WorldWideScience

Sample records for proton ion beams

  1. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Joo, P. K.; Kang, S. S.; Song, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, G. H.; Bang, S. W

    1999-12-01

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  2. TECHNOLOGIES FOR DELIVERY OF PROTON AND ION BEAMS FOR RADIOTHERAPY

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, H; Alonso, J; Mackay, R

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments for the delivery of proton and ion beam therapy have been significant, and a number of technological solutions now exist for the creation and utilisation of these particles for the treatment of cancer. In this paper we review the historical development of particle accelerators used for external beam radiotherapy and discuss the more recent progress towards more capable and cost-effective sources of particles.

  3. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  4. Mutation breeding of rape by using proton ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, J. S.; Chang, Y. S.; Han, S. G.; Choi, S. R.; Kim, J. S.

    2006-04-01

    This experiment was carried out by irradiation the proton ion beam and gamma-ray at level 100 to 2,000 Gy on dry seeds of 3 varieties, 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' to increase the cultivation area and develope for biodiesel in rape (Brassica napus) and checked the radiosensitivity test including germination rate, emergence rate and chromosome aberration and the occurrence of morphological mutant in M1 generation. The germination rate and emergence rate were 98∼100% because they had no relation with radiation source, dosage and variety. There was no significance in survival rate up to 1,000 Gy dosage after sowing of 7 days and remarkably reduced from 39.5 to 69.6% at 1,500 to 2,000 Gy dosage. The length and area of cotyledon, and hypocotyl length were highly reduced with significance by increasing dosage of proton ion and gamma-irradiation in all 3 varieties and showed the sensitive responses on 'Naehan', 'Hanla' and 'Tammi' in order. By the way, there was a radiation hormesis in 'Tammi' by increasing the length and area of cotyledon in the proton ion treatment at 100∼200 Gy dosage compared to the control (no treatment). With the same effect, it had the similar results in the fresh weight of above-aerial parts in 3∼4 weeks after sowing

  5. Proton and heavy ion beam (charged particle therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    There are distinguished therapeutic irradiation facilities of proton and heavy ion beam in Japan. The beam, due to its physical properties, is advantageous for focusing on the lesion in the body and for reducing the exposure dose to normal tissues, relative to X-ray. This makes it possible to irradiate the target lesion with the higher dose. The present review describes physical properties of the beam, equipments for the therapeutic irradiation, the respiratory-gated irradiation system, the layer-stacking irradiation system, therapy planning, and future prospect of the therapy. More than 1,400 patients have received the therapy in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) and given a good clinical outcome. The targets are cancers of the head and neck, lung, liver, uterine and prostate, and osteosarcoma. The therapy of osteosarcoma is particularly important, which bringing about the high cure rate. Severe adverse effects are not seen with exception for the digestive tract ulcer. Many attempts like the respiratory-gated and layer-stacking systems and to shorten the therapy period to within 1 week are in progress. (N.I.)

  6. Preliminary Comparison of the Response of LHC Tertiary Collimators to Proton and Ion Beam Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is designed to bring into collision protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving impacts on collimators can happen for both species. The interaction of lead ions with matter differs to that of protons, thus making this scenario a new interesting case to study as it can result in different damage aspects on the collimator. This paper will present a preliminary comparison of the response of collimators to proton and ion beam impacts.

  7. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G; Kuznetsov, G; Shiltsev, V; Still, D A; Valishev, A; Vorobiev, L G; Assmann, R; Kabantsev, A

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  8. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams

  9. Thermomechanical response of Large Hadron Collider collimators to proton and ion beam impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to accelerate and bring into collision high-energy protons as well as heavy ions. Accidents involving direct beam impacts on collimators can happen in both cases. The LHC collimation system is designed to handle the demanding requirements of high-intensity proton beams. Although proton beams have 100 times higher beam power than the nominal LHC lead ion beams, specific problems might arise in case of ion losses due to different particle-collimator interaction mechanisms when compared to protons. This paper investigates and compares direct ion and proton beam impacts on collimators, in particular tertiary collimators (TCTs, made of the tungsten heavy alloy INERMET® 180. Recent measurements of the mechanical behavior of this alloy under static and dynamic loading conditions at different temperatures have been done and used for realistic estimates of the collimator response to beam impact. Using these new measurements, a numerical finite element method (FEM approach is presented in this paper. Sequential fast-transient thermostructural analyses are performed in the elastic-plastic domain in order to evaluate and compare the thermomechanical response of TCTs in case of critical beam load cases involving proton and heavy ion beam impacts.

  10. Progress in the production of intense ion beams and the formation of proton layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Marsh, S.J.; Mahaffey, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The results on ion sources and the application of ion beams to the formation of proton layers and rings are presented. Ion beams have been produced on three different generators. Some results from the experiments performed on the Gamble 2 generator are presented. The Gamble 2 generator with coaxial anode-cathode configuration, hollow beam cross-section produces power levels of 0.6-1.2 MV with peak ion current of 200 kA. The number of protons in the beam 4x10 16 . Peak ion currents is excess 200 kA, energy 1 MeV, ion current density 1 kA/cm 2 . Magnetic field configuration to provide formation of strong proton layers is shown

  11. Prospects for studies of ground-state proton decays with the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    By using radioactive ions from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. During this production and search process the limits of stability on the proton-rich side of the nuclidic chart will be delineated for a significant fraction of medium-weight elements and our understanding of the proton-emission process will be expanded and improved

  12. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, I S; Kim, H R; Choi, Y J; Park, H S [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  13. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, I. S.; Kim, H. R.; Choi, Y. J.; Park, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  14. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-01

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  15. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  16. Simulation and dosimetric analysis of protons, 4He ions and 12C ions beams for brain neoplasm therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Guilherme M.; Mello, Victor Barreto Braga; Mello Neto, Joao R.T. de

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to simulate protons, 4 He ions and 12 C ions beams, radiating the head of an average-sized man with the purpose of treating a hypothalamic tumor. GEANT4 was used to simulate the head (skin, skull and brain), and the beam, giving their characteristics and also the physical processes involved. The results sought herein are graphs of depth for relative dose for each of the three particles incident on the settings mentioned above. (author)

  17. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J; Fitzek, Markus M; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-05-07

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy.

  18. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or RBE for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, biological endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not deal with all different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance<2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/ Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  19. Codes of practice and protocols for the dosimetry in reference conditions of proton and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatnitsky, S.; Andreo, P.

    2002-01-01

    The advantages of radiotherapy protons and heavier charged-particle beams, the technological feasibility, and the clinical results obtained so far have led to the establishment of about 20 treatment facilities worldwide and plans to open another 20 proton and light-ion therapy centres in the next five years. In order to meet the expanding capabilities of treatment techniques, considerable effort has been devoted during the last fifteen years to the development of the dosimetry and calibration of such beams. This paper reviews these developments and summarizes the present status of Codes of Practice and protocols for the dosimetry in reference conditions of proton and ion beams. The first dosimetry protocol for heavy-particle radiotherapy beams, AAPM TG 20, was based on the use of Faraday cups and calorimeters, whereas ionization chamber dosimetry received little attention. Following the trends in 'nuclear particle' radiotherapy, TG 20 included recommendations for specifying 'dose to tissue'. The lack of availability of a harmonized set of data for the different particles made this protocol to include data for stopping-powers and for the mean energy required to produce and ion pair in air, W air , from multiple authors, without enough attention being paid to their consistency. The increased focus into proton beams was materialized in the publication of the ECHED Code of Practice, dedicated exclusively to protons, where ionization dosimetry received more attention than in TG 20. It was not until the publication of the Supplement to the ECHED recommendations that ionization chambers having a 60 CO calibration factor were recommended as a reference detector for proton dosimetry, and data supplied for chambers with different wall materials. The emphasis on ionization chamber-based proton dosimetry was complemented with a recommendation for using water as dosimetry phantom material and the necessary data on tissue and water to air stopping-power ratios and W air . One of

  20. Comparative results on collimation of the SPS beam of protons and Pb ions with bent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Cerutti, F.; Christiansen, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Laface, E.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Valentino, G.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Carnera, A.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Lombardi, A.; Lytovchenko, O.; Tonezzer, M.; Cavoto, G.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Bulgakov, M.K.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Uzhinskiy, V.V.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Skorobogatov, V.V.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M.; Zorba, O.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Markiewicz, T.; Oriunno, M.; Wienands, U.

    2011-01-01

    New experiments on crystal assisted collimation have been carried out at the CERN SPS with stored beams of 120 Gev/c protons and Pb ions. Bent silicon crystals of 2 mm long with about 170 mu rad bend angle and a small residual torsion were used as primary collimators. In channeling conditions, the beam loss rate induced by inelastic interactions of particles with the crystal nuclei is minimal. The loss reduction was about 6 for protons and about 3 for Pb ions. Lower reduction value for Pb ions can be explained by their considerably larger ionization losses in the crystal. In one of the crystals, the measured fraction of the Pb ion beam halo deflected in channeling conditions was 74\\%, a value very close to that for protons. The intensity of the off-momentum halo leaking out from the collimation station was measured in the first high dispersion area downstream. The particle population in the shadow of the secondary collimator-absorber was considerably smaller in channeling conditions than for amorphous orienta...

  1. Beam pinging, sweeping, shaking, and electron/ion collecting, at the Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.; Macek, R.J.; Plum, M.A.; Wang, T.S.F.

    1993-01-01

    We have built, installed and tested a pinger for use as a general diagnostic at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). Two 4-m-long parallel-plate electrodes with a plate spacing of 10.2 cm provide kicks of up to 1.1 mrad. A pair of solid-state pulsers may be operated in a single-pulse mode for beam pinging (tune measurements) or in a burst mode at up to 700 kHz pulse rates for beam sweeping. During our 1992 operating period we used the pinger for beam sweeping, for beam shaking, for measuring the tune shift, and we have used it as an ion chamber. Using the pinger as an ion chamber during production conditions has yielded some surprising results

  2. Report on proton therapy according to good clinical practice at Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center (HIBMC) is a hospital-based charged particle treatment facility. Having two treatment ion beams (proton and carbon) and five treatment rooms, it is a pioneer among particle institutes worldwide. In May 2001, proton therapy was started as a clinical study for patients with localized cancer originating in the head and neck, lung, liver, and prostate. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety, effectiveness, and stability of the treatment units and systems based on the evaluation of acute toxicity, tumor response, and working ratio of the machine, respectively. Six patients, including liver cancer in three, prostate cancer in two, and lung cancer in one, were treated. There was no cessation of therapy owing to machine malfunction. Full courses of proton therapy consisting of 154 portals in all six patients were given exactly as scheduled. None of the patients experienced severe acute reactions of more than grade 3 according to NCI-CTC criteria. Tumor response one month post-treatment was evaluable in five of the six patients, and was CR in 1 (prostate cancer), PR in 2 (lung cancer: 1, liver cancer: 1), and NC in 2 (liver cancer: 2). These results indicate that our treatment units and systems are safe and reliable enough for proton irradiation to be used for several malignant tumors localized in the body. (author)

  3. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J.; Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150μA of proton current from the source, with over 70μA on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above ∼1×10 17 /m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  4. Quantification of the Relative Biological Effectiveness for Ion Beam Radiotherapy: Direct Experimental Comparison of Proton and Carbon Ion Beams and a Novel Approach for Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaesser, Thilo; Weyrather, Wilma K.; Friedrich, Thomas; Durante, Marco; Iancu, Gheorghe; Kraemer, Michael; Kragl, Gabriele; Brons, Stephan; Winter, Marcus; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Scholz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first direct experimental in vitro comparison of the biological effectiveness of range-equivalent protons and carbon ion beams for Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed in a three-dimensional phantom using a pencil beam scanning technique and to compare the experimental data with a novel biophysical model. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was measured in the phantom after irradiation with two opposing fields, thus mimicking the typical patient treatment scenario. The novel biophysical model represents a substantial extension of the local effect model, previously used for treatment planning in carbon ion therapy for more than 400 patients, and potentially can be used to predict effectiveness of all ion species relevant for radiotherapy. A key feature of the new approach is the more sophisticated consideration of spatially correlated damage induced by ion irradiation. Results: The experimental data obtained for Chinese hamster ovary cells clearly demonstrate that higher cell killing is achieved in the target region with carbon ions as compared with protons when the effects in the entrance channel are comparable. The model predictions demonstrate agreement with these experimental data and with data obtained with helium ions under similar conditions. Good agreement is also achieved with relative biological effectiveness values reported in the literature for other cell lines for monoenergetic proton, helium, and carbon ions. Conclusion: Both the experimental data and the new modeling approach are supportive of the advantages of carbon ions as compared with protons for treatment-like field configurations. Because the model predicts the effectiveness for several ion species with similar accuracy, it represents a powerful tool for further optimization and utilization of the potential of ion beams in tumor therapy.

  5. Measurements of beam current density and proton fraction of a permanent-magnet microwave ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A permanent-magnet microwave ion source has been built for use in a high-yield, compact neutron generator. The source has been designed to produce up to 100 mA of deuterium and tritium ions. The electron-cyclotron resonance condition is met at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT. The source operates at a low hydrogen gas pressure of about 0.15 Pa. Hydrogen beams with a current density of 40 mA/cm{sup 2} have been extracted at a microwave power of 450 W. The dependence of the extracted proton beam fraction on wall materials and operating parameters was measured and found to vary from 45% for steel to 95% for boron nitride as a wall liner material.

  6. Measurements of beam current density and proton fraction of a permanent-magnet microwave ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    A permanent-magnet microwave ion source has been built for use in a high-yield, compact neutron generator. The source has been designed to produce up to 100 mA of deuterium and tritium ions. The electron-cyclotron resonance condition is met at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT. The source operates at a low hydrogen gas pressure of about 0.15 Pa. Hydrogen beams with a current density of 40 mA/cm(2) have been extracted at a microwave power of 450 W. The dependence of the extracted proton beam fraction on wall materials and operating parameters was measured and found to vary from 45% for steel to 95% for boron nitride as a wall liner material. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. The influence of lateral beam profile modifications in scanned proton and carbon ion therapy: a Monte Carlo study

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Kraemer, M; Sommerer, F; Naumann, J; Mairani, A; Brons, S

    2010-01-01

    Scanned ion beam delivery promises superior flexibility and accuracy for highly conformal tumour therapy in comparison to the usage of passive beam shaping systems. The attainable precision demands correct overlapping of the pencil-like beams which build up the entire dose distribution in the treatment field. In particular, improper dose application due to deviations of the lateral beam profiles from the nominal planning conditions must be prevented via appropriate beam monitoring in the beamline, prior to the entrance in the patient. To assess the necessary tolerance thresholds of the beam monitoring system at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, Germany, this study has investigated several worst-case scenarios for a sensitive treatment plan, namely scanned proton and carbon ion delivery to a small target volume at a shallow depth. Deviations from the nominal lateral beam profiles were simulated, which may occur because of misaligned elements or changes of the beam optic in the beamline. Data have been an...

  8. Integration and evaluation of automated Monte Carlo simulations in the clinical practice of scanned proton and carbon ion beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J; Sommerer, F; Mairani, A; Unholtz, D; Farook, R; Handrack, J; Frey, K; Marcelos, T; Tessonnier, T; Ecker, S; Ackermann, B; Ellerbrock, M; Debus, J; Parodi, K

    2014-08-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of beam interaction and transport in matter are increasingly considered as essential tools to support several aspects of radiation therapy. Despite the vast application of MC to photon therapy and scattered proton therapy, clinical experience in scanned ion beam therapy is still scarce. This is especially the case for ions heavier than protons, which pose additional issues like nuclear fragmentation and varying biological effectiveness. In this work, we present the evaluation of a dedicated framework which has been developed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center to provide automated FLUKA MC simulations of clinical patient treatments with scanned proton and carbon ion beams. Investigations on the number of transported primaries and the dimension of the geometry and scoring grids have been performed for a representative class of patient cases in order to provide recommendations on the simulation settings, showing that recommendations derived from the experience in proton therapy cannot be directly translated to the case of carbon ion beams. The MC results with the optimized settings have been compared to the calculations of the analytical treatment planning system (TPS), showing that regardless of the consistency of the two systems (in terms of beam model in water and range calculation in different materials) relevant differences can be found in dosimetric quantities and range, especially in the case of heterogeneous and deep seated treatment sites depending on the ion beam species and energies, homogeneity of the traversed tissue and size of the treated volume. The analysis of typical TPS speed-up approximations highlighted effects which deserve accurate treatment, in contrast to adequate beam model simplifications for scanned ion beam therapy. In terms of biological dose calculations, the investigation of the mixed field components in realistic anatomical situations confirmed the findings of previous groups so far reported only in

  9. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  10. Proton Beam Writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Csige, I.; Baradacs, E.

    2005-01-01

    flow channel, which were also implanted at the same irradiation. During the porous Si formation we developed the sample 6-8 μm deeper than the implanting ion range damaged the crystal. Due to the isotropic nature of the porous Si etching, the thick sidewall blocks are still connected to the crystal while the thin membranes detached from the bottom, and they are only connected to one of the sidewalls. The other construction utilized the goniometer facility mounted on the microbeam chamber, we implanted the samples at 40 degrees tilt, and developed the samples not as deep as the ion range. This way both the sidewalls and the membranes are attached to the bottom of the sample. The SEM images of the samples showed that both of these types of valves can be actively working, however, the thickness of the moving membrane requires extremely large force according to the fluidic tests. In order to achieve a successful demonstration of the functionality, the membrane rigidity should be reduced by decreasing the wall thickness. Reduction of optimal fluence by CO 2 treatment after exposure and vacuum effects in proton beam micromachining of CR-39 CR-39 has been shown to be a suitable material as a thick resist for Proton Beam Writing [5]. These samples are normally used to detect single alpha particles in normal air conditions. However, to use this material as proton or alpha micromachinable resists, we need to irradiate the samples in vacuum. In this work, we investigated the effects of vacuum on the micromachinable properties of CR-39. Our investigations proved that there were no drawbacks of the vacuum storage of the samples, so we concluded that CR-39 is a suitable material as a PBM resist in this respect, too. Another part of the current work concentrated on the effect of post-irradiaton CO 2 treatment of the samples. Such a treatment increased the radiation sensitivity of CR-39, i.e. decreased the necessary optimal ion fluence. We have found that approximately 60% of fluence

  11. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  12. Recent progress in the development of a polarized proton target for reactions with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J.P.; Bingham, C.R.; Brandt, B. van den; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with stable beams have provided important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms and hold great promise in the context of exotic nuclei. We report on the development of a polarized target based on plastic foils of 20-200 μm thickness to be used with radioactive ion beams. The operation of such a target requires a moderately high magnetic field and very low temperatures. The plastic foil is placed inside a chamber attached to the mixing chamber of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Cooling of the foil is achieved via a superfluid film of 4 He that can be supplied through two capillaries. The chamber has two thin, highly uniform silicon nitride windows. An NMR coil is attached to the target to monitor the polarization. Results of a first test to characterize the target system, using the elastic scattering of 38 MeV 12 C by protons in inverse kinematics are presented

  13. Envelope model for passive magnetic focusing of an intense proton or ion beam propagating through thin foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion beams (including protons with low emittance and high space-charge intensity can be propagated with normal incidence through a sequence of thin metallic foils separated by vacuum gaps of order the characteristic transverse beam extent to transport/collimate the beam or to focus it to a small transverse spot. Energetic ions have sufficient range to pass through a significant number of thin foils with little energy loss or scattering. The foils reduce the (defocusing radial electric self-field of the beam while not altering the (focusing azimuthal magnetic self-field of the beam, thereby allowing passive self-beam focusing if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong relative to the residual electric field. Here we present an envelope model developed to predict the strength of this passive (beam generated focusing effect under a number of simplifying assumptions including relatively long pulse duration. The envelope model provides a simple criterion for the necessary foil spacing for net focusing and clearly illustrates system focusing properties for either beam collimation (such as injecting a laser-produced proton beam into an accelerator or for magnetic pinch focusing to a small transverse spot (for beam driven heating of materials. An illustrative example is worked for an idealization of a recently performed laser-produced proton-beam experiment to provide guidance on possible beam focusing and collimation systems. It is found that foils spaced on the order of the characteristic transverse beam size desired can be employed and that envelope divergence of the initial beam entering the foil lens must be suppressed to limit the total number of foils required to practical values for pinch focusing. Relatively modest proton-beam current at 10 MeV kinetic energy can clearly demonstrate strong magnetic pinch focusing achieving a transverse rms extent similar to the foil spacing (20–50  μm gaps in beam propagation distances of tens of mm

  14. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammazzalorso, F; Jelen, U; Bednarz, T

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  15. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, F.; Bednarz, T.; Jelen, U.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  16. The cryogenic silicon Beam Tracker of NA60 for heavy ion and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinsky, P.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Devaux, A.; Granata, V.; Guettet, N.; Hess, M.; Heuser, J.; Jarron, P.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Manso, F.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Palmieri, V.G.; Radermacher, E.; Shahoyan, R.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    The cryogenic silicon Beam Tracker of NA60 is the first detector based on the Lazarus effect used in a high-energy physics experiment. It employs single-sided silicon strip sensors of 50 μm pitch operated at a temperature of 130 K. Two tracking stations determine the transverse coordinates of the interaction point at the target with 20 μm resolution, to improve the determination of the offset of secondary vertices. This impact parameter measurement allows NA60 to distinguish between prompt dimuons and muon pairs from D-meson decays. The detector concept and technical feasibility have been demonstrated in beam time periods between 1999 and 2002

  17. Geant4 simulation of clinical proton and carbon ion beams for the treatment of ocular melanomas with the full 3-D pencil beam scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Edoardo; Riccardi, Cristina; Rimoldi, Adele; Tamborini, Aurora [University of Pavia and the INFN section of Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Piersimoni, Pierluigi [Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Ciocca, Mario [Medical Physics Unit, CNAO Foundation, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    This work investigates the possibility to use carbon ion beams delivered with active scanning modality, for the treatment of ocular melanomas at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia. The radiotherapy with carbon ions offers many advantages with respect to the radiotherapy with protons or photons, such as a higher relative radio-biological effectiveness (RBE) and a dose release better localized to the tumor. The Monte Carlo (MC) Geant4 10.00 patch-03 toolkit is used to reproduce the complete CNAO extraction beam line, including all the active and passive components characterizing it. The simulation of proton and carbon ion beams and radiation scanned field is validated against CNAO experimental data. For the irradiation study of the ocular melanoma an eye-detector, representing a model of a human eye, is implemented in the simulation. Each element of the eye is reproduced with its chemical and physical properties. Inside the eye-detector a realistic tumor volume is placed and used as the irradiation target. A comparison between protons and carbon ions eye irradiations allows to study possible treatment benefits if carbon ions are used instead of protons. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire's multiple scattering theory and Vavilov's energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program's accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented

  19. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F

    1995-12-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  20. SU-E-T-146: Reference Dosimetry for Protons and Light-Ion Beams Based on Graphite Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomme, S; Palmans, H; Thomas, R; Lee, N; Bailey, M; Shipley, D; Al-Sulaiti, L; Cirrone, P; Romano, F; Kacperek, A; Bertrand, D; Vynckier, S

    2012-06-01

    The IAEA TRS-398 code of practice can be applied for the measurement of absorbed dose to water under reference conditions with an ionization chamber. For protons, the combined relative standard uncertainty on those measurements is less than 2% while for light-ion beams, it is considerably larger, i.e. 3.2%, mainly due to the higher uncertainty contributions for the water to air stopping power ration and the W air-value on the beam quality correction factors kQ,Q 0 . To decrease this uncertainty, a quantification of kQ,Q 0 is proposed using a primary standard level graphite calorimeter. This work includes numerical and experimental determinations of dose conversion factors to derive dose to water from graphite calorimetry. It also reports on the first experimental data obtained with the graphite calorimeter in proton, alpha and carbon ion beams. Firstly, the dose conversion has been calculated with by Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulations through the determination of the water to graphite stopping power ratio and the fluence correction factor. The latter factor was also derived by comparison of measured ionization curves in graphite and water. Secondly, kQ,Q 0 was obtained by comparison of the dose response of ionization chambers with that of the calorimeter. Stopping power ratios are found to vary by no more than 0.35% up to the Bragg peak, while fluence correction factors are shown to increase slightly above unity close to the Bragg peak. The comparison of the calorimeter with ionization chambers is currently under analysis. For the modulated proton beam, preliminary results on W air confirm the value recommended in TRS-398. Data in both the non-modulated proton and light-ion beams indicate higher values but further investigation of heat loss corrections is needed. The application of graphite calorimetry to proton, alpha and carbon ion beams has been demonstrated successfully. Other experimental campaigns will be held in 2012. This work is supported by the BioWin program

  1. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevillot, L; Stock, M; Vatnitsky, S

    2015-10-21

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular. A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design. A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients.

  2. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinigardi, Stefano, E-mail: sinigardi@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Bolton, Paul R. [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), Umemidai 8-1-7, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2014-03-11

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  3. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15 M €. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  4. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments

  5. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J. [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150{mu}A of proton current from the source, with over 70{mu}A on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  6. LHC Report: Ions cross protons

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany Fernandez for the LHC team

    2013-01-01

    The LHC starts the New Year facing a new challenge: proton-lead collisions in the last month before the shutdown in mid-February.    The first stable beams were achieved on 20 January with 13 individual bunches per beam. In the next fill, the first bunch-trains were injected and stable beams were achieved with 96 proton on 120 ion bunches.  This fill was very important because we were able to study the so-called moving long-range beam-beam encounters. Long-range encounters, which are also seen in proton-proton runs, occur when the bunches in the two beams “see” each other as they travel in the same vacuum chamber at either side of the experiments.  The situation becomes more complicated with proton-lead ions because the two species have different revolution times (until the frequencies are locked at top energy- see “Cogging exercises”) and thus these encounters move. We found that this effect does not cause significant beam losses...

  7. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  8. Dependence of proton beam polarization on ion source transition configurations; Determination de la polarisation du faisceau de protons pour les quatre configurations des transitions de la source d`ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J.; Ausset, P.; Ball, J.; Beauvais, P.Y.; Bedfer, Y.; Chamouard, P.A.; Fontaine, J.M.; Kunne, R.; Lagniel, J.M.; Sans, J.L. [Laboratoire National Saturne - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Allgower, Ch.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Spinka, H.M. [ANL-HEP, Argonne (United States); Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Demiere, Ph.; Rapin, D.; Teglia, A. [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire; Janout, Z. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Popov, A.A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prokofiev, A.N.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Zhdanov, A.A. [Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Considerable anomalies were observed in recorded pp elastic scattering spin dependent data at several proton beam energies at SATURNE II. These results suggested that the discrepancies are related to the polarized ion source. In order to understand the observed effects, the proton beam polarizations for each ion source state were determined separately. Convenient procedures, allowing to determine the beam polarization from a beam-line polarimeter are presented. Two distinct experiments are necessary for this purpose. In the first one the LEFT-RIGHT instrumental asymmetry of the beam polarimeter arms is determined. In the second one this correction factor is applied to asymmetries measured with the beam from the polarized ion source in different polarization states. Both experiments determined the scattering asymmetries for all four polarized source states as functions of different source parameters. The measurements were carried out at the proton beam kinetic energy 0.80 GeV, where the pp elastic scattering analyzing power is at its maximum. Results show that the so called `unpolarized states` of the source are polarized, whereas the absolute values of the beam polarizations in `polarized states` are equal. It was observed that the hexapole lens of the ion source provides some beam polarization in the absence of any transition. The beam polarization as function of the hexapole current, of the transition efficiencies and of the rotation solenoid current has been studied. It is also shown, how one way obtain a strictly unpolarized beam using the polarized source only. The results obtained with the SATURNE II ion source HYPERION may be also valid for other accelerators and sources. (authors) 10 refs.

  9. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  10. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarlinghi, N.; Sportelli, G.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Cecchetti, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.; Retico, A.; Romano, F.; Sala, P.; Straub, K.; Tramontana, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2014-04-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β+ activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β+ activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo.

  11. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarlinghi, N; Sportelli, G; Belcari, N; Cecchetti, M; Ferretti, S; Kraan, A; Retico, A; Straub, K; Guerra, A Del; Rosso, V; Battistoni, G; Sala, P; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Romano, F; Tramontana, A

    2014-01-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β + activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β + activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo

  12. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  13. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  15. Control of Pre-treatment for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Proton Ion Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, W. J.

    2008-04-01

    The carbon nanotubes are the next generation material in fuel storage system, the gas sensor, the life science sensor or the nano-size transistor, the stiffener and the heat dissipation field. For use at appropriate position in various field, it must be developed that control technique makes carbon nanotubes with high performance synthesized at appropriate location. The density of the carbon nanotube is 1 - 2g/cm3 with aluminum (2 - 3g/cm3) to be light, the elastic modulus is the level where as many of as 30 - 50 times of iron's elastic modulus and thermal conductivity is similar to the diamond, electric conductivity is high as well above the metal. Generally, many researchers have tried to synthesize the carbon nanotubes of mm length unit using the hydrogen and porous substrate, which play a role of more activating the catalyst. The proton beam which consist of H+ was able to directly inject the hydrogen into target materials such as Ni, Co, Fe as well as transfer high activation energy to them. so we were able to carry out feasibility of controlling the porosity of thin film and substrate to synthesize carbon nanotubes. The pre-treatment method of existing which is used generally heat treatment and the ammonia controls has generated island of catalyst which has increased the surface to react the hydrocarbon. However, pre-treatment method of existing caused the random nuclear creation so it was hard to control the island size of catalyst. It was not enough to understand the porous effect against synthesis of carbon nanotubes deduced from altering various substrates. In this report, it is possible investigate how hydrogen and the porous effect influence on growth of carbon nanotubes through controlling the nuclear creation of catalysts directly and the porosity of them using proton beam

  16. Formation of an intense proton beam of microsecond duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The proton beam facility PROFA serves as a test installation for ion source development and beam transport optimization for an intense pulsed proton beam of low kinetic energy, envisaged for ITER divertor load simulation. The present state of the investigations is discussed with emphasis on the diode operation parameters, beam divergence and beam transport efficiency. (author). 7 figs., 5 refs.

  17. Development of an intense O-15 radioactive ion beam using low energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Lapi, S; Zyuzin, A Yu; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The production of copious quantities of sup 1 sup 5 O, (half-life = 122.2 s) for astrophysical applications has been a source of concern at TRIUMF and ISAC for some time. An sup 1 sup 5 O beam is needed for two experiments ( sup 1 sup 5 O(alpha,gamma) sup 1 sup 9 Ne and sup 1 sup 5 O( sup 6 Li,d) sup 1 sup 9 Ne) at ISAC. The beam flux required for these experiments is extremely high, (between 10 sup 9 and 10 sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 sup 5 O/s) and thus high efficiencies at all steps in the process will be required. Difficulties arise due to the fact that oxygen is very reactive chemically and thus is difficult to extract from a thick spallation target. The possibility of using one of the small cyclotrons on site (TR13, CP42 or TR30) for the production of this isotope ( sup 1 sup 5 O) has been discussed. This production approach will involve the use of low energy protons to interact with a nitrogen gas target via the sup 1 sup 5 N(p,n) sup 1 sup 5 O reaction, which is accessible with attainable particle energies usin...

  18. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, David; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistiv...

  19. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  20. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  1. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  2. Microdosimetry of proton and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liamsuwan, Thiansin [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Ongkharak, Nakhon Nayok 26120 (Thailand); Hultqvist, Martha [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 (Sweden); Lindborg, Lennart; Nikjoo, Hooshang, E-mail: hooshang.nikjoo@ki.se [Radiation Biophysics Group, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Box 260 SE-17176, Stockholm (Sweden); Uehara, Shuzo [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate microdosimetry properties of 160 MeV/u protons and 290 MeV/u{sup 12}C ion beams in small volumes of diameters 10–100 nm. Methods: Energy distributions of primary particles and nuclear fragments in the beams were calculated from simulations with the general purpose code SHIELD-HIT, while energy depositions by monoenergetic ions in nanometer volumes were obtained from the event-by-event Monte Carlo track structure ion code PITS99 coupled with the electron track structure code KURBUC. Results: The results are presented for frequencies of energy depositions in cylindrical targets of diameters 10–100 nm, dose distributionsyd(y) in lineal energy y, and dose-mean lineal energies y{sup ¯}{sub D}. For monoenergetic ions, the y{sup ¯}{sub D} was found to increase with an increasing target size for high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions, but decrease with an increasing target size for low-LET ions. Compared to the depth dose profile of the ion beams, the maximum of the y{sup ¯}{sub D} depth profile for the 160 MeV proton beam was located at ∼0.5 cm behind the Bragg peak maximum, while the y{sup ¯}{sub D} peak of the 290 MeV/u {sup 12}C beam coincided well with the peak of the absorbed dose profile. Differences between the y{sup ¯}{sub D} and dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET{sub D}) were large in the proton beam for both target volumes studied, and in the {sup 12}C beam for the 10 nm diameter cylindrical volumes. The y{sup ¯}{sub D} determined for 100 nm diameter cylindrical volumes in the {sup 12}C beam was approximately equal to the LET{sub D}. The contributions from secondary particles to the y{sup ¯}{sub D} of the beams are presented, including the contributions from secondary protons in the proton beam and from fragments with atomic number Z = 1–6 in the {sup 12}C beam. Conclusions: The present investigation provides an insight into differences in energy depositions in subcellular-size volumes when irradiated by proton and

  3. Beam intensity monitoring for the external proton beam at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.J.; Anderson, B.D.; Willard, H.B.; Anderson, A.N.; Jarmie, N.

    1975-07-01

    Three different intensity monitors were tested in the external proton beam at LAMPF, and together cover the entire range of beam currents available. A 800 kg Faraday cup was installed and used to measure the absolute intensity to better than 1 percent for beam currents up to several nanoamperes. A high gain ion chamber was used as part of the calibration procedure for the Faraday cup, and was found to be useful when monitoring very small beam intensities, being reliable down to the few picoampere level. A secondary emission monitor was also tested, calibrated, and found to be trustworthy only for beams of greater than 50 pA intensity. (auth)

  4. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the super proton synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental ...

  5. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  6. Simulation and dosimetric analysis of protons, {sup 4}He ions and {sup 12}C ions beams for brain neoplasm therapy; Simulacao e analise dosimetrica de feixes de protons e ions de {sup 4}He e {sup 12}C em tratamento de tumor cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme M.; Mello, Victor Barreto Braga [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello Neto, Joao R.T. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to simulate protons, {sup 4}He ions and {sup 12}C ions beams, radiating the head of an average-sized man with the purpose of treating a hypothalamic tumor. GEANT4 was used to simulate the head (skin, skull and brain), and the beam, giving their characteristics and also the physical processes involved. The results sought herein are graphs of depth for relative dose for each of the three particles incident on the settings mentioned above. (author)

  7. Comparison Between In-Beam and Offline Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Proton and Carbon Ion Therapeutic Irradiation at Synchrotron- and Cyclotron-Based Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, Katia; Bortfeld, Thomas; Haberer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of using dedicated in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) detectors in the treatment room instead of commercial tomographs nearby is an open question. This work quantitatively compares the measurable signal for in-beam and offline PET imaging, taking into account realistic acquisition strategies at different ion beam facilities. Both scenarios of pulsed and continuous irradiation from synchrotron and cyclotron accelerators are considered, because of their widespread use in most carbon ion and proton therapy centers. Methods and Materials: A mathematical framework is introduced to compare the time-dependent amount and spatial distribution of decays from irradiation-induced isotope production. The latter is calculated with Monte Carlo techniques for real proton treatments of head-and-neck and paraspinal tumors. Extrapolation to carbon ion irradiation is based on results of previous phantom experiments. Biologic clearance is modeled taking into account available data from previous animal and clinical studies. Results: Ratios between the amount of physical decays available for in-beam and offline detection range from 40% to 60% for cyclotron-based facilities, to 65% to 110% (carbon ions) and 94% to 166% (protons) at synchrotron-based facilities, and increase when including biologic clearance. Spatial distributions of decays during irradiation exhibit better correlation with the dose delivery and reduced influence of biologic processes. Conclusions: In-beam imaging can be advantageous for synchrotron-based facilities, provided that efficient PET systems enabling detection of isotope decays during beam extraction are implemented. For very short (<2 min) irradiation times at cyclotron-based facilities, a few minutes of acquisition time after the end of irradiation are needed for counting statistics, thus affecting patient throughput

  8. Beam optics on the Melbourne proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Colman, R.A.; Allan, G.L.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This review paper summarises results of ion optics development work conducted on the Melbourne Proton Microprobe and the associated Pelletron accelerator. The properties of a field ionization ion source have been investigated with the aim of replacing the existing R.F. ion source in the accelerator in order to obtain a brighter beam for the microprobe. The electrostatic emitter lens in the terminal of the accelerator has also been investigated with the aim of improving the focus of the accelerated beam. Finally, the aberrations of the probe forming lens system have been studied and it is shown how some of these may be corrected with an octupole lens

  9. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed

  10. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  11. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  12. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  13. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  14. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    different sets of data obtained for the same cell line and different ions, measured at different laboratories, we have fitted model parameters to a set of carbon-irradiated V79 cells, published by Furusawa et al. (2), and to a set of proton-irradiated V79 cells, published by Wouters et al. (3), separately....... We found that values of model parameters best fitted to the carbon data of Furusawa et al. yielded predictions of V79 survival after proton irradiation which did not match the V79 proton data of Wouters et al. Fitting parameters to both sets combined did not improve the accuracy of model predictions...... carbon irradiation. 1. Katz, R., Track structure in radiobiology and in radiation detection. Nuclear Track Detection 2: 1-28 (1978). 2. Furusawa Y. et al. Inactivation of aerobic and hypoxic cells from three different cell lines by accelerated 3He-, 12C- and 20Ne beams. Radiat Res. 2012 Jan; 177...

  15. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  16. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, Juan A.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Debray, Mario E.; Kesque, Jose M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Stoliar, Pablo A.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Vazquez, Monica E.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S.; Ruffolo, M.; Tasat, D.R.; Muhlmann, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  17. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  18. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  19. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  20. Study on the conditions of proton beam shaping in the ion source of the AN USSR IYaI meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esin, S.K.; Yakushev, V.P.; Frolov, O.T.; Polulyakh, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of measuring proton beam emittance in ion source- duaplasmatron with tungsten-barium direct-heated cathode intended for 750 keV injector of the linear accelerator are presented. The system of ion extraction comprises an expander and extraction grid. Peculiarities of primary beam formation at different configurations of the expander: a) expander in the form of a cylinder, b) comical expander, c) the same conical expander but with a splitter installed behind the anode window and permitting to cut off the central part of plasma flux; ''sectional'' expander made of 5 separated from one another similar metal rings of 16 mm height fixed in the cylinder made of insulator, are studied. The diameter of the duaplasmatron window equals 0.8 mm. It is shown that beam formation with the help of cylindrical and conical with a splitter expanders meet the requirements of the proton injector and well satisfy the aperture of the channel of the accelerating tube of 54 mm diameter [ru

  1. Modification of semiconductors with proton beams. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Lomasov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis is given of the progress in the modification of semiconductors by proton beams in fields such as proton-enhanced diffusion, ion-beam mixing, and formation of porous layers. This method of modification (doping) is shown to have high potential in monitoring the properties of semiconductor materials and designing devices of micro and nano electronics as compared to the conventional doping techniques such as thermal diffusion, epitaxy, and ion implantation

  2. Conceptual design of proton beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Syuichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    In a MW-scale neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator, a proton beam window is installed as the boundary between a high vacuum region of the proton beam transport line and a helium environment around the target assembly working as a neutron source. The window is cooled by water so as to remove high volumetric heat generated by the proton beam. A concept of the flat-type proton beam window consisting of two plates of 3 mm thick was proposed, which was found to be feasible under the proton beam power of 5 MW through thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses. (authors)

  3. Ablative acceleration of thin foil targets by intense proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Ozaki, T.; Imasaki, K.; Higaki, S.; Nakai, S.

    1981-01-01

    A focused proton beam of up to 2 x 10 10 w/cm 2 was obtained using pinch-reflex ion diode connected to Reiden IV generator. Experiments of beam target interaction have been done using thin foil targets. In this power range the interaction was explained classically. The experimental dependence of ablation pressure on proton beam intensity was obtained as P sub(a) = 3 x 10 -3 I sup(0.7) bar (I in w/cm 2 ). (author)

  4. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Prasalovich, S.V.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  5. Intense-proton-beam transport through an insulator beam guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamori, Susumu; Kawata, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Fujita, Akira; Chiba, Yasunobu; Hikita, Taisuke; Kato, Shigeru

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study intense-proton-beam transport through an insulator guide. In our previous papers (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1995) L520, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1996) L1127) we proposed a new system for intense-electron-beam transport using an insulator guide. In contrast to the electron beam, an intense-proton beam tends to generate a virtual anode, because of the large proton mass. The virtual anode formation at the initial stage is prevented by prefilled plasma in this system. During and after this, electrons are extracted from the plasma generated at the insulator surface by the proton beam space charge and expand over the transport area. The proton beam charge is effectively neutralized by the electrons. Consequently, the proton beam propagates efficiently through the insulator beam guide. The electron extraction is self-regulated by the net space charge of the proton beam. (author)

  6. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  7. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daudin, L., E-mail: daudin@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph. [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d’Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA’s nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  8. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  9. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  10. Ion beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.; Temple, W.

    1977-04-01

    A description of techniques for the production of intense beams of heavy ions is given. A table of recommended operational procedures for most elements is included. The ionisation of boron is considered in some detail because of its particular importance as a dopant for ion implantation. (author)

  11. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  12. Study of Prompt Dimuon and Charm Production with Proton and Heavy Ion Beams at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Cicalo, C

    2002-01-01

    The NA60 detector complements the muon spectrometer and zero degree calorimeter previously used in NA50 with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, placed in the target region. A radiation hard beam tracker, made of silicon microstrip detectors operated at 130 K, is placed on the beam line, upstream of the target system. It gives the transverse coordinates of the interaction point on the targets with a precision around 20 micron, allowing us to measure the offset of the muon tracks, and tag events where a pair of D mesons was produced. Downstream of the target system, and inside a dipole magnetic field of 2.5 T, we have a silicon tracking telescope, that tracks the charged particles and allows us to identify which one of them provides the best match to the muon measured in the muon spectrometer, placed behind a 5.5m silicon microstrip planes complemented by pixel planes. For the ion runs, the very high multiplicity of charged particles imposes the exclusive use of radiation tolerant pixel detectors.

  13. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin flip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oellers, D.; Barion, L.; Barsov, S.; Bechstedt, U.; Benati, P.; Bertelli, S.; Chiladze, D.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dietrich, J.; Dolfus, N.; Dymov, S.; Engels, R.; Erven, W.; Garishvili, A.; Gebel, R.; Goslawski, P.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss polarizing a proton beam in a storage ring, either by selective removal or by spin flip of the stored ions. Prompted by recent, conflicting calculations, we have carried out a measurement of the spin-flip cross section in low-energy electron-proton scattering. The experiment uses the cooling electron beam at COSY as an electron target. The measured cross sections are too small for making spin flip a viable tool in polarizing a stored beam. This invalidates a recent proposal to use co-moving polarized positrons to polarize a stored antiproton beam.

  14. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  15. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Robert L; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy

  16. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A [Riverside, CA; Beloussov, Alexandre V [Bernardino, CA; Bakir, Julide [Alta Loma, CA; Armon, Deganit [Redlands, CA; Olsen, Howard B [Colton, CA; Salem, Dana [Riverside, CA

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  17. Laser Compton polarimetry of proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A need exists for non-destructive polarization measurements of the polarized proton beams in the AGS and, in the future, in RHIC. One way to make such measurements is to scatter photons from the polarized beams. Until now, such measurements were impossible because of the extremely low Compton scattering cross section from protons. Modern lasers now can provide enough photons per laser pulse not only to scatter from proton beams but also, at least in RHIC, to analyze their polarization

  18. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  19. Ion beam texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture was created by sputter-etching a surface while simultaneously sputter-depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion-beam source was used to perform the texturing process on samples as large as 3-cm diameter. Textured surfaces have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, stainless steel, Au, and Ag. A number of texturing parameters are studied including the variation of texture with ion-beam powder, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  20. Ion beam inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  1. WE-H-BRA-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY): Nano-Dosimetric Kinetic Model for Variable Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton and Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolfath, R; Bronk, L; Titt, U.; Grosshans, D; Mohan, R [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Helo, Y [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Schuemann, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent clonogenic cell survival and γH2AX studies suggest proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) may be a non-linear function of linear energy transfer (LET) in the distal edge of the Bragg peak and beyond. We sought to develop a multiscale model to account for non-linear response phenomena to aid in the optimization of intensity-modulated proton therapy. Methods: The model is based on first-principle simulations of proton track structures, including secondary ions, and an analytical derivation of the dependence on particle LET of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model parameters α and β. The derived formulas are an extension of the microdosimetric kinetic (MK) model that captures dissipative track structures and non-Poissonian distribution of DNA damage at the distal edge of the Bragg peak and beyond. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to confirm the non-linear dose-response characteristics arising from the non-Poisson distribution of initial DNA damage. Results: In contrast to low LET segments of the proton depth dose, from the beam entrance to the Bragg peak, strong deviations from non-dissipative track structures and Poisson distribution in the ionization events in the Bragg peak distal edge govern the non-linear cell response and result in the transformation α=(1+c-1 L) α-x+2(c-0 L+c-2 L^2 )(1+c-1 L) β-x and β=(1+c-1 L)^2 β-x. Here L is the charged particle LET, and c-0,c-1, and c-2 are functions of microscopic parameters and can be served as fitting parameters to the cell-survival data. In the low LET limit c-1, and c-2 are negligible hence the linear model proposed and used by Wilkins-Oelfke for the proton treatment planning system can be retrieved. The present model fits well the recent clonogenic survival data measured recently in our group in MDACC. Conclusion: The present hybrid method provides higher accuracy in calculating the RBE-weighted dose in the target and normal tissues.

  2. WE-H-BRA-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY): Nano-Dosimetric Kinetic Model for Variable Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton and Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolfath, R; Bronk, L; Titt, U.; Grosshans, D; Mohan, R; Helo, Y; Schuemann, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clonogenic cell survival and γH2AX studies suggest proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) may be a non-linear function of linear energy transfer (LET) in the distal edge of the Bragg peak and beyond. We sought to develop a multiscale model to account for non-linear response phenomena to aid in the optimization of intensity-modulated proton therapy. Methods: The model is based on first-principle simulations of proton track structures, including secondary ions, and an analytical derivation of the dependence on particle LET of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model parameters α and β. The derived formulas are an extension of the microdosimetric kinetic (MK) model that captures dissipative track structures and non-Poissonian distribution of DNA damage at the distal edge of the Bragg peak and beyond. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to confirm the non-linear dose-response characteristics arising from the non-Poisson distribution of initial DNA damage. Results: In contrast to low LET segments of the proton depth dose, from the beam entrance to the Bragg peak, strong deviations from non-dissipative track structures and Poisson distribution in the ionization events in the Bragg peak distal edge govern the non-linear cell response and result in the transformation α=(1+c_1 L) α_x+2(c_0 L+c_2 L^2 )(1+c_1 L) β_x and β=(1+c_1 L)^2 β_x. Here L is the charged particle LET, and c_0,c_1, and c_2 are functions of microscopic parameters and can be served as fitting parameters to the cell-survival data. In the low LET limit c_1, and c_2 are negligible hence the linear model proposed and used by Wilkins-Oelfke for the proton treatment planning system can be retrieved. The present model fits well the recent clonogenic survival data measured recently in our group in MDACC. Conclusion: The present hybrid method provides higher accuracy in calculating the RBE-weighted dose in the target and normal tissues.

  3. Effect of Proton Beam on Cancer Progressive and Metastatic Enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Nam, K. S.; Oh, Y. H.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Jang, J. S.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proton beam on enzymes for promotion/progression of carcinogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumor cells to clarify proton beam-specific biological effects. The changes of cancer chemopreventive enzymes in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells irradiated with proton beams were tested by measuring the activities of quinine reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), glutathione (GSH) levels, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also examined the effect of proton beam on the ODC activity and expression of COX-2 in human breast cancer cell. We then assessed the metastatic capabilities of HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells irradiated with proton beam by measuring the invasiveness of cells through Matrigel-coated membrane and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. QR activity of irradiated HT-29 cells was slightly increased. Proton irradiation at dose of 32 Gy in HT-29 cells increased GST activity by 1.23-fold. In addition GSH levels in HT-29 cells was significantly increased 1.23- (p<0.05), 1.32- (p<0.01) and 1.34-fold (p<0.01) with the proton irradiation at doses of 8, 16 and 32 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that colon cancer chemopreventive activity was increased with the proton irradiation by increasing QR and GST activities and GSH levels and inhibiting ODC activity. Proton ion irradiation decreased the invasiveness of TPA-treated HT-29 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane. Proton ion irradiation pretreatment decreased TPA-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. Further studies are necessary to investigate if these findings could be translated to in vivo situations

  4. Laser-accelerated proton beams as a new particle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuernberg, Frank

    2010-11-15

    plasma physics group of the Technische Universitat Darmstadt initiated the development of a test stand to transport, focus and bunch rotate these beams by conventional ion optics and RF technology. The field strength of 7.5 T enabled collimation of protons with an energy of >10 MeV for the first time. In addition, the focusing capability of the solenoid provided a flux increase in the focal spot of about a factor of 174 at a distance of 40 cm from the source, compared to a beam without using the magnetic field. For a quantitative analysis of the experiment numerical simulations with the WarpRZ code were performed. The code, which was originally developed to study high current ion beams and aid in the pursuit of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion, was modified to enable the use of laser-accelerated proton beams as particle source. The calculated energy-resolved beam parameters of RIS could be included, and the plasma simulation criteria were studied in detail. The geometrical boundaries of the experimental setup were used in the simulations. 2.99 x 10{sup 9} collimated protons in the energy range of 13.5{+-}1 MeV could be transported over a distance of 40 cm. In addition, 8.42 x 10{sup 9} protons in the energy range of 6.7{+-}0.2 MeV were focused into a spot of <2 mm in diameter. The transmission through the solenoid for both cases was about 18%. (orig.)

  5. Laser-accelerated proton beams as a new particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Darmstadt initiated the development of a test stand to transport, focus and bunch rotate these beams by conventional ion optics and RF technology. The field strength of 7.5 T enabled collimation of protons with an energy of >10 MeV for the first time. In addition, the focusing capability of the solenoid provided a flux increase in the focal spot of about a factor of 174 at a distance of 40 cm from the source, compared to a beam without using the magnetic field. For a quantitative analysis of the experiment numerical simulations with the WarpRZ code were performed. The code, which was originally developed to study high current ion beams and aid in the pursuit of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion, was modified to enable the use of laser-accelerated proton beams as particle source. The calculated energy-resolved beam parameters of RIS could be included, and the plasma simulation criteria were studied in detail. The geometrical boundaries of the experimental setup were used in the simulations. 2.99 x 10 9 collimated protons in the energy range of 13.5±1 MeV could be transported over a distance of 40 cm. In addition, 8.42 x 10 9 protons in the energy range of 6.7±0.2 MeV were focused into a spot of <2 mm in diameter. The transmission through the solenoid for both cases was about 18%. (orig.)

  6. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS's demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world's first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970's; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE

  7. Ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ion beam analysis is an accelerator application area for the study of materials and the structure of matter; electrostatic accelerators of the Van de Graaff or Dynamitron type are often used for energies up to a few MeV. Two types of machines are available - the single-ended accelerator type with higher beam currents and greater flexibility of beam management, or the tandem accelerator, limited to atomic species with negative ions. The accelerators are not generally installed at specialist accelerator laboratories and have to be easy to maintain and simple to operate. The most common technique for industrial research is Rutherford Back Scattering Spectrometry (RBS). Helium ions are the preferred projectiles, since at elevated energies (above 3 MeV) nuclear resonance scattering can be used to detect photons associated with target molecules containing elements such as carbon, nitrogen or oxygen. Due to the large amount of available data on nuclear reactions in this energy range, activation analysis (detecting trace elements by irradiating the sample) can be performed with charged particles from accelerators over a wider range of atoms than with the conventional use of neutrons, which is more suited to light elements. Resonance reactions have been used to detect trace metals such as aluminium, titanium and vanadium. Hydrogen atoms are vital to the material performance of several classes of materials, such as semiconductors, insulators and ceramics. Prudent selection of the projectile ion aids the analysis of hydrogen composition; the technique is then a simple measurement of the emitted gamma radiation. Solar cell material and glass can be analysed in this way. On a world-wide basis, numerous laboratories perform ion beam analysis for research purposes; considerable work is carried out in cooperation between scientific laboratories and industry, but only a few laboratories provide a completely commercial service

  8. Focused proton beams propagating in reactor of fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, K [Teikyo Heisei Univ., Uruido, Ichihara, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    One of the difficult tasks of light ion beam fusion is to propagate the beam in the reactor cavity and to focus the beam on the target. The light ion beam has a certain local divergence angle because there are several causes for divergence at the diode. The electrostatic force induced at the leading edge causes beam divergence during propagation. To confine the beam within a small radius during propagation, the magnetic field must be employed. Here the electron beam is proposed to be launched simultaneously with the launching of the proton beam. If the electron beam has the excess current, the beam induces a magnetic field in the negative azimuthal direction, which confines the ion beam within a small radius by the electrostatic field as well as the electron beam by the Lorentz force. The metal guide around the beam path helps the beam confinement and reduces the total amount of magnetic field energy induced by the electron current. (author). 2 figs., 15 refs.

  9. PDMS patterning by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Csik, A.; Rajta, I.; Cserhati, C.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is introduced as a resist material for proton beam writing. We were looking for a biocompatible micropatternable polymer in which the chemical structure changes significantly due to proton beam exposure making the polymer capable of proton beam writing. PDMS is a commonly used silicon-based organic polymer, optically clear, and generally considered to be inert, non-toxic biocompatible polymer. PDMS is also notably hydrophobic, meaning that water cannot easily penetrate its surface. This property has led extended use of PDMS in microfluidics too. PDMS is a crosslinkable polymer, it acts like a rubbery solid when it is cross-linked. In this state, the polymer does not deform permanently under stress or strain. Up to now the PDMS has been used as a casting or replicating material in microfabrication to form microchannels, micromolding, or creating microstamps, etc. PDMS has not been used as a resist material for direct write techniques. In this work we investigated the surface topography of the irradiated regions of PDMS under and without stress (on the cut surface and on the original fluid surface, respectively). In the samples wherein stress was not developed, noticeable compaction was observed. In case of those samples wherein stress was developed, noticeable swelling occurred. During the irradiation around the actual position of the beam spot we experienced significant swelling that reduced in time. To determine the large scale remaining changes in the surface topography at the cut edges of the samples we used Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). After numerous profilometer measurements we experienced that the irradiated areas became harder, so the probe could move on it without sinking. The unirradiated areas of the PDMS were so soft, that the probe sank in the medium even with the smallest load (5 x 10 -7 N). Because of this phenomenon the irradiated areas seem to be higher

  10. Modified betatron for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Fisher, A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense neutralized ion beam can be injected and trapped in magnetic mirror or tokamak geometry. The details of the process involve beam polarization so that the beam crosses the fringing fields without deflection and draining the polarization when the beam reaches the plasma. Equilibrium requires that a large betatron field be added in tokamak geometry. In mirror geometry a toroidal field must be added by means of a current along the mirror axis. In either case, the geometry becomes that of the modified betatron which has been studied experimentally and theoretically in recent years. We consider beams of d and t ions with a mean energy of 500 kev and a temperature of about 50 kev. The plasma may be a proton plasma with cold ions. It is only necessary for beam trapping or to carry currents. The ion energy for slowing down is initially 500 kev and thermonuclear reactions depend only on the beam temperature of 50 kev which changes very slowly. This new configuration for magnetic confinement fusion leads to an energy gain of 10--20 for d-t reactions whereas previous studies of beam target interaction predicted a maximum energy gain of 3--4. The high beam energy available with pulsed ion diode technology is also essential for advanced fuels. 16 refs., 3 figs

  11. Bunching and phase focusing of laser generated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dennis; Hofmann, Ingo; Blazevic, Abel; Deppert, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Busold, Simon; Roth, Markus; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, Christian [Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Zielbauer, Bernhard [HI Jena (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams can reach very high intensities and very low emittances. Therefore they are suitable as ion sources for many applications. One is the coupling into common ion accelerator structures to replace pre accelerators that are used so far. The LIGHT (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) collaboration has been founded to develop ion optics and targets and optimize laser parameter to make this coupling most efficient. In a first step a short pulse beam line for the PHELIX-laser at GSI to the experiment site Z6 has been build in order to laser accelerate protons here. In a second step a pulsed solenoid has been established to collimate the divergent ion beam. In a third step this collimated beam will be coupled into a bunching unit, which consists of a spiral resonator with three gaps which leads to an overall acceleration voltage of 1 MV. With this cavity it is not only possible to avoid the broadening of the pulse, but also to phase focus it. This talk presents also the progress towards the operation of the spiral resonator as buncher for a laser accelerated ion beam e.g. simulations, tests and performance data and shows the next steps of the beam shaping efforts.

  12. Beam-Beam Effects in the SPS Proton-Anti Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelis, K.

    2014-01-01

    During the proton-anti proton collider run several experiments were carried out in order to understand the effect of the beam-beam interaction on backgrounds and lifetimes. In this talk a selection of these experiments will be presented. From these experiments, the importance of relative beam sizes and tune ripple could be demonstrated.

  13. Beam diagnostics for Laser-induced proton generation at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Heun; Park, Seong Hee; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae; Chan, Young Ho; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yoo, Byeong Duk

    2005-01-01

    With an advent of femto-second lasers, a laseraccelerated ion generation has been world-widely studied for medical and nuclear applications. It is known that protons with the energy from several tens MeV to a few hundreds MeV require for a cancer therapy and nuclear reaction. Even though, up to present, the maximum energy of laser-accelerated proton is about 60 MeV, it is expected that the energy of protons generated can be obtained at least up to 150 MeV. According to theoretical and experimental works, it turns out the energy distribution and the flux of ions strongly depends on the intensity of a fs laser at a target. However, physics on laser-plasma interaction is still not clear. The precise measurements of parameters of a fs laser and ions are important to figure out the physics and develop the theoretical interpretation. Typically, beam diagnostic system includes measurements and/or monitoring of the temporal and spatial profiles of lasers at the target as well as the energy spectrum and density profile of protons, which are critical for the analysis of mechanism and the characterization of protons generated. We fabricated and installed the target chamber for laser-accelerated proton generation and are now integrating beam diagnostic system. For laser diagnostics, beam monitoring and alignment system has been installed. For a charged particle, CR-39 detectors, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and Si charged particle detectors are installed for density profile and energy spectrum. In this paper, we discuss the laser beam monitoring and alignment system. We also estimates expected spectrum of protons from Thomson parabola spectrometer, depending on the parameters of protons

  14. Proton-beam radiation therapy dosimetry standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, K.P.

    1995-01-01

    Beams of protons have been used for radiation therapy applications for over 40 years. In the last decade the number of facilities treating patients and the total number of patients being treated has begun go grow rapidly. Due to the limited and experimental nature of the early programs, dosimetry protocols tended to be locally defined. With the publication of the AAPM Task Group 20 report open-quotes Protocol for Dosimetry of Heavy Charged Particlesclose quotes and the open-quotes European Code of Practice for Proton-Beam Dosimetryclose quotes the practice of determining dose in proton-beam therapy was somewhat unified. The ICRU has also recently commissioned a report on recommendations for proton-beam dosimetry. There have been three main methods of determining proton dose; the Faraday cup technique, the ionization chamber technique, and the calorimeter technique. For practical reasons the ionization chamber technique has become the most widely used. However, due to large errors in basic parameters (e.g., W-value) is also has a large uncertainty for absolute dose. It has been proposed that the development of water calorimeter absorbed dose standards would reduce the uncertainty in absolute proton dose as well as the relative dose between megavoltage X-ray beams and proton beams. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  15. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158  GeV/u In^{49+} ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10^{4} to 10^{7} molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the Super Proton Synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158  GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental setup, the results of the pressure rise measurements are presented, and the derived desorption yields are compared with data from other experiments.

  16. Intense pulsed heavy ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm 2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm 2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al (1-3)+ ) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89%. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were successively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm 2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration. (author)

  17. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fracti...

  18. Absolute measurements methods for proton beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    A widespread interest in improving proton beam characteristics and related dosimetry became apparent in the recent years, even if the advantages of protons in radiotherapy were pointed out since 1946. The early treatments by proton beams were made for a long time on a small number of patients in very few accelerators sharing their use with nuclear-physics experiments. The first proton accelerator totally dedicated to radiotherapy was established just in 1990 at the Loma Linda Medical Center in the USA. A further reason of the slowly growing use of protons for therapy in the early years, was the lack of adequate means for accurate localization of the treatment volume. The potentialities of protons in imparting a largest part of their energy to very small volumes became exploitable only after the established clinical use of accurate imaging techniques such as based on CT, NMR, PET, etc

  19. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.D.; Boller, J.R.; Cooperstein, G.

    1996-01-01

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs

  20. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinshelwood, D D; Boller, J R; Cooperstein, G [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs.

  1. Micro-patterns fabrication using focused proton beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutroneo, M., E-mail: cutroneo@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Mackova, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Semian, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, AS CR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Calcagno, L. [Department of Physics, Catania University, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Proton beam writing technique was recently introduced at 3MV Tandetron accelerator at Nuclear Physics Institute in Rez (Czech Republic). It has been used, to produce three-dimensional (3D) micro-structures in poly(methylmethacrylate) by 2.0 MeV and 2.6 MeV protons micro-beam. Micro-channels (52 μm × 52 μm) have been realized. After chemical etching, the quality of the bottom and side walls of the produced structures in PMMA were analyzed using Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  2. Measurement of profile and intensity of proton beam by an integrating current transformer and a segmented parallel-plate ion chamber for the AGS-spallation target experiment (ASTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Profile and intensity of proton beams incident to a mercury target were measured for the experiments under AGS-spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) collaboration. Protons of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV energy were measured for a temperature, pressure wave and neutronics in the mercury target. For the beam profile measurement, segmented parallel-plate ion chamber (CHIDORI) was used as the online detector. Imaging plates (IP) were also used for the profile measurement with aluminum activation foils as the image converter. An integrating current transformer (ICT) and activation method by Cu foil were used for the measurement of beam intensity. The beam profile obtained by CHIDORI gives a good agreement with the results with the IP. The beam intensity obtained by ICT agrees with the data obtained by the activation technique within ±3% for 12 and 24 GeV cases. Furthermore, these results show in good agreement with those obtained by the monitor of segmented wire ionization chamber (SWIC) and secondary emission chamber (SEC) installed by the AGS team. Therefore, a reliable beam monitor technique was established, so that the analysis of the experiment such as temperature and pressure wave can be normalized by the number of incident protons. (author)

  3. Focused ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, K.

    1993-01-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) technology has the advantage of being a maskless process compatible with UHV processing. This makes it attractive for use in in situ processing and has been applied to the fabrication of various mesoscopic structures. The present paper reviews these results whilst putting emphasis on in situ processing by a combined FIB and molecular beam epitaxy system. The typical performance of present FIB systems is also presented. In order to utilize the potential advantages of FIB processing, reduction of damage and improvement of throughput are important, and much effort has been devoted to developing processing techniques which require a reduced dose. The importance of low-energy FIB is discussed. (author)

  4. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  5. Intense ion beam research at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Gautier, D.C.; Greenly, J.B.; Henins, I.; Linton, T.W.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Two new interdisciplinary programs are underway at Los Alamos involving the physics and technology of intense light ion beams. In contrast to high-power ICF applications, the LANL effort concentrates on the development of relatively low-voltage (50 to 800 kV) and long-pulsewidth (0.1 to 1 μs) beams. The first program involves the 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Anaconda generator which has been fitted with an extraction ion diode. Long pulsewidth ion beams have been accelerated, propagated, and extracted for a variety of magnetic field conditions. The primary application of this beam is the synthesis of novel materials. Initial experiments on the congruent evaporative deposition of metallic and ceramic thin films are reported. The second program involves the development of a 120-keV, 50-kA, 1-μs proton beam for the magnetic fusion program as an ion source for an intense diagnostic neutral beam. Ultra-bright, pulsed neutral beams will be required to successfully measure ion temperatures and thermalized alpha particle energy distributions in large, dense, ignited tokamaks such as ITER

  6. Intense ion beam research at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Davis, H.A.; Faehl, R.J.; Gautier, D.C.; Greenly, J.B.; Henins, I.; Linton, T.W.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Waganaar, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Two new interdisciplinary programs are underway at Los Alamos involving the physics and technology of intense light ion beams. In contrast to high-power ICF applications, the LANL effort concentrates on the development of relatively low-voltage (50 to 800 kV) and long pulsewidth (0.1 to 1 μs) beams. The first program involves the 1.2 MV, 300-kJ Anaconda generator which has been fitted with an extraction ion diode. Long pulsewidth ion beams have been accelerated, propagated, and extracted for a variety of magnetic field conditions. The primary application of this beam is the synthesis of novel materials. Initial experiments on the congruent evaporative deposition of metallic and ceramic thin films are reported. The second program involves the development of a 120-keV, 50-kA, 1-μs proton beam for the magnetic fusion program as an ion source for an intense diagnostic neutral beam. Ultra-bright, pulsed neutral beams will be required to successfully measure ion temperatures and thermalized alpha particle distributions in large, dense, ignited tokamaks such as ITER

  7. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  8. Distribution uniformity of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Gao; Zhu, Kun; Tao, Li; Xu, Xiao-Han; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wen-Jun; Lu, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Yan-Ying; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xue-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Compared with conventional accelerators, laser plasma accelerators can generate high energy ions at a greatly reduced scale, due to their TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University. It will be used for applied research like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulations, etc. A beamline system with multiple quadrupoles and an analyzing magnet for laser-accelerated ions is proposed here. Since laser-accelerated ion beams have broad energy spectra and large angular divergence, the parameters (beam waist position in the Y direction, beam line layout, drift distance, magnet angles etc.) of the beamline system are carefully designed and optimised to obtain a radially symmetric proton distribution at the irradiation platform. Requirements of energy selection and differences in focusing or defocusing in application systems greatly influence the evolution of proton distributions. With optimal parameters, radially symmetric proton distributions can be achieved and protons with different energy spread within ±5% have similar transverse areas at the experiment target. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575011, 61631001) and National Grand Instrument Project (2012YQ030142)

  9. Principles and practice of proton beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Indra J

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for their June 2015 Summer School, this is the first AAPM monograph printed in full color. Proton therapy has been used in radiation therapy for over 70 years, but within the last decade its use in clinics has grown exponentially. This book fills in the proton therapy gap by focusing on the physics of proton therapy, including beam production, proton interactions, biology, dosimetry, treatment planning, quality assurance, commissioning, motion management, and uncertainties. Chapters are written by the world's leading medical physicists who work at the pioneering proton treatment centers around the globe. They share their understandings after years of experience treating thousands of patients. Case studies involving specific cancer treatments show that there is some art to proton therapy as well as state-of-the-art science. Even though the focus lies on proton therapy, the content provided is also valuable to heavy charged particle th...

  10. How It's Made - Polarized Proton Beam (444th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenski, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with polarized beams at RHIC will provide fundamental tests of QCD, and the electro-weak interaction reveal the spin structure of the proton. Polarization asymmetries and parity violation are the strong signatures for identification of the fundamental processes, which are otherwise inaccessible. Such experiments require the maximum available luminosity and therefore polarization must be obtained as an extra beam quality without sacrificing intensity. There are proposals to polarize the high-energy proton beam in the storage rings by the Stern-Gerlach effect or spin-filter techniques. But so far, the only practically available option is acceleration of the polarized beam produced in the source and taking care of polarization survival during acceleration and storage. Two major innovations -- the 'Siberian Snake' technique for polarization preservation during acceleration and high current polarized proton sources make spin physics with the high-energy polarized beams feasible. The RHIC is the first high-energy collider, where the 'Siberian Snake' technique allowed of polarized proton beam acceleration up-to 250 GeV energy. The RHIC unique Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source produces sufficient polarized beam intensity for complete saturation of the RHIC acceptance. This polarization technique is based on spin-transfer collisions between a proton or atomic hydrogen beam of a few keV beam energy and optically pumped alkali metal vapors. From the first proposal and feasibility studies to the operational source this development can be considered as example of successful unification of individual scientists ingenuity, international collaboration and modern technology application for creation of a new polarization technique, which allowed of two-to-three order of magnitude polarized beam intensity increase sufficient for loading the RHIC to its full capacity for polarization studies.

  11. Cornell electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Beebe, E.N.; Janson, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS) for the production of low energy, multiply charged ion beams to be used in atomic physics experiments has been designed and constructed. An external high perveance electron gun is used to launch the electron beam into a conventional solenoid. Novel features of the design include a distributed sputter ion pump to create the ultrahigh vacuum environment in the ionization region of the source and microprocessor control of the axial trap voltage supplies

  12. Proton capture and loss in ion-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, S; Alessi, M; Zimmerman, V; Fregenal, D; Focke, P; Bernardi, G; Suarez, S

    2007-01-01

    We have measured proton distributions from the collision systems Ar + , Kr + on CH 4 molecular targets, searching for atom capture into the projectile continuum. Within the studied energy range (100 to 300 eV/u) we have not distinctive evidence of capture. A small contamination of ion beams with molecular ions as ArH + or KrH + , have shown to be enough to produce peak shaped structures at the projectile velocity. We, therefore, concentrate our study on proton loss from molecular ions in collision with several targets

  13. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  14. Ion accumulation and space charge neutralization in intensive electron beams for ion sources and electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS), Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT) and electron beams for electron cooling application have the beam parameters in the same ranges of magnitudes. EBIS and EBIT produce and accumulate ions in the beam due to electron impact ionization. The cooling electron beam accumulates positive ions from the residual gas in the accelerator chamber during the cooling cycle. The space charge neutralization of cooling beam is also used to reduce the electron energy spread and enhance the cooling ability. The advanced results of experimental investigations and theoretical models of the EBIS electron beams are applied to analyze the problem of beam neutralization in the electron cooling techniques. The report presents the analysis of the most important processes connected with ion production, accumulation and losses in the intensive electron beams of ion sources and electron cooling systems for proton and ion colliders. The inelastic and elastic collision processes of charged particles in the electron beams are considered. The inelastic processes such as ionization, charge exchange and recombination change the charge states of ions and neutral atoms in the beam. The elastic Coulomb collisions change the energy of particles and cause the energy redistribution among components in the electron-ion beams. The characteristic times and specific features of ionization, beam neutralization, ion heating and loss in the ion sources and electron cooling beams are determined. The dependence of negative potential in the beam cross section on neutralization factor is studied. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Cooling of molecular ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Krohn, S.; Kreckel, H.; Lammich, L.; Lange, M.; Strasser, D.; Grieser, M.; Schwalm, D.; Zajfman, D.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the use of stored ion beams and phase space cooling (electron cooling) is given for the field of molecular physics. Emphasis is given to interactions between molecular ions and electrons studied in the electron cooler: dissociative recombination and, for internally excited molecular ions, electron-induced ro-vibrational cooling. Diagnostic methods for the transverse ion beam properties and for the internal excitation of the molecular ions are discussed, and results for phase space cooling and internal (vibrational) cooling are presented for hydrogen molecular ions

  16. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  17. Proton beam therapy how protons are revolutionizing cancer treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Yajnik, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing...

  18. Status of radioactive ion beams at the HRIBF

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, D W

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) are produced using the isotope separation on-line technique and are subsequently accelerated up to a few MeV per nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. The first RIB experiments at the HRIBF were completed at the end of 1998 using sup 1 sup 7 F beams. Since then other proton-rich ion beams have been developed and a large number of neutron-rich ion beams are now available. The neutron-rich radioactive nuclei are produced via proton-induced fission of uranium in a low-density matrix of uranium carbide. Recently developed RIBs include sup 2 sup 5 Al from a silicon carbide target and isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Ge, Sn, Br and I isotopes from a uranium carbide target.

  19. Direct-current proton-beam measurements at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Stevens, R.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Zaugg, T.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a CW proton accelerator complex was moved from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This includes a 50-keV dc proton injector with a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) and a CW 1.25-MeV, 267-MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The move was completed after CRL had achieved 55-mA CW operation at 1.25 MeV using 250-kW klystrode tubes to power the RFQ. These accelerator components are prototypes for the front end of a CW linac required for an accelerator-driven transmutation linac, and they provide early confirmation of some CW accelerator components. The injector (ion source and LEBT) and emittance measuring unit are installed and operational at Los Alamos. The dc microwave ion source has been operated routinely at 50-keV, 75-mA hydrogen-ion current. This ion source has demonstrated very good discharge and H 2 gas efficiencies, and sufficient reliability to complete CW RFQ measurements at CRL. Proton fraction of 75% has been measured with 550-W discharge power. This high proton fraction removes the need for an analyzing magnet. Proton LEBT emittance measurements completed at Los Alamos suggest that improved transmission through the RFQ may be achieved by increasing the solenoid focusing current. Status of the final CW RFQ operation at CRL and the installation of the RFQ at Los Alamos is given

  20. Electrohydrodynamic emitters of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, V.G.; Shabalin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Physical processes determining generation of ion beams with high emission current density in electrohydrodynamic emitters are considered. Electrohydrodynamic effects developing in ion emission features and kinetics of ion interaction in beams with high density are discussed. Factors determining the size of the emission zone, emission stability at high and low currents, cluster generation, increase of energy spread and decrease of brightness are analyzed. Problems on practical provision of stable EHD emitter functioning are considered. 94 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  2. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); PEG MedAustron, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    presented algorithm was considered to be sufficient for clinical practice. Although only data for helium beams was presented, the performance of the pencil beam algorithm for proton beams was comparable. Conclusions: The pencil beam algorithm developed for helium ions presents a suitable tool for dose calculations. Its calculation speed was evaluated to be similar to other published pencil beam algorithms. The flexible design allows easy customization of measured depth-dose distributions and use of varying beam profiles, thus making it a promising candidate for integration into future treatment planning systems. Current work in progress deals with RBE effects of helium ions to complete the model.

  3. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanuma, A.; Majima, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1982-01-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To utilize this advantage, bolus techniques in conjunction with CT scanning are employed in NIRS proton beam radiation therapy planning. A patient receives CT scanning first so that the target volume can be clearly marked and the radiation direction and fixation method can be determined. At the same time bolus dimensions are calculated. The bolus frames are made with dental paraffin sheets according to the dimensions. The paraffin frame is replaced with dental resin. Alginate (a dental impression material with favorable physical density and skin surface contact) is now employed for the bolus material. With fixation device and bolus on, which are constructed individually, the patient receives CT scanning again prior to a proton beam treatment in order to prove the devices are suitable. Alginate has to be poured into the frame right before each treatments. Further investigations are required to find better bolus materials and easier construction methods

  4. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanuma, A. (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan); Majima, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1982-09-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To utilize this advantage, bolus techniques in conjunction with CT scanning are employed in NIRS proton beam radiation therapy planning. A patient receives CT scanning first so that the target volume can be clearly marked and the radiation direction and fixation method can be determined. At the same time bolus dimensions are calculated. The bolus frames are made with dental paraffin sheets according to the dimensions. The paraffin frame is replaced with dental resin. Alginate (a dental impression material with favorable physical density and skin surface contact) is now employed for the bolus material. With fixation device and bolus on, which are constructed individually, the patient receives CT scanning again prior to a proton beam treatment in order to prove the devices are suitable. Alginate has to be poured into the frame right before each treatments. Further investigations are required to find better bolus materials and easier construction methods.

  5. Calculation of proton beam initial orbit at cyclotron central region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita Anggraita

    2012-01-01

    A calculation of proton beam initial orbits at cyclotron central region was carried out using Scilab 5.2.0. The calculation was done in 2 dimensions in a homogeneous magnetic field of 1.66 tesla at frequency of fourth harmonics. The positions of ion source, dees, and dummy dees follow those of GE Minitrace cyclotron, peak dee voltage 30 kV. The calculation yields result comparable to those simulated at KIRAMS-13 cyclotron. (author)

  6. Antimatter production in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleymans, J.; Kabana, S.; Kraus, I.; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Sharma, N.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking features of particle production at high beam energies is the near-equal abundance of matter and antimatter in the central rapidity region. In this paper we study how this symmetry is reached as the beam energy is increased. In particular, we quantify explicitly the energy dependence of the approach to matter-antimatter symmetry in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions. Expectations are presented also for the production of more complex forms of antimatter such as antihypernuclei.

  7. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail: scho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byungjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, 110–746 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, 138–736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 410–769 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungyong [Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  8. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  9. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.

  10. Intense beams of light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, Noel

    1985-01-01

    Results of experiments performed in order to accelerate intense beams of light and heavier ions are presented. The accelerating diodes are driven by existing pulsed power generators. Optimization of the generator structure is described in chapter I. Nuclear diagnostics of the accelerated light ion beams are presented in chapter II. Chapter III deals with the physics of intense charged particle beams. The models developed are applied to the calculation of the performances of the ion diodes described in the previous chapters. Chapter IV reports preliminary results on a multiply ionized carbon source driven by a 0.1 TW pulsed power generator. (author) [fr

  11. Hyperon beams as a source of polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    A high energy polarized proton beam which would utilize lambda decays as a source of polarized protons was proposed. We discuss the operation of such a beam and related physics experiments. 12 references

  12. Development of disease animal models using proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, K. H.; Kim, E. K.; Kim, H. R.; Seo, Y. W.

    2010-03-01

    To identify proper proton beam dose for mutant mouse development, total 7 times of proton beam were performed. There are too low incidence of mutation in pup mouse which were derived embryos radiated by 1Gy proton beam. Some mutation could be identified in pup mice which were derived embryos radiated by 1.5-2.5Gy proton beam. Mouse embryos irradiated with 1-10Gy of proton beam were inhibited in their in vitro development to 2 cell stage. There was no pups born from embryos which were irradiated with proton beam over 3 Gy. Early mouse development were greatly inhibited by proton beam irradiation of over 10Gy when cultured in vitro. In conclusion, it is efficient to irradiate mouse embryo with 1.5-2.5Gy of proton beam for development of mutant mice

  13. Electromagnetic ion beam instability upstream of the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; Forslund, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The linear theory of the electromagnetic ion beam instability for arbitrary angles of propagation has been studied. The parameters considered in the theory are typical of the solar wind upstream of the earth's bow shock when a 'reflected' proton beam is present. Maximum growth occurs for propagation parallel to the ambient field B, but this instability also displays significant growth at wave-vectors oblique to B, Oblique, unstable modes seem to be the likely source of the compressive magnetic fluctuations recently observed in conjunction with 'diffuse' ion population. An energetic ion beam does not directly give rise to linear growth of either ion acoustic or whistler mode instabilities

  14. Teeth characterization using ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Falla-Sotelo, F.; Curado, J.F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.A.; Quinelato, A.; Youssef, F.; Mori, M.; Youssef, M.

    2006-01-01

    A collaboration project between the School of Dentistry and the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been established to measure elemental concentrations in teeth by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA) techniques. Data on trace elements in human, bovine and swine teeth, analyzed by PIXE with a 2.4 MeV proton beam, were compared and concentrations for several elements were obtained with tens of μg/g sensitivity. HI-ERDA measurements employing a 52 MeV Cl beam were done to evaluate changes in elementary concentration in dental enamel after bleaching treatment with different products in 25 bovine incisors teeth. This nondestructive technique allowed the measurements of Ca, P, O and C concentrations above the limit of 100 μg/g. (author)

  15. Electron clearing for the ISA proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The circulating protons in the ISABELLE intersecting storage ring accelerator will collide with the residual gas in the vacuum chamber. The electrons produced will tend to be captured by the potential well of the beam itself and result in a neutralization of the space charge of the beam. A detailed analysis is given of the various mechanisms which can be used to reduce the net degree of beam neutralization. It is concluded that the average neutralization will be about 10 -4 for a residual gas pressure of 3 x 10 -11 torr of hydrogen

  16. The optics of secondary polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Polarized protons can be produced by the parity-violating decay of either lambda or sigma hyperons. A secondary bema of polarized protons can then be produced without the difficult procedure of accelerating polarized protons. The preservation of the polarization while the protons are being transmitted to a final focus places stringent limitations on the optics of the beam line. The equations of motion of a polarized particle in a magnetic field have been solved to first order for quadrupole and dipole magnets. The lowest order terms indicate that the polarization vector will be restored to its original direction upon passage through a magnetic system if the momentum vector is unaltered. Higher-order terms may be derived by an expansion in commutators of the rotation matrix and its longitudinal derivative. The higher-order polarization rotation terms then arise from the non-commutivity of the rotation matrices by large angles in three-dimensional space. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Beam Phase Detection for Proton Therapy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Getta, Markus; Kolesov, Sergej; Pupeter, Nico; Stephani, Thomas; Timmer, J

    2005-01-01

    The industrial application of proton cyclotrons for medical applications has become one of the important contributions of accelerator physics during the last years. This paper describes an advanced vector demodulating technique used for non-destructive measurements of beam intensity and beam phase over 360°. A computer controlled I/Q-based phase detector with a very large dynamic range of 70 dB permits the monitoring of beam intensity, phase and eventually energy for wide range of beam currents down to -130 dBm. In order to avoid interference from the fundamental cyclotron frequency the phase detection is performed at the second harmonic frequency. A digital low pass filter with adjustable bandwidth and steepness is implemented to improve accuracy. With a sensitivity of the capacitive pickup in the beam line of 30 nV per nA of proton beam current at 250 MeV, accurate phase and intensity measurements can be performed with beam currents down to 3.3 nA.

  18. Ion beam techniques for analyzing polymers irradiated by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickards, J.; Zironi, E.P.; Andrade, E.; Dominguez, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the study of the effects of ion beam irradiation of polymers very large doses can be administered in short times. Thousands of MGy can be produced in a small volume of a sample in a few minutes by bombarding with typical ion beam currents. For instance, in an experiment done to observe the effects of 750 keV proton irradiation PVC, using a collimator of 1 mm diameter, 1 μC of charge integration deposits a dose of 50 MGy. The use of ion beams also opens up the possibility of using the same beam for irradiation and for analysis of the effects, using the well known ion beam analysis techniques. PIXE allows the measurement of chlorine in PVC. Polymers containing fluorine can be measured with the resonant nuclear reaction (RNR) technique, which is specific only to certain elements. The amount of hydrogen in the sample and its profile can be obtained using energy recoil detection analysis (ERDA); carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen can be measured and profiled using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and also using the (d,p) and (d, α) nuclear reactions (NR). Loss of mass is one effect that can be studied using these techniques. It was studied in two different polymers, PVC and CR-39, in order to determine carbon buildup during ion irradiation. It was concluded that carbon builds up following different mechanisms in these two materials, due to the different possibilities of forming volatile compounds. It is also suggested that CR-39 should be a good material for ion beam lithography. (author)

  19. Laboratory of ion beam applications at ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Huszank, R.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kiss, A.Z.; Koltay, E.; Rajta, I.; Simon, A.; Szabo, Gy.; Szikszai, Z.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. The Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of ATOMKI is devoted to applications of atomic and nuclear physics in the fields of environmental research, biomedicine, geology, materials and surface science (including ion beam induced damage investigations and proton beam lithography) and cultural heritage research. We perform our work in the frame of various projects and collaborations: EU, IAEA, R and D, OTKA, etc. Our laboratory provides service for external (national and international) and internal users and contributes to higher education, as well. The Laboratory is based on the home-made 5 MV Van de Graaff (VdG) electrostatic accelerator of the institute. The accelerator was put into operation in 1971 and in the beginning it supplied ion beams exclusively for nuclear physics. A few years later with the measurements of K-shell ionization cross sections the door became open also for basic atomic physics. In parallel with this basic study, the application of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the elemental analysis of biological (hair, erythrocyte and blood plasma) samples and atmospheric aerosols also started. The first paper on PIXE, a methodological one, was published in 1978. The experience gained on these applications and later on archaeology led to the construction of complex PIXE chambers, which were sold, together with the corresponding know-how, to institutions in China, Portugal, Bangladesh, Jordan, North Korea, Singapore, Cuba and Mexico through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the evaluation of PIXE spectra the laboratory has been continuously developing its own computer programme package. The first version of this continuous development was published in 1988. In the meantime a second IBA analysis method, the proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE), was introduced in the laboratory and was applied simultaneously with PIXE. Application of deuteron induced gamma ray emission (DIGE) started more than a decade later. A

  20. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  1. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  2. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R.; Schuff, J.A.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Saint-Martin, G.; Oppezzo, O.; Bernaola, O.A.; Molinari, B.L.; Duran, H.A.; Policastro, L.; Palmieri, M.; Ibanez, J.; Stoliar, P.; Mazal, A.; Caraballo, M.E.; Burlon, A.; Cardona, M.A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Salfity, M.F.; Ozafran, M.J.; Naab, F.; Levinton, G.; Davidson, M.; Buhler, M.

    1998-01-01

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm 2 approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  3. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom) and Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.mistry@surrey.ac.uk; Gomez-Morilla, I. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Smith, R.C. [Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thomson, D. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, G.W. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Webb, R.P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Cansell, A. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Merchant, M. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the range of the protons in the material and this allows structures to be formed to different depths. PBW has been successfully employed on etchable glasses, polymers and semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). This study reports on PBW in p-type GaAs and compares experimental results with computer simulations using the Atlas (copy right) semiconductor device package from SILVACO. It has already been proven that hole transport is required for the electrochemical etching of GaAs using Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid, di-sodium salt). PBW in GaAs results in carrier removal in the irradiated regions and consequently minimal hole transport (in these regions) during electrochemical etching. As a result the irradiated regions are significantly more etch resistant than the non-irradiated regions. This allows high aspect ratio structures to be formed.

  4. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, P.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Smith, R.C.; Thomson, D.; Grime, G.W.; Webb, R.P.; Gwilliam, R.; Jeynes, C.; Cansell, A.; Merchant, M.; Kirkby, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the range of the protons in the material and this allows structures to be formed to different depths. PBW has been successfully employed on etchable glasses, polymers and semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). This study reports on PBW in p-type GaAs and compares experimental results with computer simulations using the Atlas (copy right) semiconductor device package from SILVACO. It has already been proven that hole transport is required for the electrochemical etching of GaAs using Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid, di-sodium salt). PBW in GaAs results in carrier removal in the irradiated regions and consequently minimal hole transport (in these regions) during electrochemical etching. As a result the irradiated regions are significantly more etch resistant than the non-irradiated regions. This allows high aspect ratio structures to be formed

  5. Target experiments with high-power proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumung, K; Bluhm, H; Hoppe, P; Rusch, D; Singer, J; Stoltz, O [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kanel, G I; Razorenov, S V; Utkin, A V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    1997-12-31

    At the Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility KALE a pulsed high-power proton beam (50 ns, 0.15 TW/cm{sup 2}, 8 mm fwhm focus diameter, 1.7 MeV peak proton energy) is used to generate short, intense pressure pulses or to ablatively accelerate targets 10-100 {mu}m thick to velocities > 10 km/s. The velocity history of the rear target surface is recorded by line-imaging laser Doppler velocimetry with high spatial ({>=} 10 {mu}m) and temporal ({>=} 200 ps) resolution, and provides information on proton beam parameters, and on the state of the matter at high energy densities and intense loading. Utilizing the bell-shaped power density profile the authors demonstrated a new straightforward method for measuring the shock pressure that leads to material melting in the rarefaction wave. For the first time, the dynamic tensile strength was measured across a crystal grain boundary, and using targets with a 1D periodic structure, the growth rate of a Rayleigh Taylor instability could be measured for the first time in direct drive experiments with an ion beam. (author). 8 figs., 15 refs.

  6. submitter Next generation multi-scale biophysical characterization of high precision cancer particle radiotherapy using clinical proton, helium-, carbon- and oxygen ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dokic, Ivana; Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Chaudhri, Naved; Krunic, Damir; Tessonnier, Thomas; Ferrari, Alfredo; Parodi, Katia; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Haberer, Thomas; Abdollahi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of particle therapy facilities worldwide landmarks a novel era of precision oncology. Implementation of robust biophysical readouts is urgently needed to assess the efficacy of different radiation qualities. This is the first report on biophysical evaluation of Monte Carlo simulated predictive models of prescribed dose for four particle qualities i.e., proton, helium-, carbon- or oxygen ions using raster-scanning technology and clinical therapy settings at HIT. A high level of agreement was found between the in silico simulations, the physical dosimetry and the clonogenic tumor cell survival. The cell fluorescence ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) technology was employed to detect particle traverse per cell nucleus. Across a panel of radiobiological surrogates studied such as late ROS accumulation and apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) chiefly correlated with the radiation species-specific spatio-temporal pattern of DNA double strand break ...

  7. Ion beam stabilization in ion implantation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental efforts aimed at ion beam current stabilization in an equipment for ion implantation in solids. The related problems of power supplies are discussed. Measured characteristics of laboratory equipment served the determination of the parameters to be required of the supplies as well as the design and the construction of the supplies. The respective wiring diagram is presented. (J.K.)

  8. Control of colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and system for enhancing the power-producing capability of a nuclear fusion reactor, and more specifically to methods and structure for enhancing the ion density in a directed particle fusion reactor. In accordance with the invention, oppositely directed ion beams constrained to helical paths pass through an annular reaction zone. The object is to produce fusion reactions due to collisions between the ion beams. The reaction zone is an annulus as between an inner-cylindrical electrode and an outer-cylindrical coaxial electrode. The beams are enhanced in ion density at spaced points along the paths by providing spline structures protruding from the walls of the electrodes into the reaction zone. This structure causes variations in the electric field along the paths followed by the ion beams. Such fields cause the beams to be successively more and less concentrated as the beams traverse the reaction zone. Points of high concentration are the points at which fusion-producing collisions are most likely to take place

  9. Sub 100 nm proton beam micromachining: theoretical calculations on resolution limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Sum, T.C.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    2000-01-01

    Proton beam micromachining is a novel direct-write process for the production of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. A focused beam of MeV protons is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a suitable resist material (e.g. PMMA or SU-8) and the latent image formed is subsequently developed chemically. In this paper calculations on theoretical resolution limits of proton beam micromachined three-dimensional microstructures are presented. Neglecting the finite beam size, a Monte Carlo ion transport code was used in combination with a theoretical model describing the delta-ray (δ-ray) energy deposition to determine the lateral energy deposition distribution in PMMA resist material. The energy deposition distribution of ion induced secondary electrons (δ-rays) has been parameterized using analytical models. It is assumed that the attainable resolution is limited by a convolution of the spread of the ion beam and energy deposition of the δ-rays

  10. Ion beams in materials processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This book covers ion beam application in modern materials research, offering the basics of ion beam physics and technology and a detailed account of the physics of ion-solid interactions for ion implantation, ion beam synthesis, sputtering and nano-patterning.

  11. Charge collection in an external proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wookey, C.W.; Somswasdi, B.; Rouse, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Results from the measurement of the stability of charge collected from the target and exit foil, or as alternatives, the γ-ray or backscattered proton counts from the exit foil and the Ar X-ray counts from the air path in an external proton beam are presented. These results show that comparative analysis of material mounted in air is reliable, using either the collected charge or the γ-ray counts as the normalizing factor, if there are no earthed objects in close geometry. The backscattered proton counts can also be used, but not the Ar X-ray counts, unless the current is stabilized. The electrical or thermal conductivity of the target and the target to exit foil separation do not affect the proportionality of the collected charge and the γ-ray counts to the charge incident on the target

  12. Proton beam induced dynamics of tungsten granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, O.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Davenne, T.; Fitton, M.; Atherton, A.; Densham, C.; Charitonidis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Guinchard, M.; Lacny, L. J.; Lindstrom, B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the results from single-pulse experiments of a 440 GeV /c proton beam interacting with granular tungsten samples in both vacuum and helium environments. Remote high-speed photography and laser Doppler vibrometry were used to observe the effect of the beam on the sample grains. The majority of the results were derived from a trough containing ˜45 μ m diameter spheres (not compacted) reset between experiments to maintain the same initial conditions. Experiments were also carried out on other open and contained samples for the purposes of comparison both with the 45 μ m grain results and with a previous experiment carried out with sub-250 μ m mixed crystalline tungsten powder in helium [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 101005 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.101005]. The experiments demonstrate that a greater dynamic response is produced in a vacuum than in a helium environment and in smaller grains compared with larger grains. The examination of the dynamics of the grains after a beam impact leads to the hypothesis that the grain response is primarily the result of a charge interaction of the proton beam with the granular medium.

  13. Proton beam induced dynamics of tungsten granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Caretta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from single-pulse experiments of a 440  GeV/c proton beam interacting with granular tungsten samples in both vacuum and helium environments. Remote high-speed photography and laser Doppler vibrometry were used to observe the effect of the beam on the sample grains. The majority of the results were derived from a trough containing ∼45  μm diameter spheres (not compacted reset between experiments to maintain the same initial conditions. Experiments were also carried out on other open and contained samples for the purposes of comparison both with the 45  μm grain results and with a previous experiment carried out with sub-250  μm mixed crystalline tungsten powder in helium [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 101005 (2014PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.101005]. The experiments demonstrate that a greater dynamic response is produced in a vacuum than in a helium environment and in smaller grains compared with larger grains. The examination of the dynamics of the grains after a beam impact leads to the hypothesis that the grain response is primarily the result of a charge interaction of the proton beam with the granular medium.

  14. Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B.B.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Kaufman, W.A.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Phelps, R.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Wong, V.K.; Ohmori, C.

    1994-01-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000±0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments

  15. Experimental support at proton--proton colliding beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, K.

    1977-01-01

    Proton--proton colliding beam facilities have a number of special features which increase the importance of support for experiments when compared to fixed target accelerators: (1) the laboratory system is very close to the center-of-mass system; this affects the geometry and general size of the experiments; (2) the primary p--p interaction is inaccessible, that is, it takes place in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber; and (3) the experiment detection system is necessarily inside the machine structure and becomes very closely linked to it in many respects. An overall picture is given of experimental support based on experience at the CERN ISR under the following headings: Experimental Areas, Scheduling, Intersection Vacuum Chambers, Machine Background, and Magnets for Experiments. The first two of these topics concern the requirements in space and time of an experiment, while the last three are all related to the close interaction between experiment and machine

  16. Studies of Limits on Uncontrolled Heavy Ion Beam Losses for Allowing Hands-On Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginald M. Ronningen; Igor Remec

    2010-09-11

    Dose rates from accelerator components activated by 1 W/m beam losses are obtained semiempirically for a 1 GeV proton beam and by use of Monte Carlo transport codes for the proton beam and for 777 MeV/u 3He, 500 MeV/u 48Ca, 86Kr, 136Xe, and 400 MeV/u 238U ions. The dose rate obtained by the semi-empirical method, 0.99 mSv/h (99 mrem/h) at 30 cm, 4 h after 100 d irradiation by a 1-GeV proton beam, is consistent with studies at several accelerator facilities and with adopted hands-on maintenance dose rate limits. Monte Carlo simulations verify this result for protons and extend studies to heavy ion beam losses in drift-tube linac and superconducting linac accelerating structures. The studies indicate that the 1 W/m limit imposed on uncontrolled beam losses for high-energy proton beams might be relaxed for heavy ion beams. These studies further suggest that using the ratio of neutrons produced by a heavy ion beam to neutrons produced by a proton beam along with the dose rate from the proton beam (for thin-target scenarios) should allow an estimate of the dose rates expected from heavy ion beam losses.

  17. Proton beam writing for producing holographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ow, Y.S.; Breese, M.B.H.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the writing of computer generated hologram diffraction patterns using focused 2 MeV proton beam irradiation. These patterns were designed using a ray tracing algorithm and written directly into a thick polymethylmethacrylate layer. When the developed holographic pattern was illuminated with a 650 nm laser it produced a good reconstructed image. This work provides means of forming high-resolution, high aspect ratio holographic images in polymers for applications in data storage using switchable holography.

  18. Fabrication of phosphor micro-grids using proton beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Paolo; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Doyle, Barney Lee; Malmqvist, Klas; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Nilsson, Christer; Kristiansson, Per; Wegden, Marie; Elfman, Mikael; Pallon, Jan; Auzelyte, Vaida

    2005-01-01

    A new nuclear microscopy technique called ion photon emission microscopy or IPEM was recently invented. IPEM allows analysis involving single ions, such as ion beam induced charge (IBIC) or single event upset (SEU) imaging using a slightly modified optical microscope. The spatial resolution of IPEM is currently limited to more than 10 (micro)m by the scattering and reflection of ion-induced photons, i.e. light blooming or spreading, in the ionoluminescent phosphor layer. We are developing a 'Microscopic Gridded Phosphor' (also called Black Matrix) where the phosphor nanocrystals are confined within the gaps of a micrometer scale opaque grid, which limits the amount of detrimental light blooming. MeV-energy proton beam lithography is ideally suited to lithographically form masks for the grid because of high aspect ratio, pattern density and sub-micron resolution of this technique. In brief, the fabrication of the grids was made in the following manner: (1) a MeV proton beam focused to 1.5-2 (micro)m directly fabricated a matrix of pillars in a 15 (micro)m thick SU-8 lithographic resist; (2) 7:1 aspect ratio pillars were then formed by developing the proton exposed area; (3) Ni (Au) was electrochemically deposited onto Cu-coated Si from a sulfamate bath (or buffered CN bath); (4) the SU-8 pillars were removed by chemical etching; finally (5) the metal micro-grid was freed from its substrate by etching the underlying Cu layer. Our proposed metal micro-grids promise an order-of-magnitude improvement in the resolution of IPEM.

  19. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona; Sheen, Martin A.; Campbell, Ian R.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  20. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  1. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0∼2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0∼2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica were

  2. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  3. Electron-ion recombination in merged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.; Habs, D.; Lampert, A.; Neumann, R.; Schramm, U.; Schuessler, T.; Schwalm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed studies of recombination processes between electrons and highly charged ions have become possible by recent improvements of merged-beams experiments. We discuss in particular measurements with stored cooled ion beams at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) in Heidelberg. The cross section of dielectronic recombination was measured with high energy resolution for few-electron systems up to the nuclear charge of Cu at a relative energy up to 2.6 keV. At low energy (∼0.1 eV) total recombination rates of several ions were measured and compared with calculated radiative recombination rates. Laser-stimulated recombination of protons and of C 6+ ions was investigated as a function of the photon energy using visible radiation. Both the total recombination rates and the stimulated recombination spectra indicate that in spite of the short interaction time in merged beams, also collisional capture of electrons into weakly bound levels (related to three-body recombination) could be important

  4. Dosimetry of medical proton beams at the JINR phasotron in Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, I.; Spurny, F.; Wagner, R.; Molokanov, A.G.; Mitsyn, G.V.; Zorin, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    The method for determination of the dose rate absorbed by tissue for JINR phasotron medical proton beams on a basis of clinical dosimeter calibration with the 60 Co γ-source, the main parameters of detectors used for measurements of spatial dose distributions, results of ion recombination correction factors in air thimble ionization chambers measurements are described. It is found that the error of JINR phasotron proton beams dosimetry is about 5%. This accuracy meets the international requirements for the therapeutic proton beams. 15 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  6. Generation and transport of laser accelerated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kornilov, Vladimir; Spaedtke, Peter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Currently the LIGHT- Project (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) is performed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH Darmstadt. Within this project, intense proton beams are generated by laser acceleration, using the TNSA mechanism. After the laser acceleration the protons are transported through the beam pipe by a pulsed power solenoid. To study the transport a VORPAL 3D simulation is compared with CST simulation. A criterion as a function of beam parameters was worked out, to rate the importance of space charge. Furthermore, an exemplary comparison of the solenoid with a magnetic quadrupole-triplet was carried out. In the further course of the LIGHT-Project, it is planned to generate ion beams with higher kinetic energies, using ultra-thin targets. The acceleration processes that can appear are: RPA (Radiation Pressure Acceleration) and BOA (Break-Out Afterburner). Therefore the transport of an ion distribution will be studied, as it emerges from a RPA acceleration.

  7. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission

  8. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  9. Relative and absolute dosimetry of proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Delacroix, S.; Bridier, A.; Daures, J.; Dolo, J.M.; Nauraye, C.; Ferrand, R.; Cosgrave, V.; Habrand, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Different codes of practice are in use or under preparation by several groups and national or international societies, concerning the dosimetry of proton beams. In spite of a large number of experiences and the increasing interest on this field, there are still large incertitudes on some of the basic conversion and correction factors to get dose values from different measuring methods. In practice, dose uniformity between centers is searched and encouraged by intercomparisons using standard procedures. We present the characteristics and the results on proton dosimetry intercomparisons using calorimeters, Faraday cups and ion chambers, as well as on the use of other detectors like diodes, radiographic films and TLD. New detectors like diamond, scintillators, radiochromic films, alanine, gels, ... can give new solutions to particular problems, provided their response is not affected at the end of the proton range (higher LET region), and their resolution, range, linearity, cost, ... are well adapted to practical situations. Some examples of special challenges are non interfering measurements during treatments for quality control, in vivo measurements, small beams for stereotactic irradiations, scanned beams and correlations between dosimetry, microdosimetry and radiobiology

  10. Microfabrication of biocompatible hydrogels by proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kimura, Atsushi; Idesaki, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2017-10-01

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials is expected to be widely applied in biomedical engineering and regenerative medicine fields. Hydrogel has been expected as a biocompatible scaffold which support to keep an organ shape during cell multiplying in regenerative medicine. Therefore, it is important to understanding a surface microstructure (minute shape, depth of flute) and a chemical characteristic of the hydrogel affecting the cell culture. Here, we investigate the microfabrication of biocompatible polymeric materials, such as the water-soluble polysaccharide derivatives hydroxypropyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose, by use of proton beam writing (PBW). These polymeric materials were dissolved thoroughly in pure water using a planetary centrifugal mixer, and a sample sheet (1 mm thick) was formed on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Crosslinking to form hydrogels was induced using a 3.0 MeV focused proton beam from the single-ended accelerator at Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application. The aqueous samples were horizontally irradiated with the proton beam through the PET cover film, and then rinsed with deionized water. Microstructured hydrogels were obtained on the PET film using the PBW technique without toxic crosslinking reagents. Cell adhesion and proliferation on the microfabricated biocompatible hydrogels were investigated. Microfabrication of HPC and CMC by the use of PBW is expected to produce new biocompatible materials that can be applied in biological and medical applications.

  11. Protons on ions bring new physics to LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    The research opportunities offered by proton-lead collisions at the LHC are generating increasing interest among theorists and experimentalists. During this recent run, LHCb, the asymmetric detector originally designed to study CP asymmetries and rare decays involving heavy quarks, took data with proton and ion beams for the first time. Using these collisions, the experiment can provide a different perspective on specific physics processes, so new developments may be in sight.   A proton-lead ion collision observed by the LHCb detector during the 2013 data taking period. LHCb is a smaller detector than the gigantic multi-purpose CMS and ATLAS detectors. It is also smaller than ALICE, the detector designed in particular to study ion-ion collisions. However, LHCb has something special: it can study physics processes that involve particles scattered from collisions at very small angles and close to the collision point. LHCb does not take data during ion-ion r...

  12. Proton-bound cluster ions in ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. G.; Eiceman, G. A.; Stone, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Gaseous oxygen and nitrogen bases, both singly and as binary mixtures, have been introduced into ion mobility spectrometers to study the appearance of protonated molecules, and proton-bound dimers and trimers. At ambient temperature it was possible to simultaneously observe, following the introduction of molecule A, comparable intensities of peaks ascribable to the reactant ion (H2O)nH+, the protonated molecule AH+ and AH+ H2O, and the symmetrical proton bound dimer A2H+. Mass spectral identification confirmed the identifications and also showed that the majority of the protonated molecules were hydrated and that the proton-bound dimers were hydrated to a much lesser extent. No significant peaks ascribable to proton-bound trimers were obtained no matter how high the sample concentration. Binary mixtures containing molecules A and B, in some cases gave not only the peaks unique to the individual compounds but also peaks due to asymmetrical proton bound dimers AHB+. Such ions were always present in the spectra of mixtures of oxygen bases but were not observed for several mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen bases. The dimers, which were not observable, notable for their low hydrogen bond strengths, must have decomposed in their passage from the ion source to the detector, i.e. in a time less than approximately 5 ms. When the temperature was lowered to -20 degrees C, trimers, both homogeneous and mixed, were observed with mixtures of alcohols. The importance of hydrogen bond energy, and hence operating temperature, in determining the degree of solvation of the ions that will be observed in an ion mobility spectrometer is stressed. The possibility is discussed that a displacement reaction involving ambient water plays a role in the dissociation.

  13. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  14. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qing

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O 2 + , BF 2 + , P + etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF 2 + , over 90% of O 2 + and P + have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He + beam is as high as 440 A/cm 2 · Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O 2 + ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O 2 + ions with the dose of 10 15 cm -2 . The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P

  15. Gabor lens focusing of a negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovic, J.A.; Mills, F.E.; Schmidt, C.; Young, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    Gabor or plasma lenses have previously been used to focus intense beams of positive ions at energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV. It is the large electrostatic field of the non-neutral plasma in the Gabor lens which is responsible for the focusing. Focusing an ion beam with a given sign of charge in a Gabor lens requires a non-neutral plasma with the opposite sign of charge as the beam. A Gabor lens constructed at Fermilab has been used to focus a 30 keV proton beam with good optical quality. We discuss studies of the action of a Gabor lens on a beam of negative ions. A Gabor lens has been considered for matching an H/sup /minus// beam into an RFQ in the redesign of the low energy section of the Fermilab linac. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  17. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-01-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to ±21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than ±3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  18. The study of PDMS surface treatment and it's applications by using proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, J. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, K. H.; Park, J. Y.

    2007-04-01

    PDMS(Polydimethylsiloxane) is mainly used as a material to do lab on a chip for biochemical analysis. PDMS has many applicability at the Bio-Technology(BT) field, because it is flexible, biocompatible and has good oxygen permeability. In this study, we have investigated to physical and chemical changes of PDMS surface by proton beam radiation conditions. The used kind of ion were Ar and N, beam energy was 30keV, 60keV, 80keV, total fluence was 1E10 to 1E16 [ions/cm 2 ]. PDMS membrane was produced as 150 μm thick on the 3' silicon wafer. We inquired into physical and chemical changes up to beam radiation conditions through the investigate the change of surface roughness by AFM(Atomic Force Microscope), the change of surface morphology by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) and the change of chemical composition by FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Raman spectroscopy) and XPS(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). From these basic data to we set up the proton beam radiation conditions to secure metal layer and PDMS adhesion. This enables to produce the electrode at the PDMS material lab on a chip. From now on, we'll investigate the cell patterning possibility after carry out of cell culture with mouse fibroblast at PDMS surface what is surface modification by using of proton beam radiation and apply this to produce lab on a chip. Physical property: Surface roughness of PDMS membrane was observed using AFM, after exposure of proton beam on it. The roughness increased as the power level of proton beam increase. This phenomena was caused by the kinetic energy of particle. Chemical property: Long term observation was conducted on the contact angles of the samples made by the proton beam exposure or oxygen plasma treatment; the hydrophilicity was found to be stronger in the samples made by the proton beam exposure. We found the reason of this was the destruction of polymer chains by proton beam. Feasibility of Through-hole: Considering that comparatively high level energy beam

  19. The study of PDMS surface treatment and it's applications by using proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, J. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, K. H.; Park, J. Y. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    PDMS(Polydimethylsiloxane) is mainly used as a material to do lab on a chip for biochemical analysis. PDMS has many applicability at the Bio-Technology(BT) field, because it is flexible, biocompatible and has good oxygen permeability. In this study, we have investigated to physical and chemical changes of PDMS surface by proton beam radiation conditions. The used kind of ion were Ar and N, beam energy was 30keV, 60keV, 80keV, total fluence was 1E10 to 1E16 [ions/cm{sup 2}]. PDMS membrane was produced as 150 {mu}m thick on the 3' silicon wafer. We inquired into physical and chemical changes up to beam radiation conditions through the investigate the change of surface roughness by AFM(Atomic Force Microscope), the change of surface morphology by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) and the change of chemical composition by FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Raman spectroscopy) and XPS(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). From these basic data to we set up the proton beam radiation conditions to secure metal layer and PDMS adhesion. This enables to produce the electrode at the PDMS material lab on a chip. From now on, we'll investigate the cell patterning possibility after carry out of cell culture with mouse fibroblast at PDMS surface what is surface modification by using of proton beam radiation and apply this to produce lab on a chip. Physical property: Surface roughness of PDMS membrane was observed using AFM, after exposure of proton beam on it. The roughness increased as the power level of proton beam increase. This phenomena was caused by the kinetic energy of particle. Chemical property: Long term observation was conducted on the contact angles of the samples made by the proton beam exposure or oxygen plasma treatment; the hydrophilicity was found to be stronger in the samples made by the proton beam exposure. We found the reason of this was the destruction of polymer chains by proton beam. Feasibility of Through-hole: Considering that comparatively high

  20. Proton-Beam Therapy for Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Ogino, Takashi; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Nihei, Keiji; Arahira, Satoko; Onozawa, Masakatsu; Katsuta, Shoichi; Nishio, Teiji

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) as a definitive treatment, by reviewing our preliminary experience. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease, and a standard treatment strategy has not been established. Radiation therapy for ONB is challenging because of the proximity of ONBs to critical organs. Proton-beam therapy can provide better dose distribution compared with X-ray irradiation because of its physical characteristics, and is deemed to be a feasible treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 14 patients who underwent PBT for ONB as definitive treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital East (Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan) from November 1999 to February 2005. A total dose of PBT was 65 cobalt Gray equivalents (Gy E ), with 2.5-Gy E once-daily fractionations. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 40 months. One patient died from disseminated disease. There were two persistent diseases, one of which was successfully salvaged with surgery. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93%, the 5-year local progression-free survival rate was 84%, and the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 71%. Liquorrhea was observed in one patient with Kadish's stage C disease (widely destroying the skull base). Most patients experienced Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis in the acute phase. No other adverse events of Grade 3 or greater were observed according to the RTOG/EORTC acute and late morbidity scoring system. Conclusions: Our preliminary results of PBT for ONB achieved excellent local control and survival outcomes without serious adverse effects. Proton-beam therapy is considered a safe and effective modality that warrants further study

  1. Nanostructuring by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbusa, U.; Boragno, C.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.

    2003-01-01

    In metals, the surface curvature dependence of the sputtering yield and the presence of an extra energy barrier whenever diffusing adatoms try to descend step edges, produce a similar surface instability, which builds up regular patterns. By tuning the competition between these two mechanisms, it is possible to create self-organized structures of the size of few nanometers. Height, lateral distance and order of the structures change with the deposition parameters like ion energy, dose, incident angle and substrate temperature. The paper offers an overview of the experiments carried out and foresees possible applications of these results in the area of material science

  2. Materials Science with Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bernas, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.

  3. The beam diagnostic instruments in Beijing radioactive ion-beam facilities isotope separator on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.; Cui, B.; Ma, R.; Tang, B.; Chen, L.; Huang, Q.; Jiang, W.

    2014-01-01

    The beam diagnostic instruments for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-Line are introduced [B. Q. Cui, Z. H. Peng, Y. J. Ma, R. G. Ma, B. Tang, T. Zhang, and W. S. Jiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 266, 4113 (2008); T. J. Zhang, X. L. Guan, and B. Q. Cui, in Proceedings of APAC 2004, Gyeongju, Korea, 2004, http://www.jacow.org , p. 267]. For low intensity ion beam [30–300 keV/1 pA–10 μA], the beam profile monitor, the emittance measurement unit, and the analyzing slit will be installed. For the primary proton beam [100 MeV/200 μA], the beam profile scanner will be installed. For identification of the nuclide, a beam identification unit will be installed. The details of prototype of the beam diagnostic units and some experiment results will be described in this article

  4. Testing proton spin models with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    We review models for spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton. Sum rules involving the nonsinglet components of the structure function xg 1 p help narrow the range of parameters in these models. The contribution of the γ 5 anomaly term depends on the size of the integrated polarized gluon distribution and experimental predictions depend on its size. We have proposed three models for the polarized gluon distributions, whose range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range is considerable. These model distributions give an overall range of parameters that can be tested with polarized beam experiments. These are discussed with regard to specific predictions for polarized beam experiments at energies typical of UNK

  5. Generation of high brightness ion beam from insulated anode PED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu

    1988-01-01

    Generation and focusing of a high density ion beam with high brightness from a organic center part of anode of a PED was reported previously. Mass, charge and energy distribution of this beam were analyzed. Three kind of anode were tried. Many highly ionized medium mass ions (up to C 4+ , O 6+ ) accelarated to several times of voltage difference between anode and cathode were observed. In the case of all insulator anode the current carried by the medium mass ions is about half of that carried by protons. (author)

  6. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-01

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented

  7. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  8. Fractionated proton beam irradiation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronson, Brian B.; Schulte, Reinhard W.; Han, Khanh P.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Various radiation techniques and modalities have been used to treat pituitary adenomas. This report details our experience with proton treatment of these tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with pituitary adenomas treated with protons, who had at least 6 months of follow-up, were included in this analysis. Forty-two patients underwent a prior surgical resection; 5 were treated with primary radiation. Approximately half the tumors were functional. The median dose was 54 cobalt-gray equivalent. Results: Tumor stabilization occurred in all 41 patients available for follow-up imaging; 10 patients had no residual tumor, and 3 had greater than 50% reduction in tumor size. Seventeen patients with functional adenomas had normalized or decreased hormone levels; progression occurred in 3 patients. Six patients have died; 2 deaths were attributed to functional progression. Complications included temporal lobe necrosis in 1 patient, new significant visual deficits in 3 patients, and incident hypopituitarism in 11 patients. Conclusion: Fractionated conformal proton-beam irradiation achieved effective radiologic, endocrinological, and symptomatic control of pituitary adenomas. Significant morbidity was uncommon, with the exception of postradiation hypopituitarism, which we attribute in part to concomitant risk factors for hypopituitarism present in our patient population

  9. Direct measurement of the energy spectrum of an intense proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Lee, J.R.; Kissel, L.; Johnson, D.J.; Stygar, W.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Roose, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A time-resolved magnetic spectrometer has been used to measure the energy spectrum of an intense (0.5 TW/cm 2 ) proton beam. A thin (2400 A) gold foil placed at the focus of an ion diode Rutherford scattered protons by 90 0 into the spectrometer, reducing the beam intensity to a level suitable for magnetic analysis. The scattered beam was collimated by two 1 mm diameter apertures separated by 12.3 cm. The collimated protons were deflected in a 12.7 cm diameter, 6.65 Kg samarium-cobalt permanent magnet. The deflected protons were recorded simultaneously on CR-39 and eight 1 mm 2 by 35 μm thick PIN diodes. A Monte Carlo computer code was used to calculate the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer. Data taken on Proto-I show a 150 keV to 250 keV wide proton energy spectrum at each instant in time

  10. Optimization of proton and heavy ion therapy using an adaptive inversion algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.; Kaellman, P.; Lind, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    From the examples presented it is clear that the clinical advantages of high energy proton beams are considerable when optimally employed. Protons can generate almost any desired dose distribution in an arbitrary shaped target volume. When only ordinary uniform proton beams of fixed range modulation are available, the clinical advantages compared for example to high quality high energy electrons are not so pronounced. The new iterative inversion algorithm presented here therefore opens the door for precise and efficient use of the dose distributional advantages of high energy protons, pions and heavy ions. (author). 22 refs.; 7 figs

  11. Neutron and proton transmutation-activation cross section libraries to 150 MeV for application in accelerator-driven systems and radioactive ion beam target-design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Mashnik, S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    New transmutation-activation nuclear data libraries for neutrons and protons up to 150 MeV have been created. These data are important for simulation calculations of radioactivity, and transmutation, in accelerator-driven systems such as the production of tritium (APT) and the transmutation of waste (ATW). They can also be used to obtain cross section predictions for the production of proton-rich isotopes in (p,xn) reactions, for radioactive ion beam (RIB) target-design studies. The nuclear data in these libraries stem from two sources: for neutrons below 20 MeV, we use data from the European activation and transmutation file, EAF97; For neutrons above 20 MeV and for protons at all energies we have isotope production cross sections with the nuclear model code HMS-ALICE. This code applies the Monte Carlo Hybrid Simulation theory, and the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, to calculate cross sections. In a few cases, the HMS-ALICE results were replaced by those calculated using the GNASH code for the Los Alamos LA150 transport library. The resulting two libraries, AF150.N and AF150.P, consist of 766 nuclides each and are represented in the ENDF6-format. An outline is given of the new representation of the data. The libraries have been checked with ENDF6 preprocessing tools and have been processed with NJOY into libraries for the Los Alamos transmutation/radioactivity code CINDER. Numerous benchmark figures are presented for proton-induced excitation functions of various isotopes compared with measurements. Such comparisons are useful for validation purposes, and for assessing the accuracy of the evaluated data. These evaluated libraries are available on the WWW at: http://t2.lanl.gov/. 21 refs

  12. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  13. Investigating proton emitters at the limits of stability with radioactive beams from the Oak Ridge facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Batchelder, J.C.; Zganjar, E.F. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davinson, T.; MacKenzie, J.A.; Woods, P.J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    By using beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL, it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. In these investigations nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions will be separated from incident ions and dispersed in mass/charge with a recoil mass separator and then implanted into a double-sided Si strip detector for study of proton (and {alpha}-particle) radioactivity. This paper summarizes data presently extant on proton emitters and then focuses on tests and initial experiments that will be carried out with stable beams and with radioactive ions as they are developed at the Oak Ridge facility.

  14. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, M. G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lojacono, P.; Piliero, M. A.; Romano, F.; Rosso, V.; Sipala, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2009-08-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256×256 cells, 55×55 μm 2 each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  15. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lojacono, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Piliero, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Rosso, V. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: valeria.rosso@pi.infn.it; Sipala, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania and INFN Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Stefanini, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256x256 cells, 55x55 {mu}m{sup 2} each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  16. Medipix2 as a tool for proton beam characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lojacono, P.; Piliero, M.A.; Romano, F.; Rosso, V.; Sipala, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton therapy is a technique used to deliver a highly accurate and effective dose for the treatment of a variety of tumor diseases. The possibility to have an instrument able to give online information could reduce the time necessary to characterize the proton beam. To this aim we propose a detection system for online proton beam characterization based on the Medipix2 chip. Medipix2 is a detection system based on a single event counter read-out chip, bump-bonded to silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip is a matrix of 256x256 cells, 55x55 μm 2 each. To demonstrate the capabilities of Medipix2 as a proton detector, we have used a 62 MeV flux proton beam at the CATANA beam line of the LNS-INFN laboratory. The measurements performed confirmed the good imaging performances of the Medipix2 system also for the characterization of proton beams.

  17. MedAustron - Ion-Beam Therapy and Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Seemann, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron-based light-ion beam therapy center for cancer treatment as well as for clinical and non-clinical research, currently in the commissioning phase in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. Recently, the first proton beam was transported successfully to one of the four irradiation rooms. Whilst the choice of basic machine parameters was driven by medical requirements, i.e. 60 MeV protons and 120 MeV/A to 400 MeV/A carbon ions, the accelerator complex design was also optimized to offer flexibility for research operation. The potential of the synchrotron is being exploited to increase the maximum proton energy far beyond the medical needs to up to 800 MeV, for experimental physics applications, mainly in the areas of proton scattering and detector research. The accelerator layout allows for the installation of up to four ion source-spectrometer units, to provide various ion types besides the clinical used protons and carbon ions. Besides experimental physics, the two main non-clinical research disciplines are medical radiation physics and radiation biology. To decouple research and medical operation, a dedicated irradiation room for non-clinical research was included providing the installation of different experiments. In addition, several labs have been equipped with appropriate devices for preparing and analyzing radio-biological samples. This presentation gives a status overview over the whole project and highlights the non-clinical research opportunities at MedAustron. (Author)

  18. Fast ion profiles during neutral beam and lower hybrid heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, R.E.; Cavallo, A.; Motley, R.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    Profiles of the d(d,p)t fusion reaction are measured in the PLT tokamak using an array of collimated 3 MeV proton detectors. During deuterium neutral beam injection, the emission profile indicates that the beam deposition is at least as narrow as predicted by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code. The fast ion tail formed by lower hybrid waves (at densities above the critical density for current drive) also peaks strongly near the magnetic axis

  19. The polarized proton and deuteron beam at the Bonn isochronous cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, K G; Enders, R; Hammon, W; Krause, K D; Lesemann, D; Scholzen, A [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Euler, K; Schueller, B [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    1976-02-15

    The present state of the polarized proton and deuteron source at the Bonn cyclotron is described. The source, which is of the atomic beam type, gives typical ion beam intensities of 2 ..mu..A for protons and 3 ..mu..A for deuterons. The overall transmission from the source to the first stopper after extraction from the cyclotron is 3%. Target currents with an energy resolution E/..delta..E=500 are 20 nA for deuterons and 10 nA for protons. For the proton beam, a polarization P=-0.71 was measured. For the deuteron beam, a pure vector polarization Psub(z)=-0.47 or various mixtures of vector and tensor polarization are obtained.

  20. Divergence in intense ion beams caused by incomplete charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.; Poukey, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Space charge neutralization for light ion fusion (LIF) ion beam transport is usually assumed to be perfect in the open-quotes charge-neutralclose quotes region of the diode and in the gas transport cell. However, small charge clumps in the beam will not be totally charge-neutralized, and the residual net space charge may contribute to the beam microdivergence θ μ . If the net potential of the clump is limited only by electron trapping, the minimum potential will be eφ ∼ 1/2 m e v i 2 where m e is the electron mass and v i is the ion velocity. For proton beams this leads to θ μ ∼ (m e /M p ) 1/2 ∼ 23 mrad, where M p is the proton rest mass. For non-protonic beams, different results occur. The mechanism predicts (1) no dependence of θ μ on diode voltage, (2) non-protonic θ μ greater than proton θ μ for proton-contaminated beams, and (3) axial energy spread Δε parallel /ε parallel ∼ ±2 θ μ , which are all consistent with present data. Results of analytic studies and computer simulations of this mechanism are presented. Plasma shielding reduces the effects of this mechanism but collisions and magnetic fields reduce the plasma shielding effects. 2-D PIC MAGIC simulations show that this mechanism contributes to θ μ both in the open-quotes charge-neutralclose quotes region and in the gas transport region. It is concluded that this mechanism is especially important in the open-quotes charge-neutralclose quotes region

  1. A specialized bioengineering ion beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Sriprom, C.; Thongleurm, C.; Suwanksum, R.; Tondee, N.; Prakrajang, K.; Vilaithong, T.; Brown, I.G.; Wiedemann, H.

    2007-01-01

    A specialized bioengineering ion beam line has recently been completed at Chiang Mai University to meet rapidly growing needs of research and application development in low-energy ion beam biotechnology. This beam line possesses special features: vertical main beam line, low-energy (30 keV) ion beams, double swerve of the beam, a fast pumped target chamber, and an in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system chamber. The whole beam line is situated in a bioclean environment, occupying two stories. The quality of the ion beam has been studied. It has proved that this beam line has significantly contributed to our research work on low-energy ion beam biotechnology

  2. Transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using intense bursts of heavy ions to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated interest in the transport of intense unneutralized heavy ion beams by quadrupole or solenoid systems. This problem was examined in some detail, using numerical integration of the coupled envelope equations for the quadrupole case. The general relations which emerge are used to develop examples of high energy transport systems and as a basis for discussing the limitations imposed by a transport system on achievable intensities for initial acceleration

  3. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  4. Materials research with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This report gives a series of helpful programs which are used in materials research with ion beams. In this context algorithms which can substitute table books are dealt with. This is true for the programs DEDX and PRAL; they are used in order to determine the energy loss of ions in solid bodies, their working range and straggling. Furthermore, simulator routines and analyzers are described. The program TRIM simulates the physical phenomena which occur with the penetration of high-energy ions into solid bodies. In this context electronic excitations, phonons and lattice distortions which are caused by the ions are dealt with. For the experimental ion implantation it is interesting to know the final distribution of the simulated ions in the solid body. The program RBS simulates the Rutherford spectrum of ions which are scattered from a solid body which may consist of up to nine elements and up to one hundred layers. The unknown composition of a solid body can be determined in direct comparison with the experimental spectrum. The program NRA determines concentration and penetrative distribution of an impurity by means of the experimental nuclear reaction spectrum of this impurity. All programs are written in FORTRAN 77. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW) [de

  6. The synchrotron and its related technology for ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo; Umezawa, Masumi; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tootake, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Hideaki; Hara, Shigemistu; Tanaka, Masanobu; Matsuda, Koji; Sakurabata, Hiroaki; Moriyama, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    Hitachi has developed several new technologies for the synchrotron and its related system to realize reliable and flexible operation of a proton therapy system. Especially important among them are a non-resonant RF acceleration cavity using FINEMET core with multiple power feeding and radio frequency driven beam extraction technique (RF-DE) for a synchrotron. Various treatment operations such as variable acceleration energy or respiration gating became possible and simple due to the above technique. For beam transport, a beam steering method for the beam, using transfer matrix realizes quick and precise correction of the beam orbit. A compact microwave ion source has also been developed for the injector to obtain further higher reliability and availability. Most of these technologies are also effective to enhance the reliability and flexibility of other ion beam therapy systems

  7. Development of focused ion beam systems with various ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing; Leung, K.-N.; King, Tsu-Jae; Jiang Ximan; Appleton, Bill R.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional focused ion beam systems employ a liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) to generate high-brightness beams, such as Ga + beams. Recently there has been an increased need for focused ion beams in areas like biological studies, advanced magnetic-film manufacturing and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In this article, status of development on focused ion beam systems with ion species such as O 2 + , P + , and B + will be reviewed. Compact columns for forming focused ion beams from low energy (∼3keV), to intermediate energy (∼35keV) are discussed. By using focused ion beams, a SOI MOSFET is fabricated entirely without any masks or resist

  8. Proton polarizing system with Ar-ion laser for p-vector-RI scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, T.; Hatano, M.; Sakai, H.; Uesaka, T.; Tamii, A.

    2005-01-01

    A proton polarizing system for use in scattering experiments with radioactive isotope beams is described. Protons in a naphthalene crystal doped with pentacene are polarized in a magnetic field of 0.3T at 100K by transferring a large population difference among the photo-excited triplet states of pentacene to the hydrogen nuclei. An Ar-ion laser, which demands minimal maintenance during scattering experiments, is employed to excite the pentacene molecules. A proton polarization of 37% is obtained

  9. Ion beam neutralization with ferroelectrically generated electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herleb, U; Riege, H [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LHC Division

    1997-12-31

    A technique for ion beam space-charge neutralization with pulsed electron beams is described. The intensity of multiply-charged ions produced with a laser ion source can be enhanced or decreased separately with electron beam trains of MHz repetition rate. These are generated with ferroelectric cathodes, which are pulsed in synchronization with the laser ion source. The pulsed electron beams guide the ion beam in a similar way to the alternating gradient focusing of charged particle beams in circular accelerators such as synchrotrons. This new neutralization technology overcomes the Langmuir-Child space-charge limit and may in future allow ion beam currents to be transported with intensities by orders of magnitude higher than those which can be accelerated today in a single vacuum tube. (author). 6 figs., 10 refs.

  10. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G V [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  11. Ion spectroscopy for improvement of the physical beam model for therapy planning in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arico, Giulia

    2016-11-23

    Helium and carbon ions enable a more conformal dose distribution, narrower penumbra and higher relative biological effectiveness than photon and proton radiotherapy. However, they may undergo nuclear fragmentation in the patient tissues and the arising secondary fragments affect the delivered biological dose distributions. Currently there is a lack of data regarding ion nuclear fragmentation. One reason is the large size (up to some meters) of the experimental setups required for the investigations. In this thesis a new method is presented, which makes use of versatile pixelated semiconductor detectors (Timepix). This method is based on tracking of single particles and pattern recognition of their signals in the detectors. Measurements were performed at the HIT facility. The mixed radiation field arising from 430 MeV/u carbon ion beams and 221 MeV/u helium ion beams in water and in PMMA targets was investigated. The amounts of primary (carbon or helium) ions detected behind targets with the same water equivalent thickness (WET) were found to be in agreement within the statistical uncertainties. However, more fragments (differences up to 20% in case of H) and narrower lateral particle distributions were measured behind the PMMA than the water targets. The spectra of ions behind tissue surrogates and corresponding water targets with the same WET were analysed. The results obtained with adipose and inner bone surrogates and with the equivalent water phantoms were found to be consistent within the uncertainties. Significant differences in the results were observed in the case of lung and cortical bone surrogates when compared to the water phantoms. The experimental results were compared to FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. This comparison could contribute to enhance the ion interaction models currently implemented for {sup 12}C and {sup 4}He ion beams.

  12. Proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsh, Griffith R.; Thornton, Allan F.; Chapman, Paul H.; Bussiere, Marc R.; Rabinov, James D.; Loeffler, Jay S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The proton beam's Bragg peak permits highly conformal radiation of skull base tumors. This study, prompted by reports of transient (30% each) and permanent (10% each) facial and trigeminal neuropathy after stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas with marginal doses of 16-20 Gy, assessed whether proton beam radiosurgery using a marginal dose of only 12 Gy could control vestibular schwannomas while causing less neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients (mean age 67 years) were treated between 1992 and 1998. The mean tumor volume was 2.49 cm 3 . The dose to the tumor margin (70% isodose line) was 12 Gy. The prospectively specified follow-up consisted of neurologic evaluation and MRI at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: After a mean clinical follow-up of 44 months and imaging follow-up of 34 months in 64 patients, 35 tumors (54.7%) were smaller and 25 (39.1%) were unchanged (tumor control rate 94%; actuarial control rate 94% at 2 years and 84% at 5 years). Three tumors enlarged: one shrank after repeated radiosurgery, one remained enlarged at the time of unrelated death, and one had not been imaged for 4 years in a patient who remained asymptomatic at last follow-up. Intratumoral hemorrhage into one stable tumor required craniotomy that proved successful. Thus, 97% of tumors required no additional treatment. Three patients (4.7%) underwent shunting for hydrocephalus evident as increased ataxia. Of 6 patients with functional hearing ipsilaterally, 1 improved, 1 was unchanged, and 4 progressively lost hearing. Cranial neuropathies were infrequent: persistent facial hypesthesia (2 new, 1 exacerbated; 4.7%); intermittent facial paresthesias (5 new, 1 exacerbated; 9.4%); persistent facial weakness (2 new, 1 exacerbated; 4.7%) requiring oculoplasty; transient partial facial weakness (5 new, 1 exacerbated; 9.4%), and synkinesis (5 new, 1 exacerbated; 9.4%). Conclusion: Proton beam stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannomas at the

  13. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldorf, J. [IPT Ionen- und Plasmatech. GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.).

  14. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldorf, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Production of high-brightness continuous wave proton beams with very high proton fractions (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, D.; McMichael, G.; Lykke, K.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Stevens, R. Jr.; Hodgkins, D.

    1996-01-01

    This article demonstrates a new technique to significantly enhance the proton fraction of an ion beam extracted from a plasma ion source. We employ a magnetically confined microwave driven source, though the technique is not source specific and can probably be applied equally effectively to other plasma sources such as Penning and multicusp types. Specifically, we dope the plasma with about 1% H 2 O, which increases the proton fraction of a 45 keV 45 mA beam from 75% to 90% with 375 W 2.45 GHz power to the source and from 84% to 92% for 500 W when the source is operated under nonresonant conditions. Much of the remaining fraction of the beam comprises a heavy mass ion we believe to be N + impurity ions resulting from the conditions under which the experiments were performed. If so, this impurity can easily be removed and much higher proton fractions could be expected. Preliminary measurements show the additive has no adverse effect on the emittance of the extracted beam, and source stability is greatly improved

  16. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  17. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.

    2009-01-29

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  18. Changes in optical properties of polystyrene thin films by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Hyun; Jung, Jin Mook; Choi, Jae Hak [Dept. of of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan Hee; Hwang, In Tae; Shin, Jun Hwa [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, changes in optical properties of polystyrene (PS) thin films by proton irradiation were investigated. PS thin films were irradiated with 150 keV proton ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 15} to 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. The chemical structures and optical properties of proton beam-irradiated PS thin films were investigated by using a FT-IR spectrometer, an UVvis spectrophotometer, a photoluminescence (PL) and a fluorescence microscope. The results of the chemical structure analysis revealed that chemical functional groups, such as OH, C=O, and C=C, were formed in the PS films due to the oxidation and formation of carbon clusters by proton beam irradiation. The PL emission was generated and gradually red-shifted with an increasing fluence due to the higher formation of sp2 carbon clusters by proton beam irradiation. The highest PL intensity was obtained at a fluence of 5×10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2}. The optical band gap of PS calculated by using a Tauc’s plot decreased with increasing the fluence due to the formation of sp2 carbon clusters by proton beam irradiation.

  19. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser proton acceleration using a thin carbon-hydrogen foil. The used proton acceleration scheme is a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion due to the carbon ions. We observe that the spot size plays a crucial role in determining the net charge of the electron-shielded carbon ion foil and consequently the efficiency of proton acceleration. Using a laser pulse with fixed input energy and pulse length impinging on a carbon-hydrogen foil, a laser beam with smaller spot sizes can generate higher energy but fewer quasi-monoenergetic protons. We studied the scaling of the proton energy with respect to the laser spot size and obtained an optimal spot size for maximum proton energy flux. Using the optimal spot size, we can generate an 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam containing more than 10 8 protons using a laser beam with power 250 TW and energy 10 J and a target of thickness 0.15 wavelength and 49 critical density made of 90% carbon and 10% hydrogen

  20. Radiographic film dosimetry of proton beams for depth‐dose constancy check and beam profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Anthony; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Johnson, Matt; Patyal, Baldev

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic film dosimetry suffers from its energy dependence in proton dosimetry. This study sought to develop a method of measuring proton beams by the film and to evaluate film response to proton beams for the constancy check of depth dose (DD). It also evaluated the film for profile measurements. To achieve this goal, from DDs measured by film and ion chamber (IC), calibration factors (ratios of dose measured by IC to film responses) as a function of depth in a phantom were obtained. These factors imply variable slopes (with proton energy and depth) of linear characteristic curves that relate film response to dose. We derived a calibration method that enables utilization of the factors for acquisition of dose from film density measured at later dates by adapting to a potentially altered processor condition. To test this model, the characteristic curve was obtained by using EDR2 film and in‐phantom film dosimetry in parallel with a 149.65 MeV proton beam, using the method. An additional validation of the model was performed by concurrent film and IC measurement perpendicular to the beam at various depths. Beam profile measurements by the film were also evaluated at the center of beam modulation. In order to interpret and ascertain the film dosimetry, Monte Carlos simulation of the beam was performed, calculating the proton fluence spectrum along depths and off‐axis distances. By multiplying respective stopping powers to the spectrum, doses to film and water were calculated. The ratio of film dose to water dose was evaluated. Results are as follows. The characteristic curve proved the assumed linearity. The measured DD approached that of IC, but near the end of the spread‐out Bragg peak (SOBP), a spurious peak was observed due to the mismatch of distal edge between the calibration and measurement films. The width of SOBP and the proximal edge were both reproducible within a maximum of 5 mm; the distal edge was reproducible within 1 mm. At 5 cm depth, the

  1. Use of a two-dimensional ionization chamber array for proton therapy beam quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Sahoo, Narayan; Ding Xiaoning; Gillin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional ion chamber arrays are primarily used for conventional and intensity modulated radiotherapy quality assurance. There is no commercial device of such type available on the market that is offered for proton therapy quality assurance. We have investigated suitability of the MatriXX, a commercial two-dimensional ion chamber array detector for proton therapy QA. This device is designed to be used for photon and electron therapy QA. The device is equipped with 32x32 parallel plate ion chambers, each with 4.5 mm diam and 7.62 mm center-to-center separation. A 250 MeV proton beam was used to calibrate the dose measured by this device. The water equivalent thickness of the buildup material was determined to be 3.9 mm using a 160 MeV proton beam. Proton beams of different energies were used to measure the reproducibility of dose output and to evaluate the consistency in the beam flatness and symmetry measured by MatriXX. The output measurement results were compared with the clinical commissioning beam data that were obtained using a 0.6 cc Farmer chamber. The agreement was consistently found to be within 1%. The profiles were compared with film dosimetry and also with ion chamber data in water with an excellent agreement. The device is found to be well suited for quality assurance of proton therapy beams. It provides fast two-dimensional dose distribution information in real time with the accuracy comparable to that of ion chamber measurements and film dosimetry

  2. Treatment planning with ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Ions have higher linear energy transfer (LET) near the end of their range and lower LET away from the end of their range. Mixing radiations of different LET complicates treatment planning because radiation kills cells in two statistically independent ways. In some cases, cells are killed by a single-particle, which causes a linear decrease in log survival at low dosage. When the linear decrease is subtracted from the log survival curve, the remaining curve has zero slope at zero dosage. This curve is the log survival curve for cells that are killed only by two or more particles. These two mechanisms are statistically independent. To calculate survival, these two kinds of doses must be accumulated separately. The effect of each accumulated dosage must be read from its survival curve, and the logarithms of the two effects added to get the log survival. Treatment plans for doses of protons, He 3 ions, and He 4 ions suggest that these ions will be useful therapeutic modalities

  3. Neurosurgical applications of ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, Jacob I.; Levy, Richard P.; Phillips, Mark H.; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Lyman, John T.

    1989-04-01

    The program at Donner Pavilion has applied nuclear medicine research to the diagnosis and radiosurgical treatment of life-threatening intracranial vascular disorders that affect more than half a million Americans. Stereotactic heavy-charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery, using narrow beams of heavy ions, demonstrates superior biological and physical characteristics in brain over X-and γ-rays, viz., improved dose distribution in the Bragg peak and sharp lateral and distal borders and less scattering of the beam. Examination of CNS tissue response and alteration of cerebral blood-flow dynamics related to heavy-ion Bragg peak radiosurgery is carried out using three-dimensional treatment planning and quantitative imaging utilizing cerebral angiography, computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cine-CT, xenon X-ray CT and positron emission tomography (PET). Also under examination are the physical properties of narrow heavy-ion beams for improving methods of dose delivery and dose distribution and for establishing clinical RBE/LET and dose-response relationships for human CNS tissues. Based on the evaluation and treatment with stereotactically directed narrow beams of heavy charged particles of over 300 patients, with cerebral angiography, CT scanning and MRI and PET scanning of selected patients, plus extensive clinical and neuroradiological followup, it appears that Stereotactic charged-particle Bragg peak radiosurgery obliterates intracranial arteriovenous malformations or protects against rebleeding with reduced morbidity and no mortality. Discussion will include the method of evaluation, the clinical research protocol, the Stereotactic neuroradiological preparation, treatment planning, the radiosurgery procedure and the protocol for followup. Emphasis will be placed on the neurological results, including the neuroradiological and clinical response and early and late delayed injury in brain leading to complications (including vasogenic edema

  4. PIXE analysis using external proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potocek, V; Potockova, J; Dzmuran, R; Sikora, J

    1985-03-01

    The possibilities were studied of the practical use of the analytical PIXE method. Calibration samples were analyzed of Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb in concentrations of 50 to 500 ..mu..g/l as well as natural samples of drinking water, pond water, human blood plasma, dry waste from ground vegetation, mushrooms, pine needles, aerosols, human hair, leaves and flowers, etc. The samples were processed using precipitation, mineralization or incineration and were trapped on a membrane filter (Synpor) or on a Tatrafan ON 15 foil. Some samples were freeze-dried and compressed into pellets. A proton beam with an intensity of 10 to 70 nA was used for analysis and the proton energy was selected 2.2 MeV. For most targets an exposure of 120 s was preset and the measurement lasted at least 60 s and 600 s at the most. It was found that Synpor filters browned and became more brittle during longer exposures. The other targets did not change during analysis.

  5. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  6. Beam heating in solar flares - Electrons or protons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; Karlicky, M.; Mackinnon, A.L.; Van Den Oord, G.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of electron and proton beam models as candidates for the impulsive phase heating of solar flares is discussed in relation to observational constants and theoretical difficulties. It is concluded that, while the electron beam model for flare heating still faces theoretical and observational problems, the problems faced by low and high energy proton beam models are no less serious, and there are facets of proton models which have not yet been studied. At the present, the electron beam model remains the most viable and best developed of heating model candidates. 58 refs

  7. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, William T.

    2006-01-01

    compared to those in conventional (photon) treatments. Wilson wrote his personal account of this pioneering work in 1997. In 1954 Cornelius Tobias and John Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory (former E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) of the University of California, Berkeley performed the first therapeutic exposure of human patients to hadron (deuteron and helium ion) beams at the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron. By 1984, or 30 years after the first proton treatment at Berkeley, programs of proton radiation treatments had opened at: University of Uppsala, Sweden, 1957; the Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory (MGH/HCL), USA, 1961; Dubna (1967), Moscow (1969) and St Petersburg (1975) in Russia; Chiba (1979) and Tsukuba (1983) in Japan; and Villigen, Switzerland, 1984. These centers used the accelerators originally constructed for nuclear physics research. The experience at these centers has confirmed the efficacy of protons and light ions in increasing the tumor dose relative to normal tissue dose, with significant improvements in local control and patient survival for several tumor sites. M.R. Raju reviewed the early clinical studies. In 1990, the Loma Linda University Medical Center in California heralded in the age of dedicated medical accelerators when it commissioned its proton therapy facility with a 250-MeV synchrotron. Since then there has been a relatively rapid increase in the number of hospital-based proton treatment centers around the world, and by 2006 there are more than a dozen commercially-built facilities in use, five new facilities under construction, and more in planning stages. In the 1950s larger synchrotrons were built in the GeV region at Brookhaven (3-GeV Cosmotron) and at Berkeley (6-GeV Bevatron), and today most of the world's largest accelerators are synchrotrons. With advances in accelerator design in the early 1970s, synchrotrons at Berkeley and Princeton accelerated ions with atomic numbers between 6 and 18, at

  8. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William T.

    2006-03-16

    treatment volume compared to those in conventional (photon) treatments. Wilson wrote his personal account of this pioneering work in 1997. In 1954 Cornelius Tobias and John Lawrence at the Radiation Laboratory (former E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) of the University of California, Berkeley performed the first therapeutic exposure of human patients to hadron (deuteron and helium ion) beams at the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron. By 1984, or 30 years after the first proton treatment at Berkeley, programs of proton radiation treatments had opened at: University of Uppsala, Sweden, 1957; the Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory (MGH/HCL), USA, 1961; Dubna (1967), Moscow (1969) and St Petersburg (1975) in Russia; Chiba (1979) and Tsukuba (1983) in Japan; and Villigen, Switzerland, 1984. These centers used the accelerators originally constructed for nuclear physics research. The experience at these centers has confirmed the efficacy of protons and light ions in increasing the tumor dose relative to normal tissue dose, with significant improvements in local control and patient survival for several tumor sites. M.R. Raju reviewed the early clinical studies. In 1990, the Loma Linda University Medical Center in California heralded in the age of dedicated medical accelerators when it commissioned its proton therapy facility with a 250-MeV synchrotron. Since then there has been a relatively rapid increase in the number of hospital-based proton treatment centers around the world, and by 2006 there are more than a dozen commercially-built facilities in use, five new facilities under construction, and more in planning stages. In the 1950s larger synchrotrons were built in the GeV region at Brookhaven (3-GeV Cosmotron) and at Berkeley (6-GeV Bevatron), and today most of the world's largest accelerators are synchrotrons. With advances in accelerator design in the early 1970s, synchrotrons at Berkeley and Princeton accelerated ions with atomic numbers

  9. Present and future sources of protons and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Leemann, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    A brief outline of existing medical heavy-ion facilities is given. The beam specifications for future dedicated medical ion accelerators are discussed. Machines capable of delivering dose rates of approximately 1 krad/min in volumes of a few liters are shown to represent existing technology. A cost and performance analysis shows the synchrotrons to be the most economical source for the heavier ions while conventional cyclotrons seem optimal for an exclusive proton facility. It is seen that the incorporation of additional capabilities such as neutron generation or radioisotope production can be achieved at modest incremental costs. In addition to the accelerators, feasible layouts of hypothetical facilities are discussed, and three-dimensional beam scanning is shown to allow the irradiation of large volumes without sacrificing the precise dose localization capabilities of heavy-ion beams. Concepts of quality-controlled engineering and modern computer technology are introduced as a means to obtain the desired high degree of reliability and ease of operation and maintenance

  10. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  11. Ion beam processes in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.; Narayan, J.; Fathy, D.

    1984-07-01

    Observation of the effects of implants of energetic ions at high dose rates into Si have produced some exciting and interesting results. The mechanism whereby displacement damage produced by ions self-anneals during high dose rate implantation is discussed. It is shown that ion beam annealing (IBA) offers in certain situations unique possibilities for damage annealing. Annealing results of the near surface in Si with a buried oxide layer, formed by high dose implantation, are presented in order to illustrate the advantages offered by IBA. It is also shown that ion irradiation can stimulate the epitaxial recrystallization of amorphous overlayers in Si. The nonequilibrium alloying which results from such epitaxial processes is discussed as well as mechanisms which limit the solid solubility during irradiation. Finally, a dose rate dependency for the production of stable damage by ion irradiation at a constant fluence has been observed. For low fluence implants, the amount of damage is substantially greater in the case of high flux rather than low flux implantation

  12. Faraday cup dosimetry in a proton therapy beam without collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik; Isacsson, Ulf; Montelius, Anders; Medin, Joakim

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cup in a proton beam can give an accurate measurement of the number of protons collected by the cup. It is shown that the collection efficiency with a proper design can be close to unity. To be able to calibrate an ionization chamber from such a measurement, as is recommended in some dosimetry protocols, the energy spectrum of the proton beam must be accurately known. This is normally not the case when the lateral beam extension is defined by collimators. Therefore a method for relating an ionization chamber measurement in an uncollimated beam to the total number of protons in the beam has been developed and is described together with experimental results from calibrating an ionization chamber using this method in the therapeutic beam in Uppsala. This method is applicable to ionization chambers of any shape and the accuracy is estimated to be 1.6% (1 SD). (Author)

  13. Ion density in ionizing beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuyt, G.K.; Callebaut, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The equations defining the ion density in a non-quasineutral plasma (chasma) are derived for a number of particular cases from the general results obtained in paper 1. Explicit calculations are made for a fairly general class of boundaries: all tri-axial ellipsoids, including cylinders with elliptic cross-section and the plane parallel case. The results are very simple. When the ion production and the beam intensity are constant then the steady state ion space charge is also constant in space, it varies over less than 10% for the various geometries, it may exceed the beam density largely for comparatively high pressures (usually still less than about 10 -3 Torr), it is tabulated for a number of interesting cases and moreover it can be calculated precisely and easily by some simple formulae for which also approximations are elaborated. The total potential is U =-ax 2 -by 2 -cz 2 , a, b and c constants which can be calculated immediately from the space charge density and the geometry; the largest coefficient varies at most over a factor four for various geometries; it is tabulated for a number of interesting cases. (author)

  14. Current neutralization in ballistic transport of light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, R.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Ottinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intense light ion beams are being considered as drivers to ignite fusion targets in the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). Ballistic transport of these beams from the diode to the target is possible only if the beam current is almost completely neutralized by plasma currents. This paper summarizes related work on relativistic electron beam and heavy ion beam propagation and describes a simple simulation model (DYNAPROP) which has been modified to treat light ion beam propagation. DYNAPROP uses an envelope equation to treat beam dynamics and uses rate equations to describe plasma and conductivity generation. The model has been applied both to the high current, 30 MeV Li +3 beams for LMF as well as low current, 1.2 MeV proton beams which are currently being studied on GAMBLE B at the Naval Research Laboratory. The predicted ratio of net currents to beam current is ∼0.1--0.2 for the GAMBLE experiment and ∼0.01 for LMF. The implications of these results for LMF and the GAMBLE experiments art discussed in some detail. The simple resistive model in DYNAPROP has well-known limitations in the 1 torr regime which arise primarily from the neglect of plasma electron transport. Alternative methods for treating the plasma response are discussed

  15. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  16. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}ions initially accelerated by the light sail (LS mode can be further trapped and reflected by the snowplough potential generated by the laser in the near-critical density plasma. These two acceleration stages are connected by the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT instability. The usual ion energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  17. Control of proton beam divergence in intense-laser foil-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Sonobe, R.; Miyazaki, S.; Sakai, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Quality of an ion beam is one of the critical factors in intense-laser ion beam generation. A purpose of this study is the suppression of transverse proton divergence by a controlled electron cloud in laser-foil interactions. In this study, the foil target has a hole at the opposite side of the laser illumination. The electrons accelerated by an intense laser are limited in transverse by a neutral plasma at a protuberant part. Therefore the protons are accelerated and also controlled transversely by the electron cloud structure. In our 2.5-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations we demonstrate that the transverse shape of the electron cloud is well controlled and the collimated proton beam is generated successfully in the target with the hole. (authors)

  18. AA, entrance of proton beam to antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Please look up 8010295 first. The intense proton beam from the 26 GeV PS arrives from the right, through the vacuum chamber. The big flange contains a thin window, after which the proton beam continues through free air. A beam transformer, affixed to the shielding block, measures its intensity, before it enters the hole in the concrete to hit the target behind it.

  19. Synchrotron accelerator technology for proton beam therapy with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was applied at the beginning to head and neck cancers, but it is now extended to prostate, lung and liver cancers. Thus the need for a pencil beam scanning method is increasing. With this method radiation dose concentration property of the proton beam will be further intensified. Hitachi group has supplied a pencil beam scanning therapy system as the first one for M. D. Anderson Hospital in United States, and it has been operational since May 2008. Hitachi group has been developing proton therapy system to correspond high-accuracy proton therapy to concentrate the dose in the diseased part which is located with various depths, and which sometimes has complicated shape. The author described here on the synchrotron accelerator technology that is an important element for constituting the proton therapy system. (K.Y.)

  20. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion ...

  1. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface

  2. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

    2014-02-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  3. Measurement of extent of intense ion beam charge neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR

    1997-12-31

    Various diagnostic tools were employed to study and optimize the extent of space charge neutralization in the pulsed intense proton beam facility PROFA, comprising Langmuir probes, capacitive probes, and a novel type of the three electrode collector. The latter does not only allow us to measure ion and electron beam current densities in a high magnetic field environment, but also to deduce the density spectrum of the beam electrons. Appropriate operating conditions were identified to attain a complete space charge neutralisation. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  4. Improved beam-energy calibration technique for heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, A.M.J.; Garcia, A.; Gil, Salvador

    1989-01-01

    A simple technique for beam energy calibration of heavy-ion accelerators is presented. A thin hydrogenous target was bombarded with 12 C and 19 F, and the energies of the protons knocked out, elastically were measured at several angles using two detectors placed at equal angles on opposite sides of the beam. The use of these two detectors cancels the largest errors due to uncertainties in the angle and position at which the beam hits the target. An application of this energy calibration method to an electrostatic accelerator is described and the calibration constant of the analyzing magnet was obtained with an estimated error of 0.4 (Author) [es

  5. Studies of Limits on Uncontrolled Heavy Ion Beam Losses for Allowing Hands-On Maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.; Remec, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Dose rates from accelerator components activated by 1 W/m beam losses are obtained semiempirically for a 1 GeV proton beam and by use of Monte Carlo transport codes for the proton beam and for 777 MeV/u 3He, 500 MeV/u 48Ca, 86Kr, 136Xe, and 400 MeV/u 238U ions. The dose rate obtained by the semi-empirical method, 0.99 mSv/h (99 mrem/h) at 30 cm, 4 h after 100 d irradiation by a 1-GeV proton beam, is consistent with studies at several accelerator facilities and with adopted hands-on maintenance dose rate limits. Monte Carlo simulations verify this result for protons and extend studies to heavy ion beam losses in drift-tube linac and superconducting linac accelerating structures. The studies indicate that the 1 W/m limit imposed on uncontrolled beam losses for high-energy proton beams might be relaxed for heavy ion beams. These studies further suggest that using the ratio of neutrons produced by a heavy ion beam to neutrons produced by a proton beam along with the dose rate from the proton beam (for thin-target scenarios) should allow an estimate of the dose rates expected from heavy ion beam losses.

  6. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C; Gregori, G; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Makita, M

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  7. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum f. Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C; Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Makita, M, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  8. Radiosensitization by PARP inhibition to proton beam irradiation in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Takahisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Soichiro; Fujimori, Hiroaki [Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Matsushita, Keiichiro; Nishio, Teiji [Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba-shi, Chiba (Japan); Masutani, Mitsuko, E-mail: mmasutan@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Chemotherapy and Clinical Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Frontier Life Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2016-09-09

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 regulates DNA damage responses and promotes base excision repair. PARP inhibitors have been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation in various cancer cells and animal models. We have demonstrated that the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) AZD2281 is also an effective radiosensitizer for carbon-ion radiation; thus, we speculated that the PARPi could be applied to a wide therapeutic range of linear energy transfer (LET) radiation as a radiosensitizer. Institutes for biological experiments using proton beam are limited worldwide. This study was performed as a cooperative research at heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences. HIMAC can generate various ion beams; this enabled us to compare the radiosensitization effect of the PARPi on cells subjected to proton and carbon-ion beams from the same beam line. After physical optimization of proton beam irradiation, the radiosensitization effect of the PARPi was assessed in the human lung cancer cell line, A549, and the pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2. The effect of the PARPi, AZD2281, on radiosensitization to Bragg peak was more significant than that to entrance region. The PARPi increased the number of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and enhanced G2/M arrest after proton beam irradiation. This result supports our hypothesis that a PARPi could be applied to a wide therapeutic range of LET radiation by blocking the DNA repair response. - Highlights: • Effective radiosensitizers for particle radiation therapy have not been reported. • PARP inhibitor treatment radiosensitized after proton beam irradiation. • The sensitization at Bragg peak was greater than that at entrance region. • DSB induction and G2/M arrest is involved in the sensitization mechanism.

  9. Optimization of laser accelerated proton beams for possible applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, Husam [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Optimization of transported proton beams through a pulsed solenoid in the laser proton experiment LIGHT at GSI has been studied numerically. TraceWin, SRIM and ATIMA codes were employed for this study with an initial distribution generated by MATLAB program fitted to Phelix measured data. Two individual tools have been used to produce protons beam as a later beam source: an aperture located at the solenoid focal spot as energy selection tool; and a scattering foil at a suitable position in the beam path that smoothens the simulated radial energy imprint on the beam profile. The simulation results show that the proton energy spectrum is filtered by the aperture and the radial energy correlation is smoothened.

  10. Proton beam generation of whistler waves in the earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that proton beams, often observed upstream of the earth's bow shock and associated with the generation of low-frequency hydromagnetic fluctuations, are also capable of generating whistler waves. The waves can be excited by an instability driven by two-temperature streaming Maxwellian proton distributions which have T (perpendicular)/T(parallel) much greater than 1. It can also be excited by gyrating proton beam distributions. These distributions generate whistler waves with frequencies ranging from 10 to 100 times the proton cyclotron frequency (in the solar wind reference frame) and provide another mechanism for generating the '1-Hz' waves often seen in the earth's foreshock.

  11. Proton beam generation of whistler waves in the Earth's foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.K.; Goldstein, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    We show that proton beams, often observed upstream of the Earth's bow shock and associated with the generation of low-frequency hydromagnetic fluctuations, are also capable of generating whistler waves. The waves can be excited by an instability driven by two-temperature streaming Maxwellian proton distributions which have T/sub perpendicular//T/sub parallel/>>1. It can also be excited by gyrating proton beam distributions. These distributions generate whistler waves with frequencies ranging from 10 to 100 times the proton cyclotron frequency (in the solar wind reference frame) and provide another mechanism for generating the ''1-Hz'' waves often seen in the Earth's foreshock

  12. Self-pinched transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, P.F.; Neri, J.M.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Electron beams with substantial net currents have been routinely propagated in the self-pinched mode for the past two decades. However, as the physics of gas breakdown and beam neutralization is different for ion beams, previous predictions indicated insufficient net current for pinching so that ion beam self-pinched transport (SPT) was assumed impossible. Nevertheless, recent numerical simulations using the IPROP code have suggested that ion SPT is possible. These results have prompted initial experiments to investigate SPT of ion beams. A 100-kA, 1.2-MeV, 3-cm-radius proton beam, generated on the Gamble II pulsed-power accelerator at NRL, has been injected into helium in the 30- to 250-mTorr regime to study this phenomenon. Evidence of self-pinched ion beam transport was observed in the 35- to 80-mTorr SPT pressure window predicted by IPROP. Measured signals from a time- and space-resolved scattered proton diagnostic and a time-integrated Li(Cu) nuclear activation diagnostic, both of which measure protons striking a 10-cm diameter target 50 cm into the transport region, are significantly larger in this pressure window than expected for ballistic transport. These results are consistent with significant self-magnetic fields and self-pinching of the ion beam. On the other hand, time-integrated signals from these same two diagnostics are consistent with ballistic transport at pressures above and below the SPT window. Interferometric electron line-density measurements, acquired during beam injection into the helium gas, show insignificant ionization below 35 mTorr, a rapidly rising ionization fraction with pressure in the SPT window, and a plateau in ionization fraction at about 2% for pressures above 80 mTorr. These and other results are consistent with the physical picture for SPT. IPROP simulations, which closely model the Gamble II experimental conditions, produce results that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The advantages of SPT for

  13. Kinetic plasma simulation of ion beam extraction from an ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.M.; White, E.K.; Simkin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Designing optimized ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion beam sources can be streamlined by the accurate simulation of beam optical properties in order to predict ion extraction behavior. The complexity of these models, however, can make PIC-based simulations time-consuming. In this paper, we first describe a simple kinetic plasma finite element simulation of extraction of a proton beam from a permanent magnet hexapole ECR ion source. Second, we analyze the influence of secondary electrons generated by ion collisions in the residual gas on the space charge of a proton beam of a dual-solenoid ECR ion source. The finite element method (FEM) offers a fast modeling environment, allowing analysis of ion beam behavior under conditions of varying current density, electrode potential, and gas pressure. The new version of SCALA/TOSCA v14 permits the making of simulations in tens of minutes to a few hours on standard computer platforms without the need of particle-in-cell methods. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  14. Fusion at counterstreaming ion beams - ion optic fusion (IOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryzinski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The results of investigation are briefly reviewed in the field of ion optic fusion performed at the Institute of Nuclear Research in Swierk. The ion optic fusion concept is based on the possibility of obtaining fusion energy at highly ordered motion of ions in counterstreaming ion beams. For this purpose TW ion beams must be produced and focused. To produce dense and charge-neutralized ion beams the selective conductivity and ballistic focusing ideas were formulated and used in a series of RPI devices with low-pressure cylindrical discharge between grid-type electrodes. 100 kA, 30 keV deuteron beams were successfully produced and focused into the volume of 1 cm 3 , yielding 10 9 neutrons per 200 ns shot on a heavy ice target. Cylindrically convergent ion beams with magnetic anti-defocusing were proposed in order to reach a positive energy gain at reasonable energy level. (J.U.)

  15. A high repetition rate transverse beam profile diagnostic for laser-plasma proton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Nicholas; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Kando, Masaki; Nishitani, Keita

    2016-10-01

    The recently upgraded J-KAREN-P laser can provide PW peak power and intensities approaching 1022 Wcm-2 at 0.1 Hz. Scaling of sheath acceleration to such high intensities predicts generation of protons to near 100 MeV, but changes in electron heating mechanisms may affect the emitted proton beam properties, such as divergence and pointing. High repetition rate simultaneous measurement of the transverse proton distribution and energy spectrum are therefore key to understanding and optimising the source. Recently plastic scintillators have been used to measure online proton beam transverse profiles, removing the need for time consuming post-processing. We are therefore developing a scintillator based transverse proton beam profile diagnostic for use in ion acceleration experiments using the J-KAREN-P laser. Differential filtering provides a coarse energy spectrum measurement, and time-gating allows differentiation of protons from other radiation. We will discuss the design and implementation of the diagnostic, as well as proof-of-principle results from initial experiments on the J-KAREN-P system demonstrating the measurement of sheath accelerated proton beams up to 20 MeV.

  16. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  17. Ion-beam plasma and propagation of intense compensated ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabovich, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are the results of investigation of plasma properties recieved by neutralization of intensive ion beam space charge. Considered is the process of ion beam compensation by charges, formed as a result of gas ionization by this beam or by externally introduced ones. Emphasis is placed on collective phenomena in ion-beam plasma, in particular on non-linear effects limiting amplitude of oscillations. It is shown, that not only dinamic decompensation but the Coulomb collisions of ions with electrons as well as other collective oscillations significantly affects the propagation of compensated ion beams. All the processes are to be taken into account at solving the problem of obtaining ''superdense'' compensated beams

  18. Ion-beam plasma and propagation of intense compensated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabovich, M D [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziki

    1977-02-01

    Discussed are the results of investigation of plasma properties received by neutralization of intense ion beam space charge. Considered is the process of ion beam compensation by charges, formed as a result of gas ionization by this beam or by externally introduced ones. Emphasis is placed on collective phenomena in ion-beam plasma, in particular on non-linear effects limiting amplitude of oscillations. It is shown that not only dynamic decompensation but the Coulomb collisions of ions with electrons as well as other collective oscillations significantly affects the propagation of compensated ion beams. All the processes are to be taken into account in solving the problem of obtaining ''superdense'' compensated beams.

  19. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzkes, J.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.; Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Karsch, L. [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  20. Conical pinched electron beam diode for intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the pinched electron beam diode, the production of an ion beam by a diode with electrodes in a conical shape was studied at low voltage operation (--200 kV). The ion beam is emitted from a small region of the diode apex. The mean ion beam current density near the axis at 12 cm from the diode apex is two or three times that from an usual flat parallel diode with the same dimension and impedance. The brightness and the power brightness at the otigin are 450 MA/cm 2 sr and 0.12 TW/cm 2 sr respectively. (author)

  1. Tool steel ion beam assisted nitrocarburization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagonel, L.F.; Alvarez, F.

    2007-01-01

    The nitrocarburization of the AISI-H13 tool steel by ion beam assisted deposition is reported. In this technique, a carbon film is continuously deposited over the sample by the ion beam sputtering of a carbon target while a second ion source is used to bombard the sample with low energy nitrogen ions. The results show that the presence of carbon has an important impact on the crystalline and microstructural properties of the material without modification of the case depth

  2. Beam-plasma instability in ion beam systems used in neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    The beam-plasma instability is analyzed for the ion beams used for neutral beam generation. Both positive and negative ion beams are considered. Stability is predicted when the beam velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity; the only exception occurs when the electron density accompanying a negative ion beam is less than the ion density by nearly the ratio of electron to ion masses. For cases in which the beam velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, instability is predicted near the electron plasma frequency

  3. ORNL positive ion neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Haselton, H.H.; Barber, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The neutral beam group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has constructed neutral beam generators for the ORMAK and PLT devices, is presently constructing neutral beam devices for the ISX and PDX devices, and is contemplating the construction of neutral beam systems for the advanced TNS device. These neutral beam devices stem from the pioneering work on ion sources of G. G. Kelley and O. B. Morgan. We describe the ion sources under development at this Laboratory, the beam optics exhibited by these sources, as well as some theoretical considerations, and finally the remainder of the beamline design

  4. Cooled heavy ion beams at the ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Eickhoff, H.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Nolden, F.; Reich, H.; Schlitt, B.; Spaedtke, P.; Winkler, T.

    1996-01-01

    The storage ring ESR has been used in various operational modes for experiments with electron cooled heavy ion beams. Besides the standard storage mode including injection and beam accumulation the deceleration of highly charged ions has been demonstrated. Beams of highly charged ions have been injected and accumulated and finally decelerated to a minimum energy of 50 MeV/u. An ultraslow extraction method using charge changing processes is now also available for cooled beams of highly charged ions. For in ring experiments the internal gas jet and the cold electron beam of the cooling system are applied as targets. High precision mass spectrometry by Schottky noise detection has been demonstrated. Operation at transition energy has been achieved with cooled beams opening the field for experiments which require an isochronous revolution of the ions. (orig.)

  5. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  6. Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de; Bergmaier, A. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Hauptner, A. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dietzel, S. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Drexler, G.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hable, V. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cremer, T. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (Supraleitendes Nanoskop fuer Angewandte Kernphysikalische Experimente) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, i.e. 4-28 MeV protons or up to 250 MeV gold ions. Due to these ion beams, SNAKE is particularly attractive for ion beam analyses in various fields. Here we describe two main applications of SNAKE. One is the unique possibility to perform three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy by elastic proton-proton scattering utilizing high energy proton beams. The high proton energies allow the analysis of samples with a thickness in the 100 {mu}m range with micrometer resolution and a sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In a second application, SNAKE is used to analyse protein dynamics in cells by irradiating live cells with single focussed ions. Fluorescence from immunostained protein 53BP1 is used as biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells. It is used to examine the irradiated region in comparison with the targeted region. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agree reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating an overall targeting accuracy of about 2 {mu}m while the beam spot size is less than 0.5 {mu}m in diameter. This performance shows successful adaptation of SNAKE for biological experiments where cells are targeted on a sub-cellular level by energetic ions.

  7. DC proton beam measurements in a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Schafstall, P.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Zaugg, T.; Taylor, T.

    1994-01-01

    High current, CW proton accelerators are being considered for a number of applications including disposition of nuclear wastes, reduction of fissionable nuclear material inventories, safe production of critical nuclear materials, and energy production. All these applications require the development of high current, reliable, hydrogen ion injectors. In 1986, a program using CW RFQ technology was undertaken at CRL in collaboration with LANL and was continued there until 1993. During this time, an accelerator was built which produced 600 keV, 75 mA and 1,250 keV, 55 mA CW proton beams. The present program at Los Alamos using this accelerator is aimed at continuing the CRL work to demonstrate long-term reliability. In the present work, the authors are seeking to determine the optimal match to and the current limit of the 1,250-keV RFQ. This paper discusses the characterization of the 50 keV beams at the exit of the single-solenoid LEBT and presents both the experimental measurements and the beam simulations done to model this system

  8. High intensity proton injector for facility of antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezov, R., E-mail: r.berezov@gsi.de; Brodhage, R.; Fils, J.; Hollinger, R.; Ivanova, V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ullmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The high current ion source with the low energy beam transport (LEBT) will serve as injector into the proton LINAC to provide primary proton beam for the production of antiprotons. The pulsed ion source developed and built in CEA/Saclay operates with a frequency of 2.45 GHz based on ECR plasma production with two coils with 87.5 mT magnetic field necessary for the electron cyclotron resonance. The compact LEBT consists of two solenoids with a maximum magnetic field of 500 mT including two integrated magnetic steerers to adjust the horizontal and vertical beam positions. The total length of the compact LEBT is 2.3 m and was made as short as possible to reduced emittance growth along the beam line. To measure ion beam intensity behind the pentode extraction system, between solenoids and at the end of the beam line, two current transformers and a Faraday cup are installed. To get information about the beam quality and position, the diagnostic chamber with different equipment will be installed between the two solenoids. This article reports the current status of the proton injector for the facility of antiproton and ion research.

  9. Interaction of Macro-particles with LHC proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Xagkoni, A

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of macro-particles residing inside the LHC vacuum chamber, e.g. soot or thermalinsulation fragments, with the circulating LHC proton beam. The coupled equations governing the motion and charging rate of metallic or dielectric micron-size macroparticles are solved numerically to determine the time spent by such “dust” particles close to the path of the beam as well as the resulting proton-beam losses, which could lead to a quench of superconducting magnets and, thereby, to a premature beam abort.

  10. Microdosimetric investigation at the therapeutic proton beam facility of CATANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, L; Moro, D; Colautti, P; Conte, V; Tornielli, G; Cuttone, G

    2004-01-01

    Proton beams (62 Mev) are used by the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics to treat eye melanoma tumours at the therapeutic facility called CATANA. A cylindrical slim tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) of 2.7 mm external diameter has been used to compare the radiation quality of two spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) at the CATANA proton beam.

  11. Microdosimetric investigation at the therapeutic proton beam facility of Catana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, L.; Moro, D.; Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Tornielli, G.; Cuttone, G.

    2004-01-01

    Proton beams (62 Mev) are used by the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Italian Inst. of Nuclear Physics to treat eye melanoma tumours at the therapeutic facility called CATANA. A cylindrical slim tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) of 2.7 mm external diameter has been used to compare the radiation quality of two spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) at the CATANA proton beam. (authors)

  12. Collimator scatter and 2D dosimetry in small proton beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, P.; van 't Veld, A.A.; Zelle, H.D.; Schippers, J.M.

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to determine the influence of collimator-scattered protons from a 150 MeV proton beam on the dose distribution behind a collimator. Slit-shaped collimators with apertures between 2 and 20 mm have been simulated. The Monte Carlo code GEANT 3.21 has been

  13. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin-flip?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oellers, Dieter Gerd Christian

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis discusses the extraction of the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section. The experimental setup, the data analysis and the results are pictured in detail. The proton is described by a QCD-based parton model. In leading twist three functions are needed. The quark distribution, the helicity distribution and the transversity distribution. While the first two are well-known, the transversity distribution is largely unknown. A self-sufficient measurement of the transversity is possible in double polarized proton-antiproton scattering. This rises the need of a polarized antiproton beam. So far spin filtering is the only tested method to produce a polarized proton beam, which may be capable to hold also for antiprotons. In-situ polarization build-up of a stored beam either by selective removal or by spin-flip of a spin-(1)/(2) beam is mathematically described. A high spin-flip cross-section would create an effective method to produce a polarized antiproton beam by polarized positrons. Prompted by conflicting calculations, a measurement of the spin-flip cross-section in low-energy electron-proton scattering was carried out. This experiment uses the electron beam of the electron cooler at COSY as an electron target. The depolarization of the stored proton beam is detected. An overview of the experiment is followed by detailed descriptions of the cycle setup, of the electron target and the ANKE silicon tracking telescopes acting as a beam polarimeter. Elastic protondeuteron scattering is the analyzing reaction. The event selection is depicted and the beam polarization is calculated. Upper limits of the two electron-proton spin-flip cross-sections σ parallel and σ perpendicular to are deduced using the likelihood method. (orig.)

  14. Polarizing a stored proton beam by spin-flip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oellers, Dieter Gerd Christian

    2010-04-15

    The present thesis discusses the extraction of the electron-proton spin-flip cross-section. The experimental setup, the data analysis and the results are pictured in detail. The proton is described by a QCD-based parton model. In leading twist three functions are needed. The quark distribution, the helicity distribution and the transversity distribution. While the first two are well-known, the transversity distribution is largely unknown. A self-sufficient measurement of the transversity is possible in double polarized proton-antiproton scattering. This rises the need of a polarized antiproton beam. So far spin filtering is the only tested method to produce a polarized proton beam, which may be capable to hold also for antiprotons. In-situ polarization build-up of a stored beam either by selective removal or by spin-flip of a spin-(1)/(2) beam is mathematically described. A high spin-flip cross-section would create an effective method to produce a polarized antiproton beam by polarized positrons. Prompted by conflicting calculations, a measurement of the spin-flip cross-section in low-energy electron-proton scattering was carried out. This experiment uses the electron beam of the electron cooler at COSY as an electron target. The depolarization of the stored proton beam is detected. An overview of the experiment is followed by detailed descriptions of the cycle setup, of the electron target and the ANKE silicon tracking telescopes acting as a beam polarimeter. Elastic protondeuteron scattering is the analyzing reaction. The event selection is depicted and the beam polarization is calculated. Upper limits of the two electron-proton spin-flip cross-sections {sigma} {sub parallel} and {sigma} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} are deduced using the likelihood method. (orig.)

  15. Radiation effects of ion beams on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the radiation effects of ion beams on polymers are reviewed briefly. Our recent work on the radiation effects of ion beams on polystyrene thin films on silicon wafers and time resolved emission studies on polymers are described. (orig.)

  16. Ion Beams in Nanoscience and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hellborg, Ragnar

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ion beam irradiation is the basis of a wide plethora of powerful research- and fabrication-techniques for materials characterisation and processing on a nanometre scale. This book is suitable for practitioners, researchers and graduate students working in the field of ion beams and application

  17. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  18. Exposure parameters in proton beam writing for hydrogen silsesquioxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Zhang, F.; Zhang, C.; Bettiol, A.A.; Watt, F.

    2008-01-01

    In proton beam writing (PBW) a focused MeV proton beam is scanned in a predetermined pattern over a resist (e.g. PMMA, SU-8 or HSQ), which is subsequently chemically developed. In e-beam writing as well as p-beam writing the energy loss of the primary beam is dominated by energy transfer to substrate electrons. Unlike the high energy secondary electrons generated during e-beam writing the secondary electrons induced by the primary proton beam have low energy and therefore a limited range, resulting in minimal proximity effects. The low proximity effects exhibited by p-beam writing coupled with the straight trajectory and high penetration of the proton beam enables the production of high aspect ratio, high density 3D micro and nanostructures with well defined smooth side walls to be directly written into resist materials. This property together with the stability and focusing power of the end station ensures even exposures with nm smoothness and allows fabrication of details down to the 20 nm level. In this paper, we present results like contrast and sensitivity for PBW using, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) and XR-1541, both are non-C based resists. Unlike PMMA and SU-8 resist HSQ shows aging effects, requiring optimized processing parameters in PBW

  19. Direct Comparison of Biologically Optimized Spread-out Bragg Peaks for Protons and Carbon Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, Jan J.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In radiotherapy with hadrons, it is anticipated that carbon ions are superior to protons, mainly because of their biological properties: the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for carbon ions is supposedly higher in the target than in the surrounding normal tissue, leading to a therapeutic advantage over protons. The purpose of this report is to investigate this effect by using biological model calculations. Methods and Materials: We compared spread-out Bragg peaks for protons and carbon ions by using physical and biological optimization. The RBE for protons and carbon ions was calculated according to published biological models. These models predict increased RBE values in regions of high linear energy transfer (LET) and an inverse dependency of the RBE on dose. Results: For pure physical optimization, protons yield a better dose distribution along the central axis. In biologically optimized plans, RBE variations for protons were relatively small. For carbon ions, high RBE values were found in the high-LET target region, as well as in the low-dose region outside the target. This means that the LET dependency and dose dependency of the RBE can cancel each other. We show this for radioresistant tissues treated with two opposing beams, for which the predicted carbon RBE within the target volume was lower than outside. Conclusions: For tissue parameters used in this study, the model used does not predict a biologic advantage of carbon ions. More reliable model parameters and clinical trials are necessary to explore the true potential of radiotherapy with carbon ions

  20. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  1. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma

  2. Dynamics of intense pulsed proton beam in the Nagaoka ETIGO-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hajime; Konno, Kohji; Masugata, Katsumi; Yatsui, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Masao

    1982-01-01

    Dynamics of an intense pulsed proton beam have been studied by measuring nuclear reactions as well as by a biased ion-collector (BIC). When the ion-current density (Jsub(i)) is small such that Jsub(i) lt 30 A/cm 2 , the proton numer measured by BIC is in good agreement with that by nuclear activation. Good linearity exists between time integrated gamma -ray signal and proton number measured by the activation. Hence, it would be possible to obtain the proton number quantitatively even when a target ''blow-off'' takes place at Jsub(i) gt 1 kA/cm 2 . Prompt gamma -ray is also measured by the time-of-flight method to yield reasonable agreement with the applied peak potential. (author)

  3. Modeling of ion beam surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, R W [Quantum Manufacturing Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maenchen, J E; Renk, T J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Struve, K W [Mission Research Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Campbell, M M [PASTDCO, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The use of intense pulsed ion beams is providing a new capability for surface engineering based on rapid thermal processing of the top few microns of metal, ceramic, and glass surfaces. The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST) process has been shown to produce enhancements in the hardness, corrosion, wear, and fatigue properties of surfaces by rapid melt and re-solidification. A new code called IBMOD was created, enabling the modeling of intense ion beam deposition and the resulting rapid thermal cycling of surfaces. This code was used to model the effect of treatment of aluminum, iron, and titanium using different ion species and pulse durations. (author). 3 figs., 4 refs.

  4. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  5. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A A; Hollinger, R

    2014-02-01

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  6. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  7. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  8. Poster - 25: Neutron Spectral Measurements around a Scanning Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildea, John; Enger, Shirin; Maglieri, Robert; Mirzakhanian, Lalageh; Dahlgren, Christina Vallhagen; Dubeau, Jacques; Witharana, Sanjeeva [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Skandion Clinic, Detec Inc., Gatineau, Quebec, Detec Inc., Gatineau, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We describe the measurements of neutron spectra that we undertook around a scanning proton beam at the Skandion proton therapy clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. Measurements were undertaken using an extended energy range Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec Inc., Gatineau, QC) operated in pulsed and current mode. Spectra were measured as a function of location in the treatment room and for various Bragg peak depths. Our preliminary unfolded data clearly show the direct, evaporation and thermal neutron peaks and we can show the effect on the neutron spectrum of a water phantom in the primary proton beam.

  9. SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darafsheh, A; Soldner, A; Liu, H; Kassaee, A; Zhu, T; Finlay, J [Univ Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate feasibility of using fiber optics probes with rare-earth-based phosphor tips for proton beam radiation dosimetry. We designed and fabricated a fiber probe with submillimeter resolution (<0.5 mm3) based on TbF3 phosphors and evaluated its performance for measurement of proton beam including profiles and range. Methods: The fiber optic probe with TbF3 phosphor tip, embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms was irradiated with double scattering proton beam with energy of 180 MeV. Luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze the emission spectra of the fiber tip. In order to measure the spatial beam profile and percentage depth dose, we used singular value decomposition method to spectrally separate the phosphors ionoluminescence signal from the background Cerenkov radiation signal. Results: The spectra of the TbF3 fiber probe showed characteristic ionoluminescence emission peaks at 489, 542, 586, and 620 nm. By using singular value decomposition we found the contribution of the ionoluminescence signal to measure the percentage depth dose in phantoms and compared that with measurements performed with ion chamber. We observed quenching effect at the spread out Bragg peak region, manifested as under-responding of the signal, due to the high LET of the beam. However, the beam profiles were not dramatically affected by the quenching effect. Conclusion: We have evaluated the performance of a fiber optic probe with submillimeter resolution for proton beam dosimetry. We demonstrated feasibility of spectral separation of the Cerenkov radiation from the collected signal. Such fiber probes can be used for measurements of proton beams profile and range. The experimental apparatus and spectroscopy method developed in this work provide a robust platform for characterization of proton-irradiated nanophosphor particles for ultralow fluence photodynamic therapy or molecular imaging applications.

  10. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-01-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ∼ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi 0.85 Co 0.15 O 2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  11. Constraints on ion beam handling for intersecting beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, T.

    1981-01-01

    The intense synchrotron radiation beams from the NSLS uv or x-ray storage rings still do not compare in monochromatized photon flux with a laser beam, a fact which becomes apparent in considering reaction rates for interaction of photon and ion beams. There are two prototypical interaction geometries, parallel and perpendicular. Calculations should properly be done in the rest frame of the ion beam; however, expected beta values are small, so the lab frame will be employed and aberration and Doppler shift effects neglected

  12. Analysis of ion beam teletherapy patient-specific quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Deng, Yu; Schlegel, Nicki; Huang, Zhijie; Moyers, Michael F

    2018-02-27

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the procedures for patient-specific quality assurance measurements using modulated scanned and energy stacked beams for proton and carbon ion teletherapy. Delivery records from 1734 portal measurements were analyzed using a 3-point pass criteria: more than 22 of 24 chambers in a water phantom (WP) had to have a measured dose difference from the planned portal doses less than or equal to 3%, or the distance from the measurement point location to a point location in the plan having the same dose had to be less than or equal to 3 mm (distance to agreement [DTA]), and the mean dose deviation of all chambers had to be less than 3%. Stratification of results showed some associations between measurement parameters and pass rates. For proton portals, pass rates were high at all measurement depths, but for carbon ion portals, pass rates decreased as a function of increasing measurement depth. Pass rates of both proton and carbon ion portals with 1 WP were slightly lower than those with a second WP. The total pass rates were 97.7% and 91.9% for proton and carbon ion patient portals, respectively. In general, the measured doses exhibited good agreement with the treatment planning system (TPS) calculated doses. When the chamber position was deeper than 150 mm in carbon ion beams, a lower pass rate was observed, which may have been caused by ion chamber array setup uncertainty (lateral and depth) in highly modulated portals or incorrect modeling of scatter by the TPS. These deviations need further investigation. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. M.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, M. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    We previously reported that proton beam inhibited angiogenic vessels in zebrafish and that proton induced cancer cell apoptosis via p53 induction as well as caspase-3 activity. In this study, we performed to identity the effect of candidate chemicals on the angiogenic inhibition in vitro and in vivo (zebrafish Flk1:EGFP transgenic fish). And we treated small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells with proton beam in combination with angiogenic inhibitors we found in this study. By the MTT assay, we performed cell viability assay with cancer cells and we investigated that HIF-1α induction by proton beam by the western blot analysis. We found novel anti-angiogenic chemicals from traditional herb. That is decursin, and glyceollins from the Angelica gigas, and soy bean. Decrusin and glyceollins inhibited VEGF- or bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and zebrafish microvessel development. Moreover, glyceollins inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α in a dose dependent manner. However, proton beam itself did not induce HIF-1α whereas it increased HIF-1α stability under hypoxia. Even proton beam induced cell death of A549 small cell lung carcinoma cells but the combination of decrusin or glyceollins did not increase the cancer cell death

  14. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. M.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, M. J.; Choi, J. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We previously reported that proton beam inhibited angiogenic vessels in zebrafish and that proton induced cancer cell apoptosis via p53 induction as well as caspase-3 activity. In this study, we performed to identity the effect of candidate chemicals on the angiogenic inhibition in vitro and in vivo (zebrafish Flk1:EGFP transgenic fish). And we treated small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549 cells with proton beam in combination with angiogenic inhibitors we found in this study. By the MTT assay, we performed cell viability assay with cancer cells and we investigated that HIF-1{alpha} induction by proton beam by the western blot analysis. We found novel anti-angiogenic chemicals from traditional herb. That is decursin, and glyceollins from the Angelica gigas, and soy bean. Decrusin and glyceollins inhibited VEGF- or bFGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and zebrafish microvessel development. Moreover, glyceollins inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1{alpha} in a dose dependent manner. However, proton beam itself did not induce HIF-1{alpha} whereas it increased HIF-1{alpha} stability under hypoxia. Even proton beam induced cell death of A549 small cell lung carcinoma cells but the combination of decrusin or glyceollins did not increase the cancer cell death

  15. Pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Meijers, Arturs

    2016-01-01

    A pencil beam proton radiography (PR) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) integrated with a treatment planning system (TPS) was developed. A Giraffe (IBA Dosimetry) MLIC (+/- 0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam PR by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a

  16. SU-E-J-63: Feasibility Study of Proton Digital Tomosynthesis in Proton Beam Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B; Kwak, J; Lee, J; Cho, S; Park, S; Yoo, S; Chung, K; Cho, S; Lim, Y; Shin, D; Lee, S; Kim, J

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the feasibility of proton tomosynthesis as daily positioning of patients and compared the results with photon tomosynthesis as an alternative to conventional portal imaging or on-board cone-beam computed tomography. Dedicated photon-like proton beam using the passively scattered proton beams by the cyclotron was generated for proton imaging. The eleven projections were acquired over 30 degree with 3 degree increment in order to investigate the performance of proton tomosynthesis. The cylinder blocks and resolution phantom were used to evaluate imaging performance. Resolution phantom of a cylinder of diameter 12 cm was used to investigate the reconstructed imaging characteristics. Electron density cylinder blocks with diameter of 28 mm and height of 70 mm were employed to assess the imaging quality. The solid water, breast, bone, adipose, lung, muscle, and liver, which were tissue equivalent inserts, were positioned around the resolution phantom. The images were reconstructed by projection onto convex sets (POCS) algorithm and total variation minimization (TVM) methods. The Gafchromic EBT films were utilized for measuring the photon-like proton beams as a proton detector. In addition, the photon tomosynthesis images were obtained for a comparison with proton tomosynthesis images. The same angular sampling data were acquired for both proton and photon tomosynthesis. In the resolution phantom image obtained proton tomosynthesis, down to 1.6 mm diameter rods were resolved visually, although the separation between adjacent rods was less distinct. In contrast, down to 1.2 mm diameter rods were resolved visually in the reconstructed image obtained photon tomosynthesis. Both proton and photon tomosynthesis images were similar in intensities of different density blocks. Our results demonstrated that proton tomosynthesis could make it possible to provide comparable tomography imaging to photon tomosynthesis for positioning as determined by manual registration

  17. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  18. Pulsed high current ion beam processing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Perry, A.

    1995-01-01

    A pulsed high voltage ion source is considered for use in ion beam processing for the surface modification of materials, and deposition of conducting films on different substrates. The source consists of an Arkad'ev-Marx high voltage generator, a vacuum ion diode based on explosive ion emission, and a vacuum chamber as substrate holder. The ion diode allows conducting films to be deposited from metal or allow sources, with ion beam mixing, onto substrates held at a pre-selected temperature. The main variables can be set in the ranges: voltage 100-700 kV, pulse length 0.3 μs, beam current 1-200 A depending on the ion chosen. The applications of this technology are discussed in semiconductor, superconductor and metallizing applications as well as the direction of future development and cost of these devices for commercial application. 14 refs., 6 figs

  19. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  20. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output

  1. Proton-antiproton colliding beam electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility of effective cooling of high-energy pp tilde beams (E=10 2 -10 3 GeV) in the colliding mode by accompanying radiationally cooled electron beam circulating in an adjacent storage ring is studied. The cooling rate restrictions by the pp tilde beam interaction effects while colliding and the beam self-heating effect due to multiple internal scattering are considered. Some techniques permitting to avoid self-heating of a cooling electron beam or suppress its harmful effect on a heavy particle beam cooling are proposed. According to the estimations the cooling time of 10 2 -10 3 s order can be attained [ru

  2. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation.

  3. Development of plant mutation techniques using ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Si Yong; Park, In Sook; Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Soo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    It has been reported that ion beam with high liner energy transfer (LET) show relative high biological effectiveness (RBE) and more effective for induced plant mutation than low LET radiation i.e., X-rays, gamma rays and electrons. This study was conducted to induce mutation of in vitro cultured orchid and Chrysanthemum using proton beam of the MC-50 cyclotron (50 MeV) at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. In vitro cultured stems of chrysanthemum(cv. Migok) and protocom-like bodies(PLBs) of Dendrobium orchid (cv. Kingianum) placed in the plastic petridish (5.5cm in diameter) with agar medium were irradiated by the proton beam with various dose ranges of 10, 25, 50, 100 Gy under the condition of 5nA beam current. Those irradiated plants were transferred to subculture media and then investigated growth characteristics. Shoot growth of chrysanthemum and orchid was decreased by increase of irradiation dose. In particular, new shoot formation was hardly founded over 50Gy in chrysanthemum and 100 Gy in orchid. Some leaf mutants were observed at the 25 Gy and 50 Gy irradiated PLBs of the orchid. The dry seeds of hot pepper, rapeseed, rice and perilla also were irradiated with proton beam of MC-50 cyclotron and then measured germination rate and early growth of M1 plants compared with gamma ray irradiation

  4. Calculation of multi-dimensional dose distribution in medium due to proton beam incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Kiyomitsu; Inada, Tetsuo

    1978-01-01

    The method of analyzing the multi-dimensional dose distribution in a medium due to proton beam incidence is presented to obtain the reliable and simplified method from clinical viewpoint, especially for the medical treatment of cancer. The heavy ion beam being taken out of an accelerator has to be adjusted to fit cancer location and size, utilizing a modified range modulator, a ridge filter, a bolus and a special scanning apparatus. The precise calculation of multi-dimensional dose distribution of proton beam is needed to fit treatment to a limit part. The analytical formulas consist of those for the fluence distribution in a medium, the divergence of flying range, the energy distribution itself, the dose distribution in side direction and the two-dimensional dose distribution. The fluence distribution in polystyrene in case of the protons with incident energy of 40 and 60 MeV, the energy distribution of protons at the position of a Bragg peak for various values of incident energy, the depth dose distribution in polystyrene in case of the protons with incident energy of 40 and 60 MeV and average energy of 100 MeV, the proton fluence and dose distribution as functions of depth for the incident average energy of 250 MeV, the statistically estimated percentage errors in the proton fluence and dose distribution, the estimated minimum detectable tumor thickness as a function of the number of incident protons for the different incident spectra with average energy of 250 MeV, the isodose distribution in a plane containing the central axis in case of the incident proton beam of 3 mm diameter and 40 MeV and so on are presented as the analytical results, and they are evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  5. Proton beam writing of passive waveguides in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sum, T.C.; Bettiol, A.A.; Seng, H.L.; Rajta, I.; Kan, J.A. van; Watt, F.

    2003-01-01

    Symmetric y-branch buried channel waveguides in poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) were fabricated by proton beam writing using a focused sub-micron beam of 1.5 and 2.0 MeV protons with a dose ranging from 25 to 160 nC/mm 2 (i.e. ∼1.6 x 10 13 to 1.0 x 10 14 particles/cm 2 ) and beam currents of approximately 5-10 pA. The proton beam modifies the PMMA (i.e. changes the refractive index), forming buried channel waveguides near the end of range. The buried channel waveguides were end-coupled with monochromatic light (633 nm) and the transmitted intensity profiles were measured, indicating an intensity distribution of 0.45/0.55 from each branch. The surface compaction of the PMMA as a result of the irradiation for doses up to 160 nC/mm 2 was also investigated. From these investigations, the optimal fabrication conditions for proton beam writing of PMMA were established. Waveguides of arbitrary design can be easily fabricated using proton beam writing, making the technique ideal for the rapid prototyping of optical circuits

  6. Proton-beam writing channel based on an electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, A. S.; Rebrov, V. A.; Kolin'ko, S. V.; Salivon, V. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We have described the structure of the proton-beam writing channel as a continuation of a nuclear scanning microprobe channel. The problem of the accuracy of positioning a probe by constructing a new high-frequency electrostatic scanning system has been solved. Special attention has been paid to designing the probe-forming system and its various configurations have been considered. The probe-forming system that best corresponds to the conditions of the lithographic process has been found based on solving the problem of optimizing proton beam formation. A system for controlling beam scanning using multifunctional module of integrated programmable logic systems has been developed.

  7. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  8. Modeling of Jovian Auroral Polar Ion and Proton Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, S. J.; Ozak, N. O.; Cravens, T.; Schultz, D. R.; Mauk, B.; Haggerty, D. K.; Young, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    of 10 mW/m2 of 2 MeV/u oxygen ions, and a color ratio of 10 is expected for this case. Moreover, recent Juno data indicates the presence of both upward and downward relativistic energy beams over the polar cap, hence we perform some preliminary calculations of the effect of proton precipitation into the polar atmosphere and its contributions to the aurora dynamics.

  9. Research results for the applications of high power ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Jianfeng; He Xiaoping; Tang Junping; Wang Haiyang; Zhang Jiasheng; Xu Ri; Peng Jianchang; Ren Shuqing; Li Peng; Yang Li; Huang Jianjun; Zhang Guoguang; Ouyang Xiaoping; Li Hongyu

    2003-01-01

    The results obtained in the theoretical and experimental studies for the application of high power ion beams in certain areas of nuclear physics and material science are reported. The preliminary experimental results of generating 6-7 MeV quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays with high power pulsed proton beams striking 19 F target on the Flash II accelerator are presented. By placing the target far enough downstream, the quasi-monoenergetic pulsed γ-rays can be discriminated experimentally from the diode Bremsstrahlung. This article also describes the other applications of high power ion beams and the preliminary experimental and theoretical results in simulation of soft X-ray thermal-mechanical effects, generation of high intense pulsed neutrons, equation of state and shock-wave physics experiments, surface modification and so on

  10. Proton beam characterization by proton-induced acoustic emission: simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K C; Witztum, A; Avery, S; Sehgal, C M

    2014-01-01

    Due to their Bragg peak, proton beams are capable of delivering a targeted dose of radiation to a narrow volume, but range uncertainties currently limit their accuracy. One promising beam characterization technique, protoacoustic range verification, measures the acoustic emission generated by the proton beam. We simulated the pressure waves generated by proton radiation passing through water. We observed that the proton-induced acoustic signal consists of two peaks, labeled α and γ, with two originating sources. The α acoustic peak is generated by the pre-Bragg peak heated region whereas the source of the γ acoustic peak is the proton Bragg peak. The arrival time of the α and γ peaks at a transducer reveals the distance from the beam propagation axis and Bragg peak center, respectively. The maximum pressure is not observed directly above the Bragg peak due to interference of the acoustic signals. Range verification based on the arrival times is shown to be more effective than determining the Bragg peak position based on pressure amplitudes. The temporal width of the α and γ peaks are linearly proportional to the beam diameter and Bragg peak width, respectively. The temporal separation between compression and rarefaction peaks is proportional to the spill time width. The pressure wave expected from a spread out Bragg peak dose is characterized. The simulations also show that acoustic monitoring can verify the proton beam dose distribution and range by characterizing the Bragg peak position to within ∼1 mm. (paper)

  11. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  12. Manufacturing of Three-dimensional Micro Structure Using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suonggyu; Kwon, Wontae [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The diameter of a proton beam emanating from the MC-50 cyclotron is about 2?3 mm with Gaussian distribution. This widely irradiated proton beam is not suitable for semiconductor etching, precise positioning, and micromachining, which require a small spot. In this study, a beam cutting method using a microhole is proposed as an economical alternative. We produced a microhole with aspect ratio, average diameter, and thickness of 428, 21 μm, and 9 mm, respectively, for cutting the proton beam. By using this high-aspect-ratio microhole, we conducted machinability tests on microstructures with sizes of tens of μm. Additionally, the results of simulation using GEANT4 and those of the actual experiment were compared and analyzed. The outcome confirmed the possibility of implementing a micro process technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures of 20 micron units using the MC-50 cyclotron with the microhole.

  13. Proton GE/GM from beam-target asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Aram Aghalaryan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Razmik Asaturyan; Frederic Bloch; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Cedric Carasco; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Jian-Ping Chen; Michael Christy; Leon Cole; Luminita Coman; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Emil Frlez; David Gaskell; Liping Gan; Javier Gomez; Bitao Hu; Juerg Jourdan; Christopher Keith; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Andreas Klein; Laird Kramer; Yongguang Liang; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; David Mack; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Kristoff Normand; Blaine Norum; Dinko Pocanic; Yelena Prok; Brian Raue; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Daniela Rohe; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Nikolai Savvinov; Bradley Sawatzky; Mikell Seely; Ingo Sick; Karl Slifer; C. Smith; Gregory Smith; S. Stepanyan; Liguang Tang; Shigeyuki Tajima; Giuseppe Testa; William Vulcan; Kebin Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Lulin Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's electric to magnetic form factor, G E /G M , can be extracted in elastic electron-proton scattering by measuring either cross sections, beam-target asymmetry or recoil polarization. Separate determinations of G E /G M by cross sections and recoil polarization observables disagree for Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 . Measurement by a third technique might uncover an unknown systematic error in either of the previous measurements. The beam-target asymmetry has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering at Q 2 = 1.51 (GeV/c) 2 for target spin orientation aligned perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This is the largest Q 2 at which G E /G M has been determined by a beam-target asymmetry experiment. The result, μG E /G M = 0.884 +/- 0.027 +/- 0.029, is compared to previous world data

  14. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilean Hwang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015NIMAER0168-900210.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  15. Production of ion beam by conical pinched electron beam diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Some properties of the ion beam produced by pinched electron beam diode having conical shape electrodes and organic insulator anode was studied. Ion energy is about 200keV and the peak diode current is about 30 kA. At 11cm from the diode apex, not the geometrical focus point, concentrated ion beam was obtained. Its density is more than 500A/cm 2 . The mean ion current density within the radius of 1.6cm around the axis from conical diode is two or three times that from an usual pinched electron beam diode with flat parallel electrodes of same dimension and impedance under the same conditions. (author)

  16. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampel, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  17. Dose reporting in ion beam therapy. Proceedings of a meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    Following the pioneering work in Berkeley, USA, ion beam therapy for cancer treatment is at present offered in Chiba and Hyogo in Japan, and Darmstadt in Germany. Other facilities are coming close to completion or are at various stages of planning in Europe and Japan. In all these facilities, carbon ions have been selected as the ions of choice, at least in the first phase. Taking into account this fast development, the complicated technical and radiobiological research issues involved, and the hope it raises for some types of cancer patients, the IAEA and the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements (ICRU) jointly sponsored a technical meeting held in Vienna, 23-24 June 2004. That first meeting was orientated mainly towards radiobiology: the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions versus photons, and related issues. One of the main differences between ion beam therapy and other modern radiotherapy techniques (such as proton beam therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy) is related to radiobiology and in particular the increased RBE of carbon ions compared to both protons and photons (i.e., high linear energy transfer (LET) versus low LET radiation). Another important issue for international agencies and commissions, such as the IAEA and the ICRU, is a worldwide agreement and harmonisation for reporting the treatments. In order to evaluate the merits of ion beam therapy, it is essential that the treatments be reported in a similar/comparable way in all centres so that the clinical reports and protocols can be understood and interpreted without ambiguity by the radiation therapy community in general. For the last few decades, the ICRU has published several reports containing recommendations on how to report external photon beam or electron beam therapy, and brachytherapy. A report on proton beam therapy, jointly prepared by the ICRU and the IAEA, is now completed and is being published in the ICRU series. In line with this

  18. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe 48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe 26+ approximately 4x10 10 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 10 12 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C 6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 10 10 from the 5x10mm 2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe 15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached [ru

  19. Development and Commissioning of an External Beam Facility in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Clark, Morgan; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an external beam facility for the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory. The beam is extracted from an aluminum pipe through a 1 / 4 ' ' diameter window with a 7.5- μm thick Kapton foil. This external beam facility allows us to perform ion beam analysis on samples that cannot be put under vacuum, including wet samples and samples too large to fit into the scattering chamber. We have commissioned the new facility by performing proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of several samples of environmental interest. These include samples of artificial turf, running tracks, and a human tooth with an amalgam filling. A 1.7-MeV external proton beam was incident on the samples positioned 2 cm from the window. The resulting X-rays were measured using a silicon drift detector and were analyzed using GUPIX software to determine the concentrations of elements in the samples. The results on the human tooth indicate that while significant concentrations of Hg, Ag, and Sn are present in the amalgam filling, only trace amounts of Hg appear to have leached into the tooth. The artificial turf and running tracks show rather large concentrations of a broad range of elements and trace amounts of Pb in the turf infill.

  20. Clinical proton dosimetry. Part 1: Beam production, beam delivery and measurement of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The development of accurate and uniform standards for radiation treatment dosimetry has been a continuing effort since the earliest days of radiotherapy. This ICRU Report is intended to promote uniformity of standards that will provide a basis for world-wide comparison of clinical results and allow the development of meaningful clinical trials. This Report describes current practice in proton therapy and recommends standards for the dosimetry of proton treatments. Established proton treatment facilities might use this Report as a source of information for the maintenance of accurate standards. New facilities may build their procedures from recommendations found in this Report and planners of new facilities may examine alternatives within current practice for the production and monitoring of treatment beams. This Report includes a description of the interaction of protons with matter, various methods of beam production, the characteristics of proton beams in clinical use, current methods for beam monitoring and specific recommendations for dose calibration

  1. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  2. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, A.H.; Cronje, P.M.; Du Toit, Z.B.; Nel, W.A.G.; Celliers, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  3. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektessabi, A. M.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α, Al 2O 3+α) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxyapatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate.

  4. Self-modulation and anomalous collective scattering of laser produced intense ion beam in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The collective interaction between intense ion beams and plasmas is studied by simulations and experiments, where an intense proton beam produced by a short pulse laser is injected into a pre-ionized gas. It is found that, depending on its current density, collective effects can significantly alter the propagated ion beam and the stopping power. The quantitative agreement that is found between theories and experiments constitutes the first validation of the collective interaction theory. The effects in the interaction between intense ion beams and background gas plasmas are of importance for the design of laser fusion reactors as well as for beam physics. Keywords: Two stream instabilities, Ultra intense short pulse laser, Proton beam, Wake field, Electron plasma wave, Laser plasma interaction, PACS codes: 52.38.Kd, 29.27.Fh, 52.40.Kh, 52.70.Nc

  5. Review of medical radiography and tomography with proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    The use of hadron beams, especially proton beams, in cancer radiotherapy has expanded rapidly in the past two decades. To fully realize the advantages of hadron therapy over traditional x-ray and gamma-ray therapy requires accurate positioning of the Bragg peak throughout the tumor being treated. A half century ago, suggestions had already been made to use protons themselves to develop images of tumors and surrounding tissue, to be used for treatment planning. The recent global expansion of hadron therapy, coupled with modern advances in computation and particle detection, has led several collaborations around the world to develop prototype detector systems and associated reconstruction codes for proton computed tomography (pCT), as well as more simple proton radiography, with the ultimate intent to use such systems in clinical treatment planning and verification. Recent imaging results of phantoms in hospital proton beams are encouraging, but many technical and programmatic challenges remain to be overcome before pCT scanners will be introduced into clinics. This review introduces hadron therapy and the perceived advantages of pCT and proton radiography for treatment planning, reviews its historical development, and discusses the physics related to proton imaging, the associated experimental and computation issues, the technologies used to attack the problem, contemporary efforts in detector and computational development, and the current status and outlook.

  6. The development of MEMS device packaging technology using proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyeon, J. W.; Kong, Y. J.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, H. S.; No, S. J.

    2006-05-01

    Wafer-bonding techniques are key issues for the commercialization of MEMS(MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices. The anodic bonding method and the wafer direct-bonding method are well-known major techniques for wafer bonding. Due to the anodic bonding method includes high voltage processes above 1.5 kV, the MEMS devices can be damaged during the bonding process or malfunctioned while long-term operation. On the other hand, since the wafer direct-bonding method includes a high temperature processes above 1000 .deg. C, temperature-sensitive materials and integrated circuits will be damaged or degraded during the bonding processes. Therefore, high-temperature bonding processes are not applicable for fabricating or packaging devices where temperature-sensitive materials exist. During the past few years, much effort has been undertaken to find a reliable bonding process that can be conducted at a low temperature. Unfortunately, these new bonding processes depend highly on the bonding material, surface treatment and surface flatness. In this research, a new packaging method using proton beam irradiation is proposed. While the energy loss caused in an irradiated material by X-rays or electron beams decreases with the surface distance, the energy loss caused by proton beams has a maximum value at the Bragg peak. Thus, the localized energy produced at the Bragg peak of the proton beams can be used to bond pyrex glass on a silicon wafer, so the MEMS damage is expected to be minimized. The localized heating caused by as well as the penetration depth, or the proton beam has been investigated. The energy absorbed in a stack of pyrex glass/silicon wafers due to proton-beam irradiation was numerically calculated for various proton energies by using the SRIM program. The energy loss was shown to be sufficiently localized at the interface between the pyrex glass and the silicon wafer. Proton beam irradiation was performed in the common environment of room temperature and

  7. 90 deg.Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Foglio-Para, A; Mitaroff, W A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb sup 8 sup 2 sup + lead ions at 40 GeV/c per nucleon and 158 GeV/c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90 deg.with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that--for such high energy heavy ion beams--a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0...

  8. Proton beam micromachining on strippable aqueous base developable negative resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Uzonyi, I.; Baradacs, E.; Chatzichristidi, M.; Raptis, I.; Valamontes, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Proton Beam Micromachining (PBM, also known as P-beam writing), a novel direct- write process for the production of 3D microstructures, can be used to make multilevel structures in a single layer of resist by varying the ion energy. The interaction between the bombarding ions and the target material is mainly ionization, and very few ions suffer high angle nuclear collisions, therefore structures made with PBM have smooth near vertical side walls. The most commony applied resists in PBM are the positive, conventional, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA); and the negative, chemically amplified, SU-8 (Micro Chem Corp). SU-8 is an epoxy based resist suitable also for LIGA and UV-LIGA processes, it offers good sensitivity, good process latitude, very high aspect ratio and therefore it dominates in the high aspect ratio micromachining applications. SU-8 requires 30 nC/mm 2 fluence for PBM irradiations at 2 MeV protons. Its crosslinking chemistry is based on the eight epoxy rings in the polymer chain, which provide a very dense three dimensional network in the presence of suitably activated photo acid generators (PAGs) which is very difficult to be stripped away after development. Thus, stripping has to be assisted with plasma processes or with special liquid removers. Moreover, the SU-8 developer is organic, propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and thus environmentally non-friendly. To overcome the SU-8 stripping limitations, design of a negative resist system where solubility change is not based solely on cross- linking but also on the differentiation of hydrophilicity between exposed and non-exposed areas is desirable. A new resist formulation, fulfilling the above specifications has been developed recently [1]. This formulation is based on a specific grade epoxy novolac (EP) polymer, a partially hydrogenated poly-4-hydroxy styrene (PHS) polymer, and an onium salt as photoacid generator (PAG), and has been successfully

  9. Inter- and intra-annular proton exchange in gaseous benzylbenzenium ions (protonated diphenylmethane)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuck, Dietmar; Bäther, Wolfgang

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct proton exchange reactions occur in metastable gaseous benzylbenzenium ions, generated by isobutane chemical ionization of diphenylmethane and four deuterium-labelled analogues. Whereas the proton ring-walk at the benzenium moiety is fast giving rise to a completely random intraannular proton exchange, the interannular proton exchange is surprisingly slow and competes with the elimination of benzene. A kinetic isotope effect of kH/kD= 5 has been determined for the interannular pro...

  10. Light Ion Beams for Energy Production in ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraipan Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the energy efficiency of proton beams with an energy from 0.5 GeV to 4 GeV and light ion beams (7Li, 9Be, 11B, and 12C with energies from 0.25 AGeV to 1 AGeV in natural and enriched quasi-infinite U target is presented. The numerical results on the particle transport and interaction are obtained using the code Geant4. The following target optimization issues are addressed: the beam window dimensions, and the possibility to use a core from low Z materials. The best solution for ADS from the point of view of the energy gain and miniaturization is obtained for 7Li or 9Be beam with an energy of 0.3–0.4 AGeV and a target with Be core.

  11. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, γ) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented

  12. A Monte Carlo code for ion beam therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Initially developed for applications in detector and accelerator physics, the modern Fluka Monte Carlo code is now used in many different areas of nuclear science. Over the last 25 years, the code has evolved to include new features, such as ion beam simulations. Given the growing use of these beams in cancer treatment, Fluka simulations are being used to design treatment plans in several hadron-therapy centres in Europe.   Fluka calculates the dose distribution for a patient treated at CNAO with proton beams. The colour-bar displays the normalized dose values. Fluka is a Monte Carlo code that very accurately simulates electromagnetic and nuclear interactions in matter. In the 1990s, in collaboration with NASA, the code was developed to predict potential radiation hazards received by space crews during possible future trips to Mars. Over the years, it has become the standard tool to investigate beam-machine interactions, radiation damage and radioprotection issues in the CERN accelerator com...

  13. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 (micro)m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  14. ULTRA-LOW INTENSITY PROTON BEAMS FOR RADIATION RESPONSE RELATED EXPERIMENTS AT THE U-120M CYCLOTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matlocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Rez is used for radiation hardness tests of electronics for high-energy physics experiments. These tests are usually carried out with proton fluxes of the order of 105–109 proton·cm−2·s−1. Some tests done for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at CERN, however, required proton beam intensities several orders of magnitude lower. This paper presents a method which has been developed to achieve the proton beam flux of the order of 1 proton · cm−2·s−1. The method is mainly based on reduction of the discharge current in the cyclotron internal Penning type ion source. Influence of this new operation mode on the lifetime of ion source cathodes is discussed.

  15. Heavy ion beams from the new Hungarian ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Valek, A.; Ditroi, F.; Koivisto, H.; Arje, J.; Stiebing, K.; Schmidt, L.

    1998-01-01

    The first beams of highly charged ions in Hungary were obtained in fall of 1996. The new 14.5 GHz ECR ion source of ATOMKI produced beams of multiply charged ions with remarkable intensities at first experiments. Since then, numerous further developments were carried out. An external electrondonor electrode drastically increased the plasma density and, consequently, the intensity of highly charged ions. These upgrades concentrated mainly on beams from gaseous elements and were carried out by the ECRIS team of ATOMKI. Another series of experiments - ionising from solids - however, was done in the framework of an international collaboration. The first metal ion beam has been extracted from the ECRIS in November 1997 using the known method of Metal Ions from Volatile Compounds (MIVOC). The possibility to put the MIVOC chamber inside the ion source was also tested and the dosing regulation problem of metal vapours inside the ion source was solved. As a result, beams of more than 10 μA of highly charged Fe and Ni ions were produced. (author)

  16. The measurement of proton stopping power using proton-cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmanski, P.; Rabin, M.S.Z.; Gall, K.P.; Rosenthal, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    A cone-beam computed tomography (CT) system utilizing a proton beam has been developed and tested. The cone beam is produced by scattering a 160 MeV proton beam with a modifier that results in a signal in the detector system, which decreases monotonically with depth in the medium. The detector system consists of a Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb intensifying screen viewed by a cooled CCD camera. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress cone-beam reconstruction algorithm is applied to the projection data to obtain the CT voxel data representing proton stopping power. The system described is capable of reconstructing data over a 16x16x16cm 3 volume into 512x512x512 voxels. A spatial and contrast resolution phantom was scanned to determine the performance of the system. Spatial resolution is significantly degraded by multiple Coulomb scattering effects. Comparison of the reconstructed proton CT values with x-ray CT derived proton stopping powers shows that there may be some advantage to obtaining stopping powers directly with proton CT. The system described suggests a possible practical method of obtaining this measurement in vivo. (author)

  17. Diffuse ions produced by electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of the electromagnetic ions beam instability driven by the reflected ion component backstreaming away from the earth's how shock into the foreshock region is studied by means computer simulation. The linear the quasi-linear states of the instability are found to be in good agreement with known results for the resonant model propagating parallel to the beam along the magnetic field and with theory developed in this paper for the nonresonant mode, which propagates antiparallel to the beam direction. The quasi-linear stage, which produces large amplitude 8Bapprox.B, sinusoidal transverse waves and ''intermediate'' ion distribution, is terminated by a nonlinear phase in which strongly nonlinear, compressive waves and ''diffuse'' ion distributions are produced. Additional processes by which the diffuse ions are accelerated to observed high energies are not addressed. The results are discussed in terms of the ion distributions and hydromagnetic waves observed in the foreshock of the earth's bow shock and of interplanetary shocks

  18. Characterization of a proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagisaka, Akito; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Mori, Michiaki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yogo, Akifumi; Kado, Masataka; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Shu

    2007-01-01

    High-energy protons are observed with a 3 μm thick tantalum target irradiated with a high intensity laser. The maximum proton energy is ∼900 keV. The half angle of the generated proton beam (>500 keV) is about 10deg. Characterization of the proton beam will significantly contribute to the proton applications. (author)

  19. Consideration of beam plasma ion-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Colliding-beams polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, T.A.; Douglas, J.G.; Badt, D.; Christiensen, C.; Herron, A.; Leach, D.; Olsen, J.; Osborne, J.L.; Zeps, V.

    1985-01-01

    This ion source was to be purchased from ANAC, Inc., a New Zealand-based supplier of beam optics hardware and atomic beam polarized ion sources in December 1982. Shortly before scheduled delivery ANAC went into receivership. During 1983 little work was done on the project as various steps were taken by us, first to get the ion source completed at ANAC, and then, failing that, to obtain the existing parts. In early 1984 we began work to finish the ion source in Seattle. The project is nearly complete, and this article presents progress to date. 2 refs

  1. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  2. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S. [Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio Industry, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and {gamma}-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  3. Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.

  4. Structural dynamic response of target container against proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Stress waves were analyzed for a target container of neutron science research project using a high-intensity proton accelerator that generates high energy and high current proton beam. In the mercury target, the pulsed proton beam generates intense power density in the course of spallation reaction and causes pressure wave in the mercury and stress wave in the target container due to a sudden temperature change. Structural integrity of the target container depends on the power intensity at a maximum energy deposit. A broad proton profile is favorable to the structural assessment of the container rather than narrow one. Stress wave have propagated in the target container at a speed of sound. It only takes 0.1 ms for the size of 40 cm length stainless steel container. Further assessment is necessary to optimize a geometry of the container and establish a method to evaluate a life time. (author)

  5. Structural dynamic response of target container against proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hino, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    Stress waves were analyzed for a target container of neutron science research project using a high-intensity proton accelerator that generates high energy and high current proton beam. In the mercury target, the pulsed proton beam generates intense power density in the course of spallation reaction and causes pressure wave in the mercury and stress wave in the target container due to a sudden temperature change. Structural integrity of the target container depends on the power intensity at a maximum energy deposit. A broad proton profile is favorable to the structural assessment of the container rather than narrow one. Stress wave have propagated in the target container at a speed of sound. It only takes 0.1 ms for the size of 40 cm length stainless steel container. Further assessment is necessary to optimize a geometry of the container and establish a method to evaluate a life time. (author)

  6. Supine craniospinal irradiation in pediatric patients by proton pencil beam scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Bizzocchi, Nicola; Righetto, Roberto; Fellin, Francesco; Fracchiolla, Francesco; Lorentini, Stefano; Widesott, Lamberto; Algranati, Carlo; Rombi, Barbara; Vennarini, Sabina; Amichetti, Maurizio; Schwarz, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Proton therapy is the emerging treatment modality for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in pediatric patients. Herein, special methods adopted for CSI at proton Therapy Center of Trento by pencil beam scanning (PBS) are comprehensively described. Twelve pediatric patients were treated by proton PBS using two/three isocenters. Special methods refer to: (i) patient positioning in supine position on immobilization devices crossed by the beams; (ii) planning field-junctions via the ancillary-beam technique; (iii) achieving lens-sparing by three-beams whole-brain-irradiation; (iv) applying a movable-snout and beam-splitting technique to reduce the lateral penumbra. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) program was performed using two-dimensional ion chamber array and γ-analysis. Daily kilovoltage alignment was performed. PBS allowed to obtain optimal target coverage (mean D98%>98%) with reduced dose to organs-at-risk. Lens sparing was obtained (mean D1∼730cGyE). Reducing lateral penumbra decreased the dose to the kidneys (mean Dmean4cm (mean γ>95%) than at depths<4cm. The reported methods allowed to effectively perform proton PBS CSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Accelerated ion beam research at ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the studies on accelerated ion beams at ATOMKI and their technical background, their use from chemical analysis to biological, medical, geological, archaeological applications, their advance from material science to micromachining. (TRA)

  8. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  9. Ion beam techniques in arts and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangyong; Pan Xianjia; Sun Zhongtian; Gao Zhengyao

    1991-01-01

    The ion beam techniques used in studies of arts and archaeology are compared with other analytical techniques. Some examples are specially selected to illustrate the achievements and trends of the techniques in this field

  10. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  11. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  12. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydenko, V., E-mail: V.I.Davydenko@inp.nsk.su; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Karpushov, A. N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Uhlemann, R. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Plasma Physics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  13. Radioactive ion beam facilities at INFN LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifuggiato, D; Calabretta, L; Celona, L; Chines, F; Cosentino, L; Cuttone, G; Finocchiaro, P; Pappalardo, A; Re, M; Rovelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams are produced at INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) by means of the two operating accelerators, the Tandem and the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), originally designed to accelerate stable beams. Both the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) and the IFF (In-Flight Fragmentation) methods are exploited to produce RIBs in two different ways at different energies: in the first case, the Cyclotron is the primary accelerator and the Tandem accelerates the secondary beams, while in the second case radioactive fragments are produced by the Cyclotron beam in a thin target with energies comparable to the primary beam energy. The ISOL facility is named EXCYT (Exotics at the Cyclotron and Tandem) and was commissioned in 2006, when the first radioactive beam ( 8 Li) has been produced. The IFF installation is named FRIBs (in Flight Radioactive Ion Beams), and it has started to produce radioactive beams in 2001, placing a thin target in the extraction beam line of the Cyclotron. The development of both facilities to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams at LNS, is briefly described, with some details on the future prospects that are presently under consideration or realization.

  14. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  15. Proposal for secondary ion beams and update of data taking schedule for 2009-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Ferrero, A; Fodor, Z; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Hess, M; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kim, J H; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lehmann, S; Lungwitz, B; Lyubushkin, V V; Maevskaya, A; Majka, Z; Malakhov, A I; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Meurer, C; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Petridis, A; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shileev, K; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Yi, J G; Yoo, I K; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the proposal for secondary ion beams and the updated data taking schedule of the NA61 Collaboration. The modification of the original NA61 plans is necessary in order to reach compatibility between the current I-LHC and NA61 schedules. It assumes delivery of primary proton beam in 2009-2012 and of primary lead beam in 2011-2013. The primary lead beam will be fragmented into a secondary beam of lighter ions. The modified H2 beam line will serve as a fragment separator to produce the light ion species for NA61 data taking. The expected physics performance of the NA61 experiment with secondary ion beams will be sufficient to reach the primary NA61 physics goals.

  16. Beam modulation for heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Minohara, S.; Sudou, M.

    1993-01-01

    The first clinical trial of heavy ion radiation therapy is scheduled in 1994 by using the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In order to start the clinical trial, first, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of high energy heavy ions in human bodies, for example, dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distribution. Also the knowledge on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions is required. Based on these biophysical properties of heavy ions, monoenergetic heavy ion beam should be modulated so as to make the spread Bragg peak suitable to heavy ion radiation therapy. In order to establish a methodology to obtain the most effective spread Bragg peak for heavy ion radiation therapy, a heavy ion irradiation port at the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility was constructed. By using a 135 MeV/u carbon beam, the biophysical properties of the heavy ions were investigated, and a range modulator was designed to have uniform biological response in the spread Bragg peak. The physical and biological rationality of the spread Bragg peak were investigated. The dose, LET and biological effect of a monoenergetic heavy ion beam, the design of the range modulator, and the distributions of LET and biological dose for the spread Bragg peak are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed

  18. Calculation of ballistic focusing of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrelin, V.T.; Syresin, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of ions passing from the homogeneous magnetic field into a conical one is treated analytically in paraxial approximation. Further ions transform into neutral particles at the recharging target which is placed in the conical area of field. The optimal conditions for maximum compression of the beams of neutral particles are investigated. An influence of the initial angular spread on the beam compression is analysed. The computation results together with the those of analytical treatment are presented

  19. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  20. Construction of ion beam pulse radiolysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, Norihisa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Domae, Masafumi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Murakami, Takeshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24 MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3} and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals were observed. (author)

  1. Commissioning of polarized-proton and antiproton beams at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-01-01

    The author described the polarized-proton and polarized-antiproton beams up to 200 GeV/c at Fermilab. The beam line, called MP, consists of the 400-m long primary and 350-m long secondary beam line followed by 60-m long experimental hall. We discuss the characteristics of the polarized beams. The Fermilab polarization projects are designated at E-581/704 initiated and carried out by an international collaboration, Argonne (US), Fermilab (US), Kyoto-Kyushu-Hiroshima-KEK (Japan), LAPP (France), Northwestern University (US), Los Alamos Laboratory (US), Rice (US), Saclay (France), Serpukhov (USSR), INFN Trieste (Italy), and University of Texas (US)

  2. Light ion beam experiments with pinch reflex diodes on KfK's pulse generator KALIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.; Buth, L.; Bohnel, K.; Harke, W.; Hoppe, P.; Karow, H.U.; Rusch, D.; Schulken, H.; Singer, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on intense LI beam experiments currently performed with pinch reflex ion diodes on 2 ohms/1.4 TW-pulse generator KALIF (Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility). The goals of this work are the generation of highly focussed LI beams of well-defined ion composition, and the undertaking of beam-target experiments. The experimental studies with axial 6 cm phi-pinch reflex proton diodes have been aiming at the focussing characteristics of the diode, and at the ion species composition of the beam. Experiments have been performed using different diode geometries (anode/cathode/beam window foil shapes), and different anode return current paths, respectively. A variety of diagnostique techniques have been used in these studies: Electron pinch phenomena in the diode are observed by static and by gated X-ray cameras. Beam diagnostiques is based on measuring in the vacuum feed the electric parameters of the diode (electron and ion currents, diode voltage) on probing the ion composition and ion energy in the beam (by use of a Thomson Parabola spectrometer), and on the investigation of the beam focus (by use of different techniques: shadow box analysis, α-pin hole imaging, nuclear activation methods). Measurements of beam stopping power of ion beam-heated thin targets are underway using a streaked ion energy-spectrometer. The results obtained so far in these experimental efforts are presented

  3. Investigation of the composition of an ion beam produced using a multi arc ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR; Mishin, M; Tsibin, O Y [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Complementing the diode and beam transport optimization studies currently performed at FZK Karlsruhe on the proton-beam-facility PROFA, supplementary investigations were run at the St. Petersburg State University, focusing on ion beam divergence and composition measurements using the TOF techniques. To ensure direct transferability of the results to the PROFA facility, these measurements were made on a scaled-down replica of the PROFA diode, comprising an array of small polyethylene flash-over plasma sources and a grid extraction system. Only the results of the beam composition measurements are presented, and the following conclusions are made: (i) The ion beam contains H and C ions and heavier constituents that remain to be identified. (ii) The beam composition changes significantly with the total number of shots: While H{sup +} ions predominated in the starting phase of the experiments, heavier components outweighed them later on, presumably due to hydrogen depletion of the surface layer of the anode polyethylene units. (iii) Reconditioning of the polyethylene units may be possible by running the diode at higher currents (self-cleaning) or by cutting off a surface layer. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  4. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed discussed at several forums is presented. The production of (RIB) radioactive ion beams and applications of beams leading to competitive studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, condensed matter, bio-science and radioactive isotope production etc. are mentioned

  5. Exploration of the Singlet O2 Oxidation of 8-Oxoguanine by Guided-Ion Beam Scattering and Density Functional Theory: Changes of Reaction Intermediates, Energetics, and Kinetics upon Protonation/Deprotonation and Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Lu, Wenchao; Liu, Jianbo

    2017-02-09

    8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) is one of the most common DNA lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species and ionizing radiation, and is involved in mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and cell death. Notably, 8-oxodGuo is more reactive toward singlet (a 1 Δ g ) O 2 than the undamaged guanosine, and the lesions arising from the secondary oxidation of 8-oxodGuo are more mutagenic. Herein the 1 O 2 oxidation of free base 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) was investigated at different initial conditions including protonated [8-oxoG + H] + , deprotonated [8-oxoG - H] - , and their monohydrates. Experiment was carried out on a guided-ion beam scattering tandem mass spectrometer. Measurements include the effects of collision energy (E col ) on reaction cross sections over a center-of-mass E col range from 0.1 to 0.5 eV. The aim of this study is to quantitatively probe the sensitivity of the early stage of 8-oxoG oxidation to ionization and hydration. Density functional theory and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were performed to identify the intermediates and the products along reaction pathways and locate accessible reaction potential energy surfaces, and to rationalize reaction outcomes from energetic and kinetic points of view. No product was observed for the reaction of [8-oxoG + H] + ·W 0,1 (W = H 2 O) because insurmountable barriers block the addition of 1 O 2 to reactant ions. Neither was [8-oxoG - H] - reactive with 1 O 2 , in this case due to the rapid decay of transient intermediates to starting reactants. However, the nonreactivity of [8-oxoG - H] - was inverted by hydration; as a result, 4,5-dioxetane of [8-oxoG - H] - was captured as the main oxidation product. Reaction cross section for [8-oxoG - H] - ·W + 1 O 2 decreases with increasing E col and becomes negligible above 0.3 eV, indicating that the reaction is exothermic and has no barriers above reactants. The contrasting oxidation behaviors of [8-oxoG + H] + ·W 0,1 and [8-oxoG - H] - ·W 0

  6. Proton beam characterization in the experimental room of the Trento Proton Therapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, F.; Rovituso, M.; Fabiano, S.; Piffer, S.; Manea, C.; Lorentini, S.; Lanzone, S.; Wang, Z.; Pasini, M.; Burger, W. J.; La Tessa, C.; Scifoni, E.; Schwarz, M.; Durante, M.

    2017-10-01

    As proton therapy is becoming an established treatment methodology for cancer patients, the number of proton centres is gradually growing worldwide. The economical effort for building these facilities is motivated by the clinical aspects, but might be also supported by the potential relevance for the research community. Experiments with high-energy protons are needed not only for medical physics applications, but represent also an essential part of activities dedicated to detector development, space research, radiation hardness tests, as well as of fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics. Here we present the characterization of the beam line installed in the experimental room of the Trento Proton Therapy Centre (Italy). Measurements of beam spot size and envelope, range verification and proton flux were performed in the energy range between 70 and 228 MeV. Methods for reducing the proton flux from typical treatments values of 106-109 particles/s down to 101-105 particles/s were also investigated. These data confirm that a proton beam produced in a clinical centre build by a commercial company can be exploited for a broad spectrum of experimental activities. The results presented here will be used as a reference for future experiments.

  7. Influence of micromachined targets on laser accelerated proton beam profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalui, Malay; Permogorov, Alexander; Pahl, Hannes; Persson, Anders; Wahlström, Claes-Göran

    2018-03-01

    High intensity laser-driven proton acceleration from micromachined targets is studied experimentally in the target-normal-sheath-acceleration regime. Conical pits are created on the front surface of flat aluminium foils of initial thickness 12.5 and 3 μm using series of low energy pulses (0.5-2.5 μJ). Proton acceleration from such micromachined targets is compared with flat foils of equivalent thickness at a laser intensity of 7 × 1019 W cm-2. The maximum proton energy obtained from targets machined from 12.5 μm thick foils is found to be slightly lower than that of flat foils of equivalent remaining thickness, and the angular divergence of the proton beam is observed to increase as the depth of the pit approaches the foil thickness. Targets machined from 3 μm thick foils, on the other hand, show evidence of increasing the maximum proton energy when the depths of the structures are small. Furthermore, shallow pits on 3 μm thick foils are found to be efficient in reducing the proton beam divergence by a factor of up to three compared to that obtained from flat foils, while maintaining the maximum proton energy.

  8. Dynamics of RF captured cooled proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kells, W.; Mills, F.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of electron cooling experiments at the Electron Cooling Ring (ECR) at Fermilab, several peculiar features of the longitudinal phase space of cold protons (200 MeV) captured in RF buckets were observed. Here we present the experimental facts, present a simple theory, and summarize computer simulation results which support the theory and facts

  9. Mixed ion beams near transition energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.

    1991-01-01

    The standard derivations of the energy and phase of the synchronous particle in a proton accelerator assume, as if by definition, that said synchronous particle lies on the central orbit of the machine. This is manifestly unjustified in the particular case of the acceleration near transition of a mixture of ions, when a small difference in charge-to-mass ratio can produce a large radial separation of the different ion species. The development of a simple derivation of the parameters of the synchronous particle that involves no such a priori constraint has yielded some surprises; not, least, a belated explanation for an apparent anomaly encountered in 1987, when a mixture of oxygen and sulphur ions was accelerated in the CERN Proton Synchrotron for the first time. These ideas are supported by measurements performed in 1990 during a second ion run

  10. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorriaux, J; Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J; Bertrand, D; Orban de Xivry, J.; Lee, J; Palmans, H; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 10×10×10 cm 3 homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 2×2×0.2 cm 3 , the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 ± 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  11. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  12. A Case Study in Proton Pencil-Beam Scanning Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooy, Hanne M.; Clasie, Benjamin M.; Lu, H.-M.; Madden, Thomas M.; Bentefour, Hassan; Depauw, Nicolas M.S.; Adams, Judy A.; Trofimov, Alexei V.; Demaret, Denis; Delaney, Thomas F.; Flanz, Jacob B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We completed an implementation of pencil-beam scanning (PBS), a technology whereby a focused beam of protons, of variable intensity and energy, is scanned over a plane perpendicular to the beam axis and in depth. The aim of radiotherapy is to improve the target to healthy tissue dose differential. We illustrate how PBS achieves this aim in a patient with a bulky tumor. Methods and Materials: Our first deployment of PBS uses 'broad' pencil-beams ranging from 20 to 35 mm (full-width-half-maximum) over the range interval from 32 to 7 g/cm 2 . Such beam-brushes offer a unique opportunity for treating bulky tumors. We present a case study of a large (4,295 cc clinical target volume) retroperitoneal sarcoma treated to 50.4 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE) (presurgery) using a course of photons and protons to the clinical target volume and a course of protons to the gross target volume. Results: We describe our system and present the dosimetry for all courses and provide an interdosimetric comparison. Discussion: The use of PBS for bulky targets reduces the complexity of treatment planning and delivery compared with collimated proton fields. In addition, PBS obviates, especially for cases as presented here, the significant cost incurred in the construction of field-specific hardware. PBS offers improved dose distributions, reduced treatment time, and reduced cost of treatment.

  13. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs

  14. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented. (paper)

  15. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2017-12-01

    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  16. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  17. High Precision Beam Diagnostics for Ion Thrusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reijen, B.; Koch, N.; Lazurenko, A.; Weis, S.; Schirra, M.; Genovese, A.; Haderspeck, J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Thales diagnostic equipment for ion beam characterization consists of a gridded and single orifice retarding potential analyzer (RPA) and an energy selective mass spectrometer (ESMS). During the development phase of these sensors considerable effort was put into the removal of ion optical

  18. Proton Radiography to Improve Proton Radiotherapy : Simulation Study at Different Proton Beam Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; van Beuzekom, Martin; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a

  19. Laser-driven high-energy proton beam with homogeneous spatial profile from a nanosphere target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulanov, S.S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Leemans, W.P.; Bulanov, S.V.; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Haberer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2015), "061302-1"-"061302-6" ISSN 1098-4402 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ion accelerators * tumor-therapy * proton * beams * plasmas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2015

  20. Fabrication of micro-prominences on PTFE surface using proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akane, E-mail: ogawa.akane@jaea.go.jp [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tomohiro [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 350-0198 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a typical fluoropolymer and it has several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation, solid lubrication etc. However, the conventional microstructuring methods have not been well applied to PTFE due to its chemical inertness. Some effective micromachining using synchrotron radiation or ion beam irradiation has been reported. In this study, we create micro-prominences by raising the original surface using proton beam writing (PBW) without chemical etching. A conical prominence was formed by spiral drawing from the center with a 3 MeV proton beam. The body was porous, and the bulk PTFE below the prominence changed to fragmented structures. With decreasing writing speed, the prominence became taller but the height peaked. The prominence gradually reduced in size after the speed reached the optimum value. We expect that these porous projections with high aspect ratio will be versatile in medical fields and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.

  1. Ion beam source construction and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torab, S.I.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of a new shape cold cathode Penning ion source to be suitable for some applications. In this work, many trials have been made to reach the optimum dimensions of the new shape of cold Molybdenum cathode Penning ion source with radial extraction. The high output ion beam can be extracted in a direction transverse to the discharge region. The new shape cold cathode Penning ion source consists of Copper cylindrical hollow anode of 40 mm length, 12 mm diameter and has two similar cone ends of 15 mm length, 22 mm upper cone diameter and 12 mm bottom cone diameter. The two movable Molybdenum cathodes are fixed in Perspex insulator and placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. The Copper emission disc of 2 mm thickness and has central aperture of different diameters is placed at the middle of the anode for ion beam exit. The inner surface of the emission disc is isolated from the anode by Perspex insulator except an area of diameter 5 mm to confine the electrical discharge in this area. A movable Faraday cup is placed at different distances from the emission electrode aperture and used to collect the output ion beam from the ion source. The working gases are admitted to the ion source through a hole in the anode via a needle valve which placed between the gas cylinder and the ion source. The optimum anode- cathode distance, the uncovered area diameter of the emission disc, the central aperture diameter of the emission electrode, the distance between emission electrode and Faraday cup have been determined using Argon gas. The optimum distances of the ion source were found to be equal to 6 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 cm respectively where stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current at low discharge current can be obtained. The discharge characteristics, ion beam characteristics, and the efficiency of the ion source have been measured at different operating conditions and different gas pressures using

  2. Experimental studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.L.; Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of information presented are essentially taken from the papers reported at several international seminars and those appeared in the Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Production and usage of radioactive ion beams (RIB) in research have received the attention of scientists all over the world during the past six years. The first radioactive ion beams ( 19 Ne) were produced at Bevalac for the purpose of medical research using a primary beam of energy 800 MeV/a.m.u. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Barium ion beam. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, N.; Dandl, R.; Rynn, N.; Wickham, M.

    1985-01-01

    The barium ion beam Zeeman diagnostic is an in situ nonperturbing diagnostic designed to measure both the plasma electric and magnetic fields in devices such as STM and EBT. The diagnostic satisfies the requirements of high precision, spatial resolution and nonperturbation of the plasma. The technique uses resonance absorption of light from a single moded laser in a beam of energetic barium ions to measure the Zeeman effect in the absorption spectrum (to measure changes in the magnetic field) and to observe the changes in beam velocity by the Doppler shift of the absorption lines

  4. SU-E-T-455: Characterization of 3D Printed Materials for Proton Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, W; Siderits, R; McKenna, M; Khan, A; Yue, N; McDonough, J; Yin, L; Teo, B; Fisher, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The widespread availability of low cost 3D printing technologies provides an alternative fabrication method for customized proton range modifying accessories such as compensators and boluses. However the material properties of the printed object are dependent on the printing technology used. In order to facilitate the application of 3D printing in proton therapy, this study investigated the stopping power of several printed materials using both proton pencil beam measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Five 3–4 cm cubes fabricated using three 3D printing technologies (selective laser sintering, fused-deposition modeling and stereolithography) from five printers were investigated. The cubes were scanned on a CT scanner and the depth dose curves for a mono-energetic pencil beam passing through the material were measured using a large parallel plate ion chamber in a water tank. Each cube was measured from two directions (perpendicular and parallel to printing plane) to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic material layout. The results were compared with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation using the manufacturer specified material density and chemical composition data. Results: Compared with water, the differences from the range pull back by the printed blocks varied and corresponded well with the material CT Hounsfield unit. The measurement results were in agreement with Monte Carlo simulation. However, depending on the technology, inhomogeneity existed in the printed cubes evidenced from CT images. The effect of such inhomogeneity on the proton beam is to be investigated. Conclusion: Printed blocks by three different 3D printing technologies were characterized for proton beam with measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of the printing technologies in proton range and stopping power were studied. The derived results can be applied when specific devices are used in proton radiotherapy

  5. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation

  6. Cellular radiobiology of heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.; Roots, R.J.; Yang, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of this research program: relative biological effectiveness and oxygen enhancement ratio of silicon ion beams; heavy ion effects on the cell cycle; the potentiation effect (2 doses of high LET heavy-ion radiations separated by 2 to 3 hours); potentially lethal damage in actively growing cells and plateau growth cells; radiation induced macromolecular lesions and cellular radiation chemistry; lethal effects of dual radiation; and the development of a biophysical repair/misrepair model

  7. Fast ion beam-laser interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Young, L.; Engstroem, L.; Hardis, J.E.; Somerville, L.P.; Ray, W.J.; Kurtz, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are using collinear laser excitation of fast ion beams to study a number of atomic structure problems. The problems include the determination of fine and hyperfine structure in light positive and negative ions, plus measurements of absolute wavelengths of light from two-electron ions. In addition the authors intend to use a similar experimental arrangement to study excitation and decay of high Rydberg states first in the absence of fields and then in crossed electric and magnetic fields

  8. Ion beam heating of thin silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, P.E.; Hart, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    For silicon membranes irradiated by an ion beam in a vacuum environment, such as the masks used for ion beam lithography and the membranes used for thin film self-annealing, the heat transfer modes are radiation and limited conduction through the thin membrane. The radiation component depends on the total hemispherical emissivity which varies with the thickness and temperature of the membrane. A semiempirical correlation for the absorption coefficient of high resistivity silicon was derived and the variation of the total emissivity with temperature was computed for membranes with thicknesses between 0.1 and 10 μm. Based on this result, the temperatures reached during exposure to ion beams of varying intensities were computed. A proper modeling of the emissivity is shown to be important for beam heating of thin silicon membranes. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  10. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not function as a master key to open all rooms filled with guests of different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance <2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  11. Commissioning of the ECR ion source of the high intensity proton injector of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuske, O.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Fils, J.; Gauthier, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The CEA at Saclay is in charge of developing and building the ion source and the low energy line of the proton linac of the FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) accelerator complex located at GSI (Darmstadt) in Germany. The FAIR facility will deliver stable and rare isotope beams covering a huge range of intensities and beam energies for experiments in the fields of atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics, nuclear matter physics, material physics, and biophysics. A significant part of the experimental program at FAIR is dedicated to antiproton physics that requires an ultimate number 7 × 1010 cooled pbar/h. The high-intensity proton beam that is necessary for antiproton production will be delivered by a dedicated 75 mA/70 MeV proton linac. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source will deliver a 100 mA H+ beam pulsed at 4 Hz with an energy of 95 keV. A 2 solenoids low energy beam transport line allows the injection of the proton beam into the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) within an acceptance of 0.3π mm mrad (norm. rms). An electrostatic chopper system located between the second solenoid and the RFQ is used to cut the beam macro-pulse from the source to inject 36 μs long beam pulses into the RFQ. At present time, a Ladder-RFQ is under construction at the University of Frankfurt. This article reports the first beam measurements obtained since mid of 2016. Proton beams have been extracted from the ECR ion source and analyzed just after the extraction column on a dedicated diagnostic chamber. Emittance measurements as well as extracted current and species proportion analysis have been performed in different configurations of ion source parameters, such as magnetic field profile, radio frequency power, gas injection, and puller electrode voltage.

  12. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  13. External proton and Li beams; Haces externos de protones y litios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuff, Juan A; Burlon, Alejandro A; Debray, Mario E; Kesque, Jose M; Kreiner, Andres J; Stoliar, Pablo A; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J; Vazquez, Monica E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Policastro, Lucia L; Duran, Hebe; Molinari, Beatriz L; O' Connor, Silvia E; Saint-Martin, Maria L.G.; Palmieri, Monica; Bernaola, Omar A; Opezzo, Oscar J [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia; Mazal, A; Favaudon, F; Henry, Y [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S; Ruffolo, M; Tasat, D R [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Villa Ballester (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia; Davidson, Miguel; Davidson, Jorge [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Delacroix, S; Nauraye, C; Brune, E; Gautier, C; Habrand, J L [Centre de Protontherapie, 91 - Orsay (France); Muhlmann, M C [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 {mu}m gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 {+-} 0.07 MeV, 2.9 {+-} 0.10 MeV y 1.5 {+-} 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 {+-} 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with {gamma}-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/{mu}m. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  14. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q., E-mail: tengjian@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.

    2013-11-21

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  15. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  16. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator

  17. The FLUKA code for application of Monte Carlo methods to promote high precision ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A; Paganetti, H; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are increasingly being utilized to support several aspects of commissioning and clinical operation of ion beam therapy facilities. In this contribution two emerging areas of MC applications are outlined. The value of MC modeling to promote accurate treatment planning is addressed via examples of application of the FLUKA code to proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Proton Therapy Center of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Boston, USA. These include generation of basic data for input into the treatment planning system (TPS) and validation of the TPS analytical pencil-beam dose computations. Moreover, we review the implementation of PET/CT (Positron-Emission-Tomography / Computed- Tomography) imaging for in-vivo verification of proton therapy at MGH. Here, MC is used to calculate irradiation-induced positron-emitter production in tissue for comparison with the +-activity measurement in order to infer indirect infor...

  18. Electron density measurements during ion beam transport on Gamble II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    High-sensitivity laser interferometry was used to measure the electron density created when an intense proton beam (100 kA, 1 MeV, 50 ns) from the Gamble II generator was transported through low-pressure gas as part of a project investigating Self-Pinched Transport (SPT) of intense ion beams. This measurement is non-perturbing and sufficiently quantitative to allow benchmarking of codes (particularly IPROP) used to model beam-gas interaction and ion-beam transport. Very high phase sensitivity is required for this measurement. For example, a 100-kA, 1-MeV, 10-cm-radius proton beam with uniform current density has a line-integrated proton density equal to n b L = 3 x 10 13 cm -2 . An equal electron line-density, n e L = n b L, (expected for transport in vacuum) will be detected as a phase shift of the 1.064 microm laser beam of only 0.05degree, or an optical path change of 1.4 x 10 -4 waves (about the size of a hydrogen atom). The time-history of the line-integrated electron density, measured across a diameter of the transport chamber at 43 cm from the input aperture, starts with the proton arrival time and decays differently depending on the gas pressure. The gas conditions included vacuum (10 -4 Torr air), 30 to 220 mTorr He, and 1 Torr air. The measured densities vary by three orders of magnitude, from 10 13 to 10 16 cm -2 for the range of gas pressures investigated. In vacuum, the measured electron densities indicate only co-moving electrons (n e L approximately n b L). In He, when the gas pressure is sufficient for ionization by beam particles and SPT is observed, n e L increases to about 10 n b L. At even higher pressures where electrons contribute to ionization, even higher electron densities are observed with an ionization fraction of about 2%. The diagnostic technique as used on the SPT experiment will be described and a summary of the results will be given. The measurements are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions from the IPROP code

  19. The JANNUS Saclay facility: A new platform for materials irradiation, implantation and ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrino, S., E-mail: stephanie.pellegrino@cea.fr [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trocellier, P.; Miro, S.; Serruys, Y.; Bordas, E.; Martin, H. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chaabane, N.; Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, UEPTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, J.P.; Beck, L. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    The third accelerator of the multi-ion irradiation platform JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and NUclear Simulation), a 6SDH-2 Pelletron from National Electrostatic Corporation, Middleton was installed at Saclay in October 2009. The first triple beam irradiation combining Fe, He and H ion beams has been performed in March 2010. In the first part of this paper, we give a technical description of the triple beam facility, its performances and experimental capabilities. Typically, damage dose up to 100 dpa can be reached in 10 h irradiation with heavy ion beams, with or without simultaneous bombardment by protons, helium-4 ions or any other heavy ion beam. In the second part of this paper, we illustrate some IBA results obtained after irradiation and implantation experiments.

  20. Microdosimetric Characteristics of the Clinical Proton Beams at JIRN, Dubna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molokanov, A. G.; Běgusová, Marie; Spurný, František; Vlček, Bohumil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 99, 1-4 (2002), s. 433-434 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : microdosimetry * proton beams * biological efficiency Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.555, year: 2002

  1. Clinical results of proton beam therapy for skull base chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Tokuuye, Koichi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Kagei, Kenji; Hata, Masaharu; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tsuboi, Koji; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate clinical results of proton beam therapy for patients with skull base chordoma. Methods and materials: Thirteen patients with skull base chordoma who were treated with proton beams with or without X-rays at the University of Tsukuba between 1989 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. A median total tumor dose of 72.0 Gy (range, 63.0-95.0 Gy) was delivered. The patients were followed for a median period of 69.3 months (range, 14.6-123.4 months). Results: The 5-year local control rate was 46.0%. Cause-specific, overall, and disease-free survival rates at 5 years were 72.2%, 66.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The local control rate was higher, without statistical significance, for those with preoperative tumors <30 mL. Partial or subtotal tumor removal did not yield better local control rates than for patients who underwent biopsy only as the latest surgery. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy is effective for patients with skull base chordoma, especially for those with small tumors. For a patient with a tumor of <30 mL with no prior treatment, biopsy without tumor removal seems to be appropriate before proton beam therapy

  2. ALPtraum. ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in 'dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  3. Method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams is proposed. This method utilizes the Primakoff effect and relates asymmetries at high energy to large asymmetries already measured at low energy. Such a new method is essential for the success of future experiments at energies where present methods are no longer feasible

  4. Proton Drivers for neutrino beams and other high intensity applications

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Koseki, T; Thomason, J

    2013-01-01

    CERN, Fermilab, J-PARC and RAL tentatively plan to have proton accelerators delivering multi-MW of beam power in view of enhancing their physics reach especially in the domain of neutrinos. These plans are described, together with their benefits for other applications.

  5. Crystal Collimation Cleaning Measurements with Proton Beams in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Andreassen, Odd Oyvind; Butcher, Mark; Dionisio Barreto, Cristovao Andre; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Redaelli, Stefano; Scandale, Walter; Serrano Galvez, Pablo; Rijllart, Adriaan; Valentino, Gianluca; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During this MD, performed on July 29th, 2016, bent silicon crystal were tested with proton beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at both injection energy and flat top using horizontal and vertical crystal. Loss maps with crystals at 6.5 TeV were measured.

  6. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: charged particles produced by 4He and 12C ion beams in a PMMA target at large angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, A.; Battistoni, G.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Mancini-Terracciano, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Piersanti, L.; Pinci, D.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.; Patera, V.

    2018-03-01

    Proton and carbon ion beams are used in the clinical practice for external radiotherapy treatments achieving, for selected indications, promising and superior clinical results with respect to x-ray based radiotherapy. Other ions, like \

  7. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Gourab; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren; Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10 12 cm −3 is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm 2 as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10 11 cm −3 has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated

  8. Modified conductivity of polymer materials with proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Seki, Miharu; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki

    2001-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of polymer materials is of increasing interest in many scientific fields. Industrial applications seem to be promising. In the present investigation, we used proton bombardment to modify the characteristic properties of polymers, especially for improvement in conductivity and hardening gel polymers. Particle beam bombardment is known to produce many scissions by particle passages and new bonds by bridge connection. These effects may modify various properties in many ways. We examined the modification of conductivity in solid polymers composed of polyethylene oxide and polyurethane and the surface appearance of gel polymers with bombardment by a proton beam using the accelerator facility of Tsukuba University. The results indicated proton bombardment induced conductivity changes in various ways according to particle range and polymer properties. (author)

  9. EPR/alanine dosimetry for two therapeutic proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrale, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.marrale@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Gruppo V Sezione INFN di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Carlino, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); EBG MedAustron GmbH, Marie Curie-Straße 5, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gallo, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Gruppo V Sezione INFN di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratorio PH3DRA, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Longo, Anna; Panzeca, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Gruppo V Sezione INFN di Catania, Via Santa Sofia, 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Bolsi, Alessandra; Hrbacek, Jan; Lomax, Tony [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-02-01

    In this work the analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets exposed to two different clinical proton beams employed for radiotherapy is performed. One beam is characterized by a passive delivery technique and is dedicated to the eyes treatment (OPTIS2 beam line). Alanine pellets were irradiated with a 70 MeV proton beam corresponding to 35 mm range in eye tissue. We investigated how collimators with different sizes and shape used to conform the dose to the planned target volume influence the delivered dose. For this purpose we performed measurements with varying the collimator size (Output Factor) and the results were compared with those obtained with other dosimetric techniques (such as Markus chamber and diode detector). This analysis showed that the dosimeter response is independent of collimator diameter if this is larger than or equal to 10 mm. The other beam is characterized by an active spot-scanning technique, the Gantry1 beam line (maximum energy 230 MeV), and is used to treat deep-seated tumors. The dose linearity of alanine response in the clinical dose range was tested and the alanine dose response at selected locations in depth was measured and compared with the TPS planned dose in a quasi-clinical scenario. The alanine response was found to be linear in the dose in the clinical explored range (from 10 to 70 Gy). Furthermore, a depth dose profile in a quasi-clinical scenario was measured and compared to the dose computed by the Treatment Planning System PSIPLAN. The comparison of calibrated proton alanine measurements and TPS dose shows a difference under 1% in the SOBP and a “quenching” effect up to 4% in the distal part of SOBP. The positive dosimetric characteristics of the alanine pellets confirm the feasibility to use these detectors for “in vivo” dosimetry in clinical proton beams.

  10. EPR/alanine dosimetry for two therapeutic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrale, Maurizio; Carlino, Antonio; Gallo, Salvatore; Longo, Anna; Panzeca, Salvatore; Bolsi, Alessandra; Hrbacek, Jan; Lomax, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets exposed to two different clinical proton beams employed for radiotherapy is performed. One beam is characterized by a passive delivery technique and is dedicated to the eyes treatment (OPTIS2 beam line). Alanine pellets were irradiated with a 70 MeV proton beam corresponding to 35 mm range in eye tissue. We investigated how collimators with different sizes and shape used to conform the dose to the planned target volume influence the delivered dose. For this purpose we performed measurements with varying the collimator size (Output Factor) and the results were compared with those obtained with other dosimetric techniques (such as Markus chamber and diode detector). This analysis showed that the dosimeter response is independent of collimator diameter if this is larger than or equal to 10 mm. The other beam is characterized by an active spot-scanning technique, the Gantry1 beam line (maximum energy 230 MeV), and is used to treat deep-seated tumors. The dose linearity of alanine response in the clinical dose range was tested and the alanine dose response at selected locations in depth was measured and compared with the TPS planned dose in a quasi-clinical scenario. The alanine response was found to be linear in the dose in the clinical explored range (from 10 to 70 Gy). Furthermore, a depth dose profile in a quasi-clinical scenario was measured and compared to the dose computed by the Treatment Planning System PSIPLAN. The comparison of calibrated proton alanine measurements and TPS dose shows a difference under 1% in the SOBP and a “quenching” effect up to 4% in the distal part of SOBP. The positive dosimetric characteristics of the alanine pellets confirm the feasibility to use these detectors for “in vivo” dosimetry in clinical proton beams.

  11. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  12. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savajols, H.

    2002-01-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  13. TH-A-19A-05: Modeling Physics Properties and Biologic Effects Induced by Proton and Helium Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleei, R; Titt, U; Peeler, C; Guan, F; Mirkovic, D; Grosshans, D; Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently, proton and carbon ions are used for cancer treatment. More recently, other light ions including helium ions have shown interesting physical and biological properties. The purpose of this work is to study the biological and physical properties of helium ions (He-3) in comparison to protons. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations with FLUKA, GEANT4 and MCNPX were used to calculate proton and He-3 dose distributions in water phantoms. The energy spectra of proton and He-3 beams were calculated with high resolution for use in biological models. The repair-misrepairfixation (RMF) model was subsequently used to calculate the RBE. Results: The proton Bragg curve calculations show good agreement between the three general purpose Monte Carlo codes. In contrast, the He-3 Bragg curve calculations show disagreement (for the magnitude of the Bragg peak) between FLUKA and the other two Monte Carlo codes. The differences in the magnitude of the Bragg peak are mainly due to the discrepancy in the secondary fragmentation cross sections used by the codes. The RBE for V79 cell lines is about 0.96 and 0.98 at the entrance of proton and He-3 ions depth dose respectively. The RBE increases to 1.06 and 1.59 at the Bragg peak of proton and He-3 ions. The results demonstrated that LET, microdosimetric parameters (such as dose-mean lineal energy) and RBE are nearly constant along the plateau region of Bragg curve, while all parameters increase within the Bragg peak and at the distal edge for both proton and He-3 ions. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo codes should revise the fragmentation cross sections to more accurately simulate the physical properties of He-3 ions. The increase in RBE for He-3 ions is higher than for proton beams at the Bragg peak.

  14. Proposed LLNL electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Egan, P.O.; Proctor, I.; Levine, M.A.; Hansen, L.; Kajiyama, Y.; Wolgast, R.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of energetic electrons with highly charged ions is of great importance to several research fields such as astrophysics, laser fusion and magnetic fusion. In spite of this importance there are almost no measurements of electron interaction cross sections for ions more than a few times ionized. To address this problem an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is being developed at LLNL. The device is essentially an EBIS except that it is not intended as a source of extracted ions. Instead the (variable energy) electron beam interacting with the confined ions will be used to obtain measurements of ionization cross sections, dielectronic recombination cross sections, radiative recombination cross sections, energy levels and oscillator strengths. Charge-exchange recombinaion cross sections with neutral gasses could also be measured. The goal is to produce and study elements in many different charge states up to He-like xenon and Ne-like uranium. 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. Ion acceleration in modulated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonch-Osmolovskij, A.G.; Dolya, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method of ion acceleration in modulated electron beams is considered. Electron density and energy of their rotational motion are relatively low. However the effective ion-accelerating field is not less than 10 MeV/m. The electron and ion numbers in an individual bunch are also relatively small, although the number of produced bunches per time unit is great. Some aspects of realization of the method are considered. Possible parameters of the accelerator are given. At 50 keV electron energy and 1 kA beam current a modulation is realized at a wave length of 30 cm. The ion-accelerating field is 12 MeV/m. The bunch number is 2x10 3 in one pulse at a gun pulse duration of 2 μs. With a pulse repetition frequency of 10 2 Hz the number of accelerated ions can reach 10 13 -10 14 per second

  16. Nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation is studied by the ion implantation method and the dynamic mixing method. The nitrogen ion implantation was carried out into deposited V(110) films. Using both methods, three phases are formed, i.e. α-V, β-V 2 N, and δ-VN. Which phases are formed is related to the implantation dose or the arrival ratio. The orientation of the VN films produced by the dynamic ion beam mixing method is (100) and that of the VN films produced by the ion implantation method is (111). The nitridation of vanadium is also discussed in comparison with that of titanium and chromium. ((orig.))

  17. Production of a radioactive 18F ion beam for nuclear reaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. D.; Nickles, R. J.; Paul, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Jiang, C. L.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Gehring, J.; Henderson, D.; Nolen, J.; Pardo, R. C.; Schiffer, J. P.; Segel, R. E.

    1995-12-01

    A two-stage method for generating a radioactive 18F ion beam has been developed. 18F is produced with a medical cyclotron by 11 MeV proton activation of [ 18O]water, then chemically processed off-line for use in a tandem accelerator ion source. Azeotropic distillation reduces the 18O component by 10 5, with a resulting 18O to 18F beam ratio of about 10 3. The average 18F - beam intensity per synthesis is 1 ppA over 120 min from a cesium vapor, sputter negative ion source (SNICS), with a peak intensity of 4.5 ppA.

  18. Characterization of ion beam induced nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satpati, B.; Umananda, M.; Kabiraj, D.; Som, T.; Dev, B.N.; Akimoto, K.; Ito, K.; Emoto, T.; Satyam, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring of nanostructures with energetic ion beams has become an active area of research leading to the fundamental understanding of ion-solid interactions at nanoscale regime and with possible applications in the near future. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and asymmetric X-ray Bragg-rocking curve experimental methods have been used to characterize ion-induced effects in nanostructures. The possibility of surface and sub-surface/interface alloying at nano-scale regime, ion-beam induced embedding, crater formation, sputtering yield variations for systems with isolated nanoislands, semi-continuous and continuous films of noble metals (Au, Ag) deposited on single crystalline silicon will be reviewed. MeV-ion induced changes in specified Au-nanoislands on silicon substrate are tracked as a function of ion fluence using ex situ TEM. Strain induced in the bulk silicon substrate surface due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ and C 2+ ion beam irradiation is determined by using HRTEM and asymmetric Bragg X-ray rocking curve methods. Preliminary results on 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion-induced effects in nanoislands of Co deposited on silicon substrate will be discussed

  19. Dynamics and adsorption of gas molecules using proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Kim, E. K.; Lee, J. K.

    2008-04-01

    We irradiated nano sized MgO powders and carbon nanotubes by proton beams with energy of 35 MeV for different dosing time and the difference before and after the irradiation was investigated by using NO and Ar gas adsorptions studies. Particular interest was given to the irradiation of proton beams on quasicrystals made with Ti-Zr-Ni to remove the oxygen layer on the surface of the sample. Quasicrystals are known to exhibit a 5-fold rotational symmetry which is theoretically forbidden in a concept of solid state physics, and have a potential applications on large amount of hydrogen loading due to their structural complexity and chemical affinity with hydrogen. The results are summarized as four major accomplishments. 1) Proton irradiated MgO powders demonstrated the increased number of NO atomic layers in a layer-by-layer fashion suggesting that the surface of the sample became homogeneous compare to the pure samples. 2) the synchrotron based X-ray diffraction data suggests that NO molecules form an 1x1 commensurate structure on MgO (100) surface evidenced by the NO peak location at the Q values of 2.12 A -1 . 3) Proton irradiated SWCNTs exhibit the uniform Ar atomic layer formation suggesting that the surface of the CNTs can be homonized by the proton beam irradiation, and 4) 20 MeV of proton beam can effectively remove the oxygen layer on metal oxides so that Ti-Zr-Ni quasicrystals can load a large amount of hydrogen (exceeding to the density of liquid hydrogen) at room temperature.

  20. Tests of SEC stability in high flux proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoritsas, V.; Witkover, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Secondary Emission Chamber (SEC) is used to measure the beam intensity in slow extracted beam channels of proton synchrotrons around the world. With the improvements in machine intensity, these monitors have been exposed to higher flux conditions than in the past. A change in sensitivity of up to 25% has been observed in the region around the beam spot. Using SEC's of special construction, a series of tests was performed at FNAL, BNL-AGS and CERN-PS. The results of these tests and conclusions about the construction of more stable SEC's are presented

  1. The future and progress of proton beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of proton therapy is reduction of treatment volumes relative to those feasible with conventional photon therapy. The consequence is that the radiation dose to the target can be raised, with a resultant increase in tumor control probability. Proton beams, however, yield no biological gains because their biological properties are similar to conventional low LET radiations. As more sophisticated technologies are needed, there have been many advances which are applicable to photon therapy; 3-D treatment planning, DVH analysis, and systems for positioning, etc. As of January 1994, a total of about 13,000 cases were reported as having had treatments with proton beams in 16 centers world wide. The tumor sites for those include uveal melanoma (30-40%), intra-cranial small targets (40%), and others. Uveal melanomas had been most extensively treated with 70 Gy/5 fx or 60 Gy/4 fx which resulted in local control and survival rates of >96% and 80%, respectively. For chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base and cervical spine, the 5 year local control rates were 65% and 91%, respectively. Promising results are also being obtained for head and neck and pelvic tumors. Deeper-seated tumors have been treated only at Tsukuba University with successful results in some anatomic sites. Among these, inoperable primary hepatocellular carcinomas were effectively treated with a total dose of 75-85 Gy (3.0-4.5 Gy/fx). The 3 year survival rates for all patients, Child A+B patient, and Child A patients were 38%, 47%, and 60%, respectively, which compare favorably to other modalities. These successful results of world wide proton therapy have led us to the conclusion that a hospital-based proton facility will provide opportunities for additional patients to be treated with protons. Thus, new plans are proposed from more than 10 institutions to build a new treatment center or upgrade the energy of currently available proton beams. (author)

  2. Reaching for highest ion beam intensities through laser ion acceleration and beam compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Blazevic, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Weih, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Jahn, Diana; Ding, Johannes; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Laser ion acceleration provides access to ion sources with unique properties. To use these capabilities the LIGHT collaboration (Laser Ion Generation Handling and Transport) was founded. The aim of this collaboration is the beam transport and manipulation of laser accelerated ions with conventional accelerator structures. Therefor a dedicated beam line has been build up at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung. With this beam line the manipulation of the transversal and also the longitudinal beam parameters has been achieved. It has been shown that laser generated ion beams can be transported over more than 6 meters and pulses shorter than 300 ps can be generated at this distance. This Talk will give an overview over the recent developments and plans of the LIGHT collaboration.

  3. Memory testing with Saturne synchrotron beams. Experiments with protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buisson, J.

    1989-01-01

    For simulate light ions of the cosmic rays CEA will use facilities used in fundamental physic research. SATURNE is a synchrotron especially designed to accelerate light particles, for example protons with energy up to 2.9 GeV. Two experiments are made on SATURNE to specify the beam characteristics (energy and intensity) and to adapt the beam for irradiation of electronic components. During these preliminary experimentation memories and microprocessors was tested. The results of the tests (cross-section) are given in this paper [fr

  4. Studies of scintillator response to 60 MeV protons in a proton beam imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydygier Marzena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Beam Imaging System (ProBImS is under development at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The ProBImS will be used to optimize beam delivery at IFJ PAN proton therapy facilities, delivering two-dimensional distributions of beam profiles. The system consists of a scintillator, optical tract and a sensitive CCD camera which digitally records the light emitted from the proton-irradiated scintillator. The optical system, imaging data transfer and control software have already been developed. Here, we report preliminary results of an evaluation of the DuPont Hi-speed thick back screen EJ 000128 scintillator to determine its applicability in our imaging system. In order to optimize the light conversion with respect to the dose locally deposited by the proton beam in the scintillation detector, we have studied the response of the DuPont scintillator in terms of linearity of dose response, uniformity of light emission and decay rate of background light after deposition of a high dose in the scintillator. We found a linear dependence of scintillator light output vs. beam intensity by showing the intensity of the recorded images to be proportional to the dose deposited in the scintillator volume.

  5. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  6. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delferriere, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-01-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D + extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D + ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H + beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements

  7. Laser-driven proton beams applied to radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogo, Akifumi

    2012-01-01

    The proton accelerators based on the high intensity laser system generate shorter and higher pulse beams compared to the conventional particle accelerators used for the cancer therapy. To demonstrate the radiobiological effects of the new proton beams, the program to develop a biological irradiation instrument for the DNA double-strand break was started in the fiscal year 2008. A prototype instrument was made by making use of the J-KAREN (JAEA Kansai Advanced Relativistic Engineering) laser beam. Polyimide thin film targets were used to irradiate A-549 cells. The DNA double-strand break was tested by the fluorescence spectrometry. In the second year the quantitative yield of the DNA double-strand break and its proton dose dependence were measured. The results indicated that they were comparative to the cases of the conventional particle accelerators. In the fiscal year of 2010 the design of the magnetic field for the energy selection has been changed. The new irradiation instrument, the main part of which is only about 40 cm in length as illustrated in the figure, has been constructed and tested. The experiment has been carried out using the human cancer cells (HSG) and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) has been quantitatively evaluated by the colony assay for varied distribution of the proton beam energy. The survival fractions plotted against the dose were in good agreement with the case of 3 He beam. RBE was found not to be changed up to 1x10 7 Gy/s. Stability of the energy peak, half width and the proton density has been confirmed for this very compact instrument. (S. Funahashi)

  8. Mutation induction by ion beams in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was made on characteristics of ion beams for the biological effects and the induction of mutation using Arabidopsis plant as a model plant for the molecular genetics. Here, the characteristics of mutation at the molecular level as well as new mutants induced by ion beams were described. The ast and sep1 were obtained from the offspring of 1488 carbon ion-irradiated seeds respectively. The uvi1-uvi4 mutants were also induced from 1280 M 1 lines. Thus, ion beams can induce not only known mutants such as tt, gl and hy but also novel mutants with high frequency. Even in the tt phenotype, two new mutant loci other than known loci were found. In chrysanthemum, several kinds of single, complex or stripped flower-color mutants that have been never induced by γirradiation, indicating that ion beams could produce a variety of mutants with the same phenotype. In conclusion, ion beams for the mutation induction are characterized by 1) to induce mutants with high frequency, 2) to show broad mutation spectrum and 3) to produce novel mutants. For these reasons, chemical mutagens such as EMS and low LET ionizing radiation such as X-rays and γ-rays will predominantly induce many but small modifications or DNA damages on the DNA strands. As the result, several point mutations will be produced on the genome. On the contrary, ion beams as a high LET ionizing radiation will not cause so many but large and irreparable DNA damage locally, resulting in production of limited number of null mutation. (M.N.)

  9. Mutation induction by ion beams in arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    An investigation was made on characteristics of ion beams for the biological effects and the induction of mutation using Arabidopsis plant as a model plant for the molecular genetics. Here, the characteristics of mutation at the molecular level as well as new mutants induced by ion beams were described. The ast and sep1 were obtained from the offspring of 1488 carbon ion-irradiated seeds respectively. The uvi1-uvi4 mutants were also induced from 1280 M{sub 1} lines. Thus, ion beams can induce not only known mutants such as tt, gl and hy but also novel mutants with high frequency. Even in the tt phenotype, two new mutant loci other than known loci were found. In chrysanthemum, several kinds of single, complex or stripped flower-color mutants that have been never induced by {gamma}irradiation, indicating that ion beams could produce a variety of mutants with the same phenotype. In conclusion, ion beams for the mutation induction are characterized by 1) to induce mutants with high frequency, 2) to show broad mutation spectrum and 3) to produce novel mutants. For these reasons, chemical mutagens such as EMS and low LET ionizing radiation such as X-rays and {gamma}-rays will predominantly induce many but small modifications or DNA damages on the DNA strands. As the result, several point mutations will be produced on the genome. On the contrary, ion beams as a high LET ionizing radiation will not cause so many but large and irreparable DNA damage locally, resulting in production of limited number of null mutation. (M.N.)

  10. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  11. Compaction of PDMS due to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Rajta, I.; Kokavecz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. This work is about the detailed investigation of the changes of the surface topography, the degree of compaction/shrinkage and its relation to the irradiation fluence and the structure spacing in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterned with 2 MeV proton microbeam. Sylgard 184 kit (Dow-Corning) was used to create the PDMS samples. The density of the PDMS samples was determined with pycnometer. The penetration depth for 2 MeV protons is ∼85 μm, the PDMS layer was ∼95 μm thick, so the incident protons stop in the PDMS, they do not reach the substrate. The irradiations have been performed at the nuclear microprobe facility at ATOMKI. The irradiated periodic structures consisted of parallel lines with different widths and spacing. To achieve different degrees of compaction, each structure was irradiated with five different fluences. The surface topography, the phase modification of the surface, and the connection between them were revealed using an atomic force microscope (AFM PSIA XE 100). The shrinkage data were obtained from the topography images. The structures with different line widths and spacing show different degrees of compaction as a function of irradiation fluence. By plotting them in the same graph (Fig. 1) it is clearly seen that the degree of compaction depends on both the irradiation fluence and the distance of the structures. The fluence dependence of the compaction can be explained with the chemical changes of PDMS. When an energetic ion penetrates through the material it scissions the polymer chain, whereupon among other things volatile products form. In the case of PDMS, these are mainly hydrogen, methane and ethane gases that can be released from PDMS. The irradiated volume shrinks due to significant structural change during which silicate derivatives (SiO x ) are formed. The phase change and the corresponding surface topography was compared and studied at all applied irradiation fluences. It was concluded

  12. Development and application of ion beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    At GSI - Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt/Germany the HITRAP project is in the commissioning phase. This world-wide unique facility consists of a linear decelerator for heavy, highly charged ions including atomic physics precision experiments. During commissioning of the cavities, transverse emittances were measured using the single-shot pepperpot method as well as the multi-gradient method. The extraction emittance of the experimental storage ring (ESR) was determined. Furthermore, the phase space distribution of an decelerated beam at an intermediate energy of 500keV/u was measured behind the IH-structure. New algorithms have been integrated into the analysis of digital images. The longitudinal bunch structure measurements of the ion beam at the entry point into the decelerator and the operation of the Double-drift Buncher is shown. The design, development and the first commissioning of a new single-shot pepperpot emittance meter for very low beam currents and beam energies in the order of some hundred nA is described, making it possible to measure the beam behind the deceleration cavities. In addition, transverse beam dynamics calculations were performed, which supported the hands-on commissioning of the accelerator. It is described how the entire beam line from the ESR to the radio-frequency quadrupole can be optimized using the new routine for transverse effects of the bunching and deceleration, which was successfully integrated into the software COSY Infinity. (orig.)

  13. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-01-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use

  14. Ion beam analysis of thin films. Applications to porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, C.; Grosman, A.; Morazzani, V.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1)- to present a summary of the fundamental interactions between ion beam (such as proton, deuteron or helium) of MeV energy and solids, interactions that are used in material analysis techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and (2)- to illustrate the use of these techniques to determine the composition of the surface and outer microns of material. Some examples will be given concerning porous silicon layers. (authors). 38 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Ion beams in silicon processing and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, E.; Picraux, S.T.; Poate, J.M.; Borland, J.O.; Current, M.I.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Holland, O.W.; Law, M.E.; Magee, C.W.; Mayer, J.W.; Melngailis, J.; Tasch, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    General trends in integrated circuit technology toward smaller device dimensions, lower thermal budgets, and simplified processing steps present severe physical and engineering challenges to ion implantation. These challenges, together with the need for physically based models at exceedingly small dimensions, are leading to a new level of understanding of fundamental defect science in Si. In this article, we review the current status and future trends in ion implantation of Si at low and high energies with particular emphasis on areas where recent advances have been made and where further understanding is needed. Particularly interesting are the emerging approaches to defect and dopant distribution modeling, transient enhanced diffusion, high energy implantation and defect accumulation, and metal impurity gettering. Developments in the use of ion beams for analysis indicate much progress has been made in one-dimensional analysis, but that severe challenges for two-dimensional characterization remain. The breadth of ion beams in the semiconductor industry is illustrated by the successful use of focused beams for machining and repair, and the development of ion-based lithographic systems. This suite of ion beam processing, modeling, and analysis techniques will be explored both from the perspective of the emerging science issues and from the technological challenges. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Development of ion beam sputtering technology for mold and die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Park, J.; Lee, J.; Jil, J.; Yang, D.; Noh, Y.; You, B.; You, J.

    2003-06-01

    Ion beam sputtering technique, one of the surface modification techniques, is to reduce surface roughness of materials with selective detaching atoms and micro particles from the surface by bombarding energetic ions of a few to a few tens keV onto the materials surfaces. This technique can be applied for the surfaces that need to have sub micrometer surface roughness, and it has already been used by companies and/or Institute over the world. Although this is relatively high cost process, it has been widely demanded in the industries with developing the eco-friend equipment due to its high quality of products. In the domestic industry, it has been pointed out that the mechanical polishing technique for molds and dies is relatively expensive and does not produce the required surface roughness. Therefore, in this R and D, techniques obtained from the ion source and the ion beam irradiation techniques developed for the proton accelerator has been applied to polish the surface of molds and dies to solve the above-mentioned problems that take place during mechanical polishing. In case that ion beam polishing technique is used, we expect not only producing the high quality polished surfaces but also producing the economically valuable end-products. In this R and D project, we are aiming at establishing ion beam techniques for industrialization as well as mass production of low cost products with developing the economical instrumentation techniques. Also, as a result of this R and D it is expected that importing of precise molds and dies may be reduced and technical competitiveness will be enhanced

  17. IKOR - An isochronous pulse compressor ring for proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.

    1981-06-01

    This report contains the results of a study carried out for an isochronous compressor ring IKOR which compresses the 500 μs linac macropulses into pulses of 0.68 μs length. Its basic component is a ring magnet with alternating gradient and separated functions. Due to the isochronous operation, an rf system can be avoided which otherwise would be necessary in order to maintain a void in the circulating beam for the purpose of ejection. Injection is performed by charge exchange. The H - beam of the accelerator is first converted into a H 0 beam by stripping off one electron by a high gradient magnet placed in the transfer channel. Subsequently, the beam is converted into a proton beam by removing the remaining electron through a stripping foil in the ring. IKOR will be filled in 658 turns. Immediately after filling, the beam is ejected in a single turn via a kicker and a septum magnet and is transported to the spallation target. Because of the high intensity of 2.7 x 10 14 protons per pulse and, secondly, due to the high repetition rate of 100 Hz, beam dynamics and radiation protection aspects dominate the design and are, for this reason, treated in detail. (orig.)

  18. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  19. The quest for crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Habs, D

    2002-01-01

    The phase transition of an ion beam into its crystalline state has long been expected to dramatically influence beam dynamics beyond the limitations of standard accelerator physics. Yet, although considerable improvement in beam cooling techniques has been made, strong heating mechanisms inherent to existing high-energy storage rings have prohibited the formation of the crystalline state in these machines up to now. Only recently, laser cooling of low-energy beams in the table-top rf quadrupole storage ring PAaul Laser cooLing Acceleration System (PALLAS) has lead to the experimental realization of crystalline beams. In this article, the quest for crystalline beams as well as their unique properties as experienced in PALLAS will be reviewed.

  20. Filamentation of a converging heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Buchanan, H.L.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    A major concern in the use of heavy ion beams as igniters in pellet fusion systems is the vulnerability of the beam to the transverse flamentation instability. The undesirable consequence of this mode is the transverse heating of the beam to the extent that convergence on the pellet becomes impossible. This work considers the case of a beam injected into a gas filled reactor vessel, where finite pulse length and propagation distance play an important role in limiting growth. Two geometries are analyzed: a nonconverging case where the radius at injection is nearly equal to the desired radius at the pellet, and a converging case in which the injection radius is large and the beam is pre-focused to converge at the target. It is found that a cold beam will be severely disrupted if the product of the magnetic plasma frequency and the propagation distance is much larger than unity

  1. Study of depolarization of deuteron and proton beams in the Nuclotron ring

    CERN Document Server

    Golubeva, N Y; Kondratenko, A M; Kondratenko, A M; Mikhajlov, V A; Strokovsky, E A

    2002-01-01

    The scheme for acceleration of polarized deuterons at the Nuclotron accelerator facility includes a cryogenic polarized deuteron source 'Polaris', a 5 MeV/nucl. linac, a superconducting heavy ion synchrotron of a 6 GeV/nucl. energy with 10 s spill slow extraction, thin internal targets and wide net of external beam lines. This scheme also allows one to generate high energy polarized proton and neutron beams with well determined characteristics. There are two principal problems of polarized particle acceleration: to keep spin orientation during beam acceleration and to produce the high ion intensity sufficient for data taking in physics experiments. The first problem is discussed in this paper. The reasons of depolarization effects in the mentioned parts of the Nuclotron have been analysed and four methods of the polarization conserving have been suggested. They are the spin resonance strength compensation increasing of the resonance strength, the betatron tune jump and the spin tune jump. Among their number, ...

  2. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S, Honey; S, Naseem; A, Ishaq; M, Maaza; M T, Bhatti; D, Wan

    2016-01-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H + ) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H +  ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H + ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H +  ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H +  ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H +  ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H +  ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. (paper)

  3. Ion beam modification of buckminsterfullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; McCulloch, D.G.; Leong, W.H.; Hoffman, A.; Kalish, R.

    1995-01-01

    The response of thin films of buckminsterfullerene (C 60 ) to energetic xenon ion impact is investigated. The diagnostics employed include Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies, Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. By combining the information obtained from these diagnostics with that from the dependence of the conductivity on ion dose, it is concluded that each C 60 molecule completely disintegrates when hit by an energetic ion. The cross-section for the destruction of about 7 x 10 -13 cm 2 for irradiation with 620 keV Xe ions. The disintegration occurs when C atoms are knocked-out of the molecule either directly by the impinging ion or by an energetic knock-on C atom with the damage cascade. This process is quite different from the Coulomb Explosion mechanism previously proposed in the literature. For very low ions doses ( 11 Xe/cm 2 ) most of the C 60 molecules remain intact; however this dose is sufficient to completely disrupt the ordering of the C 60 molecules in the van der Waals bonded C 60 solid. Disruption of the lattice ordering at such low doses is considered to be attributable to the weakness of the van der Waals forces which bind the C 60 clusters together into the molecular solid. 13 refs., 7 figs

  4. Construction of a ct scanner using heavy ions or protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    A computed tomography x-ray scanner, in which a monochromatic xray beam is generated by irradiating an x-ray producing target with high energy monoenergetic ions. The ion beam is preferably produced by a cyclotron. The x-ray beam is preferably rotated through an object to be scanned by angularly displacing the ion beam and target about the center axis of the object. A conventional x-ray detector array, a signal and data processor and imaging means are provided to convert detected x-ray absorption measurements into a two-dimensional visual image of the scanned object cross-section

  5. Getting Ready for Ion-Beam Therapy Research in Austria - Building-up Research in Parallel with a Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Knaeusl; Kuess, Peter; Fuchs, Hermann; Poetter, Richard; Schreiner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With participation in ion-beam projects funded nationally or by the European Commission (EC), ion-beam research activities were started at the Medical University of Vienna in parallel with the design and construction of the ion-beam center MedAustron in Wiener Neustadt, 50 km from the Austrian capital. The current medical radiation physics research activities that will be presented comprise: (1) Dose calculation and optimization: ion-beam centers focus mostly on proton and carbon-ion therapy. However, there are other ion species with great potential for clinical applications. Helium ions are currently under investigation from a theoretical physics and biology perspective. (2) Image guided and adaptive ion-beam therapy: organ motion and anatomic changes have a severe influence in ion-beam therapy since variations in heterogeneity along the beam path have a significant impact on the particle range. Ongoing research focuses on possibilities to account for temporal variations of the anatomy during radiotherapy. Both during and between fractions also considering temporal variations in tumor biology. Furthermore, research focuses on particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) verification and the detection of prompt gammas for on-line verification of ion-beam delivery. (3) Basic and applied dosimetry: an end-to-end procedure was designed and successfully tested in both scanned proton and carbon-ion beams, which may also serve as a dosimetric credentialing procedure for clinical trials in the future. (Author)

  6. Simulation studies of macroparticles falling into the LHC Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, N; Zimmermann, F; Baer, T; Giovannozzi, M; Holzer, E B; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Yang, Z

    2011-01-01

    We report updated simulations on the interaction of macroparticles falling from the top of the vacuum chamber into the circulating LHC proton beam. The path and charge state of micron size micro-particles are computed together with the resulting beam losses, which — if high enough — can lead to the local quench of superconducting (SC) magnets. The simulated time evolution of the beam loss is compared with observations in order to constrain some macroparticle parameters. We also discuss the possibility of a “multiple crossing” by the same macroparticle, the effect of a strong dipole field, and the dependence of peak loss rate and loss duration on beam current and on beam size.

  7. Theoretical and experimental comparison of proton and helium-beam radiography using silicon pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, T.; Amato, C.; Berke, S.; Martišíková, M.

    2018-02-01

    Ion-beam radiography (iRAD) could potentially improve the quality control of ion-beam therapy. The main advantage of iRAD is the possibility to directly measure the integrated stopping power. Until now there is no clinical implementation of iRAD. Topics of ongoing research include developing dedicated detection systems to achieve the desired spatial resolution (SR) and investigating different ion types as imaging radiation. This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental comparison of proton (pRAD) and helium-beam radiography (αRAD). The experimental comparison was performed with an in-house developed detection system consisting of silicon pixel detectors. This system enables the measurement of energy deposition of single ions, their tracking, and the identification of the ion type, which is important for αRAD due to secondary fragments. A 161 mm-thick PMMA phantom with an air gap of 1 mm placed at different depths was imaged with a 168 MeV u-1 proton/helium-ion beam at the Heidelberg ion-beam therapy center. The image quality in terms of SR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated. After validating MC simulations against experiments, pRAD and αRAD were compared to carbon-beam radiography (cRAD) in simulations. The theoretical prediction that the CNR of pRAD and αRAD is equal at similar imaging doses was experimentally confirmed. The measured SR of αRAD was 55% better compared to pRAD. The simulated cRads showed the expected improvement in SR and the decreased CNR at the same dose compared to the αRads, however only at dose levels exceeding typical doses of diagnostic x-ray projections. For clinically applicable dose levels, the cRads suffered from an insufficient number of carbon ions per pixel (220 μm  ×  220 μm). In conclusion, it was theoretically and experimentally shown that αRAD provides a better SR than pRAD without any disadvantages concerning the CNR. Using carbon ions instead of helium ions leads to a better SR at the

  8. High-intensity light-ion beam research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Colombant, D.G.; Barker, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    High-brightness proton beams (.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm 2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of GT 10 TW/cm 2 rad 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equitorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA-II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about .25 MA/cm 2 . Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>= 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport, plasma-filled, magnetic-focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  9. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α , Al 2 O 3+α ) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxy-apatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate. (orig.)

  10. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  11. Charge neutralization of small ion beam clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D R [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, C L; Hanson, D L [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The mega-ampere currents associated with light ion fusion (LIF) require excellent charge neutralization to prevent divergence growth. As the size and space-charge potential of a beam clump or `beamlet` become small (submillimeter size and kilovolt potentials), the neutralization becomes increasingly difficult. Linear theory predicts that plasma electrons cannot neutralize potentials < {phi}{sub crit} = (1/2)m{sub e}v{sub i}{sup 2}/e, where m{sub e} is the electron mass and v{sub i} is the ion beam velocity. A non-uniform beam would, therefore, have regions with potentials sufficient to add divergence to beam clumps. The neutralization of small beamlets produced on the SABLE accelerator and in numerical simulation has supported the theory, showing a plateau in divergence growths as the potential in the beamlet exceeds {phi}{sub crit}. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  12. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sok; Lee, Chan young; Lee, Jae Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction.

  13. Spatially-Resolved Ion Trajectory Measurements During Cl2 Reactive Ion Beam Etching and Ar Ion Beam Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vawter, G. Allen; Woodworth, Joseph R.; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    The angle of ion incidence at the etched wafer location during RIBE and IBE using Cl 2 , Ar and O 2 ion beams has been characterized using an ion energy and angle analyzer. Effects of beam current and accelerator grid bias on beam divergence and the spatial uniformity of the spread of incident angles are measured. It is observed that increased total beam current can lead to reduced current density at the sample stage due to enhanced beam divergence at high currents. Results are related to preferred etch system design for uniform high-aspect-ratio etching across semiconductor wafers

  14. A sextupole ion beam guide to improve the efficiency and beam quality at IGISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, P.; Moore, I.D.; Sonoda, T.; Kessler, T.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Ronkanen, P.; Aystoe, J.

    2008-01-01

    The laser ion source project at the IGISOL facility, Jyvaeskylae, has motivated the development and construction of an rf sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG) to replace the original skimmer electrode. The SPIG has been tested both off-line and on-line in proton-induced fission, light-ion and heavy-ion induced fusion-evaporation reactions and, in each case, has been directly compared to the skimmer system. For both fission and light-ion induced fusion, the SPIG has improved the mass-separated ion yields by a factor of typically 4-8. Correspondingly, the transmission efficiency of both systems has been studied in simulations with and without space charge effects. The transport capacity of the SPIG has been experimentally determined to be ∼10 12 ions s -1 before space charge effects start to take effect. A direct comparison with the simulation has been made using data obtained via light-ion fusion evaporation. Both experiment and simulation show an encouraging agreement as a function of current extracted from the ion guide.

  15. Air Quality Monitoring with Routine Utilization of Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Information on source contributions to ambient air particulate concentrations is a vital tool for air quality management. Traditional gravimetric analysis of airborne particulate matter is unable to provide information on the sources contributing to air particulate concentrations. Ion beam analysis is used to identify the elemental composition of air particulates for source apportionment and determining the relative contribution of biogenic and anthropogenic sources to air particulate pollution. The elemental composition is obtained by proton induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), which is an ion beam analysis (IBA) technique. The element concentrations are deduced from the X ray spectra produced when the particulate collected on a filter is bombarded with a high-energy proton beam. As part of the UNDP/IAEA/RCA Project RAS/8/082 ‘Better Management of the Environment, Natural Resources and Industrial Growth through Isotope and Radiation Technology,’ a collaborative alliance was formed between the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited and the Wellington Regional Council, New Zeland [1]. The purpose of the project was to examine the elemental composition of air particulate matter and determine the origins through source apportionment techniques. In New Zealand PM 10 and PM 2.5 fractions have been collected at the industrial area of Seaview, Wellington over two years using a GENT stacked filter unit sampler. Concentrations of elements with atomic mass above neon were determined using ion beam analysis and elemental carbon concentrations were determined using a reflectometer. Specific ambient source elemental 'fingerprints' were then determined by factor analysis and the relative contributions of various local and regional sources were assessed. The significant factors (sources) were determined to be sea salt, soil, industry, and combustion sources. Local industry was found to contribute to ambient lead concentrations. (author)

  16. Recommended data on proton-ion collision rate coefficients for Fe X-Fe XV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.; Murakami, I.; Kato, T.

    2006-01-01

    The proton-ion collisions are important for excitation of some ion levels in a high-temperature low density plasma. In the present work evaluation of data obtained for proton-induced transitions in Fe X - Fe XV ions with the help of different theoretical methods is carried out. It is suggested a simple analytical formula with 7 parameters allowing to describe dependency of proton rate coefficient on proton temperature in an enough wide temperature range. The values of free parameters have been determined by fitting of approximation formula to numerical data and are presented for recommended data together with fitting accuracies. By comparing of proton collision rates with electron ones it is shown that proton impact excitation processes may be important for Fe X, XI, XIII-XV ions. The results obtained can be used for plasma kinetics calculations and for development of spectroscopy methods of plasma diagnostics. (author)

  17. Calculation of ion storage in electron beams with account of ion-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, Eh.A.; Shirkov, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Ion storage in relativistic electron beams was calculated taking account of ion-ion charge exchange and ionization. The calculations were made for nitrogen ion storage from residual gas during the compression of electron rings in the adhezator of the JINR heavy ion accelerator. The calculations were made for rings of various parameters and for various pressures of the residual gas. The results are compared with analogous calculations made without account of ion-ion processes. It is shown that at heavy loading of a ring by ions ion-ion collisions play a significant part, and they should be taken into account while calculating ion storage

  18. Ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shinzaburo; Morita, Hiroaki; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1981-10-01

    The design of the active cooling type ion beam dump for JT-60 NBI which receives the total beam power of 5.6 MW for 10 sec continuously is described. It is composed of array of many finned tubes which is made of oxygen free copper with 0.2% silver content. The safety margin against thermal and mechanical troubles is estimated by the heat transfer and the thermal stress calculation. (author)

  19. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N; Katsumura, Y; Domae, M; Ishigure, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  20. Modification of solid surface by intense pulsed light-ion and metal-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Ariyoshi, T.; Hanjo, H.; Tsutsumi, S.; Fujii, Y.; Itami, M.; Okamoto, A.; Ogawa, S.; Hamada, T.; Fukumaru, F.

    1989-03-01

    Metal surfaces of Al, stainless-steel and Ti were bombarded with focused intense pulsed proton and carbon ion beams (energy ˜ 80 keV, current density ≲ 1000 A/cm 2, pulse width ˜ 300 ns). Thin titanium carbide layers were produced by carbon-ion irradiation on the titanium surface. The observed molten surface structures and recrystallized layer (20 μm depth) indicated that the surfaces reached high temperatures as a result of the irradiation. The implantation of intense pulsed metal ion beams (Al +, ˜ 20 A/cm 2) with simultaneous deposition of anode metal vapor on Ti and Fe made a mixed layer of AlTi and AlFe of about 0.5 μm depth. Ti and B multilayered films evaporated on glass substrates were irradiated by intense pulsed proton beams of relatively lower current density (10-200 A/cm 2). Ti films containing B atoms above 10 at.% were obtained. When the current density was about 200 A/cm 2 diffraction peaks of TiB 2 appeared.

  1. Preliminary shielding estimates for the proposed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has proposed designing and implementing a new target-ion source for production and injection of negative radioactive ion beams into the Hollifield tandem accelerator. This new facility, referred to as the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF), will primarily be used to advance the scientific communities' capabilities for performing state-of-the-art cross-section measurements. Beams of protons or other light, stable ions from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will be stopped in the RIBF target ion source and the resulting radioactive atoms will be ionized, charge exchanged, accelerated, and injected into the tandem accelerator. The ORIC currently operates with proton energies up to 60 MeV and beam currents up to 100 microamps with a maximum beam power less than 2.0 kW. The proposed RIBF will require upgrading the ORIC to generate proton energies up to 200 MeV and beam currents up to 200 microamps for optimum performance. This report summarizes the results of a preliminary one-dimensional shielding analysis of the proposed upgrade to the ORIC and design of the RIBF. The principal objective of the shielding analysis was to determine the feasibility of such an upgrade with respect to existing shielding from the facility structure, and additional shielding requirements for the 200 MeV ORIC machine and RIBF target room

  2. Effect of analytical proton beam irradiation on lead-white pigments, characterized by EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Gonzalez, Victor; Vezin, Hervé; Touati, Nadia; Calligaro, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Analytical techniques using proton beams with energy in the MeV range are commonly used to study archeological artefact and artistic objects. However ion beams can induce alteration of fragile materials, which is notably the case of easel paintings, limiting the use of these techniques. We used continuous wave EPR and pulse EPR spectroscopy to reveal the effect of 3 MeV proton irradiation on lead carbonates, which were extensively employed as white pigments from the antiquity to the 20th century. Two kinds of paramagnetic centers were identified in cerussite (PbCO3): the first one is CO3- radicals formed by hole trapping by CO32- ions, and the second one is NO32- radical resulting from electron trapping by NO3- impurities. Hydrocerussite (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2) is the most darkened material under proton beam, however it exhibits no NO32- radicals and 20 times less CO3- radicals than cerussite. Consequently these paramagnetic centers are not directly responsible for the darkening of lead-white pigments. We proposed that their higher instability in hydrocerussite might be at the origin of the formation of color centers in this material.

  3. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the CERN IRRAD Proton Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ravotti, F; Glaser, M; Matli, E; Pezzullo, G; Gan, K K; Kagan, H; Smith, S; Warner, J D

    2017-01-01

    GeV/c proton beam is used. During beam steering and irradiation, the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam are monitored online with custom-made Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) devices. In this work, we present the design and the architecture of the IRRAD BPM system, some results on its performance with the proton beam, as well as its planned grades.

  4. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  5. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  6. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  7. Numerical investigation on complex target geometries in the context of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppert, O.; Harres, K.; Busold, S.; Schaumann, G.; Roth, M. [IKP, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, C. [IAP, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Neely, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The irradiation of thin metal foils by an ultra-intense laser pulse leads to the generation of a highly laminar, intense proton beam accelerated from the target rear side by a mechanism called TNSA. This acceleration mechanism strongly depends on the geometry of the target. The acceleration originates from the formation of a Gaussian-like electron sheath leading to an electric field in the order of TV/m. This sheath field-ionizes the target rear side and is able to accelerate protons from a hydrogen contamination layer. The Gaussian-like sheath adds an energy dependent divergence to the spatial proton