alone or in mildly stressful conditions (ie, beside an unfamiliar stranger). Compared with mice tested alone, the presence of a stranger produced a dramatic opioid-dependent reduction in pain behavior associated with visceral but not somatic pain. This social stress-induced reduction of visceral pain behavior relied on visual but not auditory/olfactory cues. These findings suggest that visceral pain states may provoke heightened responsiveness to mild stressors, an effect that could interfere with testing outcomes during simultaneous behavioral testing of multiple rodents. In mice, mild social stress due to the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific mouse reduces pain behavior associated with noxious visceral but not somatic stimulation, suggesting that stress responsiveness may be enhanced in visceral pain versus somatic pain states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Creating an outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerge, J B

    2000-01-01

    Four constructs used to build a framework for outcomes management for a large midwestern tertiary hospital are described in this article. A system framework outlining a model of clinical integration and population management based in Steven Shortell's work is discussed. This framework includes key definitions of high-risk patients, target groups, populations and community. Roles for each level of population management and how they were implemented in the health care system are described. A point of service framework centered on seven dimensions of care is the next construct applied on each nursing unit. The third construct outlines the framework for role development. Three roles for nursing were created to implement strategies for target groups that are strategic disease categories; two of those roles are described in depth. The philosophy of nursing practice is centered on caring and existential advocacy. The final construct is the modification of the Dartmouth model as a common framework for outcomes. System applications of the scorecard and lessons learned in the 2-year process of implementation are shared

  20. Creating a disability mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S E

    1992-01-01

    People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.

  1. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachfouti, Nabil; Najdi, Adil; Alonso, Sergi; Sicuri, Elisa; Laamrani El Idrissi, Abderahmane; Nejjari, Chakib; Picado, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco.

  2. Convergence of cranial visceral afferents within the solitary tract nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart J; Peters, James H; Andresen, Michael C

    2009-10-14

    Primary afferent axons within the solitary tract (ST) relay homeostatic information via glutamatergic synapses directly to second-order neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). These primary afferents arise from multiple organ systems and relay multiple sensory modalities. How this compact network organizes the flow of primary afferent information will shape central homeostatic control. To assess afferent convergence and divergence, we recorded ST-evoked synaptic responses in pairs of medial NTS neurons in horizontal brainstem slices. ST shocks activated EPSCs along monosynaptic or polysynaptic pathways. Gradations in shock intensity discriminated multiple inputs and stimulus recruitment profiles indicated that each EPSC was unitary. In 24 pairs, 75% were second-order neurons with 64% receiving one direct ST input with the remainder receiving additional convergent ST afferent inputs (22% two; 14% three monosynaptic ST-EPSCs). Some (34%) second-order neurons received polysynaptic EPSCs. Neurons receiving only higher-order inputs were uncommon (13%). Most ST-EPSCs were completely independent, but 4 EPSCs of a total of 81 had equal thresholds, highly correlated latencies, and synchronized synaptic failures consistent with divergence from a single source ST axon or from a common interneuron producing a pair of polysynaptic EPSCs. We conclude that ST afferent inputs are remarkably independent with little evidence of substantial shared information. Individual cells receive highly focused information from the viscera. Thus, afferent excitation of second-order NTS neurons is generally dominated by single visceral afferents and therefore focused on a single afferent modality and/or organ region.

  3. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  4. Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Tachfouti

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients.From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient.We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$ than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$. However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco.

  5. Risk factors for death in children with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Jaqueline Alves de Queiroz Sampaio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the major public health importance of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Latin America, well-designed studies to inform diagnosis, treatment and control interventions are scarce. Few observational studies address prognostic assessment in patients with VL. This study aimed to identify risk factors for death in children aged less than 15 years admitted for VL treatment in a referral center in northeast Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a retrospective cohort, we reviewed 546 records of patients younger than 15 years admitted with the diagnosis of VL at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira between May 1996 and June 2006. Age ranged from 4 months to 13.7 years, and 275 (50% were male. There were 57 deaths, with a case-fatality rate of 10%. In multivariate logistic regression, the independent predictors of risk of dying from VL were (adjusted OR, 95% CI: mucosal bleeding (4.1, 1.3-13.4, jaundice (4.4, 1.7-11.2, dyspnea (2.8, 1.2-6.1, suspected or confirmed bacterial infections (2.7, 1.2-6.1, neutrophil count <500/mm³ (3.1, 1.4-6.9 and platelet count <50,000/mm³ (11.7, 5.4-25.1. A prognostic score was proposed and had satisfactory sensitivity (88.7% and specificity (78.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prognostic and severity markers can be useful to inform clinical decisions such as whether a child with VL can be safely treated in the local healthcare facility or would potentially benefit from transfer to referral centers where advanced life support facilities are available. High risk patients may benefit from interventions such as early use of extended-spectrum antibiotics or transfusion of blood products. These baseline risk-based supportive interventions should be assessed in clinical trials.

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis as a possible reason for pancytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira-Lee eKoster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the protozoa Leishmania and frequently found in South-Western Asia, Eastern Africa, Brazil and Mediterranean countries. Leishmania are transmitted to humans by the bite of sandflies. After weeks to months, unspecific symptoms may occur, accompanied by more specific findings like pancytopenia and organomegaly. We report two children with pancytopenia and hepato-/splenomegaly: A 1-year-old boy first diagnosed with an Adenovirus-infection, accompanied by fever, pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly who had spent his summer vacation in Spain and a 3-year-old boy of Macedonian origin who was first diagnosed with a Parvovirus B19-infection again accompanied by splenomegaly and pancytopenia. In both children leukemia was excluded by an initial bone marrow puncture. As fever was still persistent weeks after the childrens’ first hospital stay, both children received antibiotics empirically without sustainable effect. While different autoantibodies were present in both children, an immunosuppressive therapy was initiated in the younger boy without therapeutic success. A second bone marrow puncture was performed and Leishmania were finally detected morphologically and proven serologically. After weight-adjusted treatment with liposomal Amphotericin B for 10 days, both children recovered completely without relapse.Aim of this report is to broaden the spectrum of differential diagnoses in children with pancytopenia, splenomegaly and fever to visceral leishmaniasis particularly when travel history is positive for the Mediterranean area. The infection may mimic more common diseases such as leukemia, viral infections or autoimmune diseases because polyclonal B cell activation and other mechanisms may lead to multiple positive serologic tests. Both cases illustrate typical pitfalls and shall encourage to taking Leishmaniasis into diagnostic consideration.

  7. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Faleiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of

  8. Polarized M2 macrophages in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Montassier, Hélio José; André, Marcos Rogério; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the skin (nasal surface and ear regions), lymph nodes (popliteal and pre-scapular), spleen and liver of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in order to investigate the relationship between the parasite load measured as DNA copy number of Alpha gene of DNA polymerase of Leishmania infantum by quantitative PCR and the number of M2 macrophages by immunohistochemistry. A set of 29 naturally infected dogs from an endemic area for VL were sampled and another set of six dogs negative for VL and from a non-endemic area were analyzed as the control group (C). The spleen presented the highest number of Leishmania DNA copies, with significant differences between the groups G1 and G2 (with and without skin lesions, respectively). The M2 phenotype immunostaining predominated among the macrophages in granulomas and inflammatory infiltrates of samples from the skin, lymph nodes and spleens examined. The presence of M2 macrophages in dogs from infected group differed significantly from the control group, in all organs analyzed, excepted liver. The highest proportion of M2 macrophages coincided with the highest parasitism loads found in more susceptible organs of VL dogs, even in the skin, considered a more resistant organ, while the liver showed low parasitism load and low immunostaining for M2 macrophages with no significant differences between infected and negative groups. It was concluded that the predominance of M2 phenotype in VL dogs favored the multiplication of Leishmania infantum in organs of dogs that are more susceptible to Leishmania infection, as skin, lymph nodes and spleen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: modelling epidemiology and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Stauch

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL. In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies.Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project. The transmission dynamic of Leishmania donovani is rather slow, mainly due to its long incubation period and the potentially long persistence of parasites in infected humans. Cellular immunity as measured by the Leishmanin skin test (LST lasts on average for roughly one year, and re-infection occurs in intervals of about two years, with variation not specified. The model suggests that transmission of L. donovani is predominantly maintained by asymptomatically infected hosts. Only patients with symptomatic disease were eligible for treatment; thus, in contrast to vector control, the treatment of cases had almost no effect on the overall intensity of transmission.Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. In contrast, vector control or exposure prophylaxis has the potential to efficiently reduce transmission of parasites. Based on these findings, control of VL should pay more attention to vector-related interventions. Cases of PKDL may appear after years and may initiate a new outbreak of disease; interventions should therefore be long enough, combined with an active case detection and include effective treatment.

  10. Segregation analysis of abdominal visceral fat: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T; Després, J P; Pérusse, L; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1997-09-01

    A major gene hypothesis for abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level, both before and after adjustment for total body fat mass, was investigated in 86 white families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. In this study, sedentary families were tested for a battery of measures (baseline), endurance exercise trained for 20 weeks, and then remeasured again. The baseline measures reported here are unique in that the variance due to a potentially important environmental factor (activity level) was limited. AVF area was assessed at L4 to L5 by the use of computerized tomography scan, and total body fat mass was assessed with underwater weighing. For fat mass, a putative locus accounted for 64% of the variance, but there was no evidence of a multifactorial component (i.e., no polygenic and/or common familial environmental effects). For AVF area, both a major gene effect accounting for 54% of the variance and a multifactorial component accounting for 17% of the variance were significant. However, after AVF area was adjusted for the effects of total level of body fat, the support for a major gene was reduced. In particular, there was a major effect for fat mass-adjusted AVF area, but it was not transmitted from parents to offspring (i.e., the three transmission probabilities were equal). The importance of this study is twofold. First, these results confirm a previous study that suggested that there is a putative major locus for AVF and for total body fat mass. Second, the findings from the HERITAGE Family Study suggest that the factors underlying AVF area in sedentary families may be similar to those in the population at large, which includes both sedentary and active families. Whether the gene(s) responsible for the high levels of AVF area is the same as that which influences total body fat content remains to be further investigated.

  11. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Portable Training Tool for Simulating Visceral Angiographic Procedures for Beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Osuga, Keigo; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Miura, Hiroshi; Terayama, Koshi; Anai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masahide; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a tool that we developed to simulate performance of visceral angiography to train beginners in the field of splanchnic angiography. Seven residents and two fellows who were rotating within the Division of Interventional Radiology at our institution between June and August 2008 participated in the evaluation of this tool. They had no experience in performing visceral angiography as an operator. Time for selection of arterial branches arising from the celiac axis on the model was measured before and after training. After such training, the participants performed actual visceral angiography as an operator with instructors beside them. Success of the trainees in selecting visceral arterial branches was evaluated in these real-life cases. In the first test using the model, seven of nine trainees (77.8%) succeeded in selecting all required arteries, while the remaining two failed to select all required arteries. After training using the model, all trainees succeeded in selecting all required arteries just before the actual angiographic study. In the actual angiography, the catheter was successfully inserted from the femoral artery and advanced to the superior mesenteric, celiac, splenic, common hepatic, gastroduodenal, and right and left hepatic arteries by all trainees with only two exceptions. In conclusion, this tool is helpful for training beginners in visceral angiographic procedures.

  13. Visceral subpleural hematoma of the left diaphragmatic surface following left upper division segmentectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Mizukami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary visceral subpleural hematoma is rare. We report visceral subpleural hematoma of the left diaphragmatic surface following left upper division segmentectomy. This very rare case was difficult to distinguish from thoracic abscess. Case presentation A 68-year-old man with hypertension had undergone video-assisted thoracoscopic left upper division segmentectomy for suspected lung carcinoma. Deep vein thrombosis of the lower leg was identified and edoxaban, a so-called novel oral anticoagulant, was started on postoperative day 7. The chest drainage tube was removed on postoperative day 12 because of persistent air leakage, but fever appeared the same day. Computed tomography revealed a cavity with mixed air and fluid, so antibiotics were started on suspicion of abscess. Computed tomography-guided drainage was attempted, but proved unsuccessful. Fever continued and surgical investigation was therefore performed. Visceral subpleural hematoma was identified under the diaphragmatic surface of the left basal lung. We excised the pleura, then performed drainage and applied running sutures. The parenchyma and visceral pleura were covered with polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue. Edoxaban was restarted on postoperative day 12 of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and no recurrence of hematoma has been revealed. Conclusions Visceral subpleural hematoma after thoracic surgery is extremely rare. Furthermore, correct diagnosis was difficult and surgery offered a good diagnostic and therapeutic procedure.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying the Analgesic Effect of Moxibustion on Visceral Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjia Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder that causes recurrent abdominal (visceral pain. Epidemiological data show that the incidence rate of IBS is as high as 25%. Most of the medications may lead to tolerance, addiction and toxic side effects. Moxibustion is an important component of traditional Chinese medicine and has been used to treat IBS-like abdominal pain for several thousand years in China. As a mild treatment, moxibustion has been widely applied in clinical treatment of visceral pain in IBS. In recent years, it has played an irreplaceable role in alternative medicine. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated that moxibustion for treatment of visceral pain is simple, convenient, and inexpensive, and it is being accepted by an increasing number of patients. There have not been many studies investigating the analgesic mechanisms of moxibustion. Studies exploring the analgesic mechanisms have mainly focused on visceral hypersensitivity, brain-gut axis neuroendocrine system, and immune system. This paper reviews the latest developments in moxibustion use for treatment of visceral pain in IBS from these perspectives. It also evaluates potential problems in relevant studies on the mechanisms of moxibustion therapy to promote the application of moxibustion in the treatment of IBS.

  15. Relation between visceral fat and carotid intimal media thickness in Mexican postmenopausal women: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Azpilcueta, Yessica Mireya Moreno; Ortiz, Sergio Rosales

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between visceral fat and carotid IMT (intima media thickness) in Mexican postmenopausal women. In 71 postmenopausal women divided in two groups: group 1, IMT > 1 mm and group 2, IMT ≤ 1 mm, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), visceral and subcutaneous fats and carotid IMT were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and the comparison among those with abnormal and normal IMT was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test; also Spearman's correlation analysis was done. When comparing group 1 (n = 9, 12.7%) with group 2 (n = 62, 87.3%), it was found that the subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and systolic blood pressure were significantly greater in group 1 (p < 0.018, p < 0.001 and p < 0.006, respectively), and also in this group there was a correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (ρ = 0.686, p < 0.041) and between visceral fat and the systolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.712, p < 0.031). In group 2, there was a correlation between IMT and diastolic blood pressure (ρ = 0.251, p < 0.049). Subcutaneous and visceral fat have an unfavorable effect in the carotid IMT and in blood pressure.

  16. Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Visceral Pain: Relevance to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D; Johnson, Anthony C; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut-brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. VR-Smart Home, prototyping of a user centered design system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari Jozam, M.; Allameh, E.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Masoud, M.; Andreev, S.; Balandin, S.; Yevgeni, Koucheryavy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a prototype of a user centered design system for Smart Homes which lets users: (1) configure different interactive tasks, and (2) express activity specifications and preferences during the design process. The main objective of this paper is how to create and to implement VR

  18. The 3D cadastre prototype and pilot in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandysheva, N.; Sapelnikov, S.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; De Vries, M.E.; Spiering, B.; Wouters, R.; Hoogeveen, A.; Penkov, V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the developed prototype and the planned pilot of the on-going project on 3D cadastre modelling in the Russian Federation. The aim of this project is to provide guidance in the development of 3D Cadastral registration and to create favourable legal and institutional conditions for

  19. Bifurcation and chaotic behavior in the Euler method for a Kaplan-Yorke prototype delay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu

    2004-01-01

    A discrete model with a simple cubic nonlinearity term is treated in the study the rich dynamics of a prototype delayed dynamical system under Euler discretization. The effect of breaking the symmetry of the system is to create a wide complex operating conditions which would not otherwise be seen. These include multiple steady states, complex periodic oscillations, chaos by period doubling bifurcations

  20. Using Imperceptible Digital Watermarking Technologies To Transform Educational Media: A Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Tammy M.; Burdette, Krista; Seale, Virginia B.; Ross, John D.

    The Institute for the Advancement of Emerging Technologies in Education (IAETE) at AEL recently explored the potential benefits and limitations of traditional print-based textbooks and many e-book alternatives. Having considered these media, IAETE created prototype interactive textbook pages that retain the salient aspects of print media while…

  1. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of

  2. The DiaCog: A Prototype Tool for Visualizing Online Dialog Games' Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengin, Ilker; Lazarevic, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes and explains the design of a prototype learning tool named the DiaCog. The DiaCog visualizes dialog interactions within an online dialog game by using dynamically created cognitive maps. As a purposefully designed tool for enhancing learning effectiveness the DiaCog might be applicable to dialogs at discussion boards within a…

  3. Rapid prototyping framework for robot-assisted training of autistic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Mingyu; Barakova, E.I.; Lourens, T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in uptake and actual use of robots in socially assistive tasks is rapidly growing. However, practical applications lack behind due to the enormous effort to create meaningful behaviours. This paper describes a rapid prototyping framework for robot-assisted training of children with Autism

  4. Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ''engineering'' prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, the prototype-learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype- and adaptive-learning theories. We refer to our new model as ``prototype-incorporated EmNN''. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely, static hand-gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back-propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional BPNN (EmNN), deep networks, an exemplar classification model, and k-nearest neighbor.

  5. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  6. Evaluation of a prototype infrasound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, R.; Sandoval, T.; Breding, D.; Kromer, D.

    1997-01-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory cooperated to develop a prototype infrasonic array, with associated documentation, that could be used as part of the International Monitoring System. The United States Government or foreign countries could procure commercially available systems based on this prototype to fulfill their Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) obligations. The prototype is a four-element array in a triangular layout as recommended in CD/NTB/WP.224 with an element at each corner and one in the center. The prototype test configuration utilize an array spacing of 1 km. The prototype infrasound system has the following objectives: (1) Provide a prototype that reliably acquires and transmits near real-time infrasonic data to facilitate the rapid location and identification of atmospheric events. (2) Provide documentation that could be used by the United States and foreign countries to procure infrasound systems commercially to fulfill their CTBT responsibilities. Infrasonic monitoring is an effective, low cost technology for detecting atmospheric explosions. The low frequency components of explosion signals propagate to long ranges (few thousand kilometers) where they can be detected with an array of sensors. Los Alamos National Laboratory's expertise in infrasound systems and phenomenology when combined with Sandia's expertise in providing verification quality system for treaty monitoring make an excellent team to provide the prototype infrasound sensor system. By September 1997, the prototype infrasound system will have been procured, integrated, evaluated and documented. Final documentation will include a system requirements document, an evaluation report and a hardware design document. The hardware design document will describe the various hardware components used in the infrasound prototype and their interrelationships

  7. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  8. HIV/AIDS-related visceral leishmaniasis: a clinical and epidemiological description of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cordenonzi Pedroso de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to describe the main features of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, both related to and independent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, in patients who were registered in Tocantins, Brazil. Methods: Data from 1,779 new patients with VL, 33 of whom were also infected with HIV, were reviewed. Results: The incidence of VL/HIV coinfection increased from 0.32/100,000 inhabitants in 2007 to 1.08/100,000 inhabitants in 2010. VL occurred predominantly in children aged 10 years or younger, while VL/HIV was more common in patients aged between 18 and 50 years. There were more male patients in the VL/HIV group than in the VL group. Relapse rates were also considerably higher in the VL/HIV (9.1% group than in the VL group (1.5%. Despite a similar clinical presentation, VL/HIV patients exhibited a higher proportion (24.2% of concomitant infectious diseases and jaundice. Pentavalent antimonials were used for the initial treatment of VL and VL/HIV infections. However, amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B were also widely used in the treatment of VL/HIV coinfection. The mortality rate was higher in the VL/HIV coinfection group (19.4% than in the VL group (5.4%. Furthermore, the mortality rate due to other causes was significantly higher in the VL/HIV group (12.9% than in the VL group (0.7%. Conclusions: The study showed that the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes among the VL and VL/HIV patients in this state are similar to those from other endemic regions, indicating that both infections are emerging with increasing frequency in Brazil.

  9. Predictive performance of the visceral adiposity index for a visceral adiposity-related risk: Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Fereidoun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral adiposity index (VAI has recently been developed based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, triglycerides (TGs, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. We examined predictive performances for incident diabetes of the VAI per se and as compared to the metabolic syndrome (MetS and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR. Methods Participants free of diabetes at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (5,964 were included for the current study. Weibull regression models were developed for interval-censored survival data. Absolute and relative integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI and cut-point-based and cut-point-free net reclassification improvement index (NRI were used as measures of predictive ability for incident diabetes added by VAI, as compared to the MetS and WHtR. Results The annual incidence rate of diabetes was 0.85 per 1000 person. Mean VAI was 3.06 (95%CIs 2.99-3.13. Diabetes risk factors levels increased in stepwise fashion across VAI quintiles. Risk gradient between the highest and lowest quintile of VAI was 4.5 (95%CIs 3.0-6.9. VAI significantly improved predictive ability of the MetS. The relative IDI and cut-point free NRI for predictive ability added to MetS by VAI were 30.3% (95%CIs 18.8-41.8% and 30.7% (95%CIs 20.8-40.7%, respectively. WHtR, outperformed VAI with cut-point-free NRI of 24.6% (95%CIs 14.1-35.2%. Conclusions In conclusion, although VAI could be a prognostic tool for incident diabetes events, gathering information on its components (WC, BMI, TGs, and HDL-C is unlikely to improve the prediction ability beyond what could be achieved by the simply assessable and commonly available information on WHtR.

  10. Eight years' operation of the SGHWR prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Experience gained of the SGHWR system during the first eight years of operation of the UKAEA's 100 MW(e) prototype at AEE Winfrith is discussed. Modifications and additions have been made to the plant to overcome problems which only operation of a prototype unit can reveal. No problems have arisen which could not be overcome by the application of normal engineering resources, and there is no reason why the commercial successor to the prototype should be other than a fully viable proposition. (author)

  11. Field Data Logger Prototype for Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Ghimire, Pramod; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2014-01-01

    and subsequent analysis of the data. This paper presents the development of a low cost prototype field data logger prototype using Raspberry PI and industrial sensors. The functionalities of the data logger prototype are described. An online rainflow count algorithm has been implemented as well.......Mission profile data is very important for the cost effective and reliable design of power converters. The converter design can be improved on the basis of actual field data. Actual mission profile data can be collected for the power converters using field data loggers over a long period of time...

  12. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations

  13. Rapid prototyping using robot welding : process description

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando; Norrish, John

    1997-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a relatively recent technique to produce component prototypes for industry in a much shorter period of time, since the time to market a product is essential to its success. A new Rapid Prototyping process which uses metal as the raw material had been under development at Cranfield University in the last few years. The process uses a Gas Metal Arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of metal in such way that it forms a 3D solid component. Firstly, a CAD s...

  14. Initial performance of the PIGMI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program at LASL is an accelerator development program aimed at completing the design of an accelerator suitable for use as a pion generator in a hospital-based radiotherapy program. The major thrust of the program has been the design of a 7 MeV prototype accelerator which emphasizes compactness, economy of construction, and operation and reliability. To achieve these goals the design of the prototype has exploited a number of innovations in proton linac technology. An overview of the program discussing the major innovative features of the prototype is presented. The initial operating experience is discussed and initial performance measurements are presented

  15. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  16. Creating a family health history

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000947.htm Creating a family health history To use the sharing ... Many health problems tend to run in families. Creating a family history can help you and your ...

  17. VO for Education: Archive Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella, M.; Iafrate, G.; De Marco, M.; Molinaro, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Cepparo, F.

    2014-05-01

    The number of remote control telescopes dedicated to education is increasing in many countries, leading to correspondingly larger and larger amount of stored educational data that are usually available only to local observers. Here we present the project for a new infrastructure that will allow teachers using educational telescopes to archive their data and easily publish them within the Virtual Observatory (VO) avoiding the complexity of professional tools. Students and teachers anywhere will be able to access these data with obvious benefits for the realization of grander scale collaborative projects. Educational VO data will also be an important resource for teachers not having direct access to any educational telescopes. We will use the educational telescope at our observatory in Trieste as a prototype for the future VO educational data archive resource. The publishing infrastructure will include: user authentication, content and curation validation, data validation and ingestion, VO compliant resource generation. All of these parts will be performed by means of server side applications accessible through a web graphical user interface (web GUI). Apart from user registration, that will be validated by a natural person responsible for the archive (after having verified the reliability of the user and inspected one or more test files), all the subsequent steps will be automated. This means that at the very first data submission through the webGUI, a complete resource including archive and published VO service will be generated, ready to be registered to the VO. The efforts required to the registered user will consist only in describing herself/himself at registration step and submitting the data she/he selects for publishing after each observation sessions. The infrastructure will be file format independent and the underlying data model will use a minimal set of standard VO keywords, some of which will be specific for outreach and education, possibly including VO

  18. Characterization of Prototype LSST CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OCONNOR,P.; FRANK, J.; GEARY, J.C.; GILMORE, D.K.; KOTOV, I.; RADEKA, V.; TAKACS, P.; TYSON, J.A.

    2008-06-23

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be achieved in part by a wide-field imager that will achieve a new level of performance in terms of area, speed, and sensitivity. The instrument performance is dominated by the focal plane sensors, which are now in development. These new-generation sensors will make use of advanced semiconductor technology and will be complemented by a highly integrated electronics package located inside the cryostat. A test laboratory has been set up at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to characterize prototype sensors and to develop test and assembly techniques for eventual integration of production sensors and electronics into modules that will form the final focal plane. As described in [1], the key requirements for LSST sensors are wideband quantum efficiency (QE) extending beyond lpm in the red, control of point spread function (PSF), and fast readout using multiple amplifiers per chip operated in parallel. In addition, LSST's fast optical system (f71.25) places severe constraints on focal plane flatness. At the chip level this involves packaging techniques to minimize warpage of the silicon die, and at the mosaic level careful assembly and metrology to achieve a high coplanarity of the sensor tiles. In view of the long lead time to develop the needed sensor technology, LSST undertook a study program with several vendors to fabricate and test devices which address the most critical performance features [2]. The remainder of this paper presents key results of this study program. Section 2 summarizes the sensor requirements and the results of design optimization studies, and Section 3 presents the sensor development plan. In Section 4 we describe the test bench at BNL. Section 5 reports measurement results obtained to date oh devices fabricated by several vendors. Section 6 presents a summary of the paper and an outlook for the future work. We present characterization methods and results on

  19. First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Paiva de Campos

    Full Text Available In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is caused byLeishmania (Leishmania chagasi and its main vector isLutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus.

  20. Pathology and pathogenesis of disseminated visceral coccidiosis in cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novilla, Meliton N; Carpenter, James W

    2004-06-01

    Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp. was recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the late 1970s. While most avian species of Eimeria inhabit the intestinal tract of its host, the crane eimerians, Eimeria reichenowi and Eimeria gruis, invade and multiply systemically and complete their development in both digestive and respiratory tracts. In DVC, cranes, especially chicks, may succumb to acute infections resulting in hepatitis, bronchopneumonia, myocarditis, splenitis, and enteritis. Cranes may also develop chronic, subclinical infections characterized by granulomatous nodules in various organs and tissues. This paper reviews the pathology and pathogenicity of natural and experimental DVC in sandhill and whooping cranes. Naturally infected birds appeared clinically normal, but progressive weakness, emaciation, greenish diarrhea, and recumbency before death were observed in birds administered doses > or = 10 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts per os. At necropsy, naturally infected birds had nodules in the mucosa of the oral cavity and the esophagus, and in thoracic and abdominal viscera. Experimentally infected birds necropsied less than 7 days after infection (a.i.) had no gross lesions. Birds examined later had hepatosplenomegaly, liver mottling, lung congestion and consolidation with frothy fluid in airways, and turgid intestinal tracts with hyperemic mucosa. From 28 days a.i., grossly visible granulomatous nodules were seen in the esophagus, heart, liver, cloaca, and eyelids. By light microscopy, the basic host response was a granulomatous inflammation with non-suppurative vasculitis affecting many organs and tissues. With time, multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells, many laden with asexual coccidial stages, increased in size and number. Widespread merogony resulted in morbidity and death, particularly in birds administered 20 x 10(3) sporulated oocysts

  1. Immunodetection of hepatic stellate cells in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Natália Cassaro; Mo Reira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Bertolo, Paulo Henrique Leal; Gava, Fábio Nelson; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2018-06-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC), or Ito cells, store vitamin A when at rest but undergo phenotypic changes in situations of liver injury, which may induce fibrosis, and they may participate in the immune response in the liver. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of HSC in the livers of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Twenty-eight livers from dogs infected with VL that were living in an area endemic for the disease were evaluated, among which 13 were asymptomatic (A) and 15 were symptomatic (S). A control group (C) was formed by five dogs from an area that was not endemic for VL. These organs were subjected to histopathological analysis (Masson's trichrome for fibrosis) and immunohistochemical analysis (Leishmania, smooth-muscle α-actin and TGF-β). In the livers from the symptomatic dogs, a moderate to severe granulomatous inflammatory reaction was observed in the capsule and in the portal, centrilobular and intralobular regions. In the asymptomatic dogs, there was slight to moderate presence of granulomas, and these were even absent in some dogs. The intensity of hepatic fibrosis was predominantly low in the infected dogs (A and S), and fibrosis was absent in the control group. The immunomarking of HSC in the infected groups (A and S) differed significantly (P = 0.0153) from that of the control group. The symptomatic dogs presented the largest number of positive cells. This group also presented a larger number of parasitized macrophages, but did not differ statistically from the asymptomatic group (P > 0.05). The cytokine TGF-β was only detected at low levels, and only in the infected animals, but this did not differ from the control group. Immunomarking for HSC was observed mainly in the nuclei of cells present in the hepatic granulomas of symptomatic dogs and in the sinusoids of the asymptomatic dogs. It was concluded that in the livers of dogs with VL, the HSC are activated and participate in the hepatic response to the

  2. Mathematical analysis of a model for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiu Hussaini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL, caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum and transmitted to humans and reservoir hosts by female sandflies, is endemic in many parts of the world (notably in Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean. This study presents a new mathematical model for assessing the transmission dynamics of ZVL in human and non-human animal reservoir populations. The model undergoes the usual phenomenon of backward bifurcation exhibited by similar vector-borne disease transmission models. In the absence of such phenomenon (which is shown to arise due to the disease-induced mortality in the host populations, the nontrivial disease-free equilibrium of the model is shown to be globally-asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction number of the model is less than unity. Using case and demographic data relevant to ZVL dynamics in Arac̣atuba municipality of Brazil, it is shown, for the default case when systemic insecticide-based drugs are not used to treat infected reservoir hosts, that the associated reproduction number of the model (ℛ0 ranges from 0.3 to 1.4, with a mean of ℛ0=0.85. Furthermore, when the effect of such drug treatment is explicitly incorporated in the model (i.e., accounting for the additional larval and sandfly mortality, following feeding on the treated reservoirs, the range of ℛ0 decreases to ℛ0∈[0.1,0.6], with a mean of ℛ0=0.35 (this significantly increases the prospect of the effective control or elimination of the disease. Thus, ZVL transmission models (in communities where such treatment strategy is implemented that do not explicitly incorporate the effect of such treatment may be over-estimating the disease burden (as measured in terms of ℛ0 in the community. It is shown that ℛ0 is more sensitive to increases in sandfly lifespan than that of the animal reservoir (so, a strategy that focuses on reducing sandflies, rather than the animal reservoir (e.g., via culling, may be

  3. Effect of preemptive ketamine administration on postoperative visceral pain after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Qi; Jia, Dong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    The pain following gynecological laparoscopic surgery is less intense than that following open surgery; however, patients often experience visceral pain after the former surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preemptive ketamine on visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received placebo. Group 2 was intravenously injected with preincisional saline and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. Group 3 was intravenously injected with preincisional ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. A standard anesthetic was used for all patients, and meperidine was used for postoperative analgesia. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for incisional and visceral pain at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, cumulative analgesic consumption and time until first analgesic medication request, and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. The VAS scores of visceral pain in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 2 and group 1 at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively (Ppain did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3, but they were significantly lower than those in group 1 (Ppain scores at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively. Moreover, the three groups showed no statistically significant differences in visceral and incisional pain scores at 12 h and 24 h postoperatively. The consumption of analgesics was significantly greater in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3, and the time to first request for analgesics was significantly longer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, with no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3. However, the three groups showed no significant difference in the incidence of shoulder pain or adverse effects. Preemptive ketamine may reduce visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological

  4. Visceral adipose inflammation in obesity is associated with critical alterations in tregulatory cell numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Deiuliis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of insulin resistance (IR in mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by progressive accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and subpopulations of T cells in the visceral adipose. Regulatory T cells (Tregs may play a critical role in modulating tissue inflammation via their interactions with both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. We hypothesized that an imbalance in Tregs is a critical determinant of adipose inflammation and investigated the role of Tregs in IR/obesity through coordinated studies in mice and humans.Foxp3-green fluorescent protein (GFP "knock-in" mice were randomized to a high-fat diet intervention for a duration of 12 weeks to induce DIO/IR. Morbidly obese humans without overt type 2 DM (n = 13 and lean controls (n = 7 were recruited prospectively for assessment of visceral adipose inflammation. DIO resulted in increased CD3(+CD4(+, and CD3(+CD8(+ cells in visceral adipose with a striking decrease in visceral adipose Tregs. Treg numbers in visceral adipose inversely correlated with CD11b(+CD11c(+ adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs. Splenic Treg numbers were increased with up-regulation of homing receptors CXCR3 and CCR7 and marker of activation CD44. In-vitro differentiation assays showed an inhibition of Treg differentiation in response to conditioned media from inflammatory macrophages. Human visceral adipose in morbid obesity was characterized by an increase in CD11c(+ ATMs and a decrease in foxp3 expression.Our experiments indicate that obesity in mice and humans results in adipose Treg depletion. These changes appear to occur via reduced local differentiation rather than impaired homing. Our findings implicate a role for Tregs as determinants of adipose inflammation.

  5. Emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a newly established health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunanayake, P; Goonerathne, L; Karunaweera, N D

    2017-09-01

    Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. Patients suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis (n = 120) fulfilling at least two of six criteria (fever > 2 weeks, weight loss, tiredness affecting daily functions, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia) were studied using clinic-epidemiological, immunological and haematological parameters. Seven cases (four progressive, treated (group A) and 3 non- progressive, potentially asymptomatic and observed (group B) were identified. Clinical cases were treated with systemic sodium stibogluconate or amphotericin B and all were followed up at the leishmaniasis clinic of University of Colombo for 3 years with one case followed up for 9 years. All treated cases responded well to anti leishmanial treatment. Relapses were not noticed. Clinical features subsided in all non-progressive cases and did not develop suggestive clinical features or change of laboratory parameters. Visceral leishmaniasis cases have been originated from different districts within the country. Majority had a travel history to identified local foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is recognized as an emerging health threat in Sri Lanka. At least a proportion of locally identified strains of L. donovani possess the ability to visceralize. Apparent anti leishmanial sensitivity is encouraging. Timely efforts in disease containment will be important in which accurate understanding of transmission characteristics, increased professional and community awareness, improved diagnostics and availability of appropriate treatment regimens.

  6. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex mediates the affective component of visceral pain memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Cao, Bing; Xu, Jiahe; Hao, Chun; Zhang, Xu; Li, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the neural pathways mediating pain affect and sensation in nociceptive behavioral response is a challenge. In this study, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceromotor response (VMR) with the conditioning place avoidance (CPA), we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain. When CRD was paired with a distinct environment context, the rats spent significantly less time in this compartment on the post-conditioning test days as compared with the pre-conditioning day. Effects were lasted for 14 days. Bilateral pACC lesion significantly reduced CPA scores without reducing acute visceral pain behaviors (CRD-induced VMR). Bilateral administration of non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX or NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 into the pACC decreased the CPA scores. AP5 or CNQX at dose of 400 mM produced about 70% inhibition of CRD-CPA in the day 1, 4 and 7, and completely abolished the CPA in the day 14 after conditioning. We concluded that neurons in the pACC are necessary for the "aversiveness" of visceral nociceptor stimulation. pACC activation is critical for the memory processing involved in long-term negative affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CYTOKINE PROFILE IN VISCERAL OBESITY AND ADVERSE CARDIOVASCULAR PROGNOSIS OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Gruzdeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of myocardial infarction in patients with obesity can lead to an uncontrolled increase in proinflammatory cytokines and unfavorable course of the pathological process. Objective: to study the relationship of key inflammatory factors and the development of complications at different terms after myocardial infarction in patients with visceral obesity. The study involved 94 men with myocardial infarction. Visceral obesity was diagnosed by multi-slice computed tomography (LightspeedVCT 64 ,General Electric,USA. On the 1st and 12th day of hospitalization, we determined serum concentrations of interleukins (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 IL-10 and IL-12, and C-reactive protein. Adverse cardiovascular events were documented during the next year. The most informative indicators were identified by a stepwise logistic regression analysis. In patients with myocardial infarction an imbalance of cytokine profile revealed, i.e., an increase in proinflammatory markers (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, CRP, along with decrease in IL-10, being more pronounced in cases of visceral obesity. Among the studied markers, closest relationship was observed between visceral obesity and serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP. Over the year, adverse cardiovascular events proved to be more frequent in patients with visceral obesity. Post-infarction complication risk was associated with higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 deficiency. Hence, development of adverse cardiovascular events within a year after myocardial infarction is more typical to the patients with visceral obesity, and is accompanied by activation of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-10 deficiency.

  8. User prototypes as partly unconscious communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasemann, Marie; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce user prototypes as a technique that supports users’ articulation of emotions relevant for design: dreams, fears, motivations – their feelings and aspirations. Following Bateson’s writings about communication through art, we consider user prototypes as “partly unconscious...... communication” and propose to analyze them by focusing on the emotional articulations integrated in the users’ design language. We illustrate this with an example from a design research project on designing learning technology for young diabetics. The example shows how young people with diabetes can express...... emotional themes related to youth identity, the burden of being young with a chronic illness, and the need to be connected and feel safe through design of prototypes. The new conceptual space that arises from user prototypes shows potential for addressing emotions when designing for health and for further...

  9. Homogeneity of Prototypical Attributes in Soccer Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zepp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes influences several intragroup processes. The aim of the present study was to describe the homogeneous perception of the prototype and to identify specific prototypical subcategories, which are perceived as homogeneous within sport teams. The sample consists of N = 20 soccer teams with a total of N = 278 athletes (age M = 23.5 years, SD = 5.0 years. The results reveal that subcategories describing the cohesiveness of the team and motivational attributes are mentioned homogeneously within sport teams. In addition, gender, identification, team size, and the championship ranking significantly correlate with the homogeneous perception of prototypical attributes. The results are discussed on the basis of theoretical and practical implications.

  10. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  11. Gesture recognition for an exergame prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gacem, Brahim; Vergouw, Robert; Verbiest, Harm; Cicek, Emrullah; Kröse, Ben; van Oosterhout, Tim; Bakkes, S.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    We will demonstrate a prototype exergame aimed at the serious domain of elderly fitness. The exergame incorporates straightforward means to gesture recognition, and utilises a Kinect camera to obtain 2.5D sensory data of the human user.

  12. System design document for the INFLO prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report documents the high level System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and : demonstration of the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) application bundle, with a focus on the Speed : Harmonization (SPD-HARM) and Queu...

  13. Power test for first prototype LIBO module

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Linac Booster (LIBO) is a prototype machine for producing particle beams for cancer therapy. Hadron therapy techniques are able to reach deep tumours with less damage to surrounding tissue than with conventional radiotherapy.

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2010-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system...... and in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, architectural risks, and the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. However, the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping has not been thoroughly researched so far. In this article, we report from three studies of architectural prototyping...... in practice. First, we report findings from an ethnographic study of practicing software architects. Secondly, we report from a focus group on architectural prototyping involving architects from four companies. And, thirdly, we report from a survey study of 20 practicing software architects and software...

  15. Presentation Trainer Prototype 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch comprises the first prototype of the presentation trainer. The application uses the Microsoft Kinect sensor and was built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under the GNU LGPL licence version 3 or higher.

  16. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  17. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstreom, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-05-22

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. The operating experience gathered since the summer of 1984 and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given.

  18. Light Guide Collector Prototype: Laboratory Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka - Mohelnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the potential of light guide system equipped by a concentrator device capturing daylight applicable for illumination of building interiors and presents results of experiments on performance of its prototype. The main goal is focused on the comparison of traditional solutions and newly developed prototype of the light guide system and presents examination of its light transmission efficiency based on the laboratory experiments.

  19. Light Guide Collector Prototype: Laboratory Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka - Mohelnikova; Stanislav Darula; Ayodeji Omishore; Petr Mohelnik; Denis Micek

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the potential of light guide system equipped by a concentrator device capturing daylight applicable for illumination of building interiors and presents results of experiments on performance of its prototype. The main goal is focused on the comparison of traditional solutions and newly developed prototype of the light guide system and presents examination of its light transmission efficiency based on the laboratory experiments.

  20. Software testing for evolutionary iterative rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Edward V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Rapid prototyping is emerging as a promising software development paradigm. It provides a systematic and automatable means of developing a software system under circumstances where initial requirements are not well known or where requirements change frequently during development. To provide high software quality assurance requires sufficient software testing. The unique nature of evolutionary iterative prototyping is not well-suited for ...

  1. Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nada, Nader; Shing, M.; Berzins, V.; Luqi

    2002-01-01

    Automated prototyping tool-kit (APT) is an integrated set of software tools that generate source programs directly from real-time requirements. The APT system uses a fifth-generation prototyping language to model the communication structure, timing constraints, 1/0 control, and data buffering that comprise the requirements for an embedded software system. The language supports the specification of hard real-time systems with reusable components from domain specific component libraries. APT ha...

  2. Prototype_Matematikforløb_Sct-Hans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Helle Munkholm; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Klitø, Nanna Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    Forløbet udgør en prototype på et matematikforløb til 8. klasse, som er udviklet til at styrke og fastholde elevers motivation for læring. Formålet med denne prototype er at styrke motivationen for læring gennem synlige læringsmål, faglig differentiering og elevernes medbestemmelse. Didaktisk mål...

  3. Prototype_Danskforløb_Sct.Hans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Helle Munkholm; Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Klitø, Nanna Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    Forløbet udgør en prototype på et danskforløb til 4. klasse, som er udviklet til at styrke og fastholde elevers motivation for læring. Formålet med denne prototype er at styrke motivationen for læring gennem synlige læringsmål, faglig differentiering og elevernes medbestemmelse. Didaktisk mål: at...

  4. Creating CAD designs and performing their subsequent analysis using opensource solutions in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushkin, Oleg O.; Sedova, Olga S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of a system that encapsulates the transition from geometry building to strength tests. The solution we propose views the engineer as a programmer who is capable of coding the procedure for working with the modeli.e., to outline the necessary transformations and create cases for boundary conditions. We propose a prototype of such system. In our work, we used: Python programming language to create the program; Jupyter framework to create a single workspace visualization; pythonOCC library to implement CAD; FeniCS library to implement FEM; GMSH and VTK utilities. The prototype is launched on a platform which is a dynamically expandable multi-tenant cloud service providing users with all computing resources on demand. However, the system may be deployed locally for prototyping or work that does not involve resource-intensive computing. To make it possible, we used containerization, isolating the system in a Docker container.

  5. The direct agglutination test as an alternative method for the diagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terán-Angel, Guillermo; Schallig, Henk; Zerpa, Olga; Rodríguez, Vestalia; Ulrich, Marian; Cabrera, Maira

    2007-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe clinical form of leishmaniasis and is often fatal without proper treatment. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is important, but often difficult in endemic areas. The aim was to evaluate a direct agglutination test as a potential visceral leishmaniasis

  6. Disturbances of motility and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: biological markers or epiphenomenon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Motility and visceral hypersentitivity are regarded as the primary mechanisms of symptom development in irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). While a variety of motor abnormalities have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS, their specificity and relationship to symptoms remain unclear. Visceral hypersensitivity is ubiquitous in functional gastrointestinal disease and is especially common in IBS. Again, however, its specificity for IBS has been questioned. Many factors, including stress and psychopathology,complicate the interpretation of these phenomena and new re-search suggests that mucosal inflammation and luminal factors may be more fundamental to the etiology of this common disorder.

  7. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF TREATMENT FOR VISCERAL METASTASES IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC CASTRATION-REFRACTORY PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medications increasing the survival of patients with metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC are lacking today. In the past 3 years, in the pharmaceutical market there have been a few novel drugs to treat progressive prostate cancer. Abiraterone acetate is an androgen synthesis inhibitor, which is also used to increase the survival of patients with metastatic CRPC that progresses after chemotherapy. The results of treatment for metastatic CRPC depend on a number of factors. Visceral metastases are poor predictors of the course of the disease. The results of abiraterone acetate treatment were analyzed in CRPC patients with visceral metastases.

  8. "Bacterial infections in visceral leishmaniasis in Children’s Medical Center 1966-2000 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Tabatabaei P "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial infections are seen in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of such infections and the more common infections agents. Materials and Methods: During the 15-years period in a prospective study from 1986 to 2000, 123 patients with visceral leishmaniasis were studied in the Children Medical Center. Results: From all the cases, 41 (33 percent patients had Also bacterial infections. Respiratory tract, urinary system, Middle ear were the most common sites of infection. Conclusion: When bacterial Infection is suspected in these patients, empiric antibiotic therapy should be started immediately after appropriate diagnostic procedures are taken.

  9. [Autonomic-vascular and visceral crises in patients with climacteric spondylopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altukhova, A I

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the results of observations over 62 patients (55 females and 7 males) from the age of 42-76 with climacteric spondilopathy. The following syndromes of the nervous system lesions were revealed: neuralgic syndrome, middle and lower thoracal radiculoneuritis, the syndrome of vegetative sympatoganglionitis, myelopathy. Special attetion was given to the specificity of the nervous system lesions in patients with climacteric spondilopathy which was characterized by a tendency to vegetative-visceral crises. The author recommends a scheme of a comprehensive treatment of patients with climacteric spondilopathy with vegetative-vascular and visceral crises. This treatment includes androgen-estrogen preparations, anabolic steroids, thyrocalcitonine and symptomatic treatment.

  10. Splenectomy in a patient with treatment-resistant visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Azevedo Dutra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as Kala-azar, is a systemic infection caused by a protozoan (Leishmania and, in its classic form, is a serious illness associated with malnutrition, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, infectious processes and coagulopathies. The effect of splenectomy in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not well defined; however, it is known that the spleen is the largest reservoir of infected cells belonging to the reticulo endothelial system. Therefore, the surgical procedure is an option for the debulking of parasites, providing a cure for refractory VL and minimizing the complications of hypersplenism.

  11. Massive gastrointestinal bleeding:An unusual case of asymptomatic extrarenal,visceral,fibromuscular dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Extrarenal fibromuscular dysplasia causing gastrointestinal bleeding without other manifestations and especially sparing renal vasculature is uncommon. The diagnosis of this entity is usually made by radiographic appearance and the treatment is controversial. To our knowledge only seven cases of visceral fibromuscular dysplasia as a primary manifestation of the disease have been described, symptoms range from abdominal pain to gangrene. This is the first case of visceral fibromuscular dysplasia presenting with otherwise asymptomatic gastrointestinal bleeding, without bowel necrosis or ischemic changes. We provide a review of the literature.

  12. Neuroplastic alteration of TTX-resistant sodium channel with visceral pain and morphine-induced hyperalgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jinghong Chen,1,2,4 Ze-hui Gong,4 Hao Yan,2 Zhijun Qiao,3 Bo-yi Qin41Department of Internal Medicine, Neuroscience Program, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2The Divisions of Pharmacy, Pharmacology core lab, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX, USA; 4Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing, China Abstract: The discovery of the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R Na+ channel in nociceptive neurons has provided a special target for analgesic intervention. In a previous study we found that both morphine tolerance and persistent visceral inflammation resulted in visceral hyperalgesia. It has also been suggested that hyperexcitability of sensory neurons due to altered TTX-R Na+ channel properties and expression contributes to hyperalgesia; however, we do not know if some TTX-R Na+ channel property changes can be triggered by visceral hyperalgesia and morphine tolerance, or whether there are similar molecular or channel mechanisms in both situations. To evaluate the effects of morphine tolerance and visceral inflammation on the channel, we investigated the dorsal root ganglia (DRG neuronal change following these chronic treatments. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording, we recorded TTX-R Na+ currents in isolated adult rat lumbar and sacral (L6-S2 DRG neurons from normal and pathologic rats with colon inflammatory pain or chronic morphine treatment. We found that the amplitudes of TTX-R Na+ currents were signiflcantly increased in small-diameter DRG neurons with either morphine tolerance or visceral inflammatory pain. Meanwhile, the result also showed that those treatments altered the kinetics properties of the electrical current (ie, the activating and inactivating speed of the channel was accelerated. Our current results suggested that in both models, visceral chronic inflammatory pain and morphine tolerance causes electrophysiological changes in voltage

  13. Metamorphosis of the Drosophila visceral musculature and its role in intestinal morphogenesis and stem cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, Patrick; Takashima, Shigeo; Paul, Manash; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2016-12-01

    The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult. However, visceral muscles undergo a phase of remodeling that coincides with the metamorphosis of the intestinal epithelium. During the first day following puparium formation, both circular and longitudinal syncytial fibers dedifferentiate, losing their myofibrils and extracellular matrix, and dissociating into mononuclear cells ("secondary myoblasts"). Towards the end of the second day, this process is reversed, and between 48 and 72h after puparium formation, a structurally fully differentiated adult muscle layer has formed. We could not obtain evidence that cells apart from the dedifferentiated larval visceral muscle contributed to the adult muscle, nor does it appear that the number of adult fibers (or nuclei per fiber) is increased over that of the larva by proliferation. In contrast to the musculature, the intestinal epithelium is completely renewed during metamorphosis. The adult midgut epithelium rapidly expands over the larval layer during the first few hours after puparium formation; in case of the hindgut, replacement takes longer, and proceeds by the gradual caudad extension of a proliferating growth zone, the hindgut proliferation zone (HPZ). The subsequent

  14. Evaluation of obesity in hemodialysis patients-relationship between visceral fat obesity and lipometabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Megumi; Terayama, Yuriko; Fukuhara, Youko; Yamaya, Kanemitsu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Hisao; Mikuni, Tsuneyasu; Momose, Akishi; Funyu, Tomihisa

    2006-01-01

    Due to various metabolic disorders, especially dyslipidemia, in patients undergoing dialysis, the prevailing reference values of indices for determining obesity may differ from those used in the general population. To clarify visceral fat levels indicating obesity in dialysis patients, we analyzed indices for determining obesity and lipid profiles, and compared the data between dialysis patients and control subjects with normal renal function. This study was conduced in 75 hemodialysis patients (HD group) aged 61.0 y on average and 58 control subjects (control group) aged 44.5 y on average. We calculated body mass index (BMI), waist circumference at the umbilical level (W), waist-height ratio (W/Ht) and evaluated visceral and subcutaneous fat areas using computed tomography (CT) at the level of the umbilicus. In addition, we measured postprandial total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum and calculated the ratios, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC. Visceral fat area, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC in HD group were 58.1 cm 2 , 2.31 and 0.74, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (37.4 cm 2 , 1.95 and 0.52), respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between visceral fat area and BMI, W, and W/Ht in both groups. In control subjects, visceral fat area was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.532, p less than 0.0001), and with TG/TC (r=0.286, p=0.0296). In contrast, visceral fat area in hemodialysis patients was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.397, p=0.0004), and with TG/TC (r=0.568, p less than 0.0001). Our study demonstrated that visceral fat accumulation in hemodialysis patients increased irrespective of BMI, and the standard criteria for obesity using BMI would be unsuitable. Furthermore, we identified a novel indicator, non-fasting TG/TC, which seems to indicate visceral fat obesity in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  15. Evaluation of obesity in hemodialysis patients-relationship between visceral fat obesity and lipometabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsushima, Megumi; Terayama, Yuriko; Fukuhara, Youko; Yamaya, Kanemitsu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Hisao; Mikuni, Tsuneyasu; Momose, Akishi; Funyu, Tomihisa [Oyokyo Kidney Research Inst., Hirosaki, Aomori (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Due to various metabolic disorders, especially dyslipidemia, in patients undergoing dialysis, the prevailing reference values of indices for determining obesity may differ from those used in the general population. To clarify visceral fat levels indicating obesity in dialysis patients, we analyzed indices for determining obesity and lipid profiles, and compared the data between dialysis patients and control subjects with normal renal function. This study was conduced in 75 hemodialysis patients (HD group) aged 61.0 y on average and 58 control subjects (control group) aged 44.5 y on average. We calculated body mass index (BMI), waist circumference at the umbilical level (W), waist-height ratio (W/Ht) and evaluated visceral and subcutaneous fat areas using computed tomography (CT) at the level of the umbilicus. In addition, we measured postprandial total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum and calculated the ratios, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC. Visceral fat area, (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C and TG/TC in HD group were 58.1 cm{sup 2}, 2.31 and 0.74, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (37.4 cm{sup 2}, 1.95 and 0.52), respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between visceral fat area and BMI, W, and W/Ht in both groups. In control subjects, visceral fat area was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.532, p less than 0.0001), and with TG/TC (r=0.286, p=0.0296). In contrast, visceral fat area in hemodialysis patients was highly correlated with (TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C (r=0.397, p=0.0004), and with TG/TC (r=0.568, p less than 0.0001). Our study demonstrated that visceral fat accumulation in hemodialysis patients increased irrespective of BMI, and the standard criteria for obesity using BMI would be unsuitable. Furthermore, we identified a novel indicator, non-fasting TG/TC, which seems to indicate visceral fat obesity in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  16. Field evaluation of prototype electrofibrous filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, W.D.; Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Lum, B.Y.

    1982-01-01

    New prototype electrofibrous filters were designed, built and evaluated in laboratory tests and in field installations. Two prototypes were designed for use in nuclear ventilation ducts as prefilters to HEPA filters. One prototype is designed to be a permanent component of the ventilation system while the other is a disposable unit. The disposable electrofibrous prefilter was installed in the exhaust stream of a glove box in which barrels of uranium turnings are burned. Preliminary tests show the disposal prefilter is effectively prolonging the HEPA filter life. An earlier prototype of the rolling prefilter was upgraded to meet the increased requirements for installation in a nuclear facility. This upgraded prototype was evaluated in the fire test facility at LLNL and shown to be effective in protecting HEPA filters from plugging under the most severe smoke conditions. The last prototype described in this report is a recirculating air filter. After demonstrating a high performance in laboratory tests the unit was shipped to Savannah River where it is awaiting installation in a Pu fuel fabrication facility. An analysis of the particulate problem in Savannah River indicates that four recirculating air filter will save $172,000 per year in maintenance costs

  17. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  18. Investigating the role of implicit prototypes in the prototype willingness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Ratliff, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    One useful theory to predict health behavior is the prototype-willingness model (PWM), which posits that people are more willing to engage in behavior to the extent that they have a positive view of the prototypical person who performs that behavior. The goal of the present research is to test whether adding an implicit measure of prototype favorability might improve explanatory power in the PWM. Two studies examined whether implicit prototype favorability uniquely predicted White women's intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior over the next 3-6 months, and their willingness to engage in risky sun behavior, should the opportunity arise. The results suggested that implicit prototype favorability, particularly implicit prototypes of those who engage in risky UV-related behaviors, uniquely predicted intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior and willingness to engage in risky sun behavior in the PWM.

  19. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  20. Novice designers’ use of prototypes in engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Michael; Daly, Shanna R.; Sienko, Kathleen H.; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2017-01-01

    Prototypes are essential tools in product design processes, but are often underutilized by novice designers. To help novice designers use prototypes more effectively, we must first determine how they currently use prototypes. In this paper, we describe how novice designers conceptualized prototypes and reported using them throughout a design project, and compare reported prototyping use to prototyping best practices. We found that some of the reported prototyping practices by novice designers, such as using inexpensive prototypes early and using prototypes to define user requirements, occurred infrequently and lacked intentionality. Participants’ initial descriptions of prototypes were less sophisticated than how they later described using them and only upon prompted reflection did participants recognize more specific benefits of using prototypes. PMID:29398740

  1. Prototyping of Tangible Programming - An Iterative Approach to a Multidisciplinary Design Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Reime, Thov

    2015-01-01

    The Fibo Car is a game interface consisting of a kit of car parts. A virtual model of the assembled parts is generated on a computer and used in a physics engine based gameplay. This product vision is the source of this master s thesis task where the main goal was to develop a critical function prototype of the physical/virtual interface. The challenge of this task was to create a prototype that contained integrated technology from multiple engineering disciplines. After six weeks, a funct...

  2. Prototype and Scriptaculous Taking the Pain out of JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Chris

    2006-01-01

    JavaScript is carrying more and more programming load lately as Ajax has become popular. Scripting Ajax from scratch isn't much fun, but fortunately there are libraries to help. Prototype and Scriptaculous will let you get much more work done in much less time, automating tasks from processing XMLHTTP requests to creating animations that draw attention to your interfaces. This Short Cut demonstrates how to use Prototype for a wide range of tasks, including event handling, DOM processing, string and form process, and Ajax communications. It explores Scriptaculous' visual effects library, from

  3. Replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal in the diet of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal (PVOM) substituting for fish meal (FM) on an equal protein basis in the diets or unsexed Ross-strain broiler chickens from day-old to 8 weeks of age. One hundred and fifty birds were allotted in groups of 10 into 15 equidimeosional ...

  4. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects : relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Weststrate, J A; Schouten, F J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight healthy obese subjects, 40 premenopausal women and 38 men aged 27-51 yr received a 4.2 MJ/day energy-deficit diet for 13 wk. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were

  5. Optimal Dosing of Miltefosine in Children and Adults with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.; Beijnen, Jos H.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Only anecdotal data are available on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of miltefosine in children suffering from visceral leishmaniasis (VL). While failure rates were higher in children with VL, steady-state concentrations appeared lower than those seen with adults. We hypothesized that the current linear

  6. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Droop, A.; Bakker, C J

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of weight loss on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at trochanter level. Changes in fat depots were compared with changes in circumference measures and the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in obese

  7. Gota úrica visceral em bobo-pequeno (Puffinus puffinus no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fink

    Full Text Available RESUMO A gota úrica visceral é uma doença que acomete répteis, aves e mamíferos. Caracteriza-se por depósitos de cristais de urato e ácido úrico em diferentes órgãos da região visceral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso de gota úrica visceral em um indivíduo de bobo-pequeno (Puffinus puffinus encontrado morto no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. No período de 20 de agosto de 2015 a 20 de abril de 2016, as praias dos municípios de Araquari, Barra do Sul, São Francisco do Sul e Itapoá foram monitoradas diariamente para o registro e a recuperação de tetrápodes marinhos mortos, incluindo aves marinhas. Foram encontrados e necropsiados 84 indivíduos. Um deles apresentou o pericárdio aderido ao miocárdio e com a coloração esbranquiçada. Os rins, o fígado e os pulmões continham inúmeros pontos esbranquiçados. A ocorrência dessa patologia na espécie foi de 1,19%. Trata-se do primeiro relato de bobo-pequeno com gota úrica visceral encontrado no Brasil.

  8. Safety and Feasibility of Transradial Access for Visceral Interventions in Patients with Thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titano, J J; Biederman, D M; Marinelli, B S; Patel, R S; Kim, E; Tabori, N E; Nowakowski, F S; Lookstein, R A; Fischman, A M

    2016-05-01

    Transradial access (TRA) has shown lower morbidity and decreased bleeding complications compared to transfemoral access. This study evaluates the safety and feasibility of TRA in thrombocytopenic patients undergoing visceral interventions. Patients who underwent visceral interventions via the radial artery with platelet count less than or equal to 50,000/µL were included in the study. Outcome variables included technical success, access site, bleeding, transfusion, and neurological complications. From July 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, a total of 1353 peripheral interventions via TRA were performed, of which 85 procedures were performed in 64 patients (mean age 62.2 years) with a platelet count <50,000/µL (median 39,000/µL). Interventions included chemoembolization (n = 46), selective internal radiation therapy (n = 30), and visceral embolization (n = 9). Technical success was 97.6% with two cases of severe vessel spasm requiring ipsilateral femoral crossover. There was no major access site, bleeding, or neurological adverse events at 30 days. Minor access site hematomas occurred in five cases (5.9%) and were treated conservatively in all cases. Pre-procedural platelet transfusions were administered in 23 (27.1%) cases. There was no statistically significant difference in access site or bleeding complications between the transfused and nontransfused groups. Transradial visceral interventions in patients with thrombocytopenia are both feasible and safe, possibly without the need for platelet transfusions.

  9. Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor as markers of disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E. E.; van der Poll, T.; Mevissen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFRs) were measured before and after antimony therapy in 25 Sudanese patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Both sTNFR types I and II were significantly elevated in patients with VL compared with healthy controls from

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection in patients admitted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Background: Worldwide, after malaria and sleeping sickness, leishmaniases are the third most important vector borne diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala- azar) is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by L. donovani, L. infantum, or L. arachibaldi, and transmitted by the female phlebotomine sand fly bite.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods: 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only' (DO; n = 42 or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise' (D/Ex; n = 33 for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, normal-density muscle area (NDMA, and visceral fat area. Results: Total body weight (DO: -6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: -7.3 ± 4.6% and visceral fat (DO: -16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: -23.1 ± 14.7% decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5% compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%. NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9% but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity.

  12. The Household Costs of Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in South-eastern Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranw, S.; Meheus, F.; Baltussen, R.M.; Rijal, S.; Boelaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined

  13. Tre tilfaelde af visceral leishmaniasis: det ene hos en HIV-positiv mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Jonsbo, F; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are presented. One of these was in a 43-year-old patient with AIDS who was infected in Southern Spain. Another was in a man aged 25 years infected in West Africa. These cases are the first two adults to be reported in Denmark. The third case...

  14. Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Harman, Mehmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Bart, Aldert; Töz, Seray; Kurt, Özgür; Çavuş, İbrahim; Polat, Erdal; Gündüz, Cumhur; van Gool, Tom; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for

  15. Visceral Congestion in Heart Failure: Right Ventricular Dysfunction, Splanchnic Hemodynamics, and the Intestinal Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Vincenzo B; Sinha, Arjun; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2017-12-01

    Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics. There are several mechanisms linking RV-gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload. A wide variety of therapeutic interventions that act on the RV, pulmonary vasculature, intestinal microenvironment, and the kidney could alter these pathways and should be tested in patients with right-sided HF. The RV-gut axis is an important aspect of HF pathogenesis that deserves more attention. Modulation of the pathways interconnecting the right heart, visceral congestion, and the intestinal microenvironment could be a novel avenue of intervention for right-sided HF.

  16. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  17. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...

  18. Ghrelin receptor null mice have reduced visceral fat and improved insulin sensitivity during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with a higher incidence of Type 2 diabetes; one in five Americans over age 65 has diabetes. Loss of lean mass and accumulation of fat, particularly visceral fat, during aging result in increased insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a major pathogenic factor for Type 2 diabet...

  19. Novel gender-specific visceral adiposity index for Mexican pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Garcés

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: VAI formula construction seemed to be different in children compared to adults. In the present study we propose a new gender-specific visceral adipose index for pediatric Mexican population living in urban areas that could be further used to predict abnormal cardiometabolic outcomes.

  20. A Global Comparative Evaluation of Commercial Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, Jane; Hasker, Epco; Das, Pradeep; El Safi, Sayda; Goto, Hiro; Mondal, Dinesh; Mbuchi, Margaret; Mukhtar, Maowia; Rabello, Ana; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Wasunna, Monique; Adams, Emily; Menten, Joris; Peeling, Rosanna; Boelaert, Marleen; Khanal, Basudha; Das, Murari; Oliveira, Edward; de Assis, Tália Machado; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifathassan; Huda, M. Mamun; Hassan, Mukidul; Abdoun, Asim Osman; Awad, Aymen; Osman, Mohamed; Prajapati, Dinesh Kumar; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Tiwary, Puja; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Jacquet, Diane; Magiri, Charles; Muia, A.; Kesusu, J.; Ageed, Al Farazdag; Galal, Nuha; Osman, Osman Salih; Gupta, A. K.; Bimal, Afrad S.; Das, V. N. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy. Methods. Commercial VL RDTs