WorldWideScience

Sample records for proton accelerator complex

  1. Acceleration of polarized protons in the IHEP accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Ado, Yu.M.; Shoumkin, D.

    1995-01-01

    The paper considers possibility to accelerate polarized beam in the IHEP accelerator complex (including first stage of the UNK). The scheme of preserving beam polarization is described for all acceleration stages up to 400 GeV beam energy. Polarization and intensity of the polarized proton beam are estimated. The suggested scheme includes using two Siberian snakes in opposite straight sections of the UNK-1, where each snake consists of five dipole magnets. In the U-70 it is suggested to use one helical Siberian snake, which is turned on adiabatically at 10 GeV, and four pulsed quadrupoles. To incorporate the snake into the accelerator lattice it is proposed to make modification of one superperiod. This would make a 13 m long straight section. Spin depolarization in the Booster is avoided by decreasing the extraction energy to 0.9 GeV. Then no additional hardware is required in the Booster

  2. Improvement Plans of Fermilab’s Proton Accelerator Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    The flagship of Fermilab’s long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab’s Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  3. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-01-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition open-quotes jumpclose quotes, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle

  4. Medical Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2008-01-01

    A project for a medical proton accelerator for cancer treatment is outlined. The project is motivated by the need for a precise modality for cancer curing especially in children. Proton therapy is known by its superior radiation and biological effectiveness as compared to photon or electron therapy. With 26 proton and 3 heavy-ion therapy complexes operating worldwide only one (p) exists in South Africa, and none in south Asia and the Middle East. The accelerator of choice should provide protons with energy 75 MeV for eye treatment and 250 MeV for body treatment. Four treatment rooms are suggested: two with isocentric gantries, one with fixed beams and one for development. Passive scanning is recommended. The project can serve Middle East and North Africa with ∼ 400 million populations. The annual capacity of the project is estimated as 1,100 to be compared with expected radiation cases eligible for proton cancer treatment of not less than 200,000

  5. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  6. Numerical investigation on complex target geometries in the context of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppert, O.; Harres, K.; Busold, S.; Schaumann, G.; Roth, M. [IKP, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, C. [IAP, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Neely, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The irradiation of thin metal foils by an ultra-intense laser pulse leads to the generation of a highly laminar, intense proton beam accelerated from the target rear side by a mechanism called TNSA. This acceleration mechanism strongly depends on the geometry of the target. The acceleration originates from the formation of a Gaussian-like electron sheath leading to an electric field in the order of TV/m. This sheath field-ionizes the target rear side and is able to accelerate protons from a hydrogen contamination layer. The Gaussian-like sheath adds an energy dependent divergence to the spatial proton beam profile. For future applications it is essential to reduce the divergence already from the source of the acceleration process. Therefore different target geometries were studied numerically with the help of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations. Both, the influence of the target geometry as well as the influence of the laser beam profile onto the proton trajectories are discussed. Furthermore, the first experimental results of a dedicated target geometry for laser-ion acceleration are presented.

  7. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  8. Overview of the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the J-PARC Project started in April of 2001. After 8 years of construction period, the project was completed in the spring of 2009. Three accelerator elements (Linac, 3 GeV proton synchrotron and 50 GeV proton synchrotron) are now working. Also, three experimental halls (materials and life experimental hall, hadron experimental hall, and neutrino experimental hall) are in operation. In this article I review all these facilities and their scientific goals. In addition, I would like to overview the current and future scope of this J-PARC facility. (author)

  9. Overview of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project and Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2008-01-01

    The J-PARC project has been conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK since 2001. This paper reports an overview and current status of the project. The high intensity proton accelerator consists of a 400 MeV Linac, a 3 GeV synchrotron and 50 GeV synchrotron to deliver MW level pulsed proton beam to experimental facilities. The MW proton power will provide an advanced scientific experimental research complex aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science with neutron and muon, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. Regarding the project being close to its completion in 2008, this paper describes the overview of J-PARC project with emphasis of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility, in which the MW pulsed neutron and muon sources, are placed to provide high quality neutron and muon beams to the world wide users. (author)

  10. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  11. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  12. Beam commissioning of the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC was commissioned in October 2007, and successfully accomplished 3 GeV acceleration on October 31. Six run cycles through February 2008 were dedicated to commissioning the RCS, for which the initial machine parameter tuning and various underlying beam studies were completed. Then since May 2008 the RCS beam has been delivered to the downstream facilities for their beam commissioning. In this paper we describe beam tuning and study results following our beam commissioning scenario and a beam performance and operational experience obtained in the first commissioning phase through June 2008.

  13. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  14. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex II: Neutron Scattering Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakajima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The neutron instruments suite, installed at the spallation neutron source of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, is reviewed. MLF has 23 neutron beam ports and 21 instruments are in operation for user programs or are under commissioning. A unique and challenging instrumental suite in MLF has been realized via combination of a high-performance neutron source, optimized for neutron scattering, and unique instruments using cutting-edge technologies. All instruments are/will serve in world-leading investigations in a broad range of fields, from fundamental physics to industrial applications. In this review, overviews, characteristic features, and typical applications of the individual instruments are mentioned.

  15. The intense proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency of Japan has formulated the OMEGA project, in which incineration of nuclear wastes by use of accelerators is defined as one of the important tasks. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been engaged for several years in basic studies in incineration technology with use of an intense proton linear accelerator. The intense proton accelerator program intends to provide a large scale proton linear accelerator called Engineering Test Accelerator. The principal purpose of the accelerator is to develop nuclear waste incineration technology. The accelerator will also be used for other industrial applications and applied science studies. The present report further outlines the concept of incineration of radio-activities of nuclear wastes, focusing on nuclear reactions and a concept of incineration plant. Features of Engineering Test Accelerator are described focusing on the development of the accelerator, and research and development of incineration technology. Applications of science and technology other than nuclear waste incineration are also discussed. (N.K.)

  16. High intensity proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nishida, Takahiko

    1991-06-01

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  17. Neutrino oscillations at proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Data from many different experiments have started to build a first glimpse of the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations. Results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are particularly clear while a third result from LSND suggests a possibly very complex oscillation phenomenology. As impressive as the results from current experiments are, it is clear that we are just getting started on a long-term experimental program to understand neutrino masses, mixings and the physics which produce them. A number of exciting fundamental physics possibilities exist, including that neutrino oscillations could demonstrate CP or CPT violation and could be tied to exotic high-energy phenomena including strings and extra dimensions. A complete exploration of oscillation phenomena demands many experiments, including those possible using neutrino beams produced at high energy proton accelerators. Most existing neutrino experiments are statistics limited even though they use gigantic detectors. High intensity proton beams are essential for producing the intense neutrino beams which we need for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments

  18. Neutrino Oscillations at Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Douglas

    2002-12-01

    Data from many different experiments have started to build a first glimpse of the phenomenology associated with neutrino oscillations. Results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos are particularly clear while a third result from LSND suggests a possibly very complex oscillation phenomenology. As impressive as the results from current experiments are, it is clear that we are just getting started on a long-term experimental program to understand neutrino masses, mixings and the physics which produce them. A number of exciting fundamental physics possibilities exist, including that neutrino oscillations could demonstrate CP or CPT violation and could be tied to exotic high-energy phenomena including strings and extra dimensions. A complete exploration of oscillation phenomena demands many experiments, including those possible using neutrino beams produced at high energy proton accelerators. Most existing neutrino experiments are statistics limited even though they use gigantic detectors. High intensity proton beams are essential for producing the intense neutrino beams which we need for next generation neutrino oscillation experiments.

  19. The neutron total cross-section measurement of 56Fe and 57Fe by using Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ae; Shvetsov, Valery; Cho, Moo Hyun; Won, Nam Kung; Kim, Kwang Soo; Yang, Sung Chul; Lee, Man Woo; Kim, Guin Yun; Yi, Kyoung Rak; Choi, Hong Yub; Ro, Tae Ik; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Igashira, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron cross section using Time-Of-Flight (TOF) method gives significant information for the nuclear data research. In the present work, the neutron total cross section of 56 Fe and 57 Fe has been measured in the energy range between 10 eV and 100 keV by using the neutron beam produced from 3-GeV proton synchrotron accelerator. The 3-GeV proton synchrotron accelerator is located at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) facility in Tokai village. In this study, the neutron total cross section data measured by 6 Li glass scintillator detector was compared with the evaluated values of ENDF/B-VII.0

  20. The neutron total cross-section measurement of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe by using Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ae; Shvetsov, Valery; Cho, Moo Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Won, Nam Kung [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Soo; Yang, Sung Chul; Lee, Man Woo; Kim, Guin Yun [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Kyoung Rak; Choi, Hong Yub; Ro, Tae Ik [Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Mizumoto, Motoharu; Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Igashira, Masayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The measurement of neutron cross section using Time-Of-Flight (TOF) method gives significant information for the nuclear data research. In the present work, the neutron total cross section of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe has been measured in the energy range between 10 eV and 100 keV by using the neutron beam produced from 3-GeV proton synchrotron accelerator. The 3-GeV proton synchrotron accelerator is located at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) facility in Tokai village. In this study, the neutron total cross section data measured by {sup 6}Li glass scintillator detector was compared with the evaluated values of ENDF/B-VII.0

  1. Proton synchrotron accelerator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    This is the text of a series of lectures given as part of the CERN Academic Training Programme and primarily intended for young engineers and technicians in preparation for the running-in of the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Following the definition of basic quantities, the problems of betatron motion and the effect of momentum spread and orbital errors on the transverse motion of the beam are reviewed. Consideration is then given to multipole fields, chromaticity and non-linear resonances. After dealing with basic relations governing longitudinal beam dynamics, the space-charge, resistive-wall and other collective effects are treated, with reference to precautions in the SPS to prevent their occurrence. (Auth.)

  2. High performance proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In concert with this theme this paper briefly outlines how Grumman, over the past 4 years, has evolved from a company that designed and fabricated a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) physics and specifications to a company who, as prime contractor, is designing, fabricating, assembling and commissioning the US Army Strategic Defense Commands (USA SDC) Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) accelerator as a turn-key operation. In the case of the RFQ, LANL scientists performed the physics analysis, established the specifications supported Grumman on the mechanical design, conducted the RFQ tuning and tested the RFQ at their laboratory. For the CWDD Program Grumman has the responsibility for the physics and engineering designs, assembly, testing and commissioning albeit with the support of consultants from LANL, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Brookhaven National laboratory. In addition, Culham Laboratory and LANL are team members on CWDD. LANL scientists have reviewed the physics design as well as a USA SDC review board. 9 figs

  3. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex III: Neutron Devices and Computational and Sample Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakasai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

  4. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED PROTONS AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUANG, H.

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) ended its second year of operation in January 2002 with five weeks of polarized proton collisions. Polarized protons were successfully injected in both RHIC rings and maintained polarization during acceleration up to 100 GeV per ring using two Siberian snakes in each ring. This is the first time that polarized protons have been accelerated to 100 GeV. The machine performance and accomplishments during the polarized proton run will be reviewed. The plans for the next polarized proton run will be outlined

  5. First high-power model of the annular-ring coupled structure for use in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype cavity for the annular-ring coupled structure (ACS for use in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC linac has been developed to confirm the feasibility of achieving the required performance. This prototype cavity is a buncher module, which includes ten accelerating cells in total. The ACS cavity is formed by the silver brazing of ACS half-cell pieces stacked in a vacuum furnace. The accelerating cell of the ACS is surrounded by a coupling cell. We, therefore, tuned the frequencies of the accelerating and coupling cells by an ultraprecision lathe before brazing, taking into account the frequency shift due to brazing. The prototype buncher module was successfully conditioned up to 600 kW, which corresponds to an accelerating field that is higher than the designed field of 4.1  MV/m by 30%. We describe the frequency-tuning results for the prototype buncher module and its high-power conditioning.

  6. KEK/JAERI joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within six years. In this article I will describe a) the project itself, b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and c) the present status and future plans of the project. (author)

  7. Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1981-01-01

    The unexpected importance of high energy spin effects and the success of the ZGS in correcting many intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances led us to attempt to accelerate polarized protons in the AGS. A multi-university/laboratory collaborative effort involving Argonne, Brookhaven, Michigan, Rice and Yale is underway to improve and modify to accelerate polarized protons. From the experience at the ZGS and careful studies made us confident of the feasibility of achieving a polarization of over 60 percent up to 26 GeV/c with an intensity of 10 11 approx. 10 12 per pulse. The first polarized proton acceleration at the AGS is expected in 1983

  8. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  10. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  11. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  12. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  13. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  14. Simulation, measurement, and mitigation of beam instability caused by the kicker impedance in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Harada, H.; Hayashi, N.; Kinsho, M.; Tamura, F.; Tani, N.; Yamamoto, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Chin, Yong Ho; Holmes, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    The transverse impedance of eight extraction pulsed kicker magnets is a strong beam instability source in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Significant beam instability occurs even at half of the designed 1 MW beam power when the chromaticity (ξ ) is fully corrected for the entire acceleration cycle by using ac sextupole (SX) fields. However, if ξ is fully corrected only at the injection energy by using dc SX fields, the beam is stable. In order to study realistic beam instability scenarios, including the effect of space charge and to determine practical measures to accomplish 1 MW beam power, we enhance the orbit particle tracking code to incorporate all realistic time-dependent machine parameters, including the time dependence of the impedance itself. The beam stability properties beyond 0.5 MW beam power are found to be very sensitive to a number of parameters in both simulations and measurements. In order to stabilize a beam at 1 MW beam power, two practical measures based on detailed and systematic simulation studies are determined, namely, (i) proper manipulation of the betatron tunes during acceleration and (ii) reduction of the dc SX field to reduce the ξ correction even at injection. The simulation results are well reproduced by measurements, and, as a consequence, an acceleration to 1 MW beam power is successfully demonstrated. In this paper, details of the orbit simulation and the corresponding experimental results up to 1 MW of beam power are presented. To further increase the RCS beam power, beam stability issues and possible measures beyond 1 MW beam power are also considered.

  15. Proton-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The construction of ever larger and costlier accelerator facilities has a limited future, and new technologies will be needed to push the energy frontier. Plasma wakefield acceleration is a rapidly developing field and is a promising candidate technology for future high energy colliders. We focus on the recently proposed idea of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration and describe the current status and plans for this approach.

  16. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  17. Aerosol composition studies using accelerator proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.W.; Winchester, J.W.; Akselsson, R.

    1974-01-01

    The proton beam of the Florida State University Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator is being used to make quantitative determinations of the composition of particulate matter found in the atmosphere. Proton scattering using 16 MeV incident particle energy is employed to resolve the light elements (up to Cl), while elements Al and heavier are observed via proton induced x-ray emission analysis. In order to realize advantages of these proton excited analyses, specialized techniques are used, such as the use of uniform beams which entirely cover the area of targets of nonuniform areal density. Also, specialized air sampling equipment was built to take advantage of the small size of samples required for proton-induced analyses. The multielement character, ease of automation, and short time (several minutes) needed for analysis make these techniques attractive from the standpoint of analysis cost per sample

  18. High-current proton accelerators-meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievskij, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility of usage of accelerators of neutron as well as meson factories is considered. Parameters of linear and cyclic accelerators are given, which are employed as meson factories and as base for developing intense neutron generators. It is emphasized that the principal aim of developing neutron generators on the base of high current proton accelerators is production of intense neutron fluxes with a present energy spectrum. Production of tens-and-hundreds milliampere currents at the energy of 800-1000 MeV is considered at present for two types of accelerating facilities viz. linear accelerators under continuous operating conditions and cyclotrons with strong focusing. Quantitative evaluations of developing high-efficiency linear and cyclic accelerators are considered. The basic parameters of an ccelerating complex are given, viz. linear accelerator-injector and 800 MeV isochronous cyclotron. The main problems associated with their realization are listed [ru

  19. Radiation protection around high energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.

    1996-01-01

    Proton accelerators are intense radiation sources because of the particle beam itself, secondary radiation and structure activation. So radiation protection is required around these equipment during running time but even during downtime. This article presents some estimated values about structure and air activation and applies the Moyer model to get dose rate behind shielding. (A.C.)

  20. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Computer codes for designing proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takao

    1992-01-01

    Computer codes for designing proton linear accelerators are discussed from the viewpoint of not only designing but also construction and operation of the linac. The codes are divided into three categories according to their purposes: 1) design code, 2) generation and simulation code, and 3) electric and magnetic fields calculation code. The role of each category is discussed on the basis of experience at KEK (the design of the 40-MeV proton linac and its construction and operation, and the design of the 1-GeV proton linac). We introduce our recent work relevant to three-dimensional calculation and supercomputer calculation: 1) tuning of MAFIA (three-dimensional electric and magnetic fields calculation code) for supercomputer, 2) examples of three-dimensional calculation of accelerating structures by MAFIA, 3) development of a beam transport code including space charge effects. (author)

  2. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure (≤ ns) and high intensity (≥10 7 p/cm 2 ) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are applicable for

  3. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  4. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  5. Direct observation of the phase space footprint of a painting injection in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex is nearly at the operational stage with regard to the beam commissioning aspects. Recently, the design painting injection study has been commenced with the aim of high output beam power at the extraction. In order to observe the phase space footprint of the painting injection, a method was developed utilizing a beam position monitor (BPM in the so-called single pass mode. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates of the circulating beam directly measured using a pair of BPMs entirely positioned in drift space, and the calculated transfer matrices from the injection point to the pair of BPMs with several successive turns were used together in order to obtain the phase space footprint of the painting injection. There are two such pairs of BPMs placed in two different locations in the RCS, the results from which both agreed and were quite consistent with what was expected.

  6. Direct observation of the phase space footprint of a painting injection in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Hayashi, N.; Takayanagi, T.; Harada, H.; Irie, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex is nearly at the operational stage with regard to the beam commissioning aspects. Recently, the design painting injection study has been commenced with the aim of high output beam power at the extraction. In order to observe the phase space footprint of the painting injection, a method was developed utilizing a beam position monitor (BPM) in the so-called single pass mode. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates of the circulating beam directly measured using a pair of BPMs entirely positioned in drift space, and the calculated transfer matrices from the injection point to the pair of BPMs with several successive turns were used together in order to obtain the phase space footprint of the painting injection. There are two such pairs of BPMs placed in two different locations in the RCS, the results from which both agreed and were quite consistent with what was expected.

  7. Applications of proton and deuteron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Princeton, NJ (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Applications of positive and negative hydrogen and deuterium ion accelerators beyond basic research are increasing. Large scale proposed national laboratory/industrial projects include the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) which will utilize protons, and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) which will accelerate a deuteron beam into a lithium target. At the small scale end, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator based systems have been built for neutron activation analysis and for applications such as explosive detection. At an intermediate scale, the Loma Linda proton therapy accelerator is now successfully treating a full schedule of patients, and more than half a dozen such hospital based units are under active study world-wide. At this same scale, there are also several ongoing negative ion, military accelerator projects which include the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the Neutral Particle Beam Space Experiment (NPBSE). These respective deuterium and hydrogen accelerators, which have not been previously described, are the focus of this paper. (orig.)

  8. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  9. Plans for the Future of Proton Accelerators at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; High Intensity Frontier Workshop (HIF04)

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider, presently in construction at CERN, will be filled through a set of high performance proton accelerators providing the high brightness beam needed to reach the foreseen luminosity. Although this difficult project has top priority and uses most of the CERN resources, it is nevertheless time investigating improvements of the proton accelerator complex for physical cases beyond the LHC expectations. The needs of multiple physics communities have to be taken into account, as well as the necessity of consolidating the installations while keeping high reliability. This paper starts from the analysis and proposals made by the “High Intensity Proton” (HIP) working group [1, 2] to improve the performances of the PS and the SPS complex and better match the users requests in a staged scenario at short and medium term, and complement it, addressing the main possibilities beyond that horizon.

  10. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R.; Schuff, J.A.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Saint-Martin, G.; Oppezzo, O.; Bernaola, O.A.; Molinari, B.L.; Duran, H.A.; Policastro, L.; Palmieri, M.; Ibanez, J.; Stoliar, P.; Mazal, A.; Caraballo, M.E.; Burlon, A.; Cardona, M.A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Salfity, M.F.; Ozafran, M.J.; Naab, F.; Levinton, G.; Davidson, M.; Buhler, M.

    1998-01-01

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm 2 approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  11. Development of the warm snake and acceleration of polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Junpei

    2007-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons is one of interesting issues of the high energy and accelerator physics. As known as the proton spin crisis, the total of the quark spin is not equal to the proton spin. To explore sources of the proton spin, it has been required to accelerate polarized protons to higher energy as hundreds GeV with higher polarization. However it is difficult to accelerate the polarized protons to higher energy with preserving higher polarization by using circular accelerators since the polarized beam crosses several types of depolarizing resonances. To overcome the depolarizing resonances, unique components are employed to the accelerator chain at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). On this description, developing a normal conducting helical dipole partial Siberian snake is explained in detail. As the results of upgrading the accelerators, the polarization has been increased recently. (author)

  12. The linear proton accelerator for the MYRRHA-ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandeplassche, D.; Medeiros Ramao, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the development of a linear proton accelerator for the MYRRHA Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The linear proton accelerator provides a high energy and high intensity proton beam that is directed to a spallation target, which will deliver neutrons to a subcritical nuclear reactor core. The article describes the MYRRHA linear accelerator, which mainly consists of a sequence of superconducting accelerating radiofrequent cavities that are positioned in a linear configuration. The beam requirements for MYRRHA are discussed involving, amongst others, a continuous wave beam delivery mode with a high reliability goal. The key concepts to increase the reliability of the accelerator are described.

  13. Discovery Mondays "Controlling the accelerators: tracking the protons"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Le Centre de contrôle des accélérateurs du CERN.Like a train of particles that picks up speed every time it passes a set of points, by the time they collide the protons and ions in the LHC will have followed their path through the six stages of the CERN accelerator complex, picking up speed at each stage. Operating the controls of this huge complex designed to accelerate the infinitesimally small are its peerless controllers. From the CERN Control Centre, they will be on duty day and night to accelerate the "wagon-loads" of particles, ensuring that they stay on track and lining them up for head-on collisions. At the next Discovery Monday you will discover the path taken by the particles through the accelerator chain. You will gain an insight into the complex work performed by those controlling the particles and learn more about the CERN accelerator complex and its Control Centre. Hop on board for a speed-of-light tour of the C...

  14. Accelerator technical design report for high-intensity proton accelerator facility project, J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This report presents the detail of the technical design of the accelerators for the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project, J-PARC. The accelerator complex comprises a 400-MeV room-temperature linac (600-MeV superconducting linac), 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The 400-MeV beam is injected to the RCS, being accelerated to 3 GEV. The 1-MW beam thus produced is guided to the Materials Life Science Experimental Facility, with both the pulsed spallation neutron source and muon source. A part of the beam is transported to the MR, which provides the 0.75-MW beam to either the Nuclear and Fundamental Particle Experimental Facility or the Neutrino Production Target. On the other hand, the beam accelerated to 600 MeV by the superconducting linac is used for the Nuclear Waster Transmutation Experiment. In this way, this facility is unique, being multipurpose one, including many new inventions and Research and Development Results. This report is based upon the accomplishments made by the Accelerator Group and others of the Project Team, which is organized on the basis of the Agreement between JAERI and KEK on the Construction and Research and Development of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility. (author)

  15. High intensity proton accelerator controls network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Lendzian, F.; Lutz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) control system network is spread through a vast area in PSI and it was grown historically in an unorganized way. The miscellaneous network hardware infrastructure and the lack of the documentation and components overview could no longer guarantee the reliability of the control system and the facility operation. Therefore, a new network, based on modern network topology, PSI standard hardware with monitoring and detailed documentation and overview was needed. The number of active components has been reduced from 25 to 9 Cisco Catalyst 24- or 48-port switches. They are the same type as other PSI switches, thus a replacement emergency stock is not an issue anymore. We would like to present how we successfully achieved this goal and the advantages of the clean and well documented network infrastructure. (authors)

  16. Beam Phase Detection for Proton Therapy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Getta, Markus; Kolesov, Sergej; Pupeter, Nico; Stephani, Thomas; Timmer, J

    2005-01-01

    The industrial application of proton cyclotrons for medical applications has become one of the important contributions of accelerator physics during the last years. This paper describes an advanced vector demodulating technique used for non-destructive measurements of beam intensity and beam phase over 360°. A computer controlled I/Q-based phase detector with a very large dynamic range of 70 dB permits the monitoring of beam intensity, phase and eventually energy for wide range of beam currents down to -130 dBm. In order to avoid interference from the fundamental cyclotron frequency the phase detection is performed at the second harmonic frequency. A digital low pass filter with adjustable bandwidth and steepness is implemented to improve accuracy. With a sensitivity of the capacitive pickup in the beam line of 30 nV per nA of proton beam current at 250 MeV, accurate phase and intensity measurements can be performed with beam currents down to 3.3 nA.

  17. Overview of high intensity proton accelerator facility, J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The J-PARC project of high intensity proton accelerator research complex, conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK, has been completed with demonstration of all beam productions in 2009 as the facility construction phase, and the operation started to offer the secondary beams of neutron, muon, kaon, and neutrino, to the advanced scientific experimental research aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. This text describes the overview of the J-PARC present status with emphasis of a performance toward to 1MW power as user facilities. (author)

  18. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  19. Requirements of a proton beam accelerator for an accelerator-driven reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Zhao, Y.; Tsoupas, N.; An, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    When the authors first proposed an accelerator-driven reactor, the concept was opposed by physicists who had earlier used the accelerator for their physics experiments. This opposition arose because they had nuisance experiences in that the accelerator was not reliable, and very often disrupted their work as the accelerator shut down due to electric tripping. This paper discusses the requirements for the proton beam accelerator. It addresses how to solve the tripping problem and how to shape the proton beam

  20. An $ep$ collider based on proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, M.; Mete, O.; Aimidula, A.; Welsch, C.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Mandry, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent simulations have shown that a high-energy proton bunch can excite strong plasma wakefields and accelerate a bunch of electrons to the energy frontier in a single stage of acceleration. This scheme could lead to a future $ep$ collider using the LHC for the proton beam and a compact electron accelerator of length 170 m, producing electrons of energy up to 100 GeV. The parameters of such a collider are discussed as well as conceptual layouts within the CERN accelerator complex. The physics of plasma wakefield acceleration will also be introduced, with the AWAKE experiment, a proof of principle demonstration of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration, briefly reviewed, as well as the physics possibilities of such an $ep$ collider.

  1. KEK/JAERI Joint Project on high-intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within 6 years. In this article I will describe (a) the project itself, (b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and (c) the present status and future plans of the project

  2. Accelerator complex for unstable beams at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, M.; Arai, S.; Doi, M.; Katayama, T.; Niki, K.; Tokuda, N.; Yoshizawa, M.

    1992-11-01

    The construction of the prototype facility of the Exotic arena in the Japan Hadron Project (JHP) is started in 1992 at the Institute for Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo. The purpose of this facility is to study the various technical problems of the Exotic arena, and to perform the experiment on nuclear and astrophysics with unstable nuclear beam. The unstable nuclei produced by bombarding a thick target with 40 MeV proton beam from the existing SF cyclotron are ionized in the ion sources, mass-analyzed by an ISOL, and transported to the accelerator complex. The accelerator complex consists of a split coaxial RFQ and an interdigital H type linac. The construction of accelerator will be completed in fiscal year 1994. The development of the SCRFQ and the IH linac which is suitable to the post-accelerator of the SCRFQ are reported. Charge stripper and the beam matching between the SCRFQ and the IH linac are explained. A buncher is necessary for the matching of longitudinal phase space between the SCRFQ and the IH linac. (K.I.)

  3. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilean Hwang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015NIMAER0168-900210.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  4. Development of circular protons accelerator for ocular teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, L. A.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The proton therapy has been used for ocular tumors providing tumor control in most cases and vision preservations. The protons show high doses in depth depict lower scattering from beam than other particles, electrons and photons. The cyclotron is a type of accelerator that increases the kinetic energy of the charged particle, recirculating it on a magnetic field and crossing an accelerating electrical field. It can be used to produce radioisotopes to hospitals. The goal of this study is to investigate a unit of circular accelerator to be coupled in existing national cyclotrons to generate a proton beams suitable to ocular therapy. Herein, physical parameters are evaluable, including relativistic corrections. That result shows the viability of developing an accelerator unit to ocular proton therapy. (author)

  5. Polarized proton acceleration at the BNL AGS, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of the polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS is described. Some details regarding the tune-up and performance during the December 1987-January 1988 physics run are given. 2 refs., 4 figs

  6. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  7. Polarized proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    At the conclusion of polarized proton commissioning in February 1986, protons with an average polarization of 45%, momentum of 21.7 GeV/c, and intensity of 2 x 10 10 protons per pulse, were extracted to an external polarimeter at the Brookhaven AGS. In order to maintain this polarization, five intrinsic and nearly forty imperfection depolarizing resonances had to be corrected. An apparent interaction between imperfection and intrinsic resonances occurring at very nearly the same energy was observed and the correction of imperfection resonances using ''beat'' magnetic harmonics discovered in the previous AGS commissioning run was further confirmed

  8. The laser proton acceleration in the strong charge separation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Fukumi, A.; Daido, H.; Li, Z.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M.; Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.; Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T.; Noda, A.; Iwashita, Y.; Shirai, T.; Nakamura, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report the experimental results of proton acceleration as well as the simple one-dimensional model which explains our experimental data. The proton acceleration experiment is carried out with a TW short pulse laser irradiated on a tantalum thin-foil target (3 μm thickness) with an intensity of ∼3x10 18 Wcm -2 . Accelerated protons exhibit a typical energy spectrum with two quasi-Maxwellian components with a high energy cut-off. We can successfully explain the higher energy part as well as the cut off energy of the proton spectrum with the simple-one-dimensional model based on the strong charge separation regime, which is the extension of the model proposed originally by [M. Passoni et al., Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 026411

  9. The radiation environment of proton accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    These lecture notes survey the physical processes that give rise to the stray-radiation environment of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, with emphasis on their importance for radiation protection. The origins of the prompt radiation field (which disappears when the accelerator is switched off) are described in some detail: proton-nucleus interactions, extranuclear cascades, muon generation and transport. The effects of induced radioactivity in the accelerator structure and surroundings, notably in iron, concrete, air, and water, are discussed and methods for monitoring hadrons in the radiation environment outside the accelerator are listed. Seventy-six references to the literature are included. (Author)

  10. Radiation environment of proton accelerators and storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, G R

    1976-03-08

    These lecture notes survey the physical processes that give rise to the stray-radiation environment of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, with emphasis on their importance for radiation protection. The origins of the prompt radiation field (which disappears when the accelerator is switched off) are described in some detail: proton-nucleus interactions, extranuclear cascades, muon generation and transport. The effects of induced radioactivity in the accelerator structure and surroundings, notably in iron, concrete, air, and water, are discussed, and methods for monitoring hadrons in the radiation environment outside the accelerator are listed. Seventy-six references to the literature are included.

  11. Pulsed high field magnets. An efficient way of shaping laser accelerated proton beams for application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Bagnoud, Vincent; Blazevic, Abel; Busold, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, 07734 Jena (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Schumacher, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Deppert, Oliver; Jahn, Diana; Roth, Markus [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karsch, Leonhard; Masood, Umar [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Compact laser-driven proton accelerators are a potential alternative to complex, expensive conventional accelerators, enabling unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, they still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. We present experimental studies on capture, shape and transport of laser and conventionally accelerated protons via pulsed high-field magnets. These magnets, common research tools in the fields of solid state physics, have been adapted to meet the demands of laser acceleration experiments.Our work distinctively shows that pulsed magnet technology makes laser acceleration more suitable for application and can facilitate compact and efficient accelerators, e.g. for material research as well as medical and biological purposes.

  12. Public Dose Assessment Modeling from Skyshine by Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwambinga, S. A. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the skyshine dose by proton accelerator (230 MeV) has been evaluated. The amount of dose by skyshine is related to some influence factors which are emission angle (Height wall), the thickness of ceiling and distance from source to receptor (Human body). Empirical formula is made by using MCNPX code results. It can easily calculate and assess dose from skyshine by proton accelerator. The skyshine doses are calculated with MCNPX code and DCFs in ICRP 116. Thereafter, we made empirical formula which can calculate dose easily and be compared with the results of MCNPX. The maximum exposure point by skyshine is about 5 ∼ 10 m from source. Therefore, the licensee who wants to operate the proton accelerator must keep the appropriate distance from accelerator and set the fence to restrict the approach by the public. And, exposure doses by accelerator depend on operating time and proton beam intensities. Eq. (6) suggested in this study is just considered for mono energy proton accelerator. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the dose calculation to diverse proton energies. Radiations like neutron and photon generated by high energy proton accelerators over 10 MeV, are important exposure sources to be monitored to radiation workers and the public members near the facility. At that case, one of the exposure pathways to the public who are located in near the facility is skyshine. Neutrons and photons can be scattered by the atmosphere near the facility and exposed to public as scattered dose. All of the facilities using high energy radiation and NDI (Non-Destructive Inspection) which is tested at open field, skyshine dose must be taken into consideration. Skyshine dose is not related to the wall thickness of radiation shielding directly.

  13. Project of compact accelerator for cancer proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1995-04-01

    The status of the sub-projetc 'Compact Accelerator' in the framework of the Hadrontherapy Project leaded by Prof. Amaldi is described. Emphasis is given to the reasons of the use of protons for radiotherapy applications, to the results of the preliminary design studies of four types of accelerators as possible radiotherapy dedicated 'Compact Accelerator' and to the scenario of the fonts of financial resources

  14. Influence of micromachined targets on laser accelerated proton beam profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalui, Malay; Permogorov, Alexander; Pahl, Hannes; Persson, Anders; Wahlström, Claes-Göran

    2018-03-01

    High intensity laser-driven proton acceleration from micromachined targets is studied experimentally in the target-normal-sheath-acceleration regime. Conical pits are created on the front surface of flat aluminium foils of initial thickness 12.5 and 3 μm using series of low energy pulses (0.5-2.5 μJ). Proton acceleration from such micromachined targets is compared with flat foils of equivalent thickness at a laser intensity of 7 × 1019 W cm-2. The maximum proton energy obtained from targets machined from 12.5 μm thick foils is found to be slightly lower than that of flat foils of equivalent remaining thickness, and the angular divergence of the proton beam is observed to increase as the depth of the pit approaches the foil thickness. Targets machined from 3 μm thick foils, on the other hand, show evidence of increasing the maximum proton energy when the depths of the structures are small. Furthermore, shallow pits on 3 μm thick foils are found to be efficient in reducing the proton beam divergence by a factor of up to three compared to that obtained from flat foils, while maintaining the maximum proton energy.

  15. The IFVE accelerating-storage complex (Present status)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbekov, V.I.; Dmitrevski, Yu.P.; Kurnaev, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description of an accelerating-storage complex and the results of the development of its preliminary design are given. The first stage of the complex is a proton synchrotron with a standard electromagnet intended for storage and preliminary acceleration of protons to 400 GeV. Acceleration to 3 TeV will be provided by the second stage which is assumed to employ a superconducting magnet with 5 T. The existing 70 GeV synchrotron will be used as an injector. The magnetic structures of the first and second stages are identical. They include 180 FODO-type periods. Every period contains 12 dipoles and 2 quadrupole lenses. The accelerating devices should provide a total voltage amplitude of 12 MV or the superconducting ring. Three extraction modes are envisaged: a singleturn mode, a slow resonance extraction (during 30 s), and a fast resonance extraction of ten 1 ms pulses at 3 s intervals (6x10 13 protons per pulse). At present the preparation for testing 1 m long superconducting dipoles, HF systems, input and output devices is being completed. Measures aimed at suppressing the space charge effect are described. A possibility is investigated of obtaining 6 TeV by realizing proton-antiproton colliding beams in the complex by using the electron cooling method

  16. Distribution uniformity of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Gao; Zhu, Kun; Tao, Li; Xu, Xiao-Han; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wen-Jun; Lu, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Yan-Ying; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xue-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Compared with conventional accelerators, laser plasma accelerators can generate high energy ions at a greatly reduced scale, due to their TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University. It will be used for applied research like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulations, etc. A beamline system with multiple quadrupoles and an analyzing magnet for laser-accelerated ions is proposed here. Since laser-accelerated ion beams have broad energy spectra and large angular divergence, the parameters (beam waist position in the Y direction, beam line layout, drift distance, magnet angles etc.) of the beamline system are carefully designed and optimised to obtain a radially symmetric proton distribution at the irradiation platform. Requirements of energy selection and differences in focusing or defocusing in application systems greatly influence the evolution of proton distributions. With optimal parameters, radially symmetric proton distributions can be achieved and protons with different energy spread within ±5% have similar transverse areas at the experiment target. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575011, 61631001) and National Grand Instrument Project (2012YQ030142)

  17. Novel target design for enhanced laser driven proton acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Dalui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a simple method of preparing structured target for enhanced laser-driven proton acceleration under target-normal-sheath-acceleration scheme. A few layers of genetically modified, clinically grown micron sized E. Coli bacteria cell coated on a thin metal foil has resulted in an increase in the maximum proton energy by about 1.5 times and the total proton yield is enhanced by approximately 25 times compared to an unstructured reference foil at a laser intensity of 1019 W/cm2. Particle-in-cell simulations on the system shows that the structures on the target-foil facilitates anharmonic resonance, contributing to enhanced hot electron production which leads to stronger accelerating field. The effect is observed to grow as the number of structures is increased in the focal area of the laser pulse.

  18. Acceleration of polarized proton in high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    In low to medium energy accelerators, betatron tune jumps and vertical orbit harmonic correction methods have been used to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. At high energy accelerators, snakes are needed to preserve polarization. The author analyzes the effects of snake resonances, snake imperfections, and overlapping resonances on spin depolarization. He discusses also results of recent snake experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring. The snake can overcome various kinds of spin depolarization resonances. These experiments pointed out further that partial snake can be used to cure the imperfection resonances in low to medium energy accelerators

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS OF LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR STRUCTURES USING DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S; Poole, B; Caporaso, G

    2007-01-01

    Proton accelerator structures for medical applications using Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) technology allow for the utilization of high electric field gradients on the order of 100 MV/m to accelerate the proton bunch. Medical applications involving cancer therapy treatment usually desire short bunch lengths on the order of hundreds of picoseconds in order to limit the extent of the energy deposited in the tumor site (in 3D space, time, and deposited proton charge). Electromagnetic simulations of the DWA structure, in combination with injections of proton bunches have been performed using 3D finite difference codes in combination with particle pushing codes. Electromagnetic simulations of DWA structures includes these effects and also include the details of the switch configuration and how that switch time affects the electric field pulse which accelerates the particle beam

  20. Status report on the Karlsruhe prototype superconducting proton linerar accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citron, A.

    1974-01-01

    A short intoduction about linear accelerators in general and the advantage of using superconducting resonators is given. Subsequently some basic efforts on r.f. superconductivity are recalled and the status of technology of surface preparations is reported. The status of the Karlsruhe accelerator is given. In the low energy region some difficulties caused by mechanical instabilities had to be overcome. Protons have been accelerated in this part. Model studies for the subsequent sections of the accelerator have been started and look promising. (author)

  1. Proton linear accelerators: A theoretical and historical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.M.

    1989-07-01

    From the beginning, the development of linear accelerators has followed a number of different directions. This report surveys the basic ideas and general principles of such machines, pointing out the problems that have led to the various improvements, with the hope that it may also aid further progress. After a brief historical survey, the principal aspects of accelerator theory are covered in some detail: phase stability, focusing, radio-frequency accelerating structures, the detailed calculation of particle dynamics, and space-charge effects at high intensities. These developments apply essentially to proton and ion accelerators, and only the last chapter deals with a few aspects relative to electrons. 134 refs

  2. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  3. Synchrotron accelerator technology for proton beam therapy with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was applied at the beginning to head and neck cancers, but it is now extended to prostate, lung and liver cancers. Thus the need for a pencil beam scanning method is increasing. With this method radiation dose concentration property of the proton beam will be further intensified. Hitachi group has supplied a pencil beam scanning therapy system as the first one for M. D. Anderson Hospital in United States, and it has been operational since May 2008. Hitachi group has been developing proton therapy system to correspond high-accuracy proton therapy to concentrate the dose in the diseased part which is located with various depths, and which sometimes has complicated shape. The author described here on the synchrotron accelerator technology that is an important element for constituting the proton therapy system. (K.Y.)

  4. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  5. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  6. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  7. A brief history of high power RF proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The first mention of linear acceleration was in a paper by G. Ising in 1924 in which he postulated the acceleration of positive ions induced by spark discharges which produced electric fields in gaps between a series of open-quotes drift tubesclose quotes. Ising apparently was not able to demonstrate his concept, most likely due to the limited state of electronic devices. Ising's work was followed by a seminal paper by R. Wideroe in 1928 in which he demonstrated the first linear accelerator. Wideroe was able to accelerate sodium or potassium ions to 50 keV of energy using drift tubes connected alternately to high frequency waves and to ground. Nuclear physics during this period was interested in accelerating protons, deuterons, electrons and alpha particles and not heavy ions like sodium or potassium. To accelerate the light ions required much higher frequencies than available at that time. So linear accelerators were not pursued heavily at that time. Research continued during the 1930s but the development of high frequency RF tubes for radar applications in World War 2 opened the potential for RF linear accelerators after the war. The Berkeley laboratory of E. 0. Lawrence under the leadership of Luis Alvarez developed a new linear proton accelerator concept that utilized drift tubes that required a full RF period to pass through as compared to the earlier concepts. This development resulted in the historic Berkeley 32 MeV proton linear accelerator which incorporated the open-quotes Alvarez drift tubeclose quotes as the basic acceleration scheme using surplus 200 MHz radar components

  8. Enhancing proton acceleration by using composite targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Leemans, W. P.

    2015-07-10

    Efficient laser ion acceleration requires high laser intensities, which can only be obtained by tightly focusing laser radiation. In the radiation pressure acceleration regime, where the tightly focused laser driver leads to the appearance of the fundamental limit for the maximum attainable ion energy, this limit corresponds to the laser pulse group velocity as well as to another limit connected with the transverse expansion of the accelerated foil and consequent onset of the foil transparency. These limits can be relaxed by using composite targets, consisting of a thin foil followed by a near critical density slab. Such targets provide guiding of a laser pulse inside a self-generated channel and background electrons, being snowplowed by the pulse, compensate for the transverse expansion. The use of composite targets results in a significant increase in maximum ion energy, compared to a single foil target case.

  9. Polarized proton acceleration program at the AGS and RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Presented is an overview of the program for acceleration of polarized protons in the AGS and their injection into the RHIC collider. The problem of depolarizing resonances in strong focusing circulator accelerators is discussed. The intrinsic resonances are jumped over by the fast tune jump, and a partial Siberian Snake is used to compensate for over forty imperfection resonances in the AGS. Two sets of full Siberian Snake and spin rotators will be employed in RHIC

  10. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  11. Solid hydrogen target for laser driven proton acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, J. P.; Garcia, S.; Chatain, D.; Margarone, D.

    2015-05-01

    The development of very high power lasers opens up new horizons in various fields, such as laser plasma acceleration in Physics and innovative approaches for proton therapy in Medicine. Laser driven proton acceleration is commonly based on the so-called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanisms: a high power laser is focused onto a solid target (thin metallic or plastic foil) and interact with matter at very high intensity, thus generating a plasma; as a consequence "hot" electrons are produced and move into the forward direction through the target. Protons are generated at the target rear side, electrons try to escape from the target and an ultra-strong quasi-electrostatic field (~1TV/m) is generated. Such a field can accelerate protons with a wide energy spectrum (1-200 MeV) in a few tens of micrometers. The proton beam characteristics depend on the laser parameters and on the target geometry and nature. This technique has been validated experimentally in several high power laser facilities by accelerating protons coming from hydrogenated contaminant (mainly water) at the rear of metallic target, however, several research groups are investigating the possibility to perform experiments by using "pure" hydrogen targets. In this context, the low temperature laboratory at CEA-Grenoble has developed a cryostat able to continuously produce a thin hydrogen ribbon (from 40 to 100 microns thick). A new extrusion concept, without any moving part has been carried out, using only the thermodynamic properties of the fluid. First results and perspectives are presented in this paper.

  12. ISABELLE: a proposal for construction of a proton--proton storage accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The construction of an Intersecting Storage Accelerator Facility (ISA or ISABELLE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposed. ISABELLE will permit the exploration of proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies continuously variable from 60 to 400 GeV and with luminosities of 10 32 to 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 over the entire range. An overview of the physics potential of this machine is given, covering the production of charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons, the hadron production at high transverse momentum, searches for new, massive particles, and the energy dependence of the strong interactions. The facility consists of two interlaced rings of superconducting magnets in a common tunnel about 3 km in circumference. The proton beams will collide at eight intersection regions where particle detectors will be arranged for studying the collision processes. Protons of approximately 30 GeV from the AGS will be accumulated to obtain the design current of 10A prior to acceleration to final energy. The design and performance of existing full-size superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles is described. The conceptual design of the accelerator systems and the conventional structures and buildings is presented. A preliminary cost estimate and construction schedule are given. Possible future options such as proton-antiproton, proton-deuteron and electron-proton collisions are discussed

  13. Laser-accelerated proton beams as a new particle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuernberg, Frank

    2010-11-15

    The framework of this thesis is the investigation of the generation of proton beams using high-intensity laser pulses. In this work, an experimental method to fully reconstruct laser-accelerated proton beam parameters, called radiochromic film imaging spectroscopy (RIS), was developed. Since the proton beam expansion is a plasma expansion with accompanying electrons, a low-energy electron spectrometer was developed, built and tested to study the electron distribution matching to the proton beam energy distribution. Two experiments were carried out at the VULCAN Petawatt laser with the aim of showing dynamic control and enhancement of proton acceleration using multiple or defocused laser pulses. Irradiating the target with a long pulse, low-intensity laser (10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}) prior to the main pulse ({proportional_to}ns), an optimum pre-plasma density scale length of 60 {mu}m is generated leading to an enhancement of the maximum proton energy ({proportional_to}25%), the proton flux (factor of 3) and the beam uniformity. Proton beams were generated more efficiently than previously by driving thinner target foils at a lower intensity over a large area. The optimum condition was a 2 {mu}m foil irradiated with an intensity of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} onto a 60 {mu}m spot. Laser to proton beam efficiencies of 7.8% have been achieved (2.2% before) - one of the highest conversion efficiencies ever achieved. In the frame of this work, two separate experiments at the TRIDENT laser system have shown that these laser-accelerated proton beams, with their high number of particles in a short pulse duration, are well-suited for creating isochorically heated matter in extreme conditions. Besides the manipulation of the proton beam parameters directly during the generation, the primary aim of this thesis was the capture, control and transport of laser-accelerated proton beams by a solenoidal magnetic field lense for further purpose. In a joint project proposal, the laser and

  14. Laser-accelerated proton beams as a new particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The framework of this thesis is the investigation of the generation of proton beams using high-intensity laser pulses. In this work, an experimental method to fully reconstruct laser-accelerated proton beam parameters, called radiochromic film imaging spectroscopy (RIS), was developed. Since the proton beam expansion is a plasma expansion with accompanying electrons, a low-energy electron spectrometer was developed, built and tested to study the electron distribution matching to the proton beam energy distribution. Two experiments were carried out at the VULCAN Petawatt laser with the aim of showing dynamic control and enhancement of proton acceleration using multiple or defocused laser pulses. Irradiating the target with a long pulse, low-intensity laser (10 12 W/cm 2 ) prior to the main pulse (∝ns), an optimum pre-plasma density scale length of 60 μm is generated leading to an enhancement of the maximum proton energy (∝25%), the proton flux (factor of 3) and the beam uniformity. Proton beams were generated more efficiently than previously by driving thinner target foils at a lower intensity over a large area. The optimum condition was a 2 μm foil irradiated with an intensity of 10 19 W/cm 2 onto a 60 μm spot. Laser to proton beam efficiencies of 7.8% have been achieved (2.2% before) - one of the highest conversion efficiencies ever achieved. In the frame of this work, two separate experiments at the TRIDENT laser system have shown that these laser-accelerated proton beams, with their high number of particles in a short pulse duration, are well-suited for creating isochorically heated matter in extreme conditions. Besides the manipulation of the proton beam parameters directly during the generation, the primary aim of this thesis was the capture, control and transport of laser-accelerated proton beams by a solenoidal magnetic field lense for further purpose. In a joint project proposal, the laser and plasma physics group of the Technische Universitat

  15. Role of neutrino mixing in accelerated proton decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, M.; Lambiase, G.; Luciano, G. G.; Petruzziello, L.

    2018-05-01

    The decay of accelerated protons has been analyzed both in the laboratory frame (where the proton is accelerated) and in the comoving frame (where the proton is at rest and interacts with the Fulling-Davies-Unruh thermal bath of electrons and neutrinos). The equality between the two rates has been exhibited as an evidence of the necessity of Fulling-Davies-Unruh effect for the consistency of quantum field theory formalism. Recently, it has been argued that neutrino mixing can spoil such a result, potentially opening new scenarios in neutrino physics. In the present paper, we analyze in detail this problem, and we find that, assuming flavor neutrinos to be fundamental and working within a certain approximation, the agreement can be restored.

  16. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  17. The first acceleration test of polarized protons in KEK PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi

    1984-03-01

    The outline of the polarized proton acceleration project at KEK and the results of the first acceleration test are described. Depolarization in the 500 MeV booster synchrotron was investigated as the first step of this program. The beam polarization was measured in the 20 MeV beam transport line from the linac to the booster and in the main ring at the injection energy. About 40 % of the linac beam polarization was kept in the main ring. This acceleration test encouraged us to proceed with this program. (author)

  18. JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) are promoting the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This paper describes the joint project prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  19. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized

  20. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  1. Radiation shielding technology development for proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ouk; Lee, Y. O.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. H.; Sin, M. W.; Park, B. I. [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2005-09-01

    This report was presented as an output of 2-year project of the first phase Proton Engineering Frontier Project(PEFP) on 'Radiation Shielding Technology Development for Proton Linear Accelerator' for 20/100 MeV accelerator beam line and facility. It describes a general design concept, provision and update of basic design data, and establishment of computer code system. It also includes results of conceptual and preliminary designs of beam line, beam dump and beam facilities as well as an analysis of air-activation inside the accelerator equipment. This report will guides the detailed shielding design and production of radiation safety analysis report scheduled in the second phase project.

  2. Emittance measurements from the LLUMC proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Gillespie, G.H.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-01-01

    A new method of calculating beam emittances at the extraction point of a particle accelerator is presented. The technique uses the optimization programs NPSOL and MINOS developed at Stanford University in order to determine the initial values of beam size, divergence and correlation parameters (i.e. beam sigma matrix, σ ij ) that best fit measured beam parameters. These σ ij elements are then used to compute the Twiss parameters α, β, and the phase space area, ε, of the beam at the extraction point. Beam size measurements in X and Y throughout the transport line were input to the optimizer along with the magnetic elements of bends, quads, and drifts. The σ ij parameters were optimized at the accelerator's extraction point by finding the best agreement between these measured beam sizes and those predicted by TRANSPORT. This expands upon a previous study in which a 'trial and error' technique was used instead of the optimizer software, and which yielded similar results. The Particle Beam Optics Laboratory (PBO Lab TM ) program used for this paper integrates particle beam optics and other codes into a single intuitive graphically-based computing environment. This new software provides a seamless interface between the NPSOL and MINOS optimizer and TRANSPORT calculations. The results of these emittance searches are presented here for the eight clinical energies between 70 and 250 MeV currently being used at LLUMC

  3. Dose delivery study for a novel compact proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Kim Melanie

    2014-01-15

    Proton therapy has played an important role in the treatment of cancer with radiation therapy for more than 60 years. Active spot scanning to deliver highly conformal dose to the tumor has been developed. However, the availability of proton therapy to the patients is still limited, partly, due to the high costs and sizes of large proton therapy centers. Therefore, a novel compact proton single room facility based on a linear accelerator mounted on a gantry has been proposed, named TULIP (TUrning LInac for Proton therapy). This accelerator allows for active energy variation on a milliseconds time scale. This work aims to assess the possibilities of dose delivery with TULIP to exploit its beneficial features with respect to dose delivery. We developed a software tool, simulating the dose delivery to the tumor. By means of this software tool, we assessed different delivery methods and found 3D spot scanning to be superior to rotational dose delivery with regard to dose and irradiation time. In a second part, we expanded the investigations to dose delivery to moving targets. Due to fast energy variation, we found TULIP to be preferably suitable for rescanning, confirmed by irradiation times of only a few minutes.

  4. Dose delivery study for a novel compact proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Kim Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Proton therapy has played an important role in the treatment of cancer with radiation therapy for more than 60 years. Active spot scanning to deliver highly conformal dose to the tumor has been developed. However, the availability of proton therapy to the patients is still limited, partly, due to the high costs and sizes of large proton therapy centers. Therefore, a novel compact proton single room facility based on a linear accelerator mounted on a gantry has been proposed, named TULIP (TUrning LInac for Proton therapy). This accelerator allows for active energy variation on a milliseconds time scale. This work aims to assess the possibilities of dose delivery with TULIP to exploit its beneficial features with respect to dose delivery. We developed a software tool, simulating the dose delivery to the tumor. By means of this software tool, we assessed different delivery methods and found 3D spot scanning to be superior to rotational dose delivery with regard to dose and irradiation time. In a second part, we expanded the investigations to dose delivery to moving targets. Due to fast energy variation, we found TULIP to be preferably suitable for rescanning, confirmed by irradiation times of only a few minutes.

  5. Target shape effects on monoenergetic GeV proton acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Min; Yu Tongpu; Pukhov, Alexander [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Sheng Zhengming, E-mail: pukhov@tp1.uni-duesseldorf.d [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-04-15

    When a circularly polarized laser pulse interacts with a foil target, there are three stages: pre-hole-boring, hole-boring and light sail acceleration. We study the electron and ion dynamics in the first stage and find the minimum foil thickness requirement for a given laser intensity. Based on this analysis, we propose using a shaped foil for ion acceleration, whose thickness varies transversely to match the laser intensity. Then, the target evolves into three regions: the acceleration, transparency and deformation regions. In the acceleration region, the target can be uniformly accelerated producing a mono-energetic and spatially collimated ion beam. Detailed numerical simulations are performed to check the feasibility and robustness of this scheme, such as the influence of shape factors and surface roughness. A GeV mono-energetic proton beam is observed in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations when a laser pulse with a focus intensity of 10{sup 22} W cm{sup -2} is used. The energy conversion efficiency of the laser pulse to the accelerated proton beam with the simulation parameters is more than 23%.

  6. Target shape effects on monoenergetic GeV proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Yu Tongpu; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    When a circularly polarized laser pulse interacts with a foil target, there are three stages: pre-hole-boring, hole-boring and light sail acceleration. We study the electron and ion dynamics in the first stage and find the minimum foil thickness requirement for a given laser intensity. Based on this analysis, we propose using a shaped foil for ion acceleration, whose thickness varies transversely to match the laser intensity. Then, the target evolves into three regions: the acceleration, transparency and deformation regions. In the acceleration region, the target can be uniformly accelerated producing a mono-energetic and spatially collimated ion beam. Detailed numerical simulations are performed to check the feasibility and robustness of this scheme, such as the influence of shape factors and surface roughness. A GeV mono-energetic proton beam is observed in three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations when a laser pulse with a focus intensity of 10 22 W cm -2 is used. The energy conversion efficiency of the laser pulse to the accelerated proton beam with the simulation parameters is more than 23%.

  7. Feasibility study on the development of proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ki Hyung; Bang, Hyung Chan; Cho, Yong Sup [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Rak [Church Environment Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam Kung, Won; Cho, Moo Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Suk [Cartolrik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Hyung Joo [Nature Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Basic Study Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hun Joo [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong; Cho, Nam Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Kun [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    A feasibility on the development of a high energy proton accelerator to be used for R and D in the nuclear field of korea was studied. The proposed one is a proton linac with parameters of about 1 GeV, 20 mA which can supply enough neutrons by the spallation reaction to drive a subcritical reactor. It= is expected to solve the intrinsic problem in the nuclear field such as safety, nuclear waste, proliferation and resource. The study was carried out through a multi-institutional cooperation of universities, institute and industry for a national consensus. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  8. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  9. RF acceleration of intense laser generated proton bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Ali

    2012-07-13

    With respect to laser-accelerated beams, the high current capability of the CH-DTL cavity has been investigated. Beam simulations have demonstrated that 10{sup 10} protons per bunch can be accelerated successfully and loss free along the structure. It was shown that, the maximum number of protons per bunch that can be accelerated in the first cavity by exploiting about 1% of the stored field energy is 2.02 x 10{sup 11} protons. One further aspect is the total number of protons arriving at the linac entrance. One main aspect of an rf postacceleration experiment is the rf operation stability under these beam load conditions. Detailed simulations from the target along the solenoid and down to the linac entrance were presented, applying adapted software. Special care was taken on the time steps, especially close to the target, and on the collective phenomena between electron and proton distributions. The effect of comoving electrons on the beam dynamics has been investigated in detail. A CH-linac with high space charge limit and large transverse and longitudinal acceptance was designed to accept a maximum fraction of the laser generated proton bursts. Due to well-known transformations of the injected beam emittances along the CH-cavity, it is aimed to derive parameters of the laser generated beam by measuring the beam properties behind of the CH-cavity. With respect to the linac development it is intended to realize the first cavity of the proposed CH-DTL and to demonstrate the acceleration of a laser generated proton bunch with the LIGHT project. The first cavity consists of 7 gaps within a total length of about 668 mm. It is operated at 325 MHz and has an effective accelerating field gradient of about 12.6 MV/m. The study on the surface electric field for this cavity shows, that maximum surface fields of about 94 MV/m and 88 MV/m on the third and sixth drift tubes are reachable, respectively.

  10. A Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    The AWAKE Collaboration has been formed in order to demonstrate protondriven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time. This technology could lead to future colliders of high energy but of a much reduced length compared to proposed linear accelerators. The SPS proton beam in the CNGS facility will be injected into a 10m plasma cell where the long proton bunches will be modulated into significantly shorter micro-bunches. These micro-bunches will then initiate a strong wakefield in the plasma with peak fields above 1 GV/m that will be harnessed to accelerate a bunch of electrons from about 20MeV to the GeV scale within a few meters. The experimental program is based on detailed numerical simulations of beam and plasma interactions. The main accelerator components, the experimental area and infrastructure required as well as the plasma cell and the diagnostic equipment are discussed in detail. First protons to the experiment are expected at the end of 2016 and this will be followed by an initial 3–4 yea...

  11. Measurement and interpretation of laser accelerated protons at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, Husam

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is structured into 7 chapters: - Chapter 2 gives an overview of the ultrashort high intensity laser interaction with matter. The laser interaction with an induced plasma is described, starting from the kinematics of single electron motion, followed by collective electron effects and the ponderamotive motion in the laser focus and the plasma transparency for the laser beam. The three different mechanisms prepared to accelerate and propagate electrons through matter are discussed. The following indirect acceleration of protons is explained by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Finally some possible applications of laser accelerated protons are explained briefly. - Chapter 3 deals with the modeling of geometry and field mapping of magnetic lens. Initial proton and electron distributions, fitted to PHELIX measured data are generated, a brief description of employed codes and used techniques in simulation is given, and the aberrations at the solenoid focal spot is studied. - Chapter 4 presents a simulation study for suggested corrections to optimize the proton beam as a later beam source. Two tools have been employed in these suggested corrections, an aperture placed at the solenoid focal spot as energy selection tool, and a scattering foil placed in the proton beam to smooth the radial energy beam profile correlation at the focal spot due to chromatic aberrations. Another suggested correction has been investigated, to optimize the beam radius at the focal spot by lens geometry controlling. - Chapter 5 presents a simulation study for the de-neutralization problem in TNSA caused by the fringing fields of pulsed magnetic solenoid and quadrupole. In this simulation, we followed an electrostatic model, where the evolution of both, self and mutual fields through the pulsed magnetic solenoid could be found, which is not the case in the quadrupole and only the growth of self fields could be found. The field mapping of magnetic elements is

  12. Measurement and interpretation of laser accelerated protons at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, Husam

    2014-04-28

    This thesis is structured into 7 chapters: - Chapter 2 gives an overview of the ultrashort high intensity laser interaction with matter. The laser interaction with an induced plasma is described, starting from the kinematics of single electron motion, followed by collective electron effects and the ponderamotive motion in the laser focus and the plasma transparency for the laser beam. The three different mechanisms prepared to accelerate and propagate electrons through matter are discussed. The following indirect acceleration of protons is explained by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Finally some possible applications of laser accelerated protons are explained briefly. - Chapter 3 deals with the modeling of geometry and field mapping of magnetic lens. Initial proton and electron distributions, fitted to PHELIX measured data are generated, a brief description of employed codes and used techniques in simulation is given, and the aberrations at the solenoid focal spot is studied. - Chapter 4 presents a simulation study for suggested corrections to optimize the proton beam as a later beam source. Two tools have been employed in these suggested corrections, an aperture placed at the solenoid focal spot as energy selection tool, and a scattering foil placed in the proton beam to smooth the radial energy beam profile correlation at the focal spot due to chromatic aberrations. Another suggested correction has been investigated, to optimize the beam radius at the focal spot by lens geometry controlling. - Chapter 5 presents a simulation study for the de-neutralization problem in TNSA caused by the fringing fields of pulsed magnetic solenoid and quadrupole. In this simulation, we followed an electrostatic model, where the evolution of both, self and mutual fields through the pulsed magnetic solenoid could be found, which is not the case in the quadrupole and only the growth of self fields could be found. The field mapping of magnetic elements is

  13. Superpower proton linear accelerators for neutron generators and electronuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, N.V.; Kozodaev, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The report is a review of projects on the superpower proton linear accelerators (SPLA) for neutron generators (NG) and electronuclear facilities, proposed in the recent years. The beam average output capacity in these projects reaches 100 MW. The basic parameters of certain operating NGs, as well as some projected NGs will the SPLA drivers are presented. The problems on application of superconducting resonators in the SPLA as well as the issues of the SPLA reliability and costs are discussed [ru

  14. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  15. The Accelerator Complex of CESLAB

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Zuzana; Růžička, Bohdan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1a (2008), s13-17 ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura 2008 - colloquium of the Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association. Valtice, 16.06.2008-20.06.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : accelerator * synchrotron radiation * linac * booster * storage ring * insertion device Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  16. Shock-wave proton acceleration from a hydrogen gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nathan; Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Babzien, Marcus; Tresca, Olivier; Maharjan, Chakra; Shkolnikov, Peter; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2013-04-01

    Typical laser acceleration experiments probe the interaction of intense linearly-polarized solid state laser pulses with dense metal targets. This interaction generates strong electric fields via Transverse Normal Sheath Acceleration and can accelerate protons to high peak energies but with a large thermal spectrum. Recently, the advancement of high pressure amplified CO2 laser technology has allowed for the creation of intense (10^16 Wcm^2) pulses at λ˜10 μm. These pulses may interact with reproducible, high rep. rate gas jet targets and still produce plasmas of critical density (nc˜10^19 cm-3), leading to the transference of laser energy via radiation pressure. This acceleration mode has the advantage of producing narrow energy spectra while scaling well with pulse intensity. We observe the interaction of an intense CO2 laser pulse with an overdense hydrogen gas jet. Using two pulse optical probing in conjunction with interferometry, we are able to obtain density profiles of the plasma. Proton energy spectra are obtained using a magnetic spectrometer and scintillating screen.

  17. Radiation protection of the operation of accelerator facilities. On high energy proton and electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the radiation protection raised by accelerated particles with energy higher than several hundreds MeV in strong accelerator facilities were discussed in comparison with those with lower energy in middle- and small-scale facilities. The characteristics in the protection in such strong accelerator facilities are derived from the qualitative changes in the interaction between the high energy particles and materials and from quantitative one due to the beam strength. In the former which is dependent on the emitting mechanism of the radiation, neutron with broad energy spectrum and muon are important in the protection, and in the latter, levels of radiation and radioactivity which are proportional to the beam strength are important. The author described details of the interaction between high energy particles and materials: leading to the conclusion that in the electron accelerator facilities, shielding against high energy-blemsstrahlung radiation and -neutron is important and in the proton acceleration, shielding against neutron is important. The characteristics of the radiation field in the strong accelerator facilities: among neutron, ionized particles and electromagnetic wave, neutron is most important in shielding since it has small cross sections relative to other two. Considerations for neutron are necessary in the management of exposure. Multiplicity of radionuclides produced: which is a result of nuclear spallation reaction due to high energy particles, especially to proton. Radioactivation of the accelerator equipment is a serious problem. Other problems: the interlock systems, radiation protection for experimenters and maintenance of the equipment by remote systems. (K.H.). 11 refs

  18. Prospects of target nanostructuring for laser proton acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübcke, Andrea; Andreev, Alexander A.; Höhm, Sandra; Grunwald, Ruediger; Ehrentraut, Lutz; Schnürer, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    In laser-based proton acceleration, nanostructured targets hold the promise to allow for significantly boosted proton energies due to strong increase of laser absorption. We used laser-induced periodic surface structures generated in-situ as a very fast and economic way to produce nanostructured targets capable of high-repetition rate applications. Both in experiment and theory, we investigate the impact of nanostructuring on the proton spectrum for different laser-plasma conditions. Our experimental data show that the nanostructures lead to a significant enhancement of absorption over the entire range of laser plasma conditions investigated. At conditions that do not allow for efficient laser absorption by plane targets, i.e. too steep plasma gradients, nanostructuring is found to significantly enhance the proton cutoff energy and conversion efficiency. In contrast, if the plasma gradient is optimized for laser absorption of the plane target, the nanostructure-induced absorption increase is not reflected in higher cutoff energies. Both, simulation and experiment point towards the energy transfer from the laser to the hot electrons as bottleneck.

  19. Evaluation of the Induced Activity in Air by the External Proton Beam in the Target Room of the Proton Accelerator Facility of Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik; Ahn, So Hyun

    2007-01-01

    One of the radiological concerns is the worker's exposure level and the concentration of the radionuclides in the air after shutdown, for the safety analysis on the proton accelerator facility. Although, the primary radiation source is the protons accelerated up to design value, all of the radio-nuclide is produced from the secondary neutron and photon induced reaction in air. Because, the protons don't penetrate the acceleration equipment like the DTL tank wall or BTL wall, secondary neutrons or photons are only in the air in the accelerator tunnel building because of the short range of the proton in the materials. But, for the case of the target rooms, external proton beams are occasionally used in the various experiments. When these external proton beams travel through air from the end of the beam transport line to the target, they interact directly with air and produce activation products from the proton induced reaction. The external proton beam will be used in the target rooms in the accelerator facility of the Proton Accelerator Frontier Project (PEFP). In this study, interaction characteristics of the external proton beam with air and induced activity in air from the direct interaction of the proton beam were evaluated

  20. Feasibility of using laser ion accelerators in proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of using the laser plasma as a source of the high-energy ions for the proton radiation therapy is discussed. The proposal is based on the recent inventions of the effective ions acceleration in the experiments and through numerical modeling of the powerful laser radiation interaction with the gaseous and solid state targets. The principal peculiarity of the dependence of the protons energy losses in the tissues (the Bragg peak of losses) facilities the solution of one of the most important problems of the radiation therapy, which consists in realizing the tumor irradiation by sufficiently high and homogeneous dose with simultaneous minimization of the irradiation level, relative to the healthy and neighbouring tissues and organs

  1. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  2. Study of superconducting cavities for high power proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarrotte, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The research program on hybrid reactors has started in France in order to study the technologies allowing the transmutation of radioactive wastes thanks to a spallation neutron source supplied by a linear high intensity proton accelerator. The study of the high energy part of this accelerator (superconducting accelerator for hybrid) has started, and its aim is the design of superconducting radiofrequency cavities which make the two different sections of the accelerator (0.47 and 0.65). This thesis presents the advance of the work carried out on this topic since 1997, in particular the design and optimization of the 5-cell cavities which work at the 704.4 MHz frequency. The experimental part of the study has been carried out in parallel with the industrial fabrication (Cerca) of several prototypes of mono-cell cavities. These cavities have shown very good RF performances during the tests in vertical cryostat; the A 102 A cavity, in particular develops a Q0 of 7.10 10 (indicating very low RF losses) and reaches an accelerator field of 25 MV/m, i.e. more than two times the specified value (about 10 MV/V). Finally, a new risk analysis method for the excitation of the upper modes is proposed. This method shows in particular the uselessness of the implementation of HOM couplers on the cavities for a continuous beam use. (J.S.)

  3. An intense neutron generator based on a proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, G A; Milton, J C.D.; Vogt, E W

    1964-07-01

    A study has been made of the demand for a neutron facility with a thermal flux of {>=} 10{sup 16} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} and of possible methods of producing such fluxes with existing or presently developing technology. Experimental projects proposed by neutron users requiring high fluxes call for neutrons of all energies from thermal to 100 MeV with both continuous-wave and pulsed output. Consideration of the heat generated in the source per useful neutron liberated shows that the (p,xn) reaction with 400 1000 MeV bombarding energies and heavy element targets (e.g. bismuth, lead) is capable of greater specific source strength than other possible methods realizable within the time scale. A preliminary parameter optimization carried through for the accelerator currently promising greatest economy (the separated orbit cyclotron or S.O.C.), reveals that a facility delivering a proton beam of about 65 mA at about 1 BeV would satisfy the flux requirement with a neutron cost significantly more favourable than that projected for a high flux reactor. It is suggested that a proton storage ring providing post-acceleration pulsing of the proton beam should be developed for the facility. With this elaboration, and by taking advantage of the intrinsic microscopic pulse structure provided by the radio frequency duty cycle, a very versatile source may be devised capable of producing multiple beams of continuous and pulsed neutrons with a wide range of energies and pulse widths. The source promises to be of great value for high flux irradiations and as a pilot facility for advanced reactor technology. The proposed proton accelerator also constitutes a meson source capable of producing beams of {pi} and {mu} mesons and of neutrinos orders of magnitude more intense than those of any accelerator presently in use. These beams, which can be produced simultaneously with the neutron beams, open vast areas of new research in fundamental nuclear structure, elementary particle physics

  4. An intense neutron generator based on a proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Milton, J.C.D.; Vogt, E.W.

    1964-01-01

    A study has been made of the demand for a neutron facility with a thermal flux of ≥ 10 16 n cm -2 sec -1 and of possible methods of producing such fluxes with existing or presently developing technology. Experimental projects proposed by neutron users requiring high fluxes call for neutrons of all energies from thermal to 100 MeV with both continuous-wave and pulsed output. Consideration of the heat generated in the source per useful neutron liberated shows that the (p,xn) reaction with 400 1000 MeV bombarding energies and heavy element targets (e.g. bismuth, lead) is capable of greater specific source strength than other possible methods realizable within the time scale. A preliminary parameter optimization carried through for the accelerator currently promising greatest economy (the separated orbit cyclotron or S.O.C.), reveals that a facility delivering a proton beam of about 65 mA at about 1 BeV would satisfy the flux requirement with a neutron cost significantly more favourable than that projected for a high flux reactor. It is suggested that a proton storage ring providing post-acceleration pulsing of the proton beam should be developed for the facility. With this elaboration, and by taking advantage of the intrinsic microscopic pulse structure provided by the radio frequency duty cycle, a very versatile source may be devised capable of producing multiple beams of continuous and pulsed neutrons with a wide range of energies and pulse widths. The source promises to be of great value for high flux irradiations and as a pilot facility for advanced reactor technology. The proposed proton accelerator also constitutes a meson source capable of producing beams of π and μ mesons and of neutrinos orders of magnitude more intense than those of any accelerator presently in use. These beams, which can be produced simultaneously with the neutron beams, open vast areas of new research in fundamental nuclear structure, elementary particle physics, and perhaps also in

  5. Technical assessment of the Loma Linda University proton therapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    In April 1986, officials of Loma Linda University requested that Fermilab design and construct a 250 MeV proton synchrotron for radiotherapy, to be located at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. In June 1986 the project, having received all necessary approvals, commenced. In order to meet a desirable schedule providing for operation in early 1990, it was decided to erect such parts of the accelerator as were complete at Fermilab and conduct a precommissioning activity prior to the completion of the building at Loma Linda which will house the final radiotherapy facility. It was hoped that approximately one year would be saved by the precommissioning, and that important information would be obtained about the system so that improvements could be made during installation at Loma Linda. This report contains an analysis by Fermilab staff members of the information gained in the precommissioning activity and makes recommendations about steps to be taken to enhance the performance of the proton synchrotron at Loma Linda. In the design of the accelerator, effort was made to employ commercially available components, or to industrialize the products developed so that later versions of the accelerator could be produced industrially. The magnets could only be fabricated at Fermilab if the schedule was to be met, but efforts were made to transfer that technology to industry. Originally, it was planned to use a 1.7 MeV RFQ fabricated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory as injector, but LBL would have found it difficult to meet the project schedule. After consideration of other options, for example a 3.4 MeV tandem accelerator, a supplier (AccSys Inc.) qualified itself to provide a 2 MeV RFQ on a schedule well matched to the project schedule. This choice was made, but a separate supplier was selected to develop and provide the 425 MHz power amplifier for the RFQ

  6. RF source for proton linear accelerator in Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashita, Yoshihisa

    1987-01-01

    Construction of a 433 MHz, 7 MeV proton linear accelerator is currently underway in Kyoto University under a three-year plan starting in 1986. The ion source, power source for it, RFQ main unit, WR2100 waveguide and a set of klystrons for RFQ were installed last year, or the first year of the plan, and the power source for the klystrons for RFQ, a set of klystrons for STL, DTL main unit, etc., are planned to be installed this year. Operation has not started yet because of the absence of the power source for the klystrons. Thus this report is focused on the considerations made in selecting the acceleration frequency of 433 MHz, specifications of the klystrons and the structure of the power sources for them. Based on considerations of the efficiency and cost of the accelerating tubes and RF sources to be used, the acceleration frequencies of 433.33 MHz and 1,300 MHz were adopted. The klystron selected is Litton L5773, which has a peak power output of 1.25 Mw, average power output of 75 kW, maximum pulse width of 2,000 μS and duty of 6 percent, and it consists of four cavities. The structure and characteristics of a klystron are also described. (Nogami, K.)

  7. A provisional study of ADS within Turkic Accelerator Complex project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, P.S.; Caliskan, A.; Sultansoy, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Turkic Accelerator Complex (TAC) project has been developed with the support of the Turkish State Planning Organization by the collaboration of 10 Turkish universities. The complex is planned to have four main facilities, namely: SASE FEL Facility based on 1 GeV Electron Linac, Third Generation Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SR) based on 3.56 GeV Positron Synchrotron, Super-Charm factory (√s = 3.77 GeV) by colliding the electron beam coming from the linac with an energy of 1 GeV and positron beam coming through the positron ring with an energy of 3.56 GeV, GeV scale proton accelerator. Later has two-fold goal: Neutron Spallation Source (NSS) and ADS. The proton accelerator construction will have 3 MeV, 100 MeV, and 1 GeV phases. The technical design report is planned to be finished in 2013. Since Turkey has essential Thorium reserves the ADS becomes very attractive for our country as emerging energy technology. (author)

  8. Report of the Fixed-Target Proton-Accelerator Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Bunce, G.; Fisk, G.

    1982-01-01

    The fixed target proton accelerator group divided itself into two roughly equal parts. One sub-group concentrated on a high intensity (10 14 protons/sec) moderate energy (30 GeV) machine while the other worked on a moderate intensity (5 x 10 11 protons/sec) very high energy (20 TeV) machine. For experiments where the total available energy is adequate, the fixed target option added to a anti p p 20 TeV collider ring has several attractive features: (1) high luminosity afforded by intense beams striking thick solid targets; (2) secondary beams of hadrons, photons, and leptons; and (3) the versatility of a fixed target facility, where many experiments can be performed independently. The proposed experiments considered by the subgroup, including neutrino, photon, hadron, and very short lived particle beams were based both on scaled up versions of similar experiments proposed for Tevatron II at Fermilab and on the 400 GeV fixed target programs at Fermilab and CERN

  9. Laser-accelerated proton conversion efficiency thickness scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, D. S.; Foord, M. E.; Key, M. H.; LePape, S. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Fedosejevs, R.; Friesen, H.; Tiedje, H. F.; Tsui, Y. Y.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion efficiency from laser energy into proton kinetic energy is measured with the 0.6 ps, 9x10 19 W/cm 2 Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility as a function of target thickness in Au foils. For targets thicker than 20 μm, the conversion efficiency scales approximately as 1/L, where L is the target thickness. This is explained by the domination of hot electron collisional losses over adiabatic cooling. In thinner targets, the two effects become comparable, causing the conversion efficiency to scale weaker than 1/L; the measured conversion efficiency is constant within the scatter in the data for targets between 5 and 15 μm, with a peak conversion efficiency of 4% into protons with energy greater than 3 MeV. Depletion of the hydrocarbon contaminant layer is eliminated as an explanation for this plateau by using targets coated with 200 nm of ErH 3 on the rear surface. The proton acceleration is modeled with the hybrid-particle in cell code LSP, which reproduced the conversion efficiency scaling observed in the data.

  10. Construction Management for Conventional Facilities of Proton Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Cho, Jang Hyung; Cho, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works such as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, supervision and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization, Gyeongju city, for adjusting technically interrelated work during construction. In this research, We completed the basic, detail, and field changed design of conventional facilities. Acquisition of necessary construction and atomic license, radiation safety analysis, site improvement, access road construction were successfully done as well. Also, we participated in the project host related work as follows: Project host organization and site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management, etc. Consequently, we so fulfilled all of the own goals which were set up in the beginning of this construction project that we could made contribution for installing and running PEFP's developed 100MeV 20mA linear accelerator

  11. Development of linear proton accelerators with the high average beam power

    CERN Document Server

    Bomko, V A; Egorov, A M

    2001-01-01

    Review of the current situation in the development of powerful linear proton accelerators carried out in many countries is given. The purpose of their creation is solving problems of safe and efficient nuclear energetics on a basis of the accelerator-reactor complex. In this case a proton beam with the energy up to 1 GeV, the average current of 30 mA is required. At the same time there is a needed in more powerful beams,for example, for production of tritium and transmutation of nuclear waste products. The creation of accelerators of such a power will be followed by the construction of linear accelerators of 1 GeV but with a more moderate beam current. They are intended for investigation of many aspects of neutron physics and neutron engineering. Problems in the creation of efficient constructions for the basic and auxiliary equipment, the reliability of the systems, and minimization of the beam losses in the process of acceleration will be solved.

  12. High intensity proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS -- An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS accelerator complex is into its third year of 60+ x 10 12 (teraproton = Tp) per cycle operation. The hardware making up the complex as configured in 1997 is briefly mentioned. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. This includes beam transfer efficiencies at each step in the acceleration process, i.e. losses; which are a serious issue at this intensity level. Progress made in understanding beam behavior at the Linac-to-Booster (LtB) injection, at the Booster-to-AGS (BtA) transfer as well as across the 450 ms AGS accumulation porch is presented. The state of transition crossing, with the gamma-tr jump is described. Coherent effects including those driven by space charge are important at all of these steps

  13. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator; Haz externo de protones en el acelerador TANDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, R; Schuff, J A; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M E; Hojman, D; Kreiner, A J; Kesque, J M; Saint-Martin, G; Oppezzo, O; Bernaola, O A; Molinari, B L; Duran, H A; Policastro, L; Palmieri, M; Ibanez, J; Stoliar, P; Mazal, A; Caraballo, M E; Burlon, A; Cardona, M A; Vazquez, M E; Salfity, M F; Ozafran, M J; Naab, F; Levinton, G; Davidson, M; Buhler, M [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, C.P. 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-12-31

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm{sup 2} approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  14. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator; Haz externo de protones en el acelerador TANDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, R.; Schuff, J.A.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Saint-Martin, G.; Oppezzo, O.; Bernaola, O.A.; Molinari, B.L.; Duran, H.A.; Policastro, L.; Palmieri, M.; Ibanez, J.; Stoliar, P.; Mazal, A.; Caraballo, M.E.; Burlon, A.; Cardona, M.A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Salfity, M.F.; Ozafran, M.J.; Naab, F.; Levinton, G.; Davidson, M.; Buhler, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, C.P. 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm{sup 2} approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  15. The JHP 200-MeV proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takao [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    A 200-MeV proton linear accelerator for the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) has been designed. It consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ), a 50-MeV drift tube linac (DTL) and a 200-MeV separated-type drift tube linac (SDTL). A frequency of 324 MHz has been chosen for all of the rf structures. A peak current of 30 mA (H{sup -} ions) of 400 {mu}sec pulse duration will be accelerated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. A future upgrade plan up to 400 MeV is also presented, in which annular-coupled structures (ACS) of 972 MHz are used in an energy range of above 150 or 200 MeV. One of the design features is its high performance for a beam-loss problem during acceleration. It can be achieved by separating the transition point in the transverse motion from that of the longitudinal motion. The transverse transition at a rather low-energy range decreases the effects of space-charge, while the longitudinal transition at a rather high-energy range decreases the effects of nonlinear problems related to acceleration in the ACS. Coupled envelope equations and equipartitioning theory are used for the focusing design. The adoption of the SDTL structure improves both the effective shunt impedance and difficulties in fabricating drift tubes with focusing magnets. An accurate beam-simulation code on a parallel supercomputer was used for confirming any beam-loss problem during acceleration. (author)

  16. An outline of the proton accelerator for the neutron science project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A research project has been proposed in JAERI aiming at exploring new basic researches and nuclear energy engineering based on a high intensity proton linac with a 1.5 GeV and 8 MW beam. The research complex will be composed of facilities such as the Neutron Scattering Facility for condensed matter physics and the Nuclear Energy Related Facility for engineering test of nuclear waste transmutation. The R and D has been carried out for the components of the low energy part of the accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, the development on a superconducting accelerating cavity as a major option has been performed. The paper will present the summary on a development plan to build the accelerator and the results of conceptual design study and the R and D work. (author)

  17. CERN Proton Synchrotron Complex High-Level Controls Renovation

    CERN Document Server

    Deghaye, S; Garcia Quintas, D; Gourber-Pace, M; Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pasinelli, S; Peryt, M; Roderick, C; Roux, E; Sobczak, M; Steerenberg, R; Wozniak, J; Zaharieva, Z

    2009-01-01

    After a detailed study of the Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex requirements by experts of CERN controls & operation groups, a proposal to develop a new system, called Injector Controls Architecture (InCA), was presented to and accepted by the management late 2007. Aiming at the homogenisation of the control systems across CERN accelerators, InCA is based on components developed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but also new components required to fulfil operation needs. In 2008, the project was in its elaboration phase and we successfully validated its architecture and critical use-cases during several machine development sessions. After description of the architecture put in place and the components used, this paper describes the planning approach taken combining iterative development phases with deployment in operation for validation sessions.

  18. Proton Flares in Solar Activity Complexes: Possible Origins and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, E. S.; Tomozov, V. M.; Yazev, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Solar flares observed during the 24th solar-activity cycle and accompanied by fluxes of particles detected at the Earth's orbit with intensities exceeding 10 particles cm-2 s-1 and energies of more than 10 MeV per particle mainly occurred in activity complexes (82% of cases), with 80% of these occurring no more than 20 heliographic degrees from the nearest coronal holes. The correlation between the X-ray classes of flares and the proton fluxes detected at the Earth's orbit is weak. The work presented here supports the hypothesis that the leakage of particles into the heliosphere is due to the existence of long-lived magnetic channels, which facilitate the transport of flare-accelerated particles into the boundary regions of open magnetic structures of coronal holes. The possible contribution of exchange reconnection in the formation of such channels and the role of exchange reconnection in the generation of flares are discussed.

  19. GPU Accelerated Surgical Simulators for Complex Morhpology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Jesper; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2005-01-01

    a springmass system in order to simulate a complex organ such as the heart. Computations are accelerated by taking advantage of modern graphics processing units (GPUs). Two GPU implementations are presented. They vary in their generality of spring connections and in the speedup factor they achieve...

  20. Shock-Wave Acceleration of Protons on OMEGA EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberberger, D.; Froula, D. H.; Pak, A.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; Fiuza, F.; Tochitsky, S.; Joshi, C.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental results using shock-wave acceleration (SWA) driven by a CO2 laser in a H2 gas-jet plasma have shown the possibility of producing proton beams with energy spreads emission from a UV ablated material. The desired characteristics optimal for SWA are met: (a) peak plasma density is overcritical for the 1- μm main pulse and (b) the plasma profile exponentially decays over a long scale length on the rear side. Results will be shown using a 4 ω probe to experimentally characterize the plasma density profile. Scaling from simulations of the SWA mechanism shows that ion energies in the range of 100 MeV/amu are achievable with a focused a0 of 5 from the OMEGA EP Laser System. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  1. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  2. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperrex, P.A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Mueller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-01-01

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given

  3. Shielding calculations for a 30 MeV proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, Maitreyee; Sarkar, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The thickness of the shield, made of ordinary concrete, required to reduce the equivalent dose rate below the maximum permissible limit and to ensure safe operation of a 30 MeV proton accelerator has been estimated using the Moyer model. Required double differential neutron yield from thick stopping targets has been calculated for several reactions to be used for production of 67 Ga, 111 In, 123 I and 201 Tl radioisotopes. The neutron emission at 0 deg and 90 deg angles with respect to the incident beam direction is estimated using the hybrid model code ALICE91 which considers preequilibrium and equilibrium emissions from the target+projectile composite system. From this neutron yield the equivalent neutron dose rate at unit distance is determined using the ICRP recommended flux-to-dose conversion factors

  4. Construction Management for Conventional Facilities of Proton Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Cho, Jin Sam; Lee, Jae Sang

    2008-05-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project, puts its aim to building 100MeV 20mA linear proton accelerator which is national facility for NT, BT, IT, and future technologies, expected to boost up the national industry competitiveness. This R and D, Construction Management is in charge of the supportive works as site selection, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities, and overall construction management. The major goals of this work are as follows: At first, architecture and engineering of conventional facilities. Second, construction management, audit and inspection on construction of conventional facilities. Lastly, cooperation with the project host organization for adjusting technical issues of overall construction. In this research, We reviewed the basic design and made a detail design of conventional facilities. Preparation for construction license, site improvement and access road construction is fulfilled. Also, we made the technical support for project host as follows : selection of project host organization and host site selection, construction technical work for project host organization and procedure management

  5. The Design of HVAC System in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    The HVAC systems for conventional facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center consist of 3 systems : accelerator building HVAC system, beam application building HVAC system and miscellaneous HVAC system. We designed accelerator building HVAC system and beam application research area HVAC system in the conventional facilities of Proton Accelerator research center. Accelerator building HVAC system is divided into accelerator tunnel area, klystron area, klystron gallery area, accelerator assembly area. Also, Beam application research area HVAC system is divided into those of beam experimental hall, accelerator control area, beam application research area and Ion beam application building. In this paper, We described system design requirements and explained system configuration for each systems. We presented operation scenario of HVAC system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

  6. Proton acceleration by RF TE{sub 11} mode in a cylindrical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Masuda, Kai [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    1997-03-01

    We found that protons are accelerated significantly by RF TE{sub 11} mode in a cylindrical cavity. In this method, protons get the perpendicular kinetic energy, so we thought it might be a compact accelerator, and studied the feasibility by numerical simulation. (author)

  7. Proton-fission for the accelerator production of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Jungerman, J.A.; Castaneda, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The production of Mo-99 (66.0 h) via de U-238(p,f) Mo-99 fission reaction is proposed as a non-reactor source of this essential precursor of 6.6-h Tc-99m, an isotope of wide use of diagnostic nuclear medicine applications. Measurements of the total excitation function for the U-238(p,f) reaction indicated a maximum and fairly constant cross section of 1.4 barns at > 30 MeV. Combining the advances of high-current (mA) H-accelerators with dual beam (dual target) operation, and assuming a 5% fission yield, estimates of Mo-99 reaches 5 to 14 Ci/h at 1 mA. The proton fission production of Mo-99 appears to more advantageous than the reactor produced via evaporation neutron-induced fission. An accelerator method could allow securing ample supply of Mo-99 independently of the current scarce reactor operation, while also simplifying the associated waste management problems as well as some of the environmental concerns

  8. Shielding of medically used proton accelerators; Abschirmung von medizinisch genutzten Protonenbeschleunigern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    In several standards of the standards committee radiology (NRA) the shielding of proton accelerators (cyclotrons) for medical utilization is described. Proton beams can be used in nuclear medicine for PET (proton emission tomography) isotope production or for radiotherapeutic use. The dominating radiation from proton induced nuclear reactions is fast neutron radiation. The calculation procedure for appropriate shielding measures according to the NAR standards is described step-by-step. AN adequate shielding of fast neutrons is also sufficient for the generated gamma radiation.

  9. Proton adsorption onto alumina: extension of multisite complexation (MUSIC) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, K.; Blum, F.D.

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial {gamma}-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species.

  10. Nuclear design aspect of the Korean high intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Song, Tae-Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    A plan to construct a high current proton accelerator has been proposed by KAERI. We are presenting the required nuclear design to support the project as well as a brief overview of the proposed proton accelerator. The target and core design is highlighted to show feasibility of incineration of minor actinides from the spent fuel of light water reactors. Radiation shielding and activation analyses are also important for the design and the license of the accelerator. (author)

  11. Screening Approach to the Activation of Soil and Contamination of Groundwater at Linear Proton Accelerator Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, Thomas

    The activation of soil and the contamination of groundwater at proton accelerator sites with the radionuclides 3H and 22Na are estimated with a Monte-Carlo calculation and a conservative soil- and ground water model. The obtained radionuclide concentrations show that the underground environment of future accelerators must be adequately protected against a migration of activation products. This study is of particular importance for the proton driver accelerator in the planned EURISOL facility.

  12. Architecture and Civil Design Status of the Proton Accelerator Research Center in PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, J. M.; Kim, J. Y.; Mun, K. J.; Jeon, G. P.; Cho, J. S.; Lee, S. K.; Min, Y. S.; Joo, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) is scheduled to administrate the conventional facilities design with Gyeongju and complement its unfit points. When construction work starts according to the construction schedule, a field work office will be installed to supervise the Proton Accelerator Conventional Facilities Construction. In this paper, we describe the geological investigation procedure for the construction of the proton accelerator conventional facilities of PEFP. By the geological investigation, data for the reasonable and economic construction work, such as stratum structure and geotechnical characteristics. In Site Plot Plan for PEFP, we classified center as 2 groups such as main facilities and support facilities. We also designed access road of the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP. In architectural design for PEFP, we described the design procedure of the buildings and landscape architectures of the Proton Accelerator Research Center

  13. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gschwendtner, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected to sample the wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  14. Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, K; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Nuernberg, F; Otten, A; Schuetrumpf, J; Roth, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A; Bagnoud, V [GSI - Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Plasmaphysik and PHELIX, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Daido, H; Tampo, M [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa-city, Kyoto, 619-0215 (Japan); Schollmeier, M, E-mail: k.harres@gsi.d [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 10{sup 12} particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  15. Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, K; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Nuernberg, F; Otten, A; Schuetrumpf, J; Roth, M; Tauschwitz, A; Bagnoud, V; Daido, H; Tampo, M; Schollmeier, M

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 10 12 particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  16. Materials for heavy current accelerators and their alteration under scattered protons resulted from acceleration and secondary radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, A.N.; Sidorenko, I.S.; Khizhnyak, N.A.; Shilyaev, B.A.; Yamnitskij, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Changes of macroscopic properties of materials for new generation accelerators during irradiation by spill protons and secondary radiations have been analyzed. It is shown, that the change in properties is a result of many interrelated processes: nuclear ones, in which initially knocked out atoms (IKA) and products of nuclear reactions (especially helium and hydrogen) are formed, atomic ones consisting in the development of cascade collisions induced by IKA and resulting in the formation of initial regions of point defects accumulation; structural ones, resulting in the formation ssociations of defects, pores, dislocations and in the processes of creep, swelling, embrittlement etc. Each process is deccribed by a model and is realized by a computer code. The full program complex is written in the FORTRAN and ALGOL (GDR) for the BEhSM-6 and EC-1040 computers. Total number of standard code library exceeds 20 thousand operators, the memory size of base data is about 10 megabyte

  17. Application of the personnel photographic monitoring method to determine equivalent radiation dose beyond proton accelerator shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, E.K.; Komochkov, M.M.; Man'ko, B.V.; Salatskaya, M.I.; Sychev, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of regularities to form radiation dose beyond proton accelerator shielding are carried out. Numerical data on photographic monitoring dosemeter in radiation fields investigated are obtained. It was shown how to determine the total equivalent dose of radiation fields beyond proton accelerator shielding by means of the photographic monitoring method by introduction into the procedure of considering nuclear emulsions of division of particle tracks into the black and grey ones. A comparison of experimental and calculational data has shown the applicability of the used calculation method for modelling dose radiation characteristics beyond proton accelerator shielding [ru

  18. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  19. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  20. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  1. Hospital-based proton linear accelerator for particle therapy and radioisotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    1991-05-01

    Taking advantage of recent advances in linear accelerator technology, it is possible for a hospital to use a 70 MeV proton linac for fast neutron therapy, boron neutron capture therapy, proton therapy for ocular melanomas, and production of radiopharmaceuticals. The linac can also inject protons into a synchrotron for proton therapy of deep-seated tumors. With 180 μA average current, a single linac can support all these applications. This paper presents a conceptual design for a medical proton linac, switchyard, treatment rooms, and isotope production rooms. Special requirements for each application are outlined and a layout for sharing beam among the applications is suggested.

  2. International Scoping Study of a Future Accelerator Neutrino Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The International Scoping Study (ISS), launched at NuFact05 to evaluate the physics case for a future neutrino facility, along with options for the accelerator complex and detectors, is laying the foundations for a subsequent conceptual-design study. It is hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and organized by the international community, with participants from Europe, Japan, and the U.S. Here we cover the work of the Accelerator Working Group. For the 4-MW proton driver, linacs, synchrotrons, and Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) rings are considered. For targets, issues of both liquid-metal and solid materials are examined. For beam conditioning, (phase rotation, bunching, and ionization cooling), we evaluate schemes both with and without cooling, the latter based on scaling-FFAG rings. For acceleration, we examine scaling FFAGs and hybrid systems comprising linacs, dogbone RLAs, and non-scaling FFAGs. For the decay ring, we consider racetrack and triangular shapes, the latter capable of simultaneously illuminating two different detectors at different long baselines. Comparisons are made between various technical approaches to identify optimum design choices

  3. An analytical reconstruction model of the spread-out Bragg peak using laser-accelerated proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Jungao; Xu, Xiaohan; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wenjun; Lu, Haiyang; Zhao, Yanying; Lu, Yuanrong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xueqing

    2017-07-07

    With the development of laser technology, laser-driven proton acceleration provides a new method for proton tumor therapy. However, it has not been applied in practice because of the wide and decreasing energy spectrum of laser-accelerated proton beams. In this paper, we propose an analytical model to reconstruct the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) using laser-accelerated proton beams. Firstly, we present a modified weighting formula for protons of different energies. Secondly, a theoretical model for the reconstruction of SOBPs with laser-accelerated proton beams has been built. It can quickly calculate the number of laser shots needed for each energy interval of the laser-accelerated protons. Finally, we show the 2D reconstruction results of SOBPs for laser-accelerated proton beams and the ideal situation. The final results show that our analytical model can give an SOBP reconstruction scheme that can be used for actual tumor therapy.

  4. Accelerated prompt gamma estimation for clinical proton therapy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Brent F. B.; Létang, J. M.; Testa, É.; Sarrut, D.

    2016-11-01

    There is interest in the particle therapy community in using prompt gammas (PGs), a natural byproduct of particle treatment, for range verification and eventually dose control. However, PG production is a rare process and therefore estimation of PGs exiting a patient during a proton treatment plan executed by a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation converges slowly. Recently, different approaches to accelerating the estimation of PG yield have been presented. Sterpin et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 4915-46) described a fast analytic method, which is still sensitive to heterogeneities. El Kanawati et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8067-86) described a variance reduction method (pgTLE) that accelerates the PG estimation by precomputing PG production probabilities as a function of energy and target materials, but has as a drawback that the proposed method is limited to analytical phantoms. We present a two-stage variance reduction method, named voxelized pgTLE (vpgTLE), that extends pgTLE to voxelized volumes. As a preliminary step, PG production probabilities are precomputed once and stored in a database. In stage 1, we simulate the interactions between the treatment plan and the patient CT with low statistic MC to obtain the spatial and spectral distribution of the PGs. As primary particles are propagated throughout the patient CT, the PG yields are computed in each voxel from the initial database, as a function of the current energy of the primary, the material in the voxel and the step length. The result is a voxelized image of PG yield, normalized to a single primary. The second stage uses this intermediate PG image as a source to generate and propagate the number of PGs throughout the rest of the scene geometry, e.g. into a detection device, corresponding to the number of primaries desired. We achieved a gain of around 103 for both a geometrical heterogeneous phantom and a complete patient CT treatment plan with respect to analog MC, at a convergence level of 2% relative

  5. Coherent instabilities of proton beams in accelerators and storage rings - experimental results, diagnosis and cures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, W.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses diagnosis and cure of proton beam instabilities in accelerators and storage rings. Coasting beams and bunched beams are treated separately and both transverse and longitudinal instabilities are considered. (B.D.)

  6. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  7. Reliability and availability of high power proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.

    1999-01-01

    It has become increasingly important to address the issues of operational reliability and availability of an accelerator complex early in its design and construction phases. In this context, reliability addresses the mean time between failures and the failure rate, and availability takes into account the failure rate as well as the length of time required to repair the failure. Methods to reduce failure rates include reduction of the number of components and over-design of certain key components. Reduction of the on-line repair time can be achieved by judiciously designed hardware, quick-service spare systems and redundancy. In addition, provisions for easy inspection and maintainability are important for both reduction of the failure rate as well as reduction of the time to repair. The radiation safety exposure principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) is easier to comply with when easy inspection capability and easy maintainability are incorporated into the design. Discussions of past experience in improving accelerator availability, some recent developments, and potential R and D items are presented. (author)

  8. Status of spallation neutron source program in High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Organization are jointly designing a 1 MW spallation neutron source as one of the research facilities planned in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. The spallation neutron source is driven by 3 GeV proton beam with a mercury target and liquid hydrogen moderators. The present status of design for these spallation source and relevant facility is overviewed. (author)

  9. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xialing, Guan

    2002-12-01

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the RFQ accelerator and some other technology of HPPA, are described.

  10. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    OpenAIRE

    Burris-Mog, T.; Harres, K.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Nürnberg, F.; Busold, S.; Bussmann, M.; Deppert, O.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joost, M.; Sobiella, M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we prese...

  11. Medium energy high intensity proton accelerator (MEHIPA): Reference Design Report (RDR) Ver. 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in accelerator technology has made it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce nuclear energy. In an accelerator-driven system (ADS), a high-intensity proton accelerator is used to produce protons of around 1 GeV energy, which strike a target such as lead or tungsten to produce spallation neutrons. ADS can be used to produce power, incinerate minor actinides and long-lived fission products, and for the utilization of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. The accelerator for ADS has to produce high energy (1 GeV) protons, and deliver tens of milli amperes of beam current with minimum (< 1 nA/m) beam loss for hands-on maintenance of the accelerator. This makes the development of accelerators for ADS very challenging. In India, it is planned to take a staged approach towards development of the requisite accelerator technology, and it is planned to develop the accelerator in three phases: 20 MeV, 200 MeV and 1 GeV. This report presents a reference design report for the Medium Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (MEHIPA) which will accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The linac consists of a 3 MeV normal conducting RFQ followed by three families of superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSR) to accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The major elements of the physics design of MEHIPA, as well as layouts and specifications of the major accelerator sub-systems are presented in this report. (author)

  12. Radiation safety aspects at Indus accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Indus Accelerator Complex at Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology houses two synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 that are being operated round-the-clock to cater to the needs of the research community. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring and Indus-2 is presently being operated with electrons stored at 2 GeV. Bremsstrahlung radiation and photo-neutrons form the major radiation environment in Indus Accelerator Complex. They are produced due to loss of electron-beam occurring at different stages of operation of various accelerators located in the complex. The synchrotron radiation (SR) also contributes as a potential hazard. In order to ensure safety of synchrotron radiation users and operation and maintenance staff working in the complex from this radiation, an elaborate radiation safety system is in place. The system comprises a Personnel Protection System (PPS) and a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). The PPS includes zoning, radiation shielding, door interlocks, a search and scram system and machine operation trip-interlocks. The RMS consists of area radiation monitors and beam loss monitors, whose data is available online in the Indus control room. Historical data of radiation levels is also available for data analysis. Synchrotron radiation beamlines at Indus-2 are handled in a special manner owing to the possibility of exposure to synchrotron radiation. Shielding hutches with SR monitors are installed at each beamline of Indus-2. Health Physics Unit also carries out regular radiological surveillance for photons and neutrons during various modes of operation and data is logged shift wise. The operation staff is appropriately trained and qualified as per the recommendations of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Safety training is also imparted to the beamline users. Safe operation procedures and operation checklists are being followed strictly. A radiation instrument calibration facility is also being set-up at RRCAT. The radiation

  13. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tung-Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser proton acceleration using a thin carbon-hydrogen foil. The used proton acceleration scheme is a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion due to the carbon ions. We observe that the spot size plays a crucial role in determining the net charge of the electron-shielded carbon ion foil and consequently the efficiency of proton acceleration. Using a laser pulse with fixed input energy and pulse length impinging on a carbon-hydrogen foil, a laser beam with smaller spot sizes can generate higher energy but fewer quasi-monoenergetic protons. We studied the scaling of the proton energy with respect to the laser spot size and obtained an optimal spot size for maximum proton energy flux. Using the optimal spot size, we can generate an 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam containing more than 10 8 protons using a laser beam with power 250 TW and energy 10 J and a target of thickness 0.15 wavelength and 49 critical density made of 90% carbon and 10% hydrogen

  14. Effluent Monitoring System Design for the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Mun, Kyeong Jun; Cho, Jang Hyung; Jo, Jeong Hee

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. Also the IAC recommended maximization of space utilization and construction cost saving. After GA(General Arrangement) is made a decision, it is necessary to evaluate the radiation analysis of every controlled area in the proton accelerator research center such as accelerator tunnel, Klystron gallery, beam experimental hall, target rooms and ion beam application building to keep dose rate below the ALARA(As Low As Reasonably achievable) objective. Our staff has reviewed and made a shielding design of them. In this paper, According to accelerator operation mode and access conditions based on radiation analysis and shielding design, we made the exhaust system configuration of controlled area in the proton accelerator research center. Also, we installed radiation monitor and set its alarm value for each radiation area

  15. Electromagnetic design of a pos-accelerator of protons for ocular neoplasm therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo, Luísa de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Proton therapy is an effective technique in the treatment and control of cancer, which is not available in most countries. The low number of specialized centers for this type of treatment is because of the high cost of implementing and maintaining the accelerators. This study presents a model for the Electromagnetic (EM) acceleration of protons to sufficient energies for the treatment of ocular tumors. This is the scientific possibility of a compact technology that uses cyclotrons to produce radioisotopes (present in various countries) as accelerator guns via an analytical assessment of the physical parameters of the beam and a simulation of the electromagnetic equipment structures, acceleration, and movement of the proton beam using CST STUDIO® 3D 2015 (Computer Simulation Technology) software. In addition, the geometry required to provide synchronization between the acceleration and beam path was analyzed using the motion equations of the protons. The simulations show a final model that is compact and simplified as compared with the isochronic cyclotron and synchrotron (used for proton therapy). The synchronism requirements of a circular accelerator are fulfilled in this model so that in all orbits the beam has the same movement time. The extraction energy of the presented model is sufficient for the treatment of ocular tumors. This is an alternative method that could improve the quality of life for patients with ocular tumors in developing countries. Future studies will be conducted to complete the technical design presentation and evaluate the accelerated beam's interaction with neoplastic tissues. (author)

  16. Manipulation of laser-accelerated proton beam profiles by nanostructured and microstructured targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuffrida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured and microstructured thin foils have been fabricated and used experimentally as targets to manipulate the spatial profile of proton bunches accelerated through the interaction with high intensity laser pulses (6×10^{19}  W/cm^{2}. Monolayers of polystyrene nanospheres were placed on the rear surfaces of thin plastic targets to improve the spatial homogeneity of the accelerated proton beams. Moreover, thin targets with grating structures of various configurations on their rear sides were used to modify the proton beam divergence. Experimental results are presented, discussed, and supported by 3D particle-in-cell numerical simulations.

  17. Programmable Power Supply for AC Switching Magnet of Proton Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Seong-Hun; Kang Heung Sik; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Hong-Gi; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Ryu, Chun-Kil; Sik Han, Hong; Suck Suh, Hyung

    2005-01-01

    The 100-MeV PEFP proton linac has two proton beam extraction lines for user' experiment. Each extraction line has 5 beamlines and has 5 Hz operating frequency. An AC switching magnet is used to distribute the proton beam to the 5 beamlines, An AC switching magnet is powered by PWM-controlled bipolar switching-mode converters. This converter is designed to operate at ±350A, 5 Hz programmable step output. The power supply is employed IGBT module and has controlled by a DSP (Digital Signal Process). This paper describes the design and test results of the power supply.

  18. Technical development of high intensity proton accelerators in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1995-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency decided 'Options making extra gains of actinides and fission products (OMEGA)' and to promote the related researches. Also in JAERI, the research on the group separation method for separating transuranic elements, strontium and cesium from high level radioactive wastes has been carried out since the beginning of 1970s. Also the concept of the fast reactors using minor actinide mixture fuel is being established, and the accelerator annihilation treatment utilizing the nuclear spallation reaction by high energy protons has been examined. In this report, from the viewpoint of the application of accelerators to atomic energy field, the annihilation treatment method by the nuclear spallation reaction utilizing high intensity proton accelerators, the plan of the various engineering utilization of proton beam, and the development of accelerators in JAERI are described. The way of thinking on the annihilation treatment of radioactive waste, the system using fast neutrons, the way of thinking on the development of high intensity proton accelerator technology, the steps of the development, the research and development for constructing the basic technology accelerator, 2 MeV beam acceleration test, the basic technology accelerator utilization facility and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Helle, M.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-01-01

    Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ∼1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called ''bucket jumping'' where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.

  20. Quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration from cryogenic hydrogen microjet by ultrashort ultraintense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.; Fülöp, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    Laser-driven proton acceleration from a micron-sized cryogenic hydrogen microjet target is investigated using multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. With few-cycle (20-fs) ultraintense (2-PW) laser pulses, high-energy quasi-monoenergetic proton acceleration is predicted in a new regime. A collisionless shock-wave acceleration mechanism influenced by Weibel instability results in a maximum proton energy as high as 160 MeV and a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 80 MeV for 1022 W/cm2 laser intensity with controlled prepulses. A self-generated strong quasi-static magnetic field is also observed in the plasma, which modifies the spatial distribution of the proton beam.

  1. Optimizing proton therapy at the LBL medical accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.

    1992-03-01

    This Grant has marked the beginning of a multi-year study process expected to lead to design and construction of at least one, possibly several hospital-based proton therapy facilities in the United States.

  2. Optimizing proton therapy at the LBL medical accelerator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.

    1992-03-01

    This Grant has marked the beginning of a multi-year study process expected to lead to design and construction of at least one, possibly several hospital-based proton therapy facilities in the United States.

  3. Optimization of laser accelerated proton beams for possible applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, Husam [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Optimization of transported proton beams through a pulsed solenoid in the laser proton experiment LIGHT at GSI has been studied numerically. TraceWin, SRIM and ATIMA codes were employed for this study with an initial distribution generated by MATLAB program fitted to Phelix measured data. Two individual tools have been used to produce protons beam as a later beam source: an aperture located at the solenoid focal spot as energy selection tool; and a scattering foil at a suitable position in the beam path that smoothens the simulated radial energy imprint on the beam profile. The simulation results show that the proton energy spectrum is filtered by the aperture and the radial energy correlation is smoothened.

  4. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power in elliptical superconducting cavities for intense pulsed proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Ho Kim; Dong O Jeon; Sundeli, R

    2002-01-01

    In linacs for intense pulsed proton accelerators, the beam has a multiple time-structure, and each beam time-structure generates resonance. When a higher-order mode (HOM) is near these resonance frequencies, the induced voltage could be large and accordingly the resulting HOM power, too. In order to understand the effects of a complex beam time-structure on the mode excitations and the resulting HOM powers in elliptical superconducting cavities, analytic expressions are developed, with which the beam-induced voltage and corresponding power are explored, taking into account the properties of HOM frequency behavior in elliptical superconducting cavities. The results and understandings from this analysis are presented with the beam parameters of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac.

  5. Proposal for an irradiation facility at the TAEK SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirköz, B.; Gencer, A.; Kiziloren, D.; Apsimon, R.

    2013-12-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority's (TAEK's) Proton Accelerator Facility in Ankara, Turkey, has been inaugurated in May 2012 and is under the process of being certified for commercial radio-isotope production. Three of the four arms of the 30 MeV cyclotron are being used for radio-isotope production, while the fourth is foreseen for research and development of novel ideas and methods. The cyclotron can vary the beam current between 12 μA and 1.2 mA, sufficient for irradiation tests for semiconductor materials, detectors and devices. We propose to build an irradiation facility in the R&D room of this complex, open for use to the international detector development community.

  6. Ablative acceleration of thin foil targets by intense proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Ozaki, T.; Imasaki, K.; Higaki, S.; Nakai, S.

    1981-01-01

    A focused proton beam of up to 2 x 10 10 w/cm 2 was obtained using pinch-reflex ion diode connected to Reiden IV generator. Experiments of beam target interaction have been done using thin foil targets. In this power range the interaction was explained classically. The experimental dependence of ablation pressure on proton beam intensity was obtained as P sub(a) = 3 x 10 -3 I sup(0.7) bar (I in w/cm 2 ). (author)

  7. Characteristics of Four SPE Classes According to Onset Timing and Proton Acceleration Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roksoon

    2015-04-01

    In our previous work (Kim et al., 2015), we suggested a new classification scheme, which categorizes the SPEs into four groups based on association with flare or CME inferred from onset timings as well as proton acceleration patterns using multienergy observations. In this study, we have tried to find whether there are any typical characteristics of associated events and acceleration sites in each group using 42 SPEs from 1997 to 2012. We find: (i) if the proton acceleration starts from a lower energy, a SPE has a higher chance to be a strong event (> 5000 pfu) even if the associated flare and CME are not so strong. The only difference between the SPEs associated with flare and CME is the location of the acceleration site. For the former, the sites are very low ( ~1 Rs) and close to the western limb, while the latter has a relatively higher (mean=6.05 Rs) and wider acceleration sites. (ii) When the proton acceleration starts from the higher energy, a SPE tends to be a relatively weak event (pfu), in spite of its associated CME is relatively stronger than previous group. (iii) The SPEs categorized by the simultaneous proton acceleration in whole energy range within 10 minutes, tend to show the weakest proton flux (mean=327 pfu) in spite of strong related eruptions. Their acceleration heights are very close to the locations of type II radio bursts. Based on those results, we suggest that the different characteristics of the four groups are mainly due to the different mechanisms governing the acceleration pattern and interval, and different condition such as the acceleration location.

  8. Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.

    2013-05-01

    We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.

  9. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  10. Preliminary consideration of a double, 480 GeV, fast cycling proton accelerator for production of neutrino beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We propose to build the DSF-MR (Double Super-Ferric Main Ring), 480 GeV, fast-cycling (2 second repetition rate) two-beam proton accelerator in the Main Ring tunnel of Fermilab. This accelerator design is based on the super-ferric magnet technology developed for the VLHC, and extended recently to the proposed LER injector for the LHC and fast cycling SF-SPS at CERN. The DSF-MR accelerator system will constitute the final stage of the proton source enabling production of two neutrino beams separated by 2 second time period. These beams will be sent alternately to two detectors located at {approx} 3000 km and {approx} 7500 km away from Fermilab. It is expected that combination of the results from these experiments will offer more than 3 order of magnitudes increased sensitivity for detection and measurement of neutrino oscillations with respect to expectations in any current experiment, and thus may truly enable opening the window into the physics beyond the Standard Model. We examine potential sites for the long baseline neutrino detectors accepting beams from Fermilab. The current injection system consisting of 400 MeV Linac, 8 GeV Booster and the Main Injector can be used to accelerate protons to 45 GeV before transferring them to the DSF-MR. The implementation of the DSF-MR will allow for an 8-fold increase in beam power on the neutrino production target. In this note we outline the proposed new arrangement of the Fermilab accelerator complex. We also briefly describe the DSF-MR magnet design and its power supply, and discuss necessary upgrade of the Tevatron RF system for the use with the DSF-MR accelerator. Finally, we outline the required R&D, cost estimate and possible timeline for the implementation of the DSF-MR accelerator.

  11. Proton-beam writing channel based on an electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, A. S.; Rebrov, V. A.; Kolin'ko, S. V.; Salivon, V. F.; Ponomarev, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We have described the structure of the proton-beam writing channel as a continuation of a nuclear scanning microprobe channel. The problem of the accuracy of positioning a probe by constructing a new high-frequency electrostatic scanning system has been solved. Special attention has been paid to designing the probe-forming system and its various configurations have been considered. The probe-forming system that best corresponds to the conditions of the lithographic process has been found based on solving the problem of optimizing proton beam formation. A system for controlling beam scanning using multifunctional module of integrated programmable logic systems has been developed.

  12. Enhancement of proton acceleration field in laser double-layer target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Ma, Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed to enhance a proton acceleration field in laser plasma interaction. A double-layer plasma with different densities is illuminated by an intense short pulse. Electrons are accelerated to a high energy in the first layer by the wakefield. The electrons accelerated by the laser wakefield induce the enhanced target normal sheath (TNSA) and breakout afterburner (BOA) accelerations through the second layer. The maximum proton energy reaches about 1 GeV, and the total charge with an energy higher than 100 MeV is about several tens of μC/μm. Both the acceleration gradient and laser energy transfer efficiency are higher than those in single-target-based TNSA or BOA. The model has been verified by 2.5D-PIC simulations

  13. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  14. Promoting International Cooperation and Public Acceptance in Utilizing Proton Accelerator Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Hahn, Bong Oh; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kim, Kyu Ryung; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, In Kyu; Kim, Hyun Joon; Noh, Seung Jeong

    2002-11-01

    Proton engineering's main tool will be a high power proton accelerator which is to be established within next 10 years in the frame of Proton engineering Frontier Project. It is necessary for public to understand the meaning and importance of the project so that Project activities such as site preparation can be efficiently completed. And, it is required to establish a sound plan of international cooperation, and to develop user program to establish domestic foundation in utilizing the accelerator. Along with public relations activities through newspapers and broadcasting, there were more than 20 times of project presentations requested by various local governments, universities, and scientific societies. which resulted in strong support of the project from various societies. Based on collected information through actual visits to and internet surveys on foreign accelerators, a recommendation of international cooperation scheme has been made to complement domestic technological weak points, and there were discussions with some foreign organizations for that purpose. Especially, KEK of Japan, IHEP of China and KAERI have been deliberating on planning detail cooperation programs in developing and utilizing accelerator among 3 countries Some research items related with NT/BT/IT and utilizing proton beam were planned to be implemented in the Project. And a user program implemented in the Project In order to be prepared for future use of the accelerator. In order to upbring junior researchers for future days, an accelerator summer school has been planned to be held annually inviting prominent foreign and domestic lecturers

  15. Accelerating complex for basic researches in the nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dovbnya, A.N.; Guk, I.S.; Kononenko, S.G.; Peev, F.A.; Tarasenko, A.S.; Botman, J.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2003 in NSC KIPT was begun the work on development the project of accelerator, base facility IHEPNP NSC KIPT electron recirculator SALO. The accelerator will be disposed in target hall of accelerator LU 2000 complex. It is projected first of all as facility for basic researches in the field of

  16. Accelerating parameter identification of proton exchange membrane fuel cell model with ranking-based differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Wenyin; Cai, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Parameter identification of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell model is a very active area of research. Generally, it can be treated as a numerical optimization problem with complex nonlinear and multi-variable features. DE (differential evolution), which has been successfully used in various fields, is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for global numerical optimization. In this paper, with the objective of accelerating the process of parameter identification of PEM fuel cell models and reducing the necessary computational efforts, we firstly present a generic and simple ranking-based mutation operator for the DE algorithm. Then, the ranking-based mutation operator is incorporated into five highly-competitive DE variants to solve the PEM fuel cell model parameter identification problems. The main contributions of this work are the proposed ranking-based DE variants and their application to the parameter identification problems of PEM fuel cell models. Experiments have been conducted by using both the simulated voltage–current data and the data obtained from the literature to validate the performance of our approach. The results indicate that the ranking-based DE methods provide better results with respect to the solution quality, the convergence rate, and the success rate compared with their corresponding original DE methods. In addition, the voltage–current characteristics obtained by our approach are in good agreement with the original voltage–current curves in all cases. - Highlights: • A simple and generic ranking-based mutation operator is presented in this paper. • Several DE (differential evolution) variants are used to solve the parameter identification of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) model. • Results show that our method accelerates the process of parameter identification. • The V–I characteristics are in very good agreement with experimental data

  17. Intensity modulated radiation therapy using laser-accelerated protons: a Monte Carlo dosimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourkal, E; Li, J S; Xiong, W; Nahum, A; Ma, C-M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present Monte Carlo studies of intensity modulated radiation therapy using laser-accelerated proton beams. Laser-accelerated protons coming out of a solid high-density target have broad energy and angular spectra leading to dose distributions that cannot be directly used for therapeutic applications. Through the introduction of a spectrometer-like particle selection system that delivers small pencil beams of protons with desired energy spectra it is feasible to use laser-accelerated protons for intensity modulated radiotherapy. The method presented in this paper is a three-dimensional modulation in which the proton energy spectrum and intensity of each individual beamlet are modulated to yield a homogeneous dose in both the longitudinal and lateral directions. As an evaluation of the efficacy of this method, it has been applied to two prostate cases using a variety of beam arrangements. We have performed a comparison study between intensity modulated photon plans and those for laser-accelerated protons. For identical beam arrangements and the same optimization parameters, proton plans exhibit superior coverage of the target and sparing of neighbouring critical structures. Dose-volume histogram analysis of the resulting dose distributions shows up to 50% reduction of dose to the critical structures. As the number of fields is decreased, the proton modality exhibits a better preservation of the optimization requirements on the target and critical structures. It is shown that for a two-beam arrangement (parallel-opposed) it is possible to achieve both superior target coverage with 5% dose inhomogeneity within the target and excellent sparing of surrounding tissue

  18. The R/D of high power proton accelerator technology in China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In China, a multipurpose verification system as a first phase of our ADS program consists of a low energy accelerator (150 MeV/3 mA proton LINAC) and a swimming pool light water subcritical reactor. In this paper the activities of HPPA technology related to ADS in China, which includes the intense proton ECR source, the ...

  19. Laser Radiation Pressure Accelerator for Quasi-Monoenergetic Proton Generation and Its Medical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. S.; Shao, X.; Liu, T. C.; Su, J. J.; He, M. Q.; Eliasson, B.; Tripathi, V. K.; Dudnikova, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Wilks, S.; Chen, C. D.; Sheng, Z. M.

    Laser radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of ultrathin foils of subwavelength thickness provides an efficient means of quasi-monoenergetic proton generation. With an optimal foil thickness, the ponderomotive force of the intense short-pulse laser beam pushes the electrons to the edge of the foil, while balancing the electric field due to charge separation. The electron and proton layers form a self-organized plasma double layer and are accelerated by the radiation pressure of the laser, the so-called light sail. However, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can limit the acceleration and broaden the energy of the proton beam. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the formation of finger-like structures due to the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability limits the acceleration and leads to a leakage of radiation through the target by self-induced transparency. We here review the physics of quasi-monoenergetic proton generation by RPA and recent advances in the studies of energy scaling of RPA, and discuss the RPA of multi-ion and gas targets. The scheme for generating quasi-monoenergetic protons with RPA has the potential of leading to table-top accelerators as sources for producing monoenergetic 50-250 MeV protons. We also discuss potential medical implications, such as particle therapy for cancer treatment, using quasi-monoenergetic proton beams generated from RPA. Compact monoenergetic ion sources also have applications in many other areas such as high-energy particle physics, space electronics radiation testing, and fast ignition in laser fusion.

  20. Laser Acceleration of Quasi-Monoenergetic Protons via Radiation Pressure Driven Thin Foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chuan S.; Shao Xi; Liu, T. C.; Dudnikova, Galina; Sagdeev, Roald Z.; Eliasson, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons in a thin foil irradiated by high intensity laser light. The underlying physics of radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is discussed, including the importance of optimal thickness and circularly polarized light for efficient acceleration of ions to quasi-monoenergetic beams. Preliminary two-dimensional simulation studies show that certain parameter regimes allow for stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and possibility of acceleration of monoenergetic ions to an excess of 200 MeV, making them suitable for important applications such as medical cancer therapy and fast ignition.

  1. Proposal for construction of a proton--proton storage accelerator facility (Isabelle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    A proposal is made for the construction of proton storage rings at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) using superconducting magnets for which much of the technology has already been developed. This proton-proton colliding beam facility, ''ISABELLE,'' will provide large increases in both the center-of-mass energy and the luminosity, key machine parameters for high energy physics. The physics potential and the general description of the facility are discussed in detail, and the physical plant layout, a cost estimate and schedule, and future options are given.(U.S.)

  2. Prediction of scaling physics laws for proton acceleration with extended parameter space of the NIF ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutwala, Krish; Beg, Farhat; Mariscal, Derek; Wilks, Scott; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic short-pulse laser. It comprises four beamlets, each of substantial energy ( 1.5 kJ), extended short-pulse duration (10-30 ps), and large focal spot (>=50% of energy in 150 µm spot). This allows ARC to achieve proton and light ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, but it is yet unknown how proton beam characteristics scale with ARC-regime laser parameters. As theory has also not yet been validated for laser-generated protons at ARC-regime laser parameters, we attempt to formulate the scaling physics of proton beam characteristics as a function of laser energy, intensity, focal spot size, pulse length, target geometry, etc. through a review of relevant proton acceleration experiments from laser facilities across the world. These predicted scaling laws should then guide target design and future diagnostics for desired proton beam experiments on the NIF ARC. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  3. Collective acceleration of protons by the plasma waves in a counterstreaming electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.

    1987-03-01

    A novel advanced accelerator is proposed. The counterstreaming electron beam accelerator relies on the same physical mechanism as that of the plasma accelerator but replaces the stationary plasma in the plasma accelerator by a magnetized relativistic electron beam, drifting antiparallel to the driving source and the driven particles, as the wave supporting medium. The plasma wave in a counterstreaming electron beam can be excited either by a density-ramped driving electron beam or by properly beating two laser beams. The fundamental advantages of the counterstreaming electron beam accelerator over the plasma accelerator are a longer and tunable plasma wavelength, a longer pump depletion length or a larger transformer ratio, and easier pulse shaping for the driving source and the driven beam. Thus the energy gain of the driven particles can be greatly enhanced whereas the trapping threshold can be dramatically reduced so as to admit the possibility for proton acceleration

  4. Proposal of experimental facilities for studies of nuclear data and radiation engineering in the Intense Proton Accelerator Project

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, M; Nagai, Y; Ishibashi, K

    2003-01-01

    A proposal is given on the facilities and experiments in the Intense Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC) relevant to the nuclear data and radiation engineering, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear transmutation, accelerator technology and space technology and so on. (3 refs).

  5. The JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerator and overview of nuclear transmutation experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    A status of the JAERI/KEK joint project on High Intensity Proton Accelerator is overviewed. It is highlighted that Experimental facilities for development of the accelerator driven system (ADS) for nuclear transmutation technology is proposed under the project. (author)

  6. The operational status of the Booster injector for the AGS accelerator complex at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Gill, E.; Glenn, J.W.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; van Asselt, W.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Booster synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been incorporated into the accelerator chain at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) complex. After a successful first commissioning effort in the spring of 1991, the Booster has been part of this year's silicon, gold and proton physics runs. After a brief review of the Booster design goals, and of the early commissioning, this paper will summarize this year's activities

  7. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  8. Some aspects of radiation protection near high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Tuyn, Jan Willem Nicolaas

    1977-01-01

    The CERN site near Geneva borders Satigny and Meyrin in Switzerland and Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Prevention in France. The 600 MeV proton synchrocyclotron (SC) has been in operation since 1957, the 28 GeV proton synchrotron (PS) since 1960, and the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) since 1971. A fourth large accelerator, the 400 GeV super proton synchrotron (SPS), will soon be in service. The internal and external radiation protection problems caused by these machines, together with the solutions, are reviewed in the light of experience. (5 refs).

  9. First demonstration of multi-MeV proton acceleration from a cryogenic hydrogen ribbon target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stephan D.; Obst, Lieselotte; Metzkes-Ng, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Zeil, Karl; Michaux, Sylvain; Chatain, Denis; Perin, Jean-Paul; Chen, Sophia N.; Fuchs, Julien; Gauthier, Maxence; Cowan, Thomas E.; Schramm, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    We show efficient laser driven proton acceleration up to 14 MeV from a 62 μm thick cryogenic hydrogen ribbon. Pulses of the short pulse laser ELFIE at LULI with a pulse length of ≈350 fs at an energy of 8 J per pulse are directed onto the target. The results are compared to proton spectra from metal and plastic foils with different thicknesses and show a similarly good performance both in maximum energy as well as in proton number. Thus, this target type is a promising candidate for experiments with high repetition rate laser systems.

  10. Test facility of proton beam utilization of the PEFP at the SNU-AMS tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. R.; Park, B. S.; Lee, H. R.

    2004-01-01

    The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) will supply users with a 20-MeV proton beam by the middle of 2007. A survey on users' demand was performed to draw the concept for the 20-MeV user facilities and to investigate users' requirements. In the mean time, a 6-MeV test facility has been developed to give users opportunities to experiment with proton beams. That facility will be attached to the 3-MV tandem accelerator at Seoul National University.

  11. Acceleration of 100 keV protons using a 5SDH-2 Pelletron

    CERN Document Server

    Hollerman, W A; Ruzycki, N

    1999-01-01

    The authors successfully accelerated a 100 keV proton beam using a model 5SDH-2 Pelletron accelerator, manufactured by National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). A pseudo-stable 1-2 nA beam was delivered on target with a net energy variation of less than 6%. However, the small terminal potential made it impossible to use standard stabilization techniques. Minor adjustments in terminal potential were required every 15 min to maintain beam current and energy. This level of stability is sufficient to deliver a proton fluence of 10 sup 1 sup 1 -10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2 to any desired target.

  12. Laser accelerated protons captured and transported by a pulse power solenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burris-Mog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a pulse power solenoid, we demonstrate efficient capture of laser accelerated proton beams and the ability to control their large divergence angles and broad energy range. Simulations using measured data for the input parameters give inference into the phase-space and transport efficiencies of the captured proton beams. We conclude with results from a feasibility study of a pulse power compact achromatic gantry concept. Using a scaled target normal sheath acceleration spectrum, we present simulation results of the available spectrum after transport through the gantry.

  13. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route — an example of technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.

    1989-04-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates has received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described.

  14. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route - an example of technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience on this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates has received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. (orig.)

  15. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route: An example of technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates have received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. 4 refs., 1 fig

  16. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q., E-mail: tengjian@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.

    2013-11-21

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  17. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  18. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator

  19. Radiological safety aspects of the operation of proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Particle accelerators are finding increased application in both the fundamental and applied sciences and in industry around the world. Positive ion accelerators are being applied in a host of fields, including radiation damage studies, induced activation and dating measurements, radiography, radiotherapy and fusion research. Because these devices can be potent sources of neutrons, it is important that information concerning their safe operation be widely available. This report is conceived as a source book providing authoritative guidance in radioprotection from an important category of radiation sources. It thus supplements other manuals of the IAEA related to the planning and implementation of radiation protection programmes. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-01

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  1. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  2. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  3. Experimental results on transport and focusing of laser accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busold, Simon; Deppert, Oliver; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schumacher, Dennis; Blazevic, Abel; Zielbauer, Bernhard; Hofmann, Ingo; Bagnoud, Vincent [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Al-Omari, Husam [JWG Universitaet Frankfurt, IAP, Max von Laue Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Joost, Martin; Kroll, Florian; Cowan, Tom [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Irradiation of thin foils with high-intensity laser pulses became a reliable tool during the last decade for producing high-intensity proton bunches in about a pico-second from a sub-millimeter source. However, the energy distribution is of an exponential shape with a currently achievable cut-off energy <100 MeV (TNSA mechanism) and the beam is highly divergent with an energy-dependent envelope-divergence of up to 60 deg. Thus, for most applications it is necessary to be able to capture and control these protons as well as select a specific energy. In the frame of the LIGHT collaboration, experimental studies were done at the PHELIX laser at GSI Darmstadt using a pulsed high-field solenoid and alternatively a permanent magnet quadrupole triplet in order to match the beam for injection into a RF cavity. The beam was characterized at several distances after the source and the results are compared to particle tracking simulations.

  4. Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG)accelerators and their medical application in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourrier, J.

    2008-10-01

    Radiotherapy uses particle beams to irradiate and kill cancer tumors while sparing healthy tissues. Bragg peak shape of the proton energy loss in matter allows a ballistic improvement of the dose deposition compared with X rays. Thus, the irradiated volume can be precisely adjusted to the tumour. This thesis, in the frame of the RACCAM project, aims to the study and the design of a proton therapy installation based on a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator in order to build a spiral sector FFAG magnet for validation. First, we present proton therapy to define medical specifications leading to the technical specifications of a proton therapy installation. Secondly, we introduce FFAG accelerators through their past and on-going projects which are on their way around the world before developing the beam dynamic theories in the case of invariant focusing optics (scaling FFAG). We describe modelling and simulation tools developed to study the dynamics in a spiral scaling FFAG accelerator. Then we explain the spiral optic parameter search which has leaded to the construction of a magnet prototype. Finally, we describe the RACCAM project proton therapy installation starting from the injector cyclotron and ending with the extraction system. (author)

  5. Beam collimation and transport of quasineutral laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, K.; Alber, I.; Guenther, M.; Nuernberg, F.; Otten, A.; Schuetrumpf, J.; Roth, M.; Tauschwitz, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Daido, H.; Tampo, M.; Schollmeier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports about controlling laser-accelerated proton beams with respect to beam divergence and energy. The particles are captured by a pulsed high field solenoid with a magnetic field strength of 8.6 T directly behind a flat target foil that is irradiated by a high intensity laser pulse. Proton beams with energies around 2.3 MeV and particle numbers of 10 12 could be collimated and transported over a distance of more than 300 mm. In contrast to the protons the comoving electrons are strongly deflected by the solenoid field. They propagate at a submillimeter gyroradius around the solenoid's axis which could be experimentally verified. The originated high flux electron beam produces a high space charge resulting in a stronger focusing of the proton beam than expected by tracking results. Leadoff particle-in-cell simulations show qualitatively that this effect is caused by space charge attraction due to the comoving electrons. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications such as postacceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  6. Deep-penetration calculations in concrete and iron for shielding of proton therapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Chen, Yen-Fu; Lin, Uei-Tyng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Proton accelerators in the energy range of approximately 200 MeV have become increasingly popular for cancer treatment in recent years. These proton therapy facilities usually involve bulky concrete or iron in their shielding design or accelerator structure. Simple shielding data, such as source terms or attenuation lengths for various proton energies and materials are useful in designing accelerator shielding. Understanding the appropriateness or uncertainties associated with these data, which are largely generated from Monte Carlo simulations, is critical to the quality of a shielding design. This study demonstrated and investigated the problems of deep-penetration calculations on the estimation of shielding parameters through an extensive comparison between the FLUKA and MCNPX calculations for shielding against a 200-MeV proton beam hitting an iron target. Simulations of double-differential neutron production from proton bombardment were validated by comparison with experimental data. For the concrete shielding, the FLUKA calculated depth–dose distributions were consistent with the MCNPX results, except for some discrepancies in backward directions. However, for the iron shielding, if FLUKA is used inappropriately then overestimation of neutron attenuation can be expected as shown by this work because of the multigroup treatment for low-energy neutrons in FLUKA. Two neutron energy group structures, three degrees of self-shielding correction, and two iron compositions were considered in this study. Significant variation of the resulting attenuation lengths indicated the importance of problem-dependent multigroup cross sections and proper modeling of iron composition in deep-penetration calculations.

  7. Activation of the IFMIF prototype accelerator and beam dump by deuterons and protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simakov, S. P.; Bém, Pavel; Burjan, Václav; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R.A.; Götz, Miloslav; Honusek, Milan; Klein, H.; Kroha, Václav; Novák, Jan; Sauer, A.; Šimečková, Eva; Tiede, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 83, 10-12 (2008), s. 1543-1547 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : IFMIF * Protons and deuterons accelerator * Beam dump Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2008

  8. Acceleration of protons to above 6 MeV using H2O 'snow' nanowire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, I.; Schleifer, E.; Nahum, E.; Eisenmann, S.; Botton, M.; Gordon, D.; Sprangel, P.; Zigler, A.

    2012-01-01

    A scheme is presented for using H 2 O 'snow' nanowire targets for the generation of fast protons. This novel method may relax the requirements for very high laser intensities, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based ion acceleration system.

  9. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  10. AWAKE Design Report: A Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, A; Lotov, K; Muggli, P; Wing, M

    2013-01-01

    The AWAKE Collaboration has been formed in order to demonstrate proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time. This technology could lead to future colliders of high energy but of a much reduced length compared to proposed linear accelerators. The SPS proton beam in the CNGS facility will be injected into a 10m plasma cell where the long proton bunches will be modulated into significantly shorter micro-bunches. These micro-bunches will then initiate a strong wakefield in the plasma with peak fields above 1 GV/m that will be harnessed to accelerate a bunch of electrons from about 20MeV to the GeV scale within a few meters. The experimental program is based on detailed numerical simulations of beam and plasma interactions. The main accelerator components, the experimental area and infrastructure required as well as the plasma cell and the diagnostic equipment are discussed in detail. First protons to the experiment are expected at the end of 2015 and this will be followed by an initial 3–4 ye...

  11. Operational health physics at the Los Alamos meson physics proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The operational health physics practices and procedures at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), a medium energy, high intensity proton accelerator are reviewed. The operational philosophy used for the control of personnel exposures and radioactive materials is discussed. A particular operation involving the removal of a radioactive beam stop reading in excess of 1000 R/h is described

  12. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}accelerated by the light sail (LS mode can be further trapped and reflected by the snowplough potential generated by the laser in the near-critical density plasma. These two acceleration stages are connected by the onset of Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT instability. The usual ion energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  13. Source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. S.; Donets, D. E.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kutuzova, L. V.; Prokofichev, Yu V.; Shutov, V. B.; Turbabin, A. V.; Zubets, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The JINR atomic beam type polarized ion source is described. Results of tests of the plasma ionizer with a storage cell and of tuning of high frequency transition units are presented. The source was installed in a linac injector hall of NUCLOTRON in May 2016. The source has been commissioned and used in the NUCLOTRON runs in 2016 and February - March 2017. Polarized and unpolarized deuteron beams were produced as well as polarized protons for acceleration in the NUCLOTRON. Polarized deuteron beam with pulsed current up to 2 mA has been produced. Deuteron beam polarization of 0.6-0.9 of theoretical values for different modes of high frequency transition units operation has been measured with the NUCLOTRON ring internal polarimeter for the accelerated deuteron and proton beams.

  14. Microscopic models for proton transfer in water and strongly hydrogen-bonded complexes with a single-well proton potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    A new mechanism and formalism for proton transfer in donor-acceptor complexes with long hydrogen bonds introduced recently [1], is applied to a proton transfer in liquid water. "Structural diffusion" of hydroxonium ions is regarded as totally adiabatic process, with synchronous hindered translation...... of two closest water molecules to and from the reaction complex as crucial steps. The water molecules induce a "gated" shift of the proton from the donor to the acceptor in the double-well potential with simultaneous breaking/formation of hydrogen bonds between these molecules and the proton donor...... and acceptor. The short-range and long-range proton transfer as "structural diffusion" of Zundel complexes is also considered. The theoretical formalism is illustrated with the use of Morse, exponential, and harmonic molecular potentials. This approach is extended to proton transfer in strongly hydrogen...

  15. Collimated proton acceleration in light sail regime with a tailored pinhole target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. Y.; Zepf, M. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Yan, X. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A scheme for producing collimated protons from laser interactions with a diamond-like-carbon + pinhole target is proposed. The process is based on radiation pressure acceleration in the multi-species light-sail regime [B. Qiao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 155002 (2010); T. P. Yu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 065002 (2010)]. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that transverse quasistatic electric field at TV/m level can be generated in the pinhole. The transverse electric field suppresses the transverse expansion of protons effectively, resulting in a higher density and more collimated proton beam compared with a single foil target. The dependence of the proton beam divergence on the parameters of the pinhole is also investigated.

  16. Collimated proton acceleration in light sail regime with a tailored pinhole target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H. Y.; Zepf, M.; Yan, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A scheme for producing collimated protons from laser interactions with a diamond-like-carbon + pinhole target is proposed. The process is based on radiation pressure acceleration in the multi-species light-sail regime [B. Qiao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 155002 (2010); T. P. Yu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 065002 (2010)]. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that transverse quasistatic electric field at TV/m level can be generated in the pinhole. The transverse electric field suppresses the transverse expansion of protons effectively, resulting in a higher density and more collimated proton beam compared with a single foil target. The dependence of the proton beam divergence on the parameters of the pinhole is also investigated

  17. Application of International Linear Collider superconducting cavities for acceleration of protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beam acceleration in the International Linear Collider (ILC will be provided by 9-cell 1300 MHz superconducting (SC cavities. The cavities are designed for effective acceleration of charged particles moving with the speed of light and are operated on π-mode to provide a maximum accelerating gradient. A significant research and development effort has been devoted to develop ILC SC technology and its rf system which resulted in excellent performance of ILC cavities. Therefore, the proposed 8-GeV proton driver in Fermilab is based on ILC cavities above ∼1.2  GeV. The efficiency of proton beam acceleration by ILC cavities drops fast for lower velocities and it was proposed to develop squeezed ILC-type (S-ILC cavities operating at 1300 MHz and designed for β_{G}=0.81, geometrical beta, to accelerate protons or H^{-} from ∼420  MeV to 1.2 GeV. This paper discusses the possibility of avoiding the development of new β_{G}=0.81 cavities by operating ILC cavities on 8/9π-mode of standing wave oscillations.

  18. Three stages of the NICA accelerator complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekelidze, V.D.; Lednicky, R. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Matveev, V.A.; Sorin, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Meshkov, I.N.; Trubnikov, G.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Sankt-Petersburg State University, Sankt-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) project is under development at JINR (Dubna). The general goals of the project are to provide colliding beams for experimental studies of both hot and dense strongly interacting baryonic matter and spin physics (in collisions of polarized protons and deuterons). The first program will require the running of heavy-ion mode in the energy range of √(s{sub NN}) = 4-11 GeV at luminosities up to L = 1 . 10{sup 27} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for {sup 197}Au{sup 79} nuclei (see details in sect. 4). This stage of the project will be preceded by fixed target experiments with the heavy-ion beam to be extracted from the Nuclotron at kinetic energies up to 4.5 GeV/u. The polarized beam mode is proposed to be used in the energy range of √(s{sub NN}) = 12-27 GeV (protons) at luminosities up to 1 . 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This report contains a brief description of the facility scheme and characteristics in the heavy-ion operation mode, the description of the MultiPurpose Detector (MPD), and characteristics of the reactions of the colliding ions, which will allow us to detect the mixed phase formation. The plans and status of the project development are presented. (orig.)

  19. Final Report for 'Modeling Electron Cloud Diagnostics for High-Intensity Proton Accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.

    2009-01-01

    Electron clouds in accelerators such as the ILC degrade beam quality and limit operating efficiency. The need to mitigate electron clouds has a direct impact on the design and operation of these accelerators, translating into increased cost and reduced performance. Diagnostic techniques for measuring electron clouds in accelerating cavities are needed to provide an assessment of electron cloud evolution and mitigation. Accurate numerical modeling of these diagnostics is needed to validate the experimental techniques. In this Phase I, we developed detailed numerical models of microwave propagation through electron clouds in accelerating cavities with geometries relevant to existing and future high-intensity proton accelerators such as Project X and the ILC. Our numerical techniques and simulation results from the Phase I showed that there was a high probability of success in measuring both the evolution of electron clouds and the effects of non-uniform electron density distributions in Phase II.

  20. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the authors consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  1. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  2. Shielding design for the target room of the proton accelerator research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Mun, K. J.; Nam, J.; Kim, J. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developing a 100-MeV proton linear accelerator. Also, PEFP has been designing the Proton Accelerator Research Center (PARC). In the Accelerator Tunnel and Beam Experiment Hall in PARC, 10 target rooms for the 20- and 100-MeV beamline facilities exist in the Beam Experiment Hall. For the 100-MeV target rooms during 100-MeV proton beam extraction, a number of high energy neutrons, ranging up to 100-MeV, are produced. Because of the high beam current and space limitations of each target room, the shielding design of each target room should be considered seriously. For the shielding design of the 100-MeV target rooms of the PEFP, a permanent and removable local shield structure was adopted. To optimize shielding performance, we evaluated four different shield materials (concrete, HDPE, lead, iron). From the shielding calculation results, we confirmed that the proposed shielding design made it possible to keep the dose rate below the 'as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)' objective.

  3. Warp simulations for capture and control of laser-accelerated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, Frank; Harres, K; Roth, M; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Logan, B G; Schollmeier, M

    2010-01-01

    The capture of laser-accelerated proton beams accompanied by co-moving electrons via a solenoid field has been studied with particle-in-cell simulations. The main advantages of the Warp simulation suite that we have used, relative to envelope or tracking codes, are the possibility of including all source parameters energy resolved, adding electrons as second species and considering the non-negligible space-charge forces and electrostatic self-fields. It was observed that the influence of the electrons is of vital importance. The magnetic effect on the electrons outbalances the space-charge force. Hence, the electrons are forced onto the beam axis and attract protons. Beside the energy dependent proton density increase on axis, the change in the particle spectrum is also important for future applications. Protons are accelerated/decelerated slightly, electrons highly. 2/3 of all electrons get lost directly at the source and 27% of all protons hit the inner wall of the solenoid.

  4. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C R D [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Geissel, M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gregori, G, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  5. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C; Gregori, G; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Makita, M

    2010-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  6. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C R D; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Geissel, M; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Gregori, G

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  7. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum f. Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C; Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Makita, M, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  8. Warp simulations for capture and control of laser-accelerated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurnberg, F.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Harres, K.; Logan, B.G.; Schollmeier, M.; Roth, M.

    2009-01-01

    The capture of laser-accelerated proton beams accompanied by co-moving electrons via a solenoid field has been studied with particle-in-cell simulations. The main advantages of the Warp simulation suite that was used, relative to envelope or tracking codes, are the possibility of including all source parameters energy resolved, adding electrons as second species and considering the non-negligible space-charge forces and electrostatic self-fields. It was observed that the influence of the electrons is of vital importance. The magnetic effect on the electrons out balances the space-charge force. Hence, the electrons are forced onto the beam axis and attract protons. Besides the energy dependent proton density increase on axis, the change in the particle spectrum is also important for future applications. Protons are accelerated/decelerated slightly, electrons highly. 2/3 of all electrons get lost directly at the source and 27% of all protons hit the inner wall of the solenoid.

  9. Resonance proton scattering use for the beam parameters control of the electrostatic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Soroka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses peculiarities of the resonance proton scattering use for the beam parameters control of the electrostatic accelerators. The expediency of the use has been confirmed by experiment. Peculiarities are caused because elastic resonance scattering through the stage of compound nucleus is always accompanied by potential and Coulomb scattering. These three components interfere and for that reason the resonance form de-pends on a scattering angle and total angular moment of a compound nucleus level. However, possessing neces-sary information in the given field of nuclear spectroscopy enables the selection of resonance with the character-istics suitable for the calibration purpose. Considerable increase of the scattering cross section in the resonance region saves the time and simplifies the experiment technical maintenance. The experiments were performed at the 10 MeV tandem accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, after its modernization. Silicon and oxygen were used as the targets. Silicon targets were of two types of thickness: 1 the target of complete absorption, 2 the target with the thickness in which the loss of protons ener-gy exceeded the width of the selected resonance. The elastic and non elastic scattering from silicon were used in region of the 3,100 MeV proton energy resonance. Oxygen target, as component of the surface oxidizing layer on beryllium had the thickness which in terms of the loss of proton energy was less than the width of the selected elastic narrow resonance at 3,470 MeV proton energy. As result of the measurement the corrections concerning the energy scale of the accelerator and protons energy spread in the beam were proposed.

  10. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinigardi, Stefano, E-mail: sinigardi@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Bolton, Paul R. [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), Umemidai 8-1-7, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2014-03-11

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  11. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15 M €. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments.

  12. High quality proton beams from hybrid integrated laser-driven ion acceleration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Rossi, Francesco; Londrillo, Pasquale; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Bolton, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a hybrid acceleration scheme for protons where the laser generated beam is selected in energy and angle and injected into a compact linac, which raises the energy from 30 to 60 MeV. The laser acceleration regime is TNSA and the energy spectrum is determined by the cutoff energy and proton temperature. The dependence of the spectrum on the target properties and the incidence angle is investigated with 2D PIC simulations. We base our work on widely available technologies and on laser with a short pulse, having in mind a facility whose cost is approximately 15M€. Using a recent experiment as the reference, we choose the laser pulse and target so that the energy spectrum obtained from the 3D PIC simulation is close to the one observed, whose cutoff energy was estimated to be over 50 MeV. Laser accelerated protons in the TNSA regime have wide energy spectrum and broad divergence. In this paper we compare three transport lines, designed to perform energy selection and beam collimation. They are based on a solenoid, a quadruplet of permanent magnetic quadrupoles and a chicane. To increase the maximum available energy, which is actually seen as an upper limit due to laser properties and available targets, we propose to inject protons into a small linac for post-acceleration. The number of selected and injected protons is the highest with the solenoid and lower by one and two orders of magnitude with the quadrupoles and the chicane respectively. Even though only the solenoid enables achieving to reach a final intensity at the threshold required for therapy with the highest beam quality, the other systems will be very likely used in the first experiments. Realistic start-to-end simulations, as the ones reported here, are relevant for the design of such experiments

  13. Confinement of a high current proton beam in a linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerslick, G.S.; Roth, I.S.; Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A 1 MeV, 6 kA, 50 ns annular proton beam has been generated in a two stage induction linac. Several confinement systems designed to allow propagation through multiple acceleration stages have been studied. In the first, the beam is injected through a half cusp into a 1.4 T solenoidal magnetic field. In the second system the beam is generated in a full cusp diode. The third system discussed relies on collective confinement of the protons by the space charge of the neutralizing electrons. This is in contrast to the previously described systems which rely on magnetic confinement. A comparison between the three methods of transport is made

  14. A new target concept for proton accelerator driven boron neutron capture therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new target concept termed Discs Incorporating Sector Configured Orbiting Sources (DISCOS), is proposed for spallation applications, including BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy). In the BNCT application a proton beam impacts a sequence of ultra thin lithium DISCOS targets to generate neutrons by the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. The proton beam loses only a few keV of its ∼MeV energy as it passes through a given target, and is re-accelerated to its initial energy, by a DC electric field between the targets

  15. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  16. Accelerator Studies on a possible Experiment on Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefields at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Fartoukh, S; Geschonke, G; Goddard, B; Hessler, C; Hillenbrand, S; Meddahi, M; Roesler, S; Zimmermann, F; Caldwell, A; Muggli, P; Xia, G

    2011-01-01

    There has been a proposal by Caldwell et al to use proton beams as drivers for high energy linear colliders. An experimental test with CERN’s proton beams is being studied. Such a test requires a transfer line for transporting the beam to the experiment, a focusing section for beam delivery into the plasma, the plasma cell and a downstream diagnostics and dump section. The work done at CERN towards the conceptual layout and design of such a test area is presented. A possible development of such a test area into a CERN test facility for high-gradient acceleration experiments is discussed.

  17. Developing a clinical proton accelerator facility: Consortium-assisted technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.M.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A hospital-based proton accelerator facility has emerged from the efforts of a consortium of physicists, engineers and physicians from several high-energy physics laboratories, industries and universities, working together to develop the requirements and conceptual design for a clinical program. A variable-energy medical synchrotron for accelerating protons to a prescribed energy, intensity and beam quality, has been placed in a hospital setting at Loma Linda University Medical Center for treating patients with localized cancer. Treatments began in October 1990. Scientists from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory; Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories; the Paul Scherrer Institute; Uppsala, Sweden; Argonne, Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories; and Loma Linda University, all cooperated to produce the conceptual design. Loma Linda University contracted with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to design and build a 250 MeV synchrotron and beam transport system, the latter to guide protons into four treatment rooms. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories consulted with Loma Linda University on the design of the beam delivery system (nozzle). A gantry concept devised by scientists at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory, was adapted and fabricated by Science Applications International Corporation. The control and safety systems were designed and developed by Loma Linda University Radiation Research Laboratory. Presently, the synchrotron, beam transport system and treatment room hardware have been installed and tested and are operating satisfactorily

  18. Intermolecular proton transfer in anionic complexes of uracil with alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Radisic, Dunja; Stokes, Sarah T.; Bowen, Kit H.

    2005-01-01

    A series of eighteen alcohols (ROH) has been designed with an enthalpy of deprotonation (H DP ) in a range of 13.8-16.3 eV. The effects of excess electron attachment to the binary alcohol-uracil (ROH...U) complexes have been studied at the density functional level with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and at the second order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory level. The photoelectron spectra of anionic complexes of uracil with three alcohols (ethanol, 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoroethanol and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol) have been measured with 2.54 eV photons. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies larger than 14.8 eV only the ROH...U - minimum exists on the potential energy surface of the anionic complex. For alcohols with deprotonation enthalpies in a range of 14.3-14.8 eV two minima might exist on the anionic potential energy surface, which correspond to the RO - ...HU . and ROH...U - structures. For ROHs with deprotonation enthalpies smaller than 14.3 eV, the excess electron attachment to the ROH...U complex always induces a barrier-free proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of ROH to the O8 atom of U, with the product being RO - ...HU . . A driving force for the intermolecular proton transfer is to stabilize the excess negative charge localized on a orbital of uracil. Therefore, these complexes with proton transferred to the anionic uracil are characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy (VDE). The values of VDE for anionic complexes span a range from 1.0 to 2.3 eV and roughly correlate with the acidity of alcohols. However, there is a gap of ∼0.5 eV in the values of VDE, which separates the two families, ROH...U - and RO - ...HU . , of anionic complexes. The energy of stabilization for the anionic complexes spans a range from 0.6 to 1.7 eV and roughly correlates with the acidity of alcohols. The measured photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions

  19. Saturne II: characteristics of the proton beam, field qualities and corrections, acceleration of the polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclare, J.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Indicated specifications of Saturne II are summed up: performance of the injection system, quality of the guidance field (magnetic measurements and multipolar corrections), transverse and longitudinal instabilities, characteristics of the beam stored in the machine and of the extracted beam. The problem of depolarization along the acceleration cycle is briefly discussed (1 or 2% between injection and 3 GeV) [fr

  20. New scheme for the design and operation of proton--proton storage accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.; Herrera, J.; Humphrey, J.; Marx, M.; Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new system is presented for storage accelerating rings which allows many options for operation. During injection, acceleration, and collision, the beams are maintained in the form of azimuthally long bunches. Current is built up in a low-energy, small circumference accumulator ring. Injection into the storage accelerators is carried out with the bunches phased so that they do not collide. The rf buckets can be matched to the incoming long bunches with only a small dilution. Operation of the storage rings consists of: (1) accelerating the formed bunches to any desired energy; and (2) bringing the bunches into collision by relative phasing of the rf in the two rings. This system provides considerable simplification in the design and operation of high energy p-p facilities. For example, it reduces the beam stacking time, relaxes the impedance tolerances relating to longitudinal stability, reduces the aperture utilization, and avoids radiation background problems associated with beam manipulations. A prototype design is considered, using as a basis the parameters of the ISABELLE facility. Performance characteristics and operational procedures are presented. The many advantages related to the machine and experimental aspects are discussed. In particular, cycling the energy during collisions is an interesting option. Lastly, the significance of extending such a facility to higher energy p-p collisions is outlined

  1. Ring-like spatial distribution of laser accelerated protons in the ultra-high-contrast TNSA-regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G. A.; Tietze, S.; Keppler, S.; Reislöhner, J.; Bin, J. H.; Bock, L.; Brack, F.-E.; Hein, J.; Hellwing, M.; Hilz, P.; Hornung, M.; Kessler, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Kuschel, S.; Liebetrau, H.; Ma, W.; Polz, J.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schorcht, F.; Schwab, M. B.; Seidel, A.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Zepf, M.; Schreiber, J.; Rykovanov, S.; Kaluza, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    The spatial distribution of protons accelerated from submicron-thick plastic foil targets using multi-terawatt, frequency-doubled laser pulses with ultra-high temporal contrast has been investigated experimentally. A very stable, ring-like beam profile of the accelerated protons, oriented around the target’s normal direction has been observed. The ring’s opening angle has been found to decrease with increasing foil thicknesses. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reproduce our results indicating that the ring is formed during the expansion of the proton density distribution into the vacuum as described by the mechanism of target-normal sheath acceleration. Here—in addition to the longitudinal electric fields responsible for the forward acceleration of the protons—a lateral charge separation leads to transverse field components accelerating the protons in the lateral direction.

  2. Advanced low-beta cavity development for proton and ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, Z.A., E-mail: zconway@anl.gov; Kelly, M.P.; Ostroumov, P.N.

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in designing and processing low-beta superconducting cavities at Argonne National Laboratory are very encouraging for future applications requiring compact proton and ion accelerators. One of the major benefits of these accelerating structures is achieving real-estate accelerating gradients greater than 3 MV/m very efficiently either continuously or for long-duty cycle operation (>1%). The technology has been implemented in low-beta accelerator cryomodules for the Argonne ATLAS heavy-ion linac where the cryomodules are required to have real-estate gradients of more than 3 MV/m. In offline testing low-beta cavities with even higher gradients have already been achieved. This paper will review this work where we have achieved surface fields greater than 166 mT magnetic and 117 MV/m electric in a 72 MHz quarter-wave resonator optimized for β = 0.077 ions.

  3. Advanced low-beta cavity development for proton and ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, Z. A.; Kelly, M. P.; Ostroumov, P. N.

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments in designing and processing low-beta superconducting cavities at Argonne National Laboratory are very encouraging for future applications requiring compact proton and ion accelerators. One of the major benefits of these accelerating structures is achieving real-estate accelerating gradients greater than 3 MV/m very efficiently either continuously or for long-duty cycle operation (>1%). The technology has been implemented in low-beta accelerator cryomodules for the Argonne ATLAS heavy-ion linac where the cryomodules are required to have real-estate gradients of more than 3 MV/m. In offline testing low-beta cavities with even higher gradients have already been achieved. This paper will review this work where we have achieved surface fields greater than 166 mT magnetic and 117 MV/m electric in a 72 MHz quarter-wave resonator optimized for beta = 0.077 ions.

  4. Characterization of Crystals for Steering of Protons through Channelling in Hadronic Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, V; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Carnera, A; Chesnokov, Yu A; Della Mea, G; De Salvador, D; Fiorini, M; Ivanov, Y M; Martinelli, G; Mazzolari, A; Milan, E; Milan, R; Sambo, A; Scandale, Walter; Todros, S; Vomiero, A

    2006-01-01

    Channeling of relativistic particles through a crystal may be useful for many applications in accelerators, and particularly for collimation in hadronic colliders. Efficiency proved to be dependent on the state of the crystal surface and hence on the method used for preparation. We investigated the morphology and structure of the surface of the samples that have been used in accelerators with high efficiency. We found that crystal fabrication by only mechanical methods (dicing, lapping, and others) leads to a superficial damaged layer, which is correlated to performance limitation in accelerators. A planar chemical etching was studied and applied in order to remove the superficial damaged layer. RBS channeling analysis with low-energy protons and 4He+ highlighted better crystal perfection at surface, as a result of the etching. A protocol for preparation and characterization of crystal for channelling has been developed, which may be of interest for reliable operation with crystals in accelerators.

  5. Advanced low-beta cavity development for proton and ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Z.A.; Kelly, M.P.; Ostroumov, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in designing and processing low-beta superconducting cavities at Argonne National Laboratory are very encouraging for future applications requiring compact proton and ion accelerators. One of the major benefits of these accelerating structures is achieving real-estate accelerating gradients greater than 3 MV/m very efficiently either continuously or for long-duty cycle operation (>1%). The technology has been implemented in low-beta accelerator cryomodules for the Argonne ATLAS heavy-ion linac where the cryomodules are required to have real-estate gradients of more than 3 MV/m. In offline testing low-beta cavities with even higher gradients have already been achieved. This paper will review this work where we have achieved surface fields greater than 166 mT magnetic and 117 MV/m electric in a 72 MHz quarter-wave resonator optimized for β = 0.077 ions

  6. An experimental accelerator driven system based on plutonium subcritical assembly and 660 MeV protons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Polanski, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a Plutonium Based Energy Amplifier Testing Concept, which employs a plutonium subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the JINR Laboratory of Nuclear Problems. Fuel designed for the pulsed neutron source IREN (Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR) will be adopted for the core of the assembly. To make the present conceptual design of the Plutonium Energy Amplifier we have chosen a nominal unit capacity of 20 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient K eff ranging between 0.94 and 0.95 and the energetic gain about 20. Accelerated current is in the range of 1-1.6μA

  7. Study of measurement method of tritium induced in concrete of high-energy proton accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, N.; Ishihama, S.; Kunifuda, T.; Hayasaka, N.; Miura, T.

    2001-01-01

    Various long-loved radionuclides, 3 H, 7 Be, 22 Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Co, 57 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 152 Eu and 154 Eu, have been produced in the shielding concrete of high energy proton accelerator facility through both nuclear spallation reactions and thermal neutron capture reactions of concrete elements, during machine operation. Tritium is the most important nuclide from the radiation protection. There were, however, few measurements of tritium concentration induced in the shielding concrete. In this study, the conditions of measurement method of tritium concentration induced in shielding concrete have been investigated using the activated shielding concrete of the 12 GeV proton beam-line tunnel at KEK and the standard rock (JG-1) irradiated of thermal neutron at the reactor. And the depth profiles of tritium induced in the shielding concrete of slow extracted proton beam line at KEK were determined using this method. (author)

  8. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  9. Acceleration of polarized protons and deuterons in the ion collider ring of JLEIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu N.; Derbenev, Ya S.; Lin, F.; Morozov, V. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The figure-8-shaped ion collider ring of Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is transparent to the spin. It allows one to preserve proton and deuteron polarizations using weak stabilizing solenoids when accelerating the beam up to 100 GeV/c. When the stabilizing solenoids are introduced into the collider’s lattice, the particle spins precess about a spin field, which consists of the field induced by the stabilizing solenoids and the zero-integer spin resonance strength. During acceleration of the beam, the induced spin field is maintained constant while the resonance strength experiences significant changes in the regions of “interference peaks”. The beam polarization depends on the field ramp rate of the arc magnets. Its component along the spin field is preserved if acceleration is adiabatic. We present the results of our theoretical analysis and numerical modeling of the spin dynamics during acceleration of protons and deuterons in the JLEIC ion collider ring. We demonstrate high stability of the deuteron polarization in figure-8 accelerators. We analyze a change in the beam polarization when crossing the transition energy.

  10. Report of the advisory group meeting on the utilization of particle accelerators for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    Accelerated protons and light ions, being electrically charged and much heavier than electrons, have definite ranges in tissue with distinct Bragg peak with sharp distal falloffs and sharp lateral dose penumbra. Radiations oncologists could take advantage of these characteristics to deposit a high dose in an irregularly shaped tumor volume while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues and critical organs. This could lead to enhanced tumor control with reduced complications. The Advisory Group has recommended a number of measures to promote and support the spread of medically dedicated particle accelerator facilities and technology

  11. An accelerated beam-plasma neutron/proton source and early application of a fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hoshino, C.; Masuda, K.; Miley, G.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; Gu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We measured the number of the neutrons and protons produced by D-D reactions in an accelerated beam-plasma fusion and curried out the numerical simulations. The linear dependence of the neutron yield on a discharge current indicates that the fusion reactions occur between the background gas and the fast particles. i.e. charge exchanged neutrals and accelerated ions. The neutron yield divided by (fusion cross section x ion current x neutral gas pressure) still possesses the dependence of the 1.2 power of discharge voltage. which shows the fusion reactions are affected by the electrostatic potential built-up in the center. The measured proton birth profiles suggest the existence of a double potential well, which is supported by the numerical simulations. (author)

  12. Proton acceleration: new developments for focusing and energy selection, and applications in plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, P.

    2007-11-01

    In the last few years, intense research has been conducted on laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications. These sources have exceptional properties, i.e. high brightness and high spectral cut-off, high directionality and laminarity, short burst duration. We have shown that for proton energies >10 MeV, the transverse and longitudinal emittance are respectively example point-projection radiography with unprecedented resolution. We will show example of such time and space-resolved radiography of fast evolving fields, either of associated with the expansion of a plasma in vacuum [*] or with the propagation of a ICF-relevant laser beam in an underdense plasma. These proton sources also open new opportunities for ion beam generation and control, and could stimulate development of compact ion accelerators for many applications.

  13. LS1 Report: across the accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    The warm-up of the first LHC sector (5-6) is now complete; it is at room temperature for the first time in over three years. Next week, the W bellows in this sector will be opened in preparation for the consolidation of the superconducting circuits, splices and interconnections (the SMACC project). Elsewhere in the LHC, the ELQA tests and the warm-up of the remaining seven sectors are proceeding as planned.   Vacuum leak tests are performed on the magnets before the LHC is brought up to ambient temperature. The SPS magnet test programme was completed on 26 March and work has already begun in the SPS tunnel. Among the activities being carried out is the installation of 16 specially coated vacuum chambers in the SPS main dipole magnets around BA5. The first of these dipole magnets were removed from the SPS tunnel today, Friday 5 April. By reducing the build-up of electron clouds around the LHC beam during acceleration in the SPS, this activity will play a key role in the increase of LHC beam in...

  14. Software Accelerates Computing Time for Complex Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ames Research Center awarded Newark, Delaware-based EM Photonics Inc. SBIR funding to utilize graphic processing unit (GPU) technology- traditionally used for computer video games-to develop high-computing software called CULA. The software gives users the ability to run complex algorithms on personal computers with greater speed. As a result of the NASA collaboration, the number of employees at the company has increased 10 percent.

  15. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Stiller, N.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Karsch, L.; Schürer, M.; Pawelke, J.; Richter, C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate (∼10 Hz), high power (∼100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of ∼1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  16. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, J; Karsch, L; Kraft, S D; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Schürer, M; Sobiella, M; Stiller, N; Zeil, K; Schramm, U

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate (~10 Hz), high power (~100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of ~1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  17. Study and optimization of a LINAC drift tube for high intensity proton acceleration; Etude et optimisation d'un LINAC a tubes de glissement pour acceleration de forts courants de protons en continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaudin, P.E

    2002-09-01

    High intensity proton accelerators lead to specific problems related to the need to limit beam losses. The problem is more acute in the low energy part (up to 20 MeV) where the beam transport is the most difficult. The drift tube linac (DTL) remains the reference structure for energies of a few MeV to a few dozens MeV despite the arising of some new cavity types. This thesis purpose is to design such a DTL for a high intensity proton accelerator. Until now, no such continuous wave cavity has ever been operated. To ensure the viability of such an accelerator, a short four cells prototype is designed, built and tested under nominal RF conditions. This prototype is fully representative of a complete machine except for its length. The design complexity comes from the combination of RF electromagnetism, thermal exchanges, mechanics, ultra-vacuum engineering and manufacturing constraints. More specifically, the electromagnets alignment is a primary factor, and reliability, despite being usually of secondary importance in particles accelerator science, is here a major concern considering potential industrial applications of this machine. The prototype design includes the cavity itself, but also quadrupole electromagnets whose feasibility is a limiting factor, considering the very small space available to them. Two different magnet types and associated drift tubes are studied and manufactured, to be tested in the prototype cavity. The experimental part is focused on mechanical and thermal aspects. The electromagnetic properties of the cavity are also checked. As a conclusion of this thesis, technical and conceptual improvements as suggested by the manufacturing and experimental phases are presented, to be implemented in a complete cavity. (author)

  18. Real time data acquisition system for the High Current Test Facility proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlais, C.E.; Erickson, P.D.; Caissie, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    A real time data acquisition system was developed to monitor and control the High Current Test Facility Proton Accelerator. It is a PDP-8/E computer system with virtual memory capability that is fully interrupt driven and operates under a real-time, multi-tasking executive. The application package includes mode selection to automatically modify programs and optimize operation under varying conditions. (U.S.)

  19. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length ap...

  20. Core characteristics on a hybrid type fast reactor system combined with proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowata, Yasuki; Otsubo, Akira

    1997-06-01

    In our study on a hybrid fast reactor system, we have investigated it from the view point of transmutation ability of trans-uranium (TRU) nuclide making the most effective use of special features (controllability, hard neutron spectrum) of the system. It is proved that a proton beam is superior in generation of neutrons compared with an electron beam. Therefore a proton accelerator using spallation reaction with a target nucleus has an advantage to transmutation of TRU than an electron one. A fast reactor is expected to primarily have a merit that the reactor can be operated for a long term without employment of highly enriched plutonium fuel by using external neutron source such as the proton accelerator. Namely, the system has a desirable characteristic of being possible to self-sustained fissile plutonium. Consequently in the present report, core characteristics of the system were roughly studied by analyses using 2D-BURN code. The possibility of self-sustained fuel was investigated from the burnup and neutronic calculation in a cylindrical core with 300w/cc of power density without considering a target material region for the accelerator. For a reference core of which the height and the radius are both 100 cm, there is a fair prospect that a long term reactor operation is possible with subsequent refueling of natural uranium, if the medium enriched (around 10wt%) uranium or plutonium fuels are fully loaded in the initial core. More precise analyses will be planed in a later fiscal year. (author)

  1. Enhanced proton acceleration by ultrashort laser pulse interaction with nanostructured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Angana; Dalui, Malay; Tata, Sheroy; Sarkar, Subhrangshu; Jha, Jagannath; Lad, Amit; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ayyub, P.; Wang, W m; Sheng, Z m

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of local electromagnetic field in nanostructured targets as opposed to plain polished targets has been experimentally observed and studied. This increase in field strength leads to enhanced hot electron generation, which gives rise to highly energetic ions through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. As the laser energy coupled to the electrons increases, the sheath magnitude is expected to increase, leading to an enhancement in ion acceleration. We investigate energy enhancements in ions generated as a result of intense femtosecond laser interaction with nanostructured thin film targets, comprising 2 μm Ta foil coated with 100-200 nm diameter Ta clusters. The optimum nanoparticle size of 100 nm corresponding to maximum laser energy absorption has been predetermined through PIC simulations. The accelerated ions have been studied using Thompson parabola spectrometer at a laser intensity of 15 x 10 19 W/cm 2 at the TIFR high contrast 100 TW Ti:Sapphire laser facility. The proton cut-off energy is observed to increase rapidly with increasing cluster density till a saturation is reached. The enhancement in the proton cut-off energy is observed to be three-fold as compared to the proton cut-off energy for unstructured foils. (author)

  2. EBT-XD Radiochromic Film Sensitivity Calibrations Using Proton Beams from a Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler, Barak; Grun, Alexander; Brown, Gunnar; Klein, Matthew; Wood, Jacob; Cooper, Anthony; Ward, Ryan; Freeman, Charlie; Padalino, Stephen; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is a transparent detector film that permanently changes color following exposure to ionizing radiation. RCF is used frequently in medical applications, but also has been used in a variety of high energy density physics diagnostics. RCF is convenient to use because it requires no chemical processing and can be scanned using commercially available document scanners. In this study, the sensitivity of Gafchromic™ EBT-XD RCF to protons and x-rays was measured. Proton beams produced by the SUNY Geneseo Pelletron accelerator were directed into an evacuated target chamber where they scattered off a thin gold foil. The scattered protons were incident on a sample of RCF which subtended a range of angles around the scattering center. A new analysis method, which relies on the variation in scattered proton fluence as a function of scattering angle in accordance with the Rutherford scattering law, is currently being developed to speed up the proton calibrations. Samples of RCF were also exposed to x-ray radiation using an X-RAD 160 x-ray irradiator, allowing the sensitivity of RCF to X-rays to be measured. This work was funded in part by a Grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics as well as the NSF.

  3. Neutron and photon dose assessment in Indus accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Dimple; Haridas Nair, G.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathy, R.M.; Pal, Rupali; Bakshi, A.K.; Palani Selvam, T.; Datta, D.

    2016-02-01

    Indus Accelerator Complex (IAC) consists of 20 MeV Microtron, 450/550 MeV Booster, 450 MeV Indus-1 and 2.5 GeV Indus-2 storage rings. The radiation environment in Indus Accelerator Complex comprises of bremsstrahlung photons, electrons, positrons, photo neutrons and muons, out of which, bremsstrahlung photons are the major constituent of the prompt radiation. Major problem faced for on-line detection of neutrons is their severely pulsed nature. In the present study, measurement of neutron and photon dose rates in Indus Accelerator Complex was carried out using passive dosimeters such as CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and CaSO 4 :Dy Teflon disc, 6 LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD 600) and 7 LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD 700) based thermo luminescent (TL) detectors. The report describes the details of the measurement and discusses the results. (author)

  4. Structural activation calculations due to proton beam loss in the APT accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Beard, C. A.; Wilson, W. B.; Daemen, L. L.; Liska, D. J.; Waters, L. S.; Adams, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    For the new, high-power accelerators currently being designed, the amount of activation of the accelerator structure has become an important issue. To quantify this activation, a methodology was utilized that coupled transport and depletion codes to obtain dose rate estimates at several locations near the accelerator. This research focused on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube Linear Accelerator. The peak dose rate was found to be approximately 6 mR/hr in the 100 MeV section near the quadrupoles at a 25-cm radius for an assumed beam loss of 1 nA/m. It was determined that the activation was dominated by the proton interactions and subsequent spallation product generation, as opposed to the presence of the generated neutrons. The worst contributors were the spallation products created by proton bombardment of iron, and the worst component was the beam pipe, which consists mostly of iron. No definitive conclusions about the feasibility of hands-on maintenance can be determined, as the design is still not finalized

  5. Structural activation calculations due to proton beam loss in the APT accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Beard, C.A.; Wilson, W.B.; Daemen, L.L.; Liska, D.J.; Waters, L.S.; Adams, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    For the new, high-power accelerators currently being designed, the amount of activation of the accelerator structure has become an important issue. To quantify this activation, a methodology was utilized that coupled transport and depletion codes to obtain dose rate estimates at several locations near the accelerator. This research focused on the 20 and 100 MeV sections of the Bridge-Coupled Drift Tube Linear Accelerator. The peak dose rate was found to be approximately 6 mR/hr in the 100 MeV section near the quadrupoles at a 25-cm radius for an assumed beam loss of 1 nA/m. It was determined that the activation was dominated by the proton interactions and subsequent spallation product generation, as opposed to the presence of the generated neutrons. The worst contributors were the spallation products created by proton bombardment of iron, and the worst component was the beam pipe, which consists mostly of iron. No definitive conclusions about the feasibility of hands-on maintenance can be determined, as the design is still not finalized

  6. Final environmental impact statement. Proton--Proton Storage Accelerator Facility (ISABELLE), Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed research facility (ISABELLE) to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is presented. It was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) following guidelines issued for such analyses. In keeping with DOE policy, this statement presents a concise and issues-oriented analysis of the significant environmental effects associated with the proposed action. ISABELLE is a proposed physics research facility where beams of protons collide providing opportunities to study high energy interactions. The facility would provide two interlaced storage ring proton accelerators, each with an energy up to 400 GeV intersecting in six experimental areas. The rings are contained in a tunnel with a circumference of 3.8 km (2.3 mi). The facility will occupy 250 ha (625 acres) in the NW corner of the existing BNL site. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for this proposed facility was issued for public review and comment by DOE on February 21, 1978. The principal areas of concern expressed were in the areas of radiological impacts and preservation of cultural values. After consideration of these comments, appropriate actions were taken and the text of the statement has been amended to reflect the comments. The text was annotated to indicate the origin of the comment. The Appendices contain a glossary of terms and listings of metric prefixes and conversions and symbols and abbreviations

  7. Injector and beam transport simulation study of proton dielectric wall accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Quantang; Yuan, P.; Zhang, Z.M.; Cao, S.C; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y.; Ma, Y.Y.; Yu, C.S.; Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q.; Zhao, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    A simulation study of a short-pulsed proton injector for, and beam transport in, a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been carried out using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code Warp. It was shown that applying “tilt pulse” voltage waveforms on three electrodes enables the production of a shorter bunch by the injector. The fields in the DWA beam tube were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology’s Microwave Studio (CST MWS) package, with various choices for the boundary conditions. For acceleration in the DWA, the beam transport was simulated with Warp, using applied fields obtained by running CST MWS. Our simulations showed that the electric field at the entrance to the DWA represents a challenging issue for the beam transport. We thus simulated a configuration with a mesh at the entrance of the DWA, intended to improve the entrance field. In these latter simulations, a proton bunch was successfully accelerated from 130 keV to about 36 MeV in a DWA with a length of 36.75 cm. As the beam bunch progresses, its transverse dimensions diminish from (roughly) 0.5×0.5 cm to 0.2×0.4 cm. The beam pulse lengthens from 1 cm to 2 cm due to lack of longitudinal compression fields. -- Highlights: ► A pulse proton injector with tilt voltages on the three electrodes was simulated. ► The fields in different part of the DWA were simulated with CST and analyzed. ► The proton beam transport in DWA was simulated with Warp successfully. ► The simulation can help for designing a real DWA.

  8. Development of the heat sink structure of a beam dump for the proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Gil, C. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    The beam dump is the essential component for the good beam quality and the reliable performance of the proton accelerator. The beam dump for a 20 MeV and 20 mA proton accelerator was designed and manufactured in this study. The high heats deposited, and the large amount of radioactivity produced in beam dump should be reduced by the proper heat sink structure. The heat source by the proton beam of 20 MeV and 20 mA was calculated. The radioactivity assessments of the beam dump were carried out for the economic shielding design with safety. The radioactivity by the protons and secondary neutrons in designed beam dump were calculated in this sturdy. The effective engineering design for the beam dump cooling was performed, considering the mitigation methods of the deposited heats with small angle, the power densities with the stopping ranges in the materials and the heat distributions in the beam dump. The heat sink structure of the beam dump was designed to meet the accelerator characteristics by placing two plates of 30 cm by 60 cm at an angle of 12 degree. The highest temperatures of the graphite, copper, and copper faced by cooling water were designed to be 223 degree, 146 degree, and 85 degree, respectively when the velocity of cooling water was 3 m/s. The heat sink structure was manufactured by the brazing graphite tiles to a copper plate with the filler alloy of Ti-Cu-Ag. The brazing procedure was developed. The tensile stress of the graphite was less than 75% of a maximum tensile stress during the accelerator operation based on the analysis. The safety analyses for the commissioning of the accelerator operation were also performed. The specimens from the brazed parts of beam dump structure were made to identify manufacturing problems. The soundness of the heat sink structure of the beam dump was confirmed by the fatigue tests of the brazed specimens of the graphite-copper tile components with the repetitive heating and cooling. The heat sink structure developed

  9. Design of a non-scaling FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Keil, E.; Neskovic, N.; Belgrade, Vinca; Sessler, A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been a revival of interest in Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerators. In Japan a number have been built, or are under construction. A new non-scaling approach to the FFAG reduces the required orbit offsets during acceleration and the size of the required aperture, while maintaining the advantage of the low cost magnets associated with fixed fields. An advantage of the non-scaling FFAG accelerator, with respect to synchrotrons, is the fixed field and hence the possibility of high current and high repetition rate for spot scanning. There are possible advantages of the nonscaling design with respect to fixed-field cyclotrons. The non-scaling FFAG allows strong focusing and hence smaller aperture requirements compared to scaling designs, thus leading to very low losses and better control over the beam. We present, here, a non-scaling FFAG designed to be used for proton therapy

  10. A study on the development plan and preliminary design of proton accelerator for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Choi, B H; Park, C K; Chung, K S. and others

    1997-11-01

    A study on the development plan and preliminary design for the realisation of high current proton accelerator to be used as an essential component for the R and D of accelerator-driven system (ADS) for energy production and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides. Various fields of application of the accelerator such as basic nuclear physics, material science, biology, high energy physics, medicine, etc. were also investigated. From the preliminary design study, 1 GeV (20 mA) - Linac is required for the purposed of transmutation and energy production. Specification of injector, RFQ, CCTL and SL was also suggested. For the case study, a duoplasmatron ion source was designed by KAERI and fabricated by a domestic manufacturer, and the performance was also tested. (author). 71 refs., 61 tabs., 131 figs

  11. Research programme for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Buttseva, G.L.; Dudarev, S.Yu.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO 2 + 75% UO 2 ) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k eff = 0.945, energetic gain G=30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW

  12. ELECTROMAGNETIC AND THERMAL SIMULATIONS FOR THE SWITCH REGION OF A COMPACT PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Sullivan, J S

    2007-01-01

    A compact proton accelerator for medical applications is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The accelerator architecture is based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) concept. One critical area to consider is the switch region. Electric field simulations and thermal calculations of the switch area were performed to help determine the operating limits of rmed SiC switches. Different geometries were considered for the field simulation including the shape of the thin Indium solder meniscus between the electrodes and SiC. Electric field simulations were also utilized to demonstrate how the field stress could be reduced. Both transient and steady steady-state thermal simulations were analyzed to find the average power capability of the switches

  13. Absolute calibration of a time-of-flight spectrometer and imaging plate for the characterization of laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I W; Kim, C M; Sung, J H; Kim, I J; Yu, T J; Lee, S K; Jin, Y-Y; Pae, K H; Hafz, N; Lee, J

    2009-01-01

    A proton energy spectrometer system is composed of a time-of-flight spectrometer (TOFS) and a Thomson parabola spectrometer (TPS), and is used to characterize laser-accelerated protons. The TOFS detects protons with a plastic scintillator, and the TPS with a CR-39 or imaging plate (IP). The two spectrometers can operate simultaneously and give separate time-of-flight (TOF) and Thomson parabola (TP) data. We propose a method to calibrate the TOFS and IP by comparing the TOF data and the TP data taken with CR-39 and IP. The absolute response of the TOFS as a function of proton energy is calculated from the proton number distribution measured with CR-39. The sensitivity of IP to protons is obtained from the proton number distribution estimated with the calibrated TOFS. This method, based on the comparison of the simultaneously measured data, gives more reliable results when using laser-accelerated protons as a calibration source. The calibrated spectrometer system can be used to measure absolutely calibrated energy spectra for the optimization of laser-accelerated protons

  14. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cipiccia, S.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fonseca, R.A.; Goddard, B.; Gross, M.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jolly, S.; Kempkes, P.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.R.; McKenzie, J.W.; Meddahi, M.; Militsyn, B.L.; Moschuering, N.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.A.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Petrenko, A.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Reimann, O.; Ruhl, H.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Silva, L.O.; Sosedkin, A.; Tarkeshian, R.; Trines, R.M.G.N.; Tuckmantel, T.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN -- the AWAKE experiment -- has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  15. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R; Gross, M; Bingham, R; Holloway, J; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Butterworth, A; Feldbaumer, E; Goddard, B; Gschwendtner, E; Buttenschön, B; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Jaroszynski, D; Fonseca, R A; Grulke, O; Kempkes, P; Huang, C; Jolly, S

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN—the AWAKE experiment—has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. (paper)

  16. submitter Radiation Protection Studies for CERN LINAC4/SPL Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio; Silari, Marco

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H$^-$ linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This thesis summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed 1) to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, 2) to estimate the radiological i...

  17. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gencer, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between View the MathML source10μA and View the MathML source1.2mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam ...

  18. Physics and Novel Schemes of Laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration for Quasi-monoenergetic Proton Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chuan S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Shao, Xi [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The main objective of our work is to provide theoretical basis and modeling support for the design and experimental setup of compact laser proton accelerator to produce high quality proton beams tunable with energy from 50 to 250 MeV using short pulse sub-petawatt laser. We performed theoretical and computational studies of energy scaling and Raleigh--Taylor instability development in laser radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) and developed novel RPA-based schemes to remedy/suppress instabilities for high-quality quasimonoenergetic proton beam generation as we proposed. During the project period, we published nine peer-reviewed journal papers and made twenty conference presentations including six invited talks on our work. The project supported one graduate student who received his PhD degree in physics in 2013 and supported two post-doctoral associates. We also mentored three high school students and one undergraduate student of physics major by inspiring their interests and having them involved in the project.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF 27 MEV PROTON BEAM GENERATED BY TOP-IMPLART LINEAR ACCELERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, C; Ampollini, A; Basile, E; Cisbani, E; Della Monaca, S; Ghio, F; Montereali, R M; Picardi, L; Piccinini, M; Placido, C; Ronsivalle, C; Soriani, A; Strigari, L; Trinca, E; Vadrucci, M

    2018-01-29

    The first proton linear accelerator for tumor therapy based on an actively scanned beam up to the energy of 150 MeV, is under development and construction by ENEA-Frascati, ISS and IFO, under the Italian TOP-IMPLART project. Protons up to the energy of 7 MeV are generated by a customized commercial injector operating at 425 MHz; currently three accelerating modules allow proton delivery with energy up to 27 MeV. Beam homogeneity and reproducibility were studied using a 2D ionizing chamber, EBT3 films, a silicon diode, MOSFETs, LiF crystals and alanine dosimetry systems. Measurements were taken in air with the detectors at ~1 m from the beam line exit window. The maximum energy impinging on the detectors surface was 24.1 MeV, an energy suitable for radiobiological studies. Results showed beam reproducibility within 5% and homogeneity within 4%, on a circular surface of 16 mm in diameter. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  1. Improved spectral data unfolding for radiochromic film imaging spectroscopy of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M.; Sefkow, A. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Flippo, K. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    An improved method to unfold the space-resolved proton energy distribution function of laser-accelerated proton beams using a layered, radiochromic film (RCF) detector stack has been developed. The method takes into account the reduced RCF response near the Bragg peak due to a high linear energy transfer (LET). This LET dependence of the active RCF layer has been measured, and published data have been re-interpreted to find a nonlinear saturation scaling of the RCF response with stopping power. Accounting for the LET effect increased the integrated particle yield by 25% after data unfolding. An iterative, analytical, space-resolved deconvolution of the RCF response functions from the measured dose was developed that does not rely on fitting. After the particle number unfold, three-dimensional interpolation is performed to determine the spatial proton beam distribution for proton energies in-between the RCF data points. Here, image morphing has been implemented as a novel interpolation method that takes into account the energy-dependent, changing beam topology.

  2. The database for accelerator control in the CERN PS Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a database started 7 years ago and is an effort to separate logic from data so that programs and routines can do a larger number of operations on data structures without knowing a priori the contents of these structures. It is of great help in coping with the complexities of a system controlling many linked accelerators and storage rings

  3. Development of superconducting crossbar-H-mode cavities for proton and ion accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dziuba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crossbar-H-mode (CH structure is the first superconducting multicell drift tube cavity for the low and medium energy range operated in the H_{21} mode. Because of the large energy gain per cavity, which leads to high real estate gradients, it is an excellent candidate for the efficient acceleration in high power proton and ion accelerators with fixed velocity profile. A prototype cavity has been developed and tested successfully with a gradient of 7  MV/m. A few new superconducting CH cavities with improved geometries for different high power applications are under development at present. One cavity (f=325  MHz, β=0.16, seven cells is currently under construction and studied with respect to a possible upgrade option for the GSI UNILAC. Another cavity (f=217  MHz, β=0.059, 15 cells is designed for a cw operated energy variable heavy ion linac application. Furthermore, the EUROTRANS project (European research program for the transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system, 600 MeV protons, 352 MHz is one of many possible applications for this kind of superconducting rf cavity. In this context a layout of the 17 MeV EUROTRANS injector containing four superconducting CH cavities was proposed by the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP Frankfurt. The status of the cavity development related to the EUROTRANS injector is presented.

  4. Development of a reusable beam profile analyzer for laser accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydrych, Simon; Busold, Simon; Deppert, Oliver; Roth, Markus [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    At the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, proton beams are generated with the PHELIX laser system through target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Within 1 ps, 10{sup 13} protons are produced with an exponential energy spectrum up to 50 MeV. For characterisation, the spatial beam profile is currently detected by a stack of radiochromatic films (RCF). These are blued depending on the beam intensity. One disadvantage of RCFs is its one-time usability. Therefore, they shall be replaced by a scintillator array. To ensure the longest possible shelf life of this new detector, the scintillator material used must be very robust against radiation damage. Also a point of current research is the maximal amount of particles, which can be detected separately.

  5. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1997-01-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  6. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  7. The Design of Compressed air system in the Conventional Facility of Proton Accelerator Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, S. W.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Compressed Air System (CA) supplies compressed air for all air operated devices and instruments, pneumatic equipment and other miscellaneous air user points in the Conventional Facilities of Proton Engineering Frontier Project. CA System consist of the Instrument Air System and the Service air System. The Instrument Air System supplies oil-free, dried, filtered, and compressed instrument air for the air operated control devices and instruments in the Accelerator and Beam Application Building, Ion Beam Application Building, Utility Building and etc.. The Service air System supplies compressed air for pneumatic equipment and other services

  8. Development of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of high power RF source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. O.; Shin, H. M.; Chung, I. Y. [KAPRA, Seoul (Korea); Kim, D. I. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Noh, S. J. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Ko, S. K. [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea); Lee, H. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea); Choi, W. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed with objective to design and develop the KOMAC proton accelerator RF system. For the development of the high power RF source for CCDTL(coupled cavity drift tube linac), the medium power RF system using the UHF klystron for broadcasting was integrated and with this RF system we obtained the basic design data, operation experience and code-validity test data. Based on the medium power RF system experimental data, the high power RF system for CCDTL was designed and its performed was analyzed. 16 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  9. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by 10 B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark experiments

  10. Infrared spectra of proton transfer complexes of the cycleanine alkaloid in solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasende, Okuma E.; de Waal, D.

    2003-01-01

    Proton transfer complexes obtained between the cycleanine alkaloid and hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and nitric acids have been investigated by infrared spectroscopic technique between 4000 and 400 cm -1 in KBr. The vibrational perturbations brought about by proton transfer complex formation, discussed in terms of preferred site of interaction, show that the proton of the inorganic acids is transferred to cycleanine through one of its N sites.

  11. Project of compact accelerator for cancer proton therapy; Progetto di acceleratore compatto per terapia oncologica con protoni (TOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vignati, A [ENEA, Cntro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-04-01

    The status of the sub-project `Compact Accelerator` in the framework of the Hadrontherapy Project leaded by Prof. Amaldi is described. Emphasis is given to the reasons of the use of protons for radiotherapy applications, to the results of the preliminary design studies of four types of accelerators as possible radiotherapy dedicated `Compact Accelerator` and to the scenario of the fonts of financial resources.

  12. On the way to high-power linear proton accelerator for the long half-life radionuclides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Lupandin, O.S.; Murin, B.P.; Fedotov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of continuous mode high-power linear proton accelerator with 1.5 GeV energy, 0.3 A current for the long half-life nuclides transmutation into the short ones (waste of atomic power plants (APP)) is proposed. The accelerator design main principles, scheme and parameters are presented. The accent is made on the accelerator efficiency, reliability and radiation purity. (author)

  13. Operation Statistics of the CERN Accelerators Complex for 2003

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Baird, S A; Rey, A; Steerenberg, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the performance of the different Accelerators (Linacs, PS Booster, PS, AD and SPS) of the CERN Accelerator Complex for 2003. It includes scheduled activities, beam availabilities, beam intensities and an analysis of faults and breakdowns by system and by beam. MORE INFORATION by using the OP Statistics Tool: http://eLogbook.web.cern.ch/eLogbook/statistics.php and on the SPS HomePage: http://ab-div-op-sps.web.cern.ch/ab-div-op-sps/SPSss.html

  14. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    I suggest that an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and a transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the large subcriticality k=0.9-0.95 which we originally proposed for such transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyze the power drop that occurred in Phenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical conditions improves safety. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  15. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety

  16. The longitudinal space charge problem in the high current linear proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a linear proton accelerator peak currents of 200 mA lead to high space charge densities and the resultant space charge forces reduce the effective focussing considerably. In particular the longitudinal focussing is affected. A new concept based on linear theory is proposed that restricts the influence of the space charge forces on the longitudinal focussing by increasing a, the mean transverse bunch radius, as a proportional(βγ)sup(3/8). This concept is compared with other concepts for the Alvarez (1 MeV - 100 MeV) and for the high energy part (100 MeV - 1100 MeV) of the SNQ linear accelerator. (orig.)

  17. A conceptual design of the DTL-SDTL for the JAERI high intensity proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroshi; Kabeya, Zenzaburo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chishiro, Etsuji; Ouchi, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1998-08-01

    A high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. This linac starts with radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), separated-type DTL (SDTL), and a superconducting structure. In this report, we focus on the DTL and SDTL part of the accelerator. The DTL accelerates the beam from 2 to 51 MeV, and SDTL accelerates the beam from 51 to 10 MeV. Since the main features of the requirement for the DTL-SDTL are high peak current ({approx}30 mA) and a high-duty factor ({approx}CW), the conceptual design should be determined not only based on the result of a beam-dynamics calculation, but by careful study of the cooling problems. The design processes of the DTL-SDTL and the matching sections (RFQ to DTL, CW-Pulse merge section, and SDTL to SCC) and the result of a heat transfer analysis of DTL are described. (author)

  18. Beyond the CMSSM without an accelerator: proton decay and direct dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A.; Luo, Feng; Nagata, Natsumi; Sandick, Pearl

    2016-01-01

    We consider two potential non-accelerator signatures of generalizations of the well-studied constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM). In one generalization, the universality constraints on soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters are applied at some input scale M in below the grand unification (GUT) scale M GUT , a scenario referred to as 'sub-GUT'. The other generalization we consider is to retain GUT-scale universality for the squark and slepton masses, but to relax universality for the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the masses of the Higgs doublets. As with other CMSSM-like models, the measured Higgs mass requires supersymmetric particle masses near or beyond the TeV scale. Because of these rather heavy sparticle masses, the embedding of these CMSSM-like models in a minimal SU(5) model of grand unification can yield a proton lifetime consistent with current experimental limits, and may be accessible in existing and future proton decay experiments. Another possible signature of these CMSSM-like models is direct detection of supersymmetric dark matter. The direct dark matter scattering rate is typically below the reach of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment if M in is close to M GUT , but it may lie within its reach if M in proton lifetimes. (orig.)

  19. High-repetition-rate laser-proton acceleration from a condensed hydrogen jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obst, Lieselotte; Zeil, Karl; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Rehwald, Martin; Sommer, Philipp; Brack, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Goede, Sebastian; Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; MacDonald, Michael; Schumaker, William; Glenzer, Siegfried [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applications of laser-accelerated protons demand a stable source of energetic particles at high repetition rates. We present the results of our experimental campaign in cooperation with MEC/SLAC at the 10Hz Ti:Sa laser Draco of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), employing a pure condensed hydrogen jet as a renewable target. Draco delivers pulses of 30 fs and 5 J at 800 nm, focused to a 3 μm spot by an F/2.5 off-axis parabolic mirror. The jet's nominal electron density is approximately 30 times the critical density and its thickness is 2 μm, 5 μm or 10 μm, depending on the applied aperture on the source. Ion diagnostics reveal mono-species proton acceleration in a solid angle of at least +/-45 with respect to the incoming laser beam, with maximum energies of around 5 MeV. The expanding jet could be monitored on-shot with a temporally synchronized probe beam perpendicular to the pump laser axis. Recorded probe images resemble those of z-pinch experiments with metal wires and indicate an m=0 instability in the plasma.

  20. Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapano, Filomena; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella [Calabria Univ., Rende (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Artemyev, Anton V. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Space Research Inst.; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Science and Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015). These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He{sup ++} and O{sup +}, and it is found that energies of the order of 100-200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He{sup ++}, and about 100 keV for O{sup +}.

  1. Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Catapano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015. These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He+ +  and O+, and it is found that energies of the order of 100–200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He+ + , and about 100 keV for O+.

  2. Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ingo; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jürgen; Yan, Xueqing; Al-Omari, Husam

    2012-07-01

    The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

  3. Chromatic energy filter and characterization of laser-accelerated proton beams for particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Ingo, E-mail: i.hofmann@gsi.de [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Meyer-ter-Vehn, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Yan, Xueqing [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Al-Omari, Husam [Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-21

    The application of laser accelerated protons or ions for particle therapy has to cope with relatively large energy and angular spreads as well as possibly significant random fluctuations. We suggest a method for combined focusing and energy selection, which is an effective alternative to the commonly considered dispersive energy selection by magnetic dipoles. Our method is based on the chromatic effect of a magnetic solenoid (or any other energy dependent focusing device) in combination with an aperture to select a certain energy width defined by the aperture radius. It is applied to an initial 6D phase space distribution of protons following the simulation output from a Radiation Pressure Acceleration model. Analytical formula for the selection aperture and chromatic emittance are confirmed by simulation results using the TRACEWIN code. The energy selection is supported by properly placed scattering targets to remove the imprint of the chromatic effect on the beam and to enable well-controlled and shot-to-shot reproducible energy and transverse density profiles.

  4. Model synthetic complexes of the hydrogenase with different protonation sites; Complexes synthetiques modeles de l'hydrogenase avec differents sites de protonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capon, J.F.; Gloaguen, F.; Morvan, D.; Schollhammer, Ph.; Talarmin, J.; Yaouanc, J.J. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, UMR CNRS 6521, Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaires et Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, 29 - Brest (France)

    2005-07-01

    The data obtained until now seem to indicate that the hydrogen production by hydrogenases induces a proton-hydride coupling. In taking the structures of theses enzymes active sites (determined by X-ray diffraction) as a basis, it can be thought that this proton-hydride coupling is facilitated by the juxtaposition of two protonation sites, the metallic center M and the basic group of an E ligand of the coordination sphere. Contrarily to the supposed running of the hydrogenases enzymes, the homogeneous catalysts of the protons reduction, described in the literature, present a reactivity which is either on an alone metallic site or on a metal-metal bond. This work deals then with the preparation of complexes having two juxtaposed protonation sites. Some iron dinuclear compounds have been synthesized and their properties studied. (O.M.)

  5. Micron-size hydrogen cluster target for laser-driven proton acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Uno, M.; Matsui, R.; Uesaka, M.; Kishimoto, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

    2018-04-01

    As a new laser-driven ion acceleration technique, we proposed a way to produce impurity-free, highly reproducible, and robust proton beams exceeding 100 MeV using a Coulomb explosion of micron-size hydrogen clusters. In this study, micron-size hydrogen clusters were generated by expanding the cooled high-pressure hydrogen gas into a vacuum via a conical nozzle connected to a solenoid valve cooled by a mechanical cryostat. The size distributions of the hydrogen clusters were evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of laser light scattered from the clusters. The data were analyzed mathematically based on the Mie scattering theory combined with the Tikhonov regularization method. The maximum size of the hydrogen cluster at 25 K and 6 MPa in the stagnation state was recognized to be 2.15 ± 0.10 μm. The mean cluster size decreased with increasing temperature, and was found to be much larger than that given by Hagena’s formula. This discrepancy suggests that the micron-size hydrogen clusters were formed by the atomization (spallation) of the liquid or supercritical fluid phase of hydrogen. In addition, the density profiles of the gas phase were evaluated for 25 to 80 K at 6 MPa using a Nomarski interferometer. Based on the measurement results and the equation of state for hydrogen, the cluster mass fraction was obtained. 3D particles-in-cell (PIC) simulations concerning the interaction processes of micron-size hydrogen clusters with high power laser pulses predicted the generation of protons exceeding 100 MeV and accelerating in a laser propagation direction via an anisotropic Coulomb explosion mechanism, thus demonstrating a future candidate in laser-driven proton sources for upcoming multi-petawatt lasers.

  6. Influence of Proton Acceptors on the Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reaction Kinetics of a Ruthenium-Tyrosine Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, J Christian; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2017-11-22

    A polypyridyl ruthenium complex with fluorinated bipyridine ligands and a covalently bound tyrosine moiety was synthesized, and its photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactivity in acetonitrile was investigated with transient absorption spectroscopy. Using flash-quench methodology with methyl viologen as an oxidative quencher, a Ru 3+ species is generated that is capable of initiating the intramolecular PCET oxidation of the tyrosine moiety. Using a series of substituted pyridine bases, the reaction kinetics were found to vary as a function of proton acceptor concentration and identity, with no significant H/D kinetic isotope effect. Through analysis of the kinetics traces and comparison to a control complex without the tyrosine moiety, PCET reactivity was found to proceed through an equilibrium electron transfer followed by proton transfer (ET-PT) pathway in which irreversible deprotonation of the tyrosine radical cation shifts the ET equilibrium, conferring a base dependence on the reaction. Comprehensive kinetics modeling allowed for deconvolution of complex kinetics and determination of rate constants for each elementary step. Across the five pyridine bases explored, spanning a range of 4.2 pK a units, a linear free-energy relationship was found for the proton transfer rate constant with a slope of 0.32. These findings highlight the influence that proton transfer driving force exerts on PCET reaction kinetics.

  7. Neutron transmission benchmark problems for iron and concrete shields in low, intermediate and high energy proton accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Katsumi [and others

    1996-09-01

    Benchmark problems were prepared for evaluating the calculation codes and the nuclear data for accelerator shielding design by the Accelerator Shielding Working Group of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics in JAERI. Four benchmark problems: transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43 MeV and 68 MeV protons through iron and concrete shields at TIARA of JAERI, neutron fluxes in and around an iron beam stop irradiated by 500 MeV protons at KEK, reaction rate distributions inside a thick concrete shield irradiated by 6.2 GeV protons at LBL, and neutron and hadron fluxes inside an iron beam stop irradiated by 24 GeV protons at CERN are compiled in this document. Calculational configurations and neutron reaction cross section data up to 500 MeV are provided. (author)

  8. Proton exchange in acid–base complexes induced by reaction coordinates with heavy atom motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Saman; Taghikhani, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proton exchange in acid–base complexes is studied. ► The structures, binding energies, and normal mode vibrations are calculated. ► Transition state structures of proton exchange mechanism are determined. ► In the complexes studied, the reaction coordinate involves heavy atom rocking. ► The reaction coordinate is not simply localized in the proton movements. - Abstract: We extend previous work on nitric acid–ammonia and nitric acid–alkylamine complexes to illustrate that proton exchange reaction coordinates involve the rocking motion of the base moiety in many double hydrogen-bonded gas phase strong acid–strong base complexes. The complexes studied involve the biologically and atmospherically relevant glycine, formic, acetic, propionic, and sulfuric acids with ammonia/alkylamine bases. In these complexes, the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies associated with the proton exchange transition states are −1 . This contrasts with widely studied proton exchange reactions between symmetric carboxylic acid dimers or asymmetric DNA base pair and their analogs where the reaction coordinate is localized in proton motions and the magnitude of the imaginary frequencies for the transition states are >1100 cm −1 . Calculations on complexes of these acids with water are performed for comparison. Variations of normal vibration modes along the reaction coordinate in the complexes are described.

  9. Experimental study of proton acceleration with ultra-high intensity, high contrast laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacco, A.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis reports experimental work in the domain of laser-matter interaction to study the production of energetic proton beams. The ion beams accelerated by laser have been increasing in quality, in energy and in repeatability as laser technology keeps improving. The presence of the pedestal before the high peak laser pulse introduces many unknowns in the accelerating conditions that are created on the front and on the rear surface of the target. The first part of the experimental activities is focused to a better comprehension and the experimental validation of the interaction of a 'pedestal-like', moderate intensity, laser pulse on Aluminum targets. The developed interferometric technique proved to be reliable and produced a complete set of maps of the early stages of the plasma expansion. The reflectometry experiment stresses the importance of the quality of the metallic targets and underlines some obscure points on the behaviour of the rear surface of the illuminated foil. For instance the reflectometry measurements on the thicker targets are significantly different from what is foreseen by the simulations about the timescale of the shock break out. In the second part, the XPW laser pulse is used in ion acceleration from thin metal foils. The laser and target parameters are varied to put in evidence the dependence of the ion beam to the experimental condition. In conclusion I can say that first, during the variation of the target thickness, an optimum is put in evidence. Secondly, the correlation between the laser pulse duration and the proton cutoff energy is qualitatively different between thicker (15 μm) and thinner (1.5 μm, 3 μm) targets. For the first, an optimal pulse duration exists while for the seconds, no variation is found - in the searched space - from the monotonic decreasing of the cutoff energy with the peak intensity. The experimental results put however in evidence some points that are not completely understood. (A.C.)

  10. Enhanced target normal sheath acceleration of protons from intense laser interaction with a cone-tube target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser driven proton acceleration is proposed to be greatly enhanced by using a cone-tube target, which can be easily manufactured by current 3D-print technology. It is observed that energetic electron bunches are generated along the tube and accelerated to a much higher temperature by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal electric field which is induced by the optical confinement of the laser field. As a result, a localized and enhanced sheath field is produced at the rear of the target and the maximum proton energy is about three-fold increased based on the two-dimentional particle-in-cell simulation results. It is demonstrated that by employing this advanced target scheme, the scaling of the proton energy versus the laser intensity is much beyond the normal target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA case.

  11. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration, and magnetic holes/decreases in interplanetary space and the magnetosphere: intermediate shocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration and magnetic decreases (MDs in interplanetary space are shown to be interrelated. Discontinuities are the phase-steepened edges of Alfvén waves. Magnetic decreases are caused by a diamagnetic effect from perpendicularly accelerated (to the magnetic field protons. The ion acceleration is associated with the dissipation of phase-steepened Alfvén waves, presumably through the Ponderomotive Force. Proton perpendicular heating, through instabilities, lead to the generation of both proton cyclotron waves and mirror mode structures. Electromagnetic and electrostatic electron waves are detected as well. The Alfvén waves are thus found to be both dispersive and dissipative, conditions indicting that they may be intermediate shocks. The resultant 'turbulence' created by the Alfvén wave dissipation is quite complex. There are both propagating (waves and nonpropagating (mirror mode structures and MDs byproducts. Arguments are presented to indicate that similar processes associated with Alfvén waves are occurring in the magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, the 'turbulence' is even further complicated by the damping of obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves and the formation of electron holes, a form of solitary waves. Interplanetary Alfvén waves are shown to rapidly phase-steepen at a distance of 1AU from the Sun. A steepening rate of ~35 times per wavelength is indicated by Cluster-ACE measurements. Interplanetary (reverse shock compression of Alfvén waves is noted to cause the rapid formation of MDs on the sunward side of corotating interaction regions (CIRs. Although much has been learned about the Alfvén wave phase-steepening processfrom space plasma observations, many facets are still not understood. Several of these topics are discussed for the interested researcher. Computer simulations and theoretical developments will be particularly useful in making further progress in

  12. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammazzalorso, F; Jelen, U; Bednarz, T

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  13. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, F.; Bednarz, T.; Jelen, U.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  14. Neutron-decay Protons from Solar Flares as Seed Particles for CME-shock Acceleration in the Inner Heliosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Ronald J. [Code 7650, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ko, Yuan-Kuen, E-mail: ronald.murphy@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: yuan-kuen.ko@nrl.navy.mil [Code 7680, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The protons in large solar energetic particle events are accelerated in the inner heliosphere by fast shocks produced by coronal mass ejections. Unless there are other sources, the protons these shocks act upon would be those of the solar wind (SW). The efficiency of the acceleration depends on the kinetic energy of the protons. For a 2000 km s{sup −1} shock, the most effective proton energies would be 30–100 keV; i.e., within the suprathermal tail component of the SW. We investigate one possible additional source of such protons: those resulting from the decay of solar-flare-produced neutrons that escape from the Sun into the low corona. The neutrons are produced by interactions of flare-accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere. We discuss the production of low-energy neutrons in flares and their decay on a interplanetary magnetic field line near the Sun. We find that even when the flaring conditions are optimal, the 30–100 keV neutron-decay proton density produced by even a very large solar flare would be only about 10% of that of the 30–100 keV SW suprathermal tail. We discuss the implication of a seed-particle source of more frequent, small flares.

  15. Diagnosis of Weibel instability evolution in the rear surface density scale lengths of laser solid interactions via proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G G; Brenner, C M; Clarke, R J; Green, J S; Heathcote, R I; Rusby, D R; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Bagnoud, V; Zielbauer, B; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B; Powell, H W

    2017-01-01

    It is shown for the first time that the spatial and temporal distribution of laser accelerated protons can be used as a diagnostic of Weibel instability presence and evolution in the rear surface scale lengths of a solid density target. Numerical modelling shows that when a fast electron beam is injected into a decreasing density gradient on the target rear side, a magnetic instability is seeded with an evolution which is strongly dependent on the density scale length. This is manifested in the acceleration of a filamented proton beam, where the degree of filamentation is also found to be dependent on the target rear scale length. Furthermore, the energy dependent spatial distribution of the accelerated proton beam is shown to provide information on the instability evolution on the picosecond timescale over which the protons are accelerated. Experimentally, this is investigated by using a controlled prepulse to introduce a target rear scale length, which is varied by altering the time delay with respect to the main pulse, and similar trends are measured. This work is particularly pertinent to applications using laser pulse durations of tens of picoseconds, or where a micron level density scale length is present on the rear of a solid target, such as proton-driven fast ignition, as the resultant instability may affect the uniformity of fuel energy coupling. (paper)

  16. Laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Monoenergetic Protons in an Ultra-Thin Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Bengt; Liu, Chuan S.; Shao, Xi; Sagdeev, Roald Z.; Shukla, Padma K.

    2009-11-01

    We present theoretical and numerical studies of the acceleration of monoenergetic protons in a double layer formed by the laser irradiation of an ultra-thin film. The stability of the foil is investigated by direct Vlasov-Maxwell simulations for different sets of laser-plasma parameters. It is found that the foil is stable, due to the trapping of both electrons and ions in the thin laser-plasma interaction region, where the electrons are trapped in a potential well composed of the ponderomo-tive potential of the laser light and the electrostatic potential due to the ions, and the ions are trapped in a potential well composed of the inertial potential in an accelerated frame and the electrostatic potential due to the electrons. The result is a stable double layer, where the trapped ions are accelerated to monoenergetic energies up to 100 MeV and beyond, which makes them suitable for medical applications cancer treatment. The underlying physics of trapped and untapped ions in a double layer is also investigated theoretically and numerically.

  17. Predicting Proton-Air Cross Sections at {radical}(s) {approx} 30 TeV Using Accelerator and Cosmic Ray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Halzen, Francis [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    1999-12-13

    We use the high-energy predictions of a QCD-inspired parametrization of all accelerator data on forward proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering amplitudes, along with Glauber theory, to predict proton-air cross sections at energies near {radical}(s){approx_equal}30 TeV . The parametrization of the proton-proton cross section incorporates analyticity and unitarity and demands that the asymptotic proton is a black disk of soft partons. By comparing with the p -air cosmic ray measurements, our analysis results in a constraint on the inclusive particle production cross section. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  18. Room temperature synthesis of protonated layered titanate sheets using peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, Narottam; Sinhamahapatra, Apurba; Pahari, Sandip Kumar; Bajaj, Hari C; Panda, Asit Baran

    2011-07-21

    We report the synthesis of peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution as a novel water-soluble precursor for the direct synthesis of layered protonated titanate at room temperature. The synthesized titanates showed excellent removal capacity for Pb(2+) and methylene blue. Based on experimental observations, a probable mechanism for the formation of protonated layered dititanate sheets is also discussed.

  19. Research Programme for the 660 Mev Proton Accelerator Driven MOX-Plutonium Subcritical Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Buttseva, G L; Dudarev, S Yu; Polanski, A; Puzynin, I V; Sissakian, A N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Acclerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton acceletator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO_2 + 75% UO_2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k_eff = 0.945, energetic gain G = 30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW.

  20. Design Considerations of Fast Kicker Systems for High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Sandberg, J.; Parson, W.M.; Walstrom, P.; Murray, M.M.; Cook, E.; Hartouni, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the specific issues related to the design of the Fast Kicker Systems for high intensity proton accelerators. To address these issues in the preliminary design stage can be critical since the fast kicker systems affect the machine lattice structure and overall design parameters. Main topics include system architecture, design strategy, beam current coupling, grounding, end user cost vs. system cost, reliability, redundancy and flexibility. Operating experience with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron injection and extraction kicker systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their future upgrade is presented. Additionally, new conceptual designs of the extraction kicker for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge and the Advanced Hydrotest Facility at Los Alamos are discussed

  1. CONCERT A high power proton accelerator driven multi-application facility concept

    CERN Document Server

    Laclare, J L

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of High Power Proton Accelerator (HPPA) is being made available. It opens new avenues to a long series of scientific applications in fundamental and applied research, which can make use of the boosted flux of secondary particles. Presently, in Europe, several disciplines are preparing their project of dedicated facility, based on the upgraded performances of HPPAs. Given the potential synergies between these different projects, for reasons of cost effectiveness, it was considered appropriate to look into the possibility to group a certain number of these applications around a single HPPA: CONCERT project left bracket 1 right bracket . The ensuing 2-year feasibility study organized in collaboration between the European Spallation Source and the CEA just started. EURISOL left bracket 2 right bracket project and CERN participate in the steering committee.

  2. Proposed parameters for a circular particle accelerator for proton beam therapy obtained by genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Gustavo L.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper brings to light optimized proposal for a circular particle accelerator for proton beam therapy purposes (named as ACPT). The methodology applied is based on computational metaheuristics based on genetic algorithms (GA) were used to obtain optimized parameters of the equipment. Some fundamental concepts in the metaheuristics developed in Matlab® software will be presented. Four parameters were considered for the proposed modeling for the equipment, being: potential difference, magnetic field, length and radius of the resonant cavity. As result, this article showed optimized parameters for two ACPT, one of them used for ocular radiation therapy, as well some parameters that will allow teletherapy, called in order ACPT - 65 and ACPT - 250, obtained through metaheuristics based in GA. (author)

  3. Proposed parameters for a circular particle accelerator for proton beam therapy obtained by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Gustavo L.; Campos, Tarcísio P.R., E-mail: gustavo.lobato@ifmg.edu.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: gustavo.lobato@ifmg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This paper brings to light optimized proposal for a circular particle accelerator for proton beam therapy purposes (named as ACPT). The methodology applied is based on computational metaheuristics based on genetic algorithms (GA) were used to obtain optimized parameters of the equipment. Some fundamental concepts in the metaheuristics developed in Matlab® software will be presented. Four parameters were considered for the proposed modeling for the equipment, being: potential difference, magnetic field, length and radius of the resonant cavity. As result, this article showed optimized parameters for two ACPT, one of them used for ocular radiation therapy, as well some parameters that will allow teletherapy, called in order ACPT - 65 and ACPT - 250, obtained through metaheuristics based in GA. (author)

  4. The research of condensed matter physics by using intense proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    The present article covers the application of intense protons to basic condensed matter physics. Major recent neutron scattering activities in condensed matter physics are first outlined, emphasizing the fact that the contribution of accelerator base science has a tremendous impact on this basic science. Application of spallation neutrons to condensed matter physics is discussed in relation to such subjects as high energy (epithermal) excitations and small angle neutron scattering. Then the specific subject of high Tc superconductor is addressed, focusing on how neutrons as well as muons provide experimental results that serve significantly in exploring the mechanism of exotic high Tc superconductivity. Techniques for neutron polarization must be developed in the future. The neutron spin reflectivity ratio has been shown to be a sensitive probe of surface depth profile of magnetization. Another new method is neutron depolarization to probe bulk magnetic induction throughout a slab which neutrons pass through. (N.K.)

  5. Complex calculation and improvement of beam shaping and accelerating system of the ''Sokol'' small-size electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonenko, A.V.; Pistryak, V.M.; Zats, A.V.; Levchenko, Yu.Z.; Kuz'menko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Features of charged particle accelerated beam shaping in the electrostatic part of the ''Sokol'' small-size accelerator are considered in complex taking into account the electrode real geometry. Effect of the extracting, accelerating electorde potential and accelerator total voltage on beam behaviour is investigated. A modified variation of the beam shaping system, allowing to decrease 2 times the required interval of accelerating electrode potential adjustment and to decrease the beam size in the starting acceleration region, is presented. It permits to simplify the construction and to improve accelerator operation. Comparison of experimental and calculational data on the beam in the improved accelerator variation is carried out. Effect of peripheral parts of accelerating tube electrodes on the beam is investigated

  6. A Proton-Switchable Bifunctional Ruthenium Complex That Catalyzes Nitrile Hydroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geri, Jacob B; Szymczak, Nathaniel K

    2015-10-14

    A new bifunctional pincer ligand framework bearing pendent proton-responsive hydroxyl groups was prepared and metalated with Ru(II) and subsequently isolated in four discrete protonation states. Stoichiometric reactions with H2 and HBPin showed facile E-H (E = H or BPin) activation across a Ru(II)-O bond, providing access to unusual Ru-H species with strong interactions with neighboring proton and boron atoms. These complexes were found to promote the catalytic hydroboration of ketones and nitriles under mild conditions, and the activity was highly dependent on the ligand's protonation state. Mechanistic experiments revealed a crucial role of the pendent hydroxyl groups for catalytic activity.

  7. Phase II trial of proton beam accelerated partial breast irradiation in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Nam Kwon; Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Dae Yong; Cho, Kwan Ho; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Here, we report the results of our phase II, prospective study of proton beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (PB-APBI) in patients with breast cancer after breast conserving surgery (BCS). Materials and methods: Thirty patients diagnosed with breast cancer were treated with PB-APBI using a single-field proton beam or two fields after BCS. The treatment dose was 30 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in six CGE fractions delivered once daily over five consecutive working days. Results: All patients completed PB-APBI. The median follow-up time was 59 months (range: 43–70 months). Of the 30 patients, none had ipsilateral breast recurrence or regional or distant metastasis, and all were alive at the last follow-up. Physician-evaluated toxicities were mild to moderate, except in one patient who had severe wet desquamation at 2 months that was not observed beyond 6 months. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 83% and 80% of the patients at the end of PB-APBI and at 2 months, respectively, and decreased to 69% at 3 years. A good or excellent cosmetic outcome was noted in all patients treated with a two-field proton beam at any follow-up time point except for one. For all patients, the mean percentage breast retraction assessment (pBRA) value increased significantly during the follow-up period (p = 0.02); however, it did not increase in patients treated with two-field PB-APBI (p = 0.3). Conclusions: PB-APBI consisting of 30 CGE in six CGE fractions once daily for five consecutive days can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity to properly selected patients with early-stage breast cancer. Multiple-field PB-APBI may achieve a high rate of good-to-excellent cosmetic outcomes. Additional clinical trials with larger patient groups are needed

  8. Developments in the design of proton and ion accelerators for medical use

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1998-01-01

    Accelerators and medicine have been close companions since cyclotrons first made biological studies with particle beams possible in the 1930s. Later improvements, such as H-minus (H-) extraction, made cyclotrons the foremost, commercially-available producer of medical isotopes. Although the world's first hospital-based proton treatment centre, Loma Linda, uses a synchrotron, the cyclotron is now al so establishing a dominance in proton centres using passive beam spreading. However, two trends indicate a slightly different direction. The first is towards light ions and the second is towards 'penc il' beam scanning with active energy control. Together, these point to a new generation of synchrotrons with slow-beam-extraction systems that allow time for on-line dosimetry and provide very smooth spills. There are several variants for the slow extraction including the use of a betatron core and rf knockout. There are also methods for improving the spill quality such as rf channelling buckets a nd rf noise. The use...

  9. Development of a Compton camera for online monitoring and dosimetry of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirolf, Peter G.; Lang, Christian; Aldawood, Saad; Parodi, Katia [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [LMU Muenchen (Germany); MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Maier, Ludwig [TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A Compton camera is presently under construction in Garching, designed for monitoring and dosimetry of laser-accelerated protons for bio-medical applications via position-resolved prompt γ-ray detection. When ion beams suitable for hadron therapy (protons, carbon ions) interact with tissue (or tissue-equivalent plastic or water phantoms), nuclear reactions induce prompt γ rays that can be utilized, e.g., to verify the ion beam range (i.e. monitor the Bragg peak position) by exploiting the Compton scattering kinematics of these photons. Our Compton camera (formed by a combination of scatter and absorber detector) consists of a stack of six double-sided Si-strip detectors (50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 0.5 mm thick, 128 strips/side, pitch 390 μm) acting as scatterers, while the absorber is formed by a LaBr{sub 3} scintillator crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}), read out by a (8 x 8) pixelated multi-anode PMT. Simulation results for design specifications and expected values of resolution and efficiency are presented, as well as the status of the prototype presently under construction.

  10. Beyond the CMSSM without an Accelerator: Proton Decay and Direct Dark Matter Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A; Sandick, Pearl

    2016-01-01

    We consider two potential non-accelerator signatures of generalizations of the well-studied constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM). In one generalization, the universality constraints on soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters are applied at some input scale $M_{in}$ below the grand unification (GUT) scale $M_{GUT}$, a scenario referred to as `sub-GUT'. The other generalization we consider is to retain GUT-scale universality for the squark and slepton masses, but to relax universality for the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the masses of the Higgs doublets. As with other CMSSM-like models, the measured Higgs mass requires supersymmetric particle masses near or beyond the TeV scale. Because of these rather heavy sparticle masses, the embedding of these CMSSM-like models in a minimal SU(5) model of grand unification can yield a proton lifetime consistent with current experimental limits, and may be accessible in existing and future proton decay experiments. Another possible signat...

  11. High-intensity, subkolovolt x-ray calibration facility using a Cockroft--Walton proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable need has arisen for the development of well-calibrated x-ray detectors capable of detecting photons with energies between 100 and 1000 electron-volts. This energy region is of significant interest since the x-ray emission from high-temperature (kT approximately 1.0 keV), laser-produced plasmas is predominantly in this range. A high-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration source was developed which utilizes proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide an intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray calibration source for detector development applications. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable liquid-cooled targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. A description of the facility is presented. Typical x-ray spectra (B-K, C-K, Ti-L, Fe-L and Cu-L) and flux values will be shown. Problems such as spectral contamination due to carbon buildup on the target and to backscattered particles are discussed

  12. Dominant acceleration processes of ambient energetic protons (E>= 50 keV) at the bow shock: conditions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.C.; Sarris, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    Energetic proton (Esub(p)>= 50 keV) and magnetic field observations during crossings of the Earth's Bow Shock by the IMP-7 and 8 spacecraft are incorporated in this work in order to examine the effect of the Bow Shock on a pre-existing proton population under different ''interplanetary magnetic field-Bow Shock'' configurations, as well as the conditions for the presence of the Bow Shock associated energetic proton intensity enhancements. The presented observations indicate that the dominant process for the efficient acceleration of ambient energetic particles to energies exceeding approximately 50 keV is by ''gradient-B'' drifting parallel to the induced electric field at quasi-perpendicular Bow Shocks under certain well defined limitations deriving from the finite and curved Bow Shock surface. It is shown that the proton acceleration at the Bow Shock is most efficient for high values of the upstream magnetic field (in general B 1 > 8#betta#), high upstream plasma speed and expanded Bow Shock fronts, as well as for direction of the induced electric field oriented almost parallel to the flanks of the Bow Shock, i.e. when the drift distance of protons parallel to the electric field at the shock front is considerably smaller than the local radius of curvature of the Bow Shock. The implications of the presented observations of Bow Shock crossings as to the source of the energetic proton intensity enhancements are discussed. (author)

  13. Preliminary physical design of 7 MeV proton RFQ for the accelerator driven-energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zihua

    2000-01-01

    The preliminary physical design of 7 MeV proton RFQ for the ADS (Accelerator Driven-energy System) is briefly described. The design features and the basic parameters and the design version of the RFQ are discussed. The matches between IS and RFQ and between RFQ and CCDTL/DTL are also discussed. The ideas of research for the RFQ are presented

  14. DNA-Accelerated Copper Catalysis of Friedel-Crafts Conjugate Addition/Enantioselective Protonation Reactions in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Fernández, Almudena; Megens, Rik P.; Villarino, Lara; Roelfes, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    DNA-induced rate acceleration has been identified as one of the key elements for the success of the DNA-based catalysis concept. Here we report on a novel DNA-based catalytic Friedel-Crafts conjugate addition/enantioselective protonation reaction in water, which represents the first example of a

  15. Numerical Studies of Electron Acceleration Behind Self-Modulating Proton Beam in Plasma with a Density Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Petrenko, A.; Sosedkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Presently available high-energy proton beams in circular accelerators carry enough momentum to accelerate high-intensity electron and positron beams to the TeV energy scale over several hundred meters of the plasma with a density of about 1e15 1/cm^3. However, the plasma wavelength at this density is 100-1000 times shorter than the typical longitudinal size of the high-energy proton beam. Therefore the self-modulation instability (SMI) of a long (~10 cm) proton beam in the plasma should be used to create the train of micro-bunches which would then drive the plasma wake resonantly. Changing the plasma density profile offers a simple way to control the development of the SMI and the acceleration of particles during this process. We present simulations of the possible use of a plasma density gradient as a way to control the acceleration of the electron beam during the development of the SMI of a 400 GeV proton beam in a 10 m long plasma. This work is done in the context of the AWAKE project --- the proof-of-prin...

  16. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  17. The Acceleration of Thermal Protons and Minor Ions at a Quasi-Parallel Interplanetary Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, J.; Lario, D.; Lepri, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    We compare the results from self-consistent hybrid simulations (kinetic ions, massless fluid electrons) and spacecraft observations of a strong, quasi-parallel interplanetary shock that crossed the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) on DOY 94, 2001. In our simulations, the un-shocked plasma-frame ion distributions are Maxwellian. Our simulations include protons and minor ions (alphas, 3He++, and C5+). The interplanetary shock crossed both the ACE and the Wind spacecraft, and was associated with significant increases in the flux of > 50 keV/nuc ions. Our simulation uses parameters (ion densities, magnetic field strength, Mach number, etc.) consistent with those observed. Acceleration of the ions by the shock, in a manner similar to that expected from diffusive shock acceleration theory, leads to a high-energy tail in the distribution of the post-shock plasma for all ions we considered. The simulated distributions are directly compared to those observed by ACE/SWICS, EPAM, and ULEIS, and Wind/STICS and 3DP, covering the energy range from below the thermal peak to the suprathermal tail. We conclude from our study that the solar wind is the most significant source of the high-energy ions for this event. Our results have important implications for the physics of the so-called `injection problem', which will be discussed.

  18. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  19. Design of a New Acceleration System for High-Current Pulsed Proton Beams from an ECR Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew L.; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Surbrook, Jason T.; Kelly, Keegan J.; Carlin, Bret P.; Champagne, Arthur E.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    2014-03-01

    A primary objective for accelerators at TUNL's Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is to maximize target beam intensity to ensure a high rate of nuclear events during each experiment. Average proton target currents of several mA are needed from LENA's electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source because nuclear cross sections decrease substantially at energies of interest tube structures; and provide better heat dissipation by using deionized water to provide the current drain needed to establish the accelerating tube's voltage gradient. Details of beam optical modeling calculations, proposed accelerating tube design, and initial beam pulsing tests will be described. Work supported in part by USDOE Office of HE and Nuclear Physics.

  20. An NMR Protonation Study of Metal Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letkeman, Peter

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is suitable for an integrated laboratory course for senior chemistry majors. It introduces the student to a study of the relative basicity of different proton accepting sites. It serves as an opportunity to learn about nmr techniques and could extend to infrared, as well. (BB)

  1. Particle size of radioactive aerosols generated during machine operation in high-energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kanda, Yukio; Kondo, Kenjiro; Endo, Akira

    2000-01-01

    In high-energy accelerators, non-radioactive aerosols are abundantly generated due to high radiation doses during machine operation. Under such a condition, radioactive atoms, which are produced through various nuclear reactions in the air of accelerator tunnels, form radioactive aerosols. These aerosols might be inhaled by workers who enter the tunnel just after the beam stop. Their particle size is very important information for estimation of internal exposure doses. In this work, focusing on typical radionuclides such as 7 Be and 24 Na, their particle size distributions are studied. An aluminum chamber was placed in the EP2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Aerosol-free air was introduced to the chamber, and aerosols formed in the chamber were sampled during machine operation. A screen-type diffusion battery was employed in the aerosol-size analysis. Assuming that the aerosols have log-normal size distributions, their size distributions were obtained from the radioactivity concentrations at the entrance and exit of the diffusion battery. Radioactivity of the aerosols was measured with Ge detector system, and concentrations of non-radioactive aerosols were obtained using condensation particle counter (CPC). The aerosol size (radius) for 7 Be and 24 Na was found to be 0.01-0.04 μm, and was always larger than that for non-radioactive aerosols. The concentration of non-radioactive aerosols was found to be 10 6 - 10 7 particles/cm 3 . The size for radioactive aerosols was much smaller than ordinary atmospheric aerosols. Internal doses due to inhalation of the radioactive aerosols were estimated, based on the respiratory tract model of ICRP Pub. 66. (author)

  2. Accelerator production of 99mTc with proton beams and enriched 100Mo targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The direct production of 99m Tc has been developed based upon the use of the 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc reaction (Q= -7.9 MeV), using enriched 100 Mo targets and accelerated protons of 99m Tc yields measured in this work reached 851 ± 77 MBq/μA/h (23.0 ± 3.0 mCi/μA/h) at end-of-bombardment (EOB) in the 22-12 MeV energy region, with 96 Tc (4.35 d) as the only detectable impurity at - accelerators, and by extracting multiple H + beams to bombard a single or an array of enriched 100 Mo targets, this method could provide nearly 851 GBq (23 Ci) of 99m Tc in 1-h bombardments. Because of this large-batch potential, this new method appears to be an effective alternative to the production and distribution of 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator systems, although it may be limited to daily, regional/local distribution and use. 99m Tc produced in this fashion has high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, although its specific activity has not been determined. The accelerator-made 99m Tc has been shown to have similar physical and chemical characteristics than 99m Tc eluted from commercial fission-produced 99 Mo → 99m Tc generators. Technical and logistical factors need further study and analysis but the potential and the expected impact of this new method are clear in the context of the operation of large radionuclide distribution centers as well as for small programs in developing regions. (author)

  3. Complexity analysis of accelerated MCMC methods for Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Viet Ha; Schwab, Christoph; Stuart, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    approximation methods used, in order for the accelerations of MCMC resulting from these strategies to lead to complexity reductions over ‘plain’ MCMC algorithms for the Bayesian inversion of PDEs. (paper)

  4. Application of laser-accelerated protons to the demonstration of DNA double-strand breaks in human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, A.; Sato, K.; Nishikino, M.; Mori, M.; Teshima, T.; Numasaki, H.; Murakami, M.; Demizu, Y.; Akagi, S.; Nagayama, S.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ikegami, M.; Tampo, M.; Sakaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Daito, I.; Oishi, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Kanazawa, S.; Kondo, S.; Shimomura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Sasao, H.; Wakai, D.; Bolton, P. R.; Daido, H.

    2009-05-01

    We report the demonstrated irradiation effect of laser-accelerated protons on human cancer cells. In vitro (living) A549 cells are irradiated with quasimonoenergetic proton bunches of 0.8-2.4 MeV with a single bunch duration of 15 ns. Irradiation with the proton dose of 20 Gy results in a distinct formation of γ-H2AX foci as an indicator of DNA double-strand breaks generated in the cancer cells. This is a pioneering result that points to future investigations of the radiobiological effects of laser-driven ion beams. Unique high-current and short-bunch features make laser-driven proton bunches an excitation source for time-resolved determination of radical yields.

  5. Visualization of complex DNA damage along accelerated ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Elena; Boreyko, Alla; Bulanova, Tatiana; Ježková, Lucie; Zadneprianetc, Mariia; Smirnova, Elena

    2018-04-01

    The most deleterious DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation are clustered DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Clustered or complex DNA damage is a combination of a few simple lesions (single-strand breaks, base damage etc.) within one or two DNA helix turns. It is known that yield of complex DNA lesions increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation. For investigation of the induction and repair of complex DNA lesions, human fibroblasts were irradiated with high-LET 15N ions (LET = 183.3 keV/μm, E = 13MeV/n) and low-LET 60Co γ-rays (LET ≈ 0.3 keV/μm) radiation. DNA DSBs (γH2AX and 53BP1) and base damage (OGG1) markers were visualized by immunofluorecence staining and high-resolution microscopy. The obtained results showed slower repair kinetics of induced DSBs in cells irradiated with accelerated ions compared to 60Co γ-rays, indicating induction of more complex DNA damage. Confirming previous assumptions, detailed 3D analysis of γH2AX/53BP1 foci in 15N ions tracks revealed more complicated structure of the foci in contrast to γ-rays. It was shown that proteins 53BP1 and OGG1 involved in repair of DNA DSBs and modified bases, respectively, were colocalized in tracks of 15N ions and thus represented clustered DNA DSBs.

  6. Proton and Electron Additions to Iron (II) Dinitrogen Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Labios, Liezel AN; Bullock, R. Morris; Walter, Eric D.; Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-03-10

    We describe a single site cis-(H)FeII-N2 complex, generated by the protonation of an iron-carbon bond of a "reduced" iron complex, that models key aspects of proposed protonated intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase. The influence on N2 binding from the addition of protons to the pendant amine sites in the second coordination sphere is described. Furthermore, the addition of electrons to the protonated complexes results in H2 loss. The mechanism of H2 loss is explored to draw a parallel to the origin of H2 loss (homolytic or heterolytic) and the nature of N2 coordination in intermediates of the E4 state of nitrogenase.

  7. Impact of proton beam trips and pulsation on accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADSS) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.; Rydin, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. ADSS (accelerator driven systems) concepts use a source consisting of a proton beam directed into a high-Z target, such as tungsten or lead, driving a (p,n) spallation reaction. This results in a neutron source which is meant to sustain a constant rate of fission power production in the fuel. However, conceptual ADSS studies to date have not taken two special attributes of these sources into account, usually using the simplifying assumption that the spallation source is constant and continuously variable. These are: (1) proton beams under consideration for ADSS sources are pulsed at a certain frequency, which would suggest that the neutron source for the ADSS is also pulsed since the spallation reaction is prompt; (2) while shutting off the beam is the usual answer to safety questions, this poses its own set of issues. Even state-of the-art proton beams are prone to routine and frequent trips, with beam restart times ranging from seconds to hours. Both of these attributes could place system components under severe thermal stress. The strong, subcriticality-level-dependent feedback effects that occur in an ADSS can introduce transient power swings and oscillations that may need to be controlled or abated by source modulation and/or control rod motion. Earlier work indicates that such feedback effects may lead to unpredictable behavior, affecting restart performance and requiring active control measures to prevent or mitigate such effects. And there is a further consideration. Since efficient operation of ADSS-based systems may suggest that a system operates near, though below, critical, the actual operation of such a system means that the operator would need to walk a fine line between safety and efficiency. The intent of this effort is to examine control and safety issues posed by pulsed and trip-prone neutron sources in near-critical ADSS's, using spread sheet-based simulations [informed by the results of earlier work] to develop scenarios

  8. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Red Wine Samples Using the Union College Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott

    2010-11-01

    A 1-megavolt tandem electrostatic Pelletron particle accelerator housed at Union College was used to measure the elemental composition and concentration of homemade Cabernet and Merlot red wine samples. A beam of 1.8-MeV protons directed at an approximately 12-μm thin Mylar substrate onto which 8-μL of concentrated red wine was dried caused inner shell electrons to be ejected from the target nuclei and these vacancies are filled through electronic transitions of higher orbital electrons accompanied by the production of an x-ray photon characteristic of the elemental composition of the target. This is the PIXE Method. Data on the intensity versus energy of the x-rays were collected using an Amptek silicon drift detector and were analyzed to determine the elemental composition and the samples were found to contain P, S, K, Cl, Ca, Sc, Mn, Al, Fe, & Co. Elemental concentrations were determined using the analysis package GUPIX. It is hypothesized that the cobalt seen is a direct result of the uptake by the grapes and as a product of the fermentation process a complex of vitamin B12 is produced.

  9. Proton transfer and complex formation of angiotensin I ions with gaseous molecules at various temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonose, Shinji; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sudo, Ayako; Kawashima, Minami

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proton transfer from angiotensin I ions (z = 2, 3) to gaseous molecules was studied. • Temperature dependence of absolute reaction rate constants was measured. • Remarkable changes were obtained for distribution of product ions and reaction rate constants. • Proton transfer reaction was enhanced and reduced by complex formation. • Conformation changes are induced by complex formation and or by thermal collision with He. - Abstract: Proton transfer reactions of angiotensin I ions for +2 charge state, [M + 2H] 2+ , to primary, secondary and aromatic amines were examined in the gas phase. Absolute reaction rate constants for proton transfer were determined from intensities of parent and product ions in the mass spectra. Temperature dependence of the reaction rate constants was measured. Remarkable change was observed for distribution of product ions and reaction rate constants. Proton transfer reaction was enhanced or reduced by complex formation of [M + 2H] 2+ with gaseous molecules. The results relate to conformation changes of [M + 2H] 2+ with change of temperature, which are induced by complex formation and or by thermal collision with He. Proton transfer reactions of angiotensin I ions for +3 charge state, [M + 3H] 3+ , were also studied. The reaction rates did not depend on temperature so definitely

  10. Proton beam transport experiments with pulsed high-field magnets at the Dresden laser acceleration source Draco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Kraft, Stephan; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Zeil, Karl [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Compact laser-driven ion accelerators are a potential alternative to large and expensive conventional accelerators. High-power short-pulse lasers, impinging on e.g. thin metal foils, enable multi-MeV ion acceleration on μm length and fs to ps time scale. The generated ion bunches (typically protons) show unique beam properties, like ultra-high pulse dose. Nevertheless, laser accelerators still require substantial development in reliable beam generation and transport. Recently developed pulsed magnets meet the demands of laser acceleration and open up new research opportunities: We present a pulsed solenoid for effective collection and focusing of laser-accelerated protons that acts as link between fundamental research and application. The solenoid is powered by a capacitor-based pulse generator and can reach a maximum magnetic field of 20 T. It was installed in the target chamber of the Draco laser at HZDR. The transported beam was detected by means of radiochromic film, scintillator and Thomson parabola spectrometer. We present the characterization of the solenoid with regard to future application in radiobiological irradiation studies. Furthermore, a detailed comparison to previous experiments with a similar magnet at the PHELIX laser at GSI, Darmstadt is provided.

  11. Civil Engineering Works Status of the Proton Accelerator Research Center in PEFP - Site and Access Road Earthwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jung Min; Jeon, G. P.; Min, Y. S.; Park, S. S.; Cho, J. S.; Mun, K. J.; Kim, J. Y.

    2010-01-01

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) was Launched in 2002 as one of the 21st Century Frontier R and D Programs of MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology). Gyeongju city was selected as the project host site in March, 2006, where 'Proton Accelerator Research Center' was going to be constructed. Since 2005, the Architectural and Civil design work has been performing. The Earthwork of the site was started in June, 2009. In this paper, we describe the status of the civil engineering works for the PEFP, focusing on the earthwork of the site and access road

  12. Dosimetric comparison of proton and photon three-dimensional, conformal, external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Katz, Angela; Adams, Judith C.; Crowley, Elizabeth M.; Nyamwanda, Jacqueline A.C.; Feng, Jennifer K.C.; Doppke, Karen P.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry of proton and photon-electron three-dimensional, conformal, external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (3D-CPBI). Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with fully excised, Stage I breast cancer treated with adjuvant proton 3D-CPBI had treatment plans generated using the mixed-modality, photon-electron 3D-CPBI technique. To facilitate dosimetric comparisons, planning target volumes (PTVs; lumpectomy site plus 1.5-2.0 cm margin) and prescribed dose (32 Gy) were held constant. Plans were optimized for PTV coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: Proton and mixed-modality plans both provided acceptable PTV coverage with 95% of the PTV receiving 90% of the prescribed dose in all cases. Both techniques also provided excellent dose homogeneity with a dose maximum exceeding 110% of the prescribed dose in only one case. Proton 3D-CPBI reduced the volume of nontarget breast tissue receiving 50% of the prescribed dose by an average of 36%. Statistically significant reductions in the volume of total ipsilateral breast receiving 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of the prescribed dose were also observed. The use of protons resulted in small, but statistically significant, reductions in the radiation dose delivered to 5%, 10%, and 20% of ipsilateral and contralateral lung and heart. The nontarget breast tissue dosimetric advantages of proton 3D-CPBI were not dependent on tumor location, breast size, PTV size, or the ratio of PTV to breast volume. Conclusions: Compared to photon-electron 3D-CPBI, proton 3D-CPBI significantly reduces the volume of irradiated nontarget breast tissue. Both approaches to accelerated partial breast irradiation offer exceptional lung and heart sparing

  13. Acceleration of protons in plasma produced from a thin plastic or aluminum target by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Ryc, L.; Makowski, J.; Torrisi, L.; Szydlowski, A.; Malinowska, A.; Kaczmarczyk, B.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The acceleration of protons in plasma produced from thin mylar (3.5 μ m) and aluminum (2 μm) targets by a 45-fs laser pulses with the energy of 400 mJ and the intensity of up to 10 19 W/cm 2 was investigated. Characteristics of forward-accelerated protons were measured by the time-of-flight method. In the measurements, special attention was paid to the dependence of proton beam parameters on the laser focus position (FP) in relation to the target surface which resulted in the intensity change within a factor of ∼ 10. It was observed that in the case of using the Mylar target, the dependence of both the maximum ( E pmax ) and the mean (( E p )) proton energy on |Δ x | is clearly non-symmetric with regard to the point where FP = 0 (the focal plane on the target surface) and highest proton energies are achieved when the focal plane is situated in front of the target. In particular, for the target with the thickness of 3.5 μ m E pmax reached 2.2 MeV for FP = +50 μm while for FP = 0 and FP = −100 μm the maximum proton energies reached only 1.6 MeV and 1.3 MeV, respectively. For the aluminum target of 2 μm thickness E p changed only within ∼ 40% and the highest proton energies reached 2.4 MeV.

  14. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. (authors)

  16. Piston-assisted proton pumping in Complex I of mitochondria membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourokh, Lev; Filonenko, Ilan

    2014-03-01

    Proton-pumping mechanism of Complex I remains mysterious because its electron and proton paths are well separated and the direct Coulomb interaction seems to be negligible. The structure of this enzyme was resolved very recently and its functionality was connected the shift of the helix HL. We model the helix as a piston oscillating between the protons and electrons. We assume that positive charges are accumulated near the edges of the helix. In the oxidized state, the piston is attracted to electrons, so its distance to the proton sites increases, the energy of these sites decreases and the sites can be populated. When electrons proceed to the drain, elastic forces return the piston to the original position and the energies of populated proton sites increase, so the protons can be transferred to the positive site of the membrane. In this work, we explore a simplified model when the interaction of the piston with electrons is replaced by a periodic force. We derive quantum Heisenberg equations for the proton operators and solve them jointly with the Langevin equation for the piston position. We show that the proton pumping is possible in such structure with parameters closely resembling the real system. We also address the feasibility of using such mechanism in nanoelectronics.

  17. Design and construction of the clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. S.; Song, I. T

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this report is to design, construction and evaluation of clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly. The design conditions o Class : 1,000(1,000 ea ft{sup 3}), o Flow Rate : 200 m{sup 3}/h m{sup 2}, o Temperature : 22 deg C{+-}2, o Humidity : 55%{+-}5. The main design results are summarized as follows: o Air-handling unit : Cooling Capacity : 13,500 kcal/h, Heating Capacity : 10,300 kcal/h, Humidity Capacity : 4 kg/h, Flow Rate : 150 CMM o Air Shower : Flow Rate : 35 CMM, Size : 1500 x 1000 x 2200, Material : In-steel, Out-SUS304, Filter : PRE + HEPA, AIR Velocity : 25 m/s o Relief Damper : Size : {phi}250, Casing : SS41, Blade : AL, Shaft : SUS304, Weight Ring : SS41, Grill : AL o HEPA Filter Box : Filter Box Size : 670 x 670 x 630, Filter Size : 610 x 610 x 150, Frame: Poly Wood, Media : Glass Fiber, Filter Efficiency : 0.3{mu}m, 99.97%, Separator : AL, Flow Rate : 17 CMM, Damper Size : {phi}300 Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the clean room, for high precision apparatus assembly laboratory.

  18. Design and construction of the clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.

    2000-09-01

    The objective of this report is to design, construction and evaluation of clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly. The design conditions o Class : 1,000(1,000 ea ft 3 ), o Flow Rate : 200 m 3 /h m 2 , o Temperature : 22 deg C±2, o Humidity : 55%±5. The main design results are summarized as follows: o Air-handling unit : Cooling Capacity : 13,500 kcal/h, Heating Capacity : 10,300 kcal/h, Humidity Capacity : 4 kg/h, Flow Rate : 150 CMM o Air Shower : Flow Rate : 35 CMM, Size : 1500 x 1000 x 2200, Material : In-steel, Out-SUS304, Filter : PRE + HEPA, AIR Velocity : 25 m/s o Relief Damper : Size : Φ250, Casing : SS41, Blade : AL, Shaft : SUS304, Weight Ring : SS41, Grill : AL o HEPA Filter Box : Filter Box Size : 670 x 670 x 630, Filter Size : 610 x 610 x 150, Frame: Poly Wood, Media : Glass Fiber, Filter Efficiency : 0.3μm, 99.97%, Separator : AL, Flow Rate : 17 CMM, Damper Size : Φ300 Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the clean room, for high precision apparatus assembly laboratory

  19. Hydraulic characteristics of sedimentary deposits at the J-PARC proton-accelerator, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marui Atsunao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic characteristics of sediments were investigated at J-PARC for the purpose of site characterization in relation with the construction of Japan's largest proton-accelerator. A total of 340 samples extracted from 9 exploratory wells were examined by standard laboratory tests and complemented with statistical analyses to quantitatively determine the main terrain attributes. Two main hydro-geological units were recognized, although a number of embedded layers defined a
    multilevel aquifer. Grain-size distribution derived from sieve analysis and the coefficient of uniformity showed that soils are poorly sorted. On the other hand, hydraulic conductivity was measured by a
    number of parameters such as a log-normal distribution. Conductivity was also predicted by empirical formulas, yielding values up to three orders of magnitude higher. Discrepancies were explained in
    terms of soil anisotropy and intrinsic differences in the calculation methods. Based on the Shepherd's approach, a power relationship between permeability and grain size was found at 2 wells. Hydraulic
    conductivity was also correlated to porosity. However, this  nterdependence was not systematic and therefore, properties at many parts of the profile were considered to be randomly distributed. Finally,
    logs of electrical conductivity suggested that variations of soil hydraulic properties can be associated to changes in water quality. In spite of the remaining uncertainties, results yielded from the study are useful to better understand the numerical modelling of the subsurface system in the site.

  20. Visual outcome of accelerated fractionated radiation for advanced sinonasal malignancies employing photons/protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C.; Chan, Annie W.; Lessell, Simmons; McIntyre, James F.; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Bussiere, Marc R.; Fitzek, Markus M.; Thornton, Allan F.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the visual outcomes of patients with advanced sinonasal malignancies treated with proton/photon accelerated fractionated radiation (AFR). Patients and methods: Between 1991 and 2001, AFR was used to treat 36 patients with advanced stage primary (n = 33) or recurrent (n = 3) nasal or paranasal malignant tumors. Full ophthalmologic follow-up was documented. The median dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) was 69.6 CGE (range 60.8-77). Visual complications were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and the late effects of normal tissue (LENT) scoring systems. The median follow-up was 52.4 months (range 17-122.8). Results: Thirteen patients developed late visual/ocular toxicity. Cataracts were LENT grade 1 and 3 in 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. One LENT grade 1 vascular retinopathy and 1 optic neuropathy were also observed. Three and five patients presented with nasolacrimal duct stenosis (CTC grade 2, 2 patients; CTC grade 3, 1 patient) and dry-eye syndrome (CTC grade 1, 1 patient; CTC grade 2, 4 patients), respectively. The 3- and 5-year probability of LENT/CTC grade ≥2 visual toxicity were 15.8 ± 6.7% and 20.7 ± 7.8%, respectively. Conclusions: AFR for locally advanced nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors enables delivery of 70 CGE to the tumor with acceptable ophthalmologic complications

  1. Efficiency of steel-concrete compositions in a side shielding of high-energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.B.; Kryuchkov, V.P.; Lebedev, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Aiming at the study of efficiency of application of heavy concretes with the density up to 6.3 g/cm -3 with iron-ore aggregate and steel scrap with shot the calculational study on high-energy radiation attenuation in the accelerator side shield has been carried out. The calculation is made for five concretes with the density 2.38; 3.66; 4.68; 5.34; 6.30 g x cm -3 and for pure iron. The real chemical composition of each concrete, including hydrogen, is taken into account. The real spectrum of hadron generated in the materiai of evacuated ionguide wall under the effect of the 70 GeV proton beam incident on the wall at a narrow angle THETA -3 ensuring the same ratio of the dose or hadron fluence with the energy > 20 MeV attenuation is accepted as a relative shield efficiency of the material. It is shown, that for steel-concrete compositions with the density > 5.6 gxcm -3 the relative shield efficiency decreases sharply. It is also shown, that aplication of concretes with the density 3.6-3.7 gxcm -3 is expedient and economically profitable

  2. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  3. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  4. Performance of solenoids versus quadrupoles in focusing and energy selection of laser accelerated protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Hofmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using laser accelerated protons or ions for various applications—for example in particle therapy or short-pulse radiographic diagnostics—requires an effective method of focusing and energy selection. We derive an analytical scaling for the performance of a solenoid compared with a doublet/triplet as function of the energy, which is confirmed by TRACEWIN simulations. Generally speaking, the two approaches are equivalent in focusing capability, if parameters are such that the solenoid length approximately equals its diameter. The scaling also shows that this is usually not the case above a few MeV; consequently, a solenoid needs to be pulsed or superconducting, whereas the quadrupoles can remain conventional. It is also important that the transmission of the triplet is found only 25% lower than that of the equivalent solenoid. Both systems are equally suitable for energy selection based on their chromatic effect as is shown using an initial distribution following the RPA simulation model by Yan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135001 (2009PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.135001].

  5. Numerical simulations of recent proton acceleration experiments with sub-100 TW laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out at the Italian National Research Center, National Optics Institute Department in Pisa, are showing interesting results regarding maximum proton energies achievable with sub-100 TW laser systems. While laser systems are being continuously upgraded in laboratories around the world, at the same time a new trend on stabilizing and making ion acceleration results reproducible is growing in importance. Almost all applications require a beam with fixed performance, so that the energy spectrum and the total charge exhibit moderate shot to shot variations. This result is surely far from being achieved, but many paths are being explored in order to reach it. Some of the reasons for this variability come from fluctuations in laser intensity and focusing, due to optics instability. Other variation sources come from small differences in the target structure. The target structure can vary substantially, when it is impacted by the main pulse, due to the prepulse duration and intensity, the shape of the main pulse and the total energy deposited. In order to qualitatively describe the prepulse effect, we will present a two dimensional parametric scan of its relevant parameters. A single case is also analyzed with a full three dimensional simulation, obtaining reasonable agreement between the numerical and the experimental energy spectrum.

  6. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H Y; He, Y; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  7. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  8. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  9. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q., E-mail: wuq@impcas.ac.cn; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  10. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, A.H.; Cronje, P.M.; Du Toit, Z.B.; Nel, W.A.G.; Celliers, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  11. Polarized photons from a silicon crystal in a 31 GeV electron beam at the Serpukhov proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Maisheev, V.A.; Arakelyan, E.A.; Armaganyan, A.A.; Avakyan, R.O.; Bayatyan, G.L.; Grigoryan, N.K.; Kechechyan, A.O.; Knyazyan, S.G.; Margaryan, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    Tagged photons coherently emitted in a silicon crystal by the 31 GeV electron beam of intensity 4 x 10 4 ppp and beam pulse duration of up to 1.7 s have been obtained at the Serpukhov proton accelerator. The photon intensities were I approx. 10 -1 - 10 -2 γ/e - in five almost equal energy bins within the total range k = (8.2-24.2) GeV. The calculated linear polarizations were P approx. 50-20%, respectively. Narrow peaks in the radiation intensity were observed when varying the orientation of a silicon crystal which could not be explained. The method for the experimental alignment of a crystal in electron beams at the proton accelerator has been described. (orig.)

  12. Proton magnetic resonance spectra of metal ammine complexes, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Toshiaki; Sakaguchi, Ushio; Yoneda, Hayami

    1976-01-01

    The rates of amine hydrogen isotopic exchange in the [Co(O) 2 (N) 4 ] + complex ions, where (O) 2 represents carbonate, oxalate, or malonate ions, and (N) 4 , tetraamine, bis(ethylenediamine), or bis(trimethylenediamine), were measured in D 2 O at 35 0 C by the PMR technique. It was found that: (1) the rates for trans (to oxygen) amines are faster than those for cis amines; (2) the rates, especially for trans amines, in the carbonato complexes are slower than those in the oxalato and malonato analogs, and (3) the difference between the rates for cis and trans amines is smaller in the bis(diamine) complexes than in the tetraammine complexes. These results are discussed in terms of the influence of the chelate geometry in the complex on the exchange reaction. (auth.)

  13. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A GPU-accelerated and Monte Carlo-based intensity modulated proton therapy optimization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiasen; Beltran, Chris; Seum Wan Chan Tseung, Hok; Herman, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Conventional spot scanning intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment planning systems (TPSs) optimize proton spot weights based on analytical dose calculations. These analytical dose calculations have been shown to have severe limitations in heterogeneous materials. Monte Carlo (MC) methods do not have these limitations; however, MC-based systems have been of limited clinical use due to the large number of beam spots in IMPT and the extremely long calculation time of traditional MC techniques. In this work, the authors present a clinically applicable IMPT TPS that utilizes a very fast MC calculation. An in-house graphics processing unit (GPU)-based MC dose calculation engine was employed to generate the dose influence map for each proton spot. With the MC generated influence map, a modified least-squares optimization method was used to achieve the desired dose volume histograms (DVHs). The intrinsic CT image resolution was adopted for voxelization in simulation and optimization to preserve spatial resolution. The optimizations were computed on a multi-GPU framework to mitigate the memory limitation issues for the large dose influence maps that resulted from maintaining the intrinsic CT resolution. The effects of tail cutoff and starting condition were studied and minimized in this work. For relatively large and complex three-field head and neck cases, i.e., >100,000 spots with a target volume of ∼ 1000 cm(3) and multiple surrounding critical structures, the optimization together with the initial MC dose influence map calculation was done in a clinically viable time frame (less than 30 min) on a GPU cluster consisting of 24 Nvidia GeForce GTX Titan cards. The in-house MC TPS plans were comparable to a commercial TPS plans based on DVH comparisons. A MC-based treatment planning system was developed. The treatment planning can be performed in a clinically viable time frame on a hardware system costing around 45,000 dollars. The fast calculation and

  15. A GPU-accelerated and Monte Carlo-based intensity modulated proton therapy optimization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jiasen, E-mail: ma.jiasen@mayo.edu; Beltran, Chris; Seum Wan Chan Tseung, Hok; Herman, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Medical Physics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Conventional spot scanning intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) treatment planning systems (TPSs) optimize proton spot weights based on analytical dose calculations. These analytical dose calculations have been shown to have severe limitations in heterogeneous materials. Monte Carlo (MC) methods do not have these limitations; however, MC-based systems have been of limited clinical use due to the large number of beam spots in IMPT and the extremely long calculation time of traditional MC techniques. In this work, the authors present a clinically applicable IMPT TPS that utilizes a very fast MC calculation. Methods: An in-house graphics processing unit (GPU)-based MC dose calculation engine was employed to generate the dose influence map for each proton spot. With the MC generated influence map, a modified least-squares optimization method was used to achieve the desired dose volume histograms (DVHs). The intrinsic CT image resolution was adopted for voxelization in simulation and optimization to preserve spatial resolution. The optimizations were computed on a multi-GPU framework to mitigate the memory limitation issues for the large dose influence maps that resulted from maintaining the intrinsic CT resolution. The effects of tail cutoff and starting condition were studied and minimized in this work. Results: For relatively large and complex three-field head and neck cases, i.e., >100 000 spots with a target volume of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} and multiple surrounding critical structures, the optimization together with the initial MC dose influence map calculation was done in a clinically viable time frame (less than 30 min) on a GPU cluster consisting of 24 Nvidia GeForce GTX Titan cards. The in-house MC TPS plans were comparable to a commercial TPS plans based on DVH comparisons. Conclusions: A MC-based treatment planning system was developed. The treatment planning can be performed in a clinically viable time frame on a hardware system costing around 45

  16. Correction magnetic field in electromagnet of proton accelerator using CST software; Correcao do campo magnetico em um eletroima de um acelerador de protons usando o software CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, L.A.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the study and simulation of uniform magnetic field electromagnets new circular accelerator model for protons with energy range between 15 MeV and 64 MeV. In addition, investigating materials and the changes induced by the presence of 'gaps' synchronism correction. The electromagnet simulations, predefined, were made in electromagnetic field simulation software CST EM Studio® 3D 2015. The results showed an even distribution of the magnetic field in the compact electromagnet with the same homogenization structures. The results showed regular distribution of the magnetic field in the compact electromagnet with homogenization structures. In conclusion, the electromagnetic model proposed shown to be feasible for a circular accelerator and comply the synchronization requirements. (author)

  17. Protonation of Ferrous Dinitrogen Complexes Containing a Diphosphine Ligand with a Pendant Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, Zachariah M.; Chen, Shentan; Mock, Michael T.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-04-01

    The addition of protons to pendant amine containing ferrous dinitrogen complexes, of the type [FeX(N2)(PEtNMePEt)(dmpm)]+ (X = H, Cl, or Br; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2 and dmpm = Me2PCH2PMe2), was found to protonate at the pendant amine as opposed to the dinitrogen ligand. This protonation increased the νN2 of the complex by about 25 cm-1, shifting the Fe(II/I) couple 330 mV to a more positive potential. A similar shift was observed in the case of [FeX(CO)(PEtNMePEt)(dmpm)]+ (X = H, Cl, or Br). Computational analysis verified these experimental results and showed the coordination of N2 to Fe(II) centers increases the basicity of N2 (vs. free N2) by 13 and 20 pKa units for the trans halides and hydrides, respectively. Although the iron center was found to increase the basicity of the bound N2 ligand, coordinated N2 is not sufficiently basic to be protonated. In the case of ferrous dinitrogen complexes containing a basic pendant methylamine, the amine site was determined to be the most basic site by 30 pKa units compared to protonation at the N2 ligand. To increase the basicity of the N2 ligand in order to promote proton transfer from the pendant amine to the N2 ligand, chemical reduction of these ferrous dinitrogen complexes was performed and found to result in oxidative addition of the methylene C-H bond of the PEtNMePEt ligand to Fe, preventing isolation of a reduced Fe(0) N2 complex. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Accelerator complex for a radioactive ion beam facility at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the superconducting heavy ion linac ATLAS is an ideal post-accelerator for radioactive beams, plans are being developed for expansion of the facility with the addition of a driver accelerator, a production target/ion source combination, and a low q/m pre-accelerator for radioactive ions. A working group including staff from the ANL Physics Division and current ATLAS users are preparing a radioactive beam facility proposal. The present paper reviews the specifications of the accelerators required for the facility

  19. Complex of electrostatic accelerators for simulation and diagnostics of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antuf'ev, Yu.P.; Belyaev, V.Kh.; Vergunov, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The installation for simulation and diagnostics of radiation damage of materials is described. The installation consists of two electrostatic accelerators of vertical type for 5 MV and horizontal type for 800 kV. The accelerating complex ensures accelerated ion beam production in the independent operation regime as well as in the two beams target simultaneous irradiation regime, energy range of accelerated single-charged ions is 80 keV ... 5 MeV, homogeneity is better than +-0.05%. Oilless vacuum pumping out system is realized at the accelerating complex

  20. Electronic and steric influences of pendant amine groups on the protonation of molybdenum bis (dinitrogen) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labios, Liezel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heiden, Zachariah M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Mock, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    The synthesis of a series of PEtPNRR' (PEtPNRR' = Et₂PCH₂CH₂P(CH₂NRR')₂, R = H, R' = Ph or 2,4-difluorophenyl; R = R' = Ph or iPr) diphosphine ligands containing mono- and disubstituted pendant amine groups, and the preparation of their corresponding molybdenum bis(dinitrogen) complexes trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') is described. In situ IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopic studies monitoring the stepwise addition of (HOTf) to trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes in THF at -40 °C show that the electronic and steric properties of the R and R' groups of the pendant amines influence whether the complexes are protonated at Mo, a pendant amine, a coordinated N2 ligand, or a combination of these sites. For example, complexes containing mono-aryl substituted pendant amines are protonated at Mo and pendant amine to generate mono- and dicationic Mo–H species. Protonation of the complex containing less basic diphenyl-substituted pendant amines exclusively generates a monocationic hydrazido (Mo(NNH₂)) product, indicating preferential protonation of an N₂ ligand. Addition of HOTf to the complex featuring more basic diisopropyl amines primarily produces a monocationic product protonated at a pendant amine site, as well as a trace amount of dicationic Mo(NNH₂) product that contain protonated pendant amines. In addition, trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(depe) (depe = Et₂PCH₂CH₂PEt₂) without a pendant amine was synthesized and treated with HOTf, generating a monocationic Mo(NNH₂) product. Protonolysis experiments conducted on select complexes in the series afforded trace amounts of NH₄⁺. Computational analysis of the series of trans-Mo(N₂)₂(PMePh₂)₂(PEtPNRR') complexes provides further insight into the proton affinity values of the metal center, N

  1. Beam Dynamics Studies and the Design, Fabrication and Testing of Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity for High Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Arun [Univ. of Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-01

    The application horizon of particle accelerators has been widening significantly in recent decades. Where large accelerators have traditionally been the tools of the trade for high-energy nuclear and particle physics, applications in the last decade have grown to include large-scale accelerators like synchrotron light sources and spallation neutron sources. Applications like generation of rare isotopes, transmutation of nuclear reactor waste, sub-critical nuclear power, generation of neutrino beams etc. are next area of investigation for accelerator scientific community all over the world. Such applications require high beam power in the range of few mega-watts (MW). One such high intensity proton beam facility is proposed at Fermilab, Batavia, US, named as Project-X. Project-X facility is based on H- linear accelerator (linac), which will operate in continuous wave (CW) mode and accelerate H- ion beam with average current of 1 mA from kinetic energy of 2.5 MeV to 3 GeV to deliver 3MW beam power. One of the most challenging tasks of the Project-X facility is to have a robust design of the CW linac which can provide high quality beam to several experiments simultaneously. Hence a careful design of linac is important to achieve this objective.

  2. Functional dissection of the proton pumping modules of mitochondrial complex I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dröse

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial complex I, the largest and most complicated proton pump of the respiratory chain, links the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone to the pumping of four protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. In humans, defects in complex I are involved in a wide range of degenerative disorders. Recent progress in the X-ray structural analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic complex I confirmed that the redox reactions are confined entirely to the hydrophilic peripheral arm of the L-shaped molecule and take place at a remarkable distance from the membrane domain. While this clearly implies that the proton pumping within the membrane arm of complex I is driven indirectly via long-range conformational coupling, the molecular mechanism and the number, identity, and localization of the pump-sites remains unclear. Here, we report that upon deletion of the gene for a small accessory subunit of the Yarrowia complex I, a stable subcomplex (nb8mΔ is formed that lacks the distal part of the membrane domain as revealed by single particle analysis. The analysis of the subunit composition of holo and subcomplex by three complementary proteomic approaches revealed that two (ND4 and ND5 of the three subunits with homology to bacterial Mrp-type Na(+/H(+ antiporters that have been discussed as prime candidates for harbouring the proton pumps were missing in nb8mΔ. Nevertheless, nb8mΔ still pumps protons at half the stoichiometry of the complete enzyme. Our results provide evidence that the membrane arm of complex I harbours two functionally distinct pump modules that are connected in series by the long helical transmission element recently identified by X-ray structural analysis.

  3. Enhanced proton acceleration by intense laser interaction with an inverse cone target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Aimidula, Aimierding; Xiaerding, Fuerkaiti; Rashidin, Reyima

    2016-01-01

    The generation and control of high-quality proton bunches using focused intense laser pulse on an inverse cone target is investigated with a set of particle-in-cell simulations. The inverse cone is a high atomic number conical frustum with a thin solid top and open base, where the laser impinges onto the top surface directly, not down the open end of the cone. Results are compared with a simple planar target, where the proton angular distribution is very broad because of transverse divergence of the electromagnetic fields behind the target. For a conical target, hot electrons along the cone wall surface induce a transverse focusing sheath field. This field can effectively suppress the spatial spreading of the protons, resulting in a high-quality small-emittance, low-divergence proton beam. A slightly lower proton beam peak energy than that of a conventional planar target was also found.

  4. Enhanced proton acceleration by intense laser interaction with an inverse cone target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Aimidula, Aimierding, E-mail: amir@mail.bnu.edu.cn; Xiaerding, Fuerkaiti; Rashidin, Reyima [School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The generation and control of high-quality proton bunches using focused intense laser pulse on an inverse cone target is investigated with a set of particle-in-cell simulations. The inverse cone is a high atomic number conical frustum with a thin solid top and open base, where the laser impinges onto the top surface directly, not down the open end of the cone. Results are compared with a simple planar target, where the proton angular distribution is very broad because of transverse divergence of the electromagnetic fields behind the target. For a conical target, hot electrons along the cone wall surface induce a transverse focusing sheath field. This field can effectively suppress the spatial spreading of the protons, resulting in a high-quality small-emittance, low-divergence proton beam. A slightly lower proton beam peak energy than that of a conventional planar target was also found.

  5. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Pierini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well

  6. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it; Pierini, Paolo [INFN-Sezione di Milano, Laboratorio Acceleratori e Superconduttivita Applicata, Via Fratelli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well.

  7. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  8. Basic design of shield blocks for a spallation neutron source under the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Maekawa, Fujio; Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC), a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed as a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. Overall dimensions of a biological shield of the neutron source had been determined by evaluation of shielding performance by Monte Carlo calculations. This report describes results of design studies on an optimum dividing scheme in terms of cost and treatment and mechanical strength of shield blocks for the biological shield. As for mechanical strength, it was studied whether the shield blocks would be stable, fall down or move to a horizontal direction in case of an earthquake of seismic intensity of 5.5 (250 Gal) as an abnormal load. For ceiling shielding blocks being supported by both ends of the long blocks, maximum bending moment and an amount of maximum deflection of their center were evaluated. (author)

  9. Basic design of shield blocks for a spallation neutron source under the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, K; Takada, H

    2003-01-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC), a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed as a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. Overall dimensions of a biological shield of the neutron source had been determined by evaluation of shielding performance by Monte Carlo calculations. This report describes results of design studies on an optimum dividing scheme in terms of cost and treatment and mechanical strength of shield blocks for the biological shield. As for mechanical strength, it was studied whether the shield blocks would be stable, fall down or move to a horizontal direction in case of an earthquake of seismic intensity of 5.5 (250 Gal) as an abnormal load. For ceiling shielding blocks being supported by both ends of the long blocks, maximum bending moment and an amount of maximum deflection of their center were evaluated.

  10. On radiation heating of superconducting magnets of the accelerating-storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, M.A.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    To analyze regularities of energy release formation in a superconducting winding (SCW) of superconducting magnets (SCM) of the IHEP accelerating-storage facility the energy release values in the SCM when 400-3000 GeV proton beam incidence onto the SCM vacuum chamber are calculated. Two SCM modifications (a dipole one and a quadrupole one) and two modes of irradiation (uniform irradiation along the SCM azimuth and length and a thin beam incidence uniform along the SCM length) are considered. It is shown that for the SCM with the 26 cm aperture at the 1 mrad angle of incidence 25% of the initial proton energy is released [ru

  11. Multi-MW accelerator target material properties under proton irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory linear isotope producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Ludewig, H.; Kirk, H.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Zhong, Z.; Zhong, H.; Makimura, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Bennett, J. R. J.; Kotsinas, G.; Kotsina, Z.; McDonald, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of proton beams irradiating materials considered for targets in high-power accelerator experiments have been studied using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) 200 MeV proton linac. A wide array of materials and alloys covering a wide range of the atomic number (Z) are being scoped by the high-power accelerator community prompting the BNL studies to focus on materials representing each distinct range, i.e. low-Z, mid-Z and high-Z. The low range includes materials such as beryllium and graphite, the midrange alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V, gum metal and super-Invar and finally the high-Z range pure tungsten and tantalum. Of interest in assessing proton irradiation effects are (a) changes in physiomechanical properties which are important in maintaining high-power target functionality, (b) identification of possible limits of proton flux or fluence above which certain materials cease to maintain integrity, (c) the role of material operating temperature in inducing or maintaining radiation damage reversal, and (d) phase stability and microstructural changes. The paper presents excerpt results deduced from macroscopic and microscopic post-irradiation evaluation (PIE) following several irradiation campaigns conducted at the BNL 200 MeV linac and specifically at the isotope producer beam-line/target station. The microscopic PIE relied on high energy x-ray diffraction at the BNL NSLS X17B1 and NSLS II XPD beam lines. The studies reveal the dramatic effects of irradiation on phase stability in several of the materials, changes in physical properties and ductility loss as well as thermally induced radiation damage reversal in graphite and alloys such as super-Invar.

  12. Heavy ion acceleration strategies in the AGS accelerator complex -- 1994 Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Benjamin, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1995-01-01

    The strategies invoked to satisfy the injected beam specifications for the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) continue to evolve, in the context of the yearly AGS fixed target heavy ion physics runs. The primary challenge is simply producing the required intensity. The acceleration flexibility available particularly in the Booster main magnet power supply and rf accelerating systems, together with variations in the charge state delivered from the Tandem van de Graaff, and accommodation by the AGS main magnet and rf systems allow the possibility for a wide range of options. The yearly physics run provides the opportunity for exploration of these options with the resulting significant evolution in the acceleration plan. This was particularly true in 1994 with strategies involving three different charge states and low and high acceleration rates employed in the Booster. The present status of this work will be presented

  13. Study of a plasma created by an accelerated proton beam for the characterization of a nuclear pumped laser medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialle, M.

    1985-04-01

    Processes leading to laser effect in nuclear induced plasmas can be studied with simulation experiments using charged particles beams. Such an experiment has been performed with a proton beam (2 MeV, 2 μA/cm 2 ) produced by a Van de Graaff accelerator. This beam is an excitation and ionisation source quite comparable to the laser medium source of a reactor experiment. The plasma created in a Ne target (about 100 torrs) containing N 2 impurities has been studied: - experimentally using R.F. diagnostics and spectroscopy; - theoretically by calculating the electronic distribution function in the low and medium energy region [fr

  14. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using proton beams: Initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Smith, Barbara L.; Adams, Judith C.; Kornmehl, Ellen; Katz, Angela; Gadd, Michele; Specht, Michelle; Hughes, Kevin; Gioioso, Valeria; Lu, H.-M.; Braaten, Kristina; Recht, Abram; Powell, Simon N.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We present our initial clinical experience with proton, three-dimensional, conformal, external beam, partial-breast irradiation (3D-CPBI). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients with Stage I breast cancer were treated with proton 3D-CPBI in a Phase I/II clinical trial. Patients were followed at 3 to 4 weeks, 6 to 8 weeks, 6 months, and every 6 months thereafter for recurrent disease, cosmetic outcome, toxicity, and patient satisfaction. Results: With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 8-22 months), no recurrent disease has been detected. Global breast cosmesis was judged by physicians to be good or excellent in 89% and 100% of cases at 6 months and 12 months, respectively. Patients rated global breast cosmesis as good or excellent in 100% of cases at both 6 and 12 months. Proton 3D-CPBI produced significant acute skin toxicity with moderate to severe skin color changes in 79% of patients at 3 to 4 weeks and moderate to severe moist desquamation in 22% of patients at 6 to 8 weeks. Telangiectasia was noted in 3 patients. Three patients reported rib tenderness in the treated area, and one rib fracture was documented. At last follow-up, 95% of patients reported total satisfaction with proton 3D-CPBI. Conclusions: Based on our study results, proton 3D-CPBI offers good-to-excellent cosmetic outcomes in 89% to 100% of patients at 6-month and 12-month follow-up and nearly universal patient satisfaction. However, proton 3D-CPBI, as used in this study, does result in significant acute skin toxicity and may potentially be associated with late skin (telangiectasia) and rib toxicity. Because of the dosimetric advantages of proton 3D-CPBI, technique modifications are being explored to improve acute skin tolerance

  15. Accelerators for forming cationic technetium complexes useful as radiodiagnostic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweedle, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions for making cationic radiodiagnostic agents and, in particular, to accelerator compounds for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents, kits for preparing such 99m Tc-labelled cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium, and methods for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium

  16. Development of 650 MHz solid state RF amplifier for proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Alok; Tiwari, Ashish; Rao, Nageswar; Sekar, Vasanthi; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Gupta, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Design and development of 30 kW high powers RF source at 650 MHz, using solid RF state technology, has been initiated at RRCAT. The indigenous technology development efforts will be useful for the proposed high power proton accelerators for SNS/ADS applications. In this 650 MHz amplifier scheme, 30 kW CW RF power will be generated using modular combination of 8 kW amplifier units. Necessary studies were carried out for device selection, choice of amplifier architecture and design of high power combiners and dividers. Presently RF amplifier delivering 250 W at 650 MHz has been fabricated and tested. Towards development of high power RF components, design and engineering prototyping of 16-port power combiner, directional coupler and RF dummy loads has been completed. The basic 8 kW amplifier unit is designed to provide power gain of 50 dB, bandwidth of 20 MHz and spurious response below 30 dB from fundamental signal. Based on the results of circuit simulation studies and engineering prototyping of amplifier module, two RF transistor viz. MRF3450 and MRF 61K were selected as solid state active devices. Impedance matching network in amplifier module is designed using balanced push pull configuration with transmission line BALUN. Due to high circulating current near drain side, metal clad RF capacitors were selected which helps in avoiding hot spot from output transmission path, ensuring continuous operation at rated RF power without damage to RF board. 350 W circulator is used to protect the RF devices from reflected power. Based on the prototype design and measured performance, one of these RF transistors will be selected to be used as workhorse for all amplifier modules. Two amplifier modules are mounted on water cooled copper heat-sink ensuring proper operating temperature for reliable and safe operation of amplifier. Also real time control system and data logger has been developed to provide DAQ and controls in each rack. For power combining and power measurement

  17. Observation of gaseous nitric acid production at a high-energy proton accelerator facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, Y; Nakajima, H

    2005-01-01

    High-energy protons and neutrons produce a variety of radionuclides as well as noxious and oxidative gases, such as ozone and nitric acid, in the air mainly through the nuclear spallation of atmospheric elements. Samples were collected from the surfaces of magnets, walls, and floors in the neutrino beamline tunnel and the target station of the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron facility by wiping surfaces with filter paper. Considerably good correlations were found between the amounts of nitrate and tritium and between those of nitrate and /sup 7/Be. This finding gives evidence that at high-energy proton facilities, nitric acid is produced in the radiolysis of air in beam- loss regions. Also, the nitric acid on the surfaces was found to be desorbed and tended to be more uniform throughout the tunnel due to air circulation. The magnitude of diminishing from the surfaces was in the order of tritium>nitrate>/sup 7/Be1).

  18. Control system for a heavy-ion accelerator complex K4 - K10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.M.; Pose, R.

    1992-01-01

    Control systems for newly created accelerators, perhaps for the first time, may be designed almost only around international standards for communication and control techniques. This is also true for the project of a control system for the accelerator complex K4-K10 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Dubna. Nevertheless, open systems architecture with construction principles being essential for modern systems of such big devices as particle accelerators leaves designers enough possibilities for solving even very sophisticated problems. (author)

  19. Faraday cup measurements of a laser-induced plasma for a laser-proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hee; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae

    2006-01-01

    Experiments for the generation of laser-induced protons were performed in collaboration with Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI). An intensity of 3 X 10 18 W/cm 2 was delivered to a 17-μm Al target, and the Faraday Cup signals of the charged particles generated by the laser-plasma interaction were measured. In this paper, we discuss the first experimental results of laser-induced proton generation using the APRI laser and report on the feasibility of current measurement for charged-particles when using a Faraday cup.

  20. Transforming in-situ observations of CME-driven shock accelerated protons into the shock's reference frame.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Robinson

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the solar energetic particle event following solar activity from 14, 15 April 2001 which includes a "bump-on-the-tail" in the proton energy spectra at 0.99 AU from the Sun. We find this population was generated by a CME-driven shock which arrived at 0.99 AU around midnight 18 April. As such this population represents an excellent opportunity to study in isolation, the effects of proton acceleration by the shock. The peak energy of the bump-on-the-tail evolves to progressively lower energies as the shock approaches the observing spacecraft at the inner Lagrange point. Focusing on the evolution of this peak energy we demonstrate a technique which transforms these in-situ spectral observations into a frame of reference co-moving with the shock whilst making allowance for the effects of pitch angle scattering and focusing. The results of this transform suggest the bump-on-the-tail population was not driven by the 15 April activity but was generated or at least modulated by a CME-driven shock which left the Sun on 14 April. The existence of a bump-on-the-tail population is predicted by models in Rice et al. (2003 and Li et al. (2003 which we compare with observations and the results of our analysis in the context of both the 14 April and 15 April CMEs. We find an origin of the bump-on-the-tail at the 14 April CME-driven shock provides better agreement with these modelled predictions although some discrepancy exists as to the shock's ability to accelerate 100 MeV protons.

    Keywords. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (Energetic particles; Flares and mass ejections – Space plasma physics (Transport processes

  1. Observations of the Coronal Mass Ejection with a Complex Acceleration Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, A. A.; Kirichenko, A. S.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Kuzin, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    We study the coronal mass ejection (CME) with a complex acceleration profile. The event occurred on 2009 April 23. It had an impulsive acceleration phase, an impulsive deceleration phase, and a second impulsive acceleration phase. During its evolution, the CME showed signatures of different acceleration mechanisms: kink instability, prominence drainage, flare reconnection, and a CME–CME collision. The special feature of the observations is the usage of the TESIS EUV telescope. The instrument could image the solar corona in the Fe 171 Å line up to a distance of 2 {R}ȯ from the center of the Sun. This allows us to trace the CME up to the LASCO/C2 field of view without losing the CME from sight. The onset of the CME was caused by kink instability. The mass drainage occurred after the kink instability. The mass drainage played only an auxiliary role: it decreased the CME mass, which helped to accelerate the CME. The first impulsive acceleration phase was caused by the flare reconnection. We observed the two-ribbon flare and an increase of the soft X-ray flux during the first impulsive acceleration phase. The impulsive deceleration and the second impulsive acceleration phases were caused by the CME–CME collision. The studied event shows that CMEs are complex phenomena that cannot be explained with only one acceleration mechanism. We should seek a combination of different mechanisms that accelerate CMEs at different stages of their evolution.

  2. A conceptual design of the RF system for the NSP high intensity proton accelerator at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishiro, Etsuji; Kusano, Joichi; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Touchi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Takado, Hiroshi; Sawada, Junichi

    1999-03-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project which aims at exploring the fields of basic science and nuclear technology using a high power spallation neutron source. The neutron source will be driven by a high intensity linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam current of 5.33 mA and beam power of 8 MW. The RF system for the accelerator consists of a high-energy accelerator part and a low energy accelerator part. The maximum RF power requirements at the high and low energy accelerator parts are 25 MW and 8.3 MW, respectively. In this report, we describe the conceptual design of the RF system. In the low energy accelerator part, we estimated the requirement for the high-power amplifier tube and made the basis design for RF components. In the high energy accelerator part, we studied the effect of tuning errors, Lorentz forces and microphonics in the superconducting cavity. We calculated the klystron efficiency and supply power in the arrangement of where one klystron distributes the RF power to four cavities. We also considered an IOT RF system. Finally, we describe the electrical capacity and quantity of cooling water in the RF system. (author)

  3. TH-A-19A-12: A GPU-Accelerated and Monte Carlo-Based Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Optimization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Beltran, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinically applicable intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization system that utilizes more accurate Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation, rather than analytical dose calculation. Methods: A very fast in-house graphics processing unit (GPU) based MC dose calculation engine was employed to generate the dose influence map for each proton spot. With the MC generated influence map, a modified gradient based optimization method was used to achieve the desired dose volume histograms (DVH). The intrinsic CT image resolution was adopted for voxelization in simulation and optimization to preserve the spatial resolution. The optimizations were computed on a multi-GPU framework to mitigate the memory limitation issues for the large dose influence maps that Result from maintaining the intrinsic CT resolution and large number of proton spots. The dose effects were studied particularly in cases with heterogeneous materials in comparison with the commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Results: For a relatively large and complex three-field bi-lateral head and neck case (i.e. >100K spots with a target volume of ∼1000 cc and multiple surrounding critical structures), the optimization together with the initial MC dose influence map calculation can be done in a clinically viable time frame (i.e. less than 15 minutes) on a GPU cluster consisting of 24 Nvidia GeForce GTX Titan cards. The DVHs of the MC TPS plan compare favorably with those of a commercial treatment planning system. Conclusion: A GPU accelerated and MC-based IMPT optimization system was developed. The dose calculation and plan optimization can be performed in less than 15 minutes on a hardware system costing less than 45,000 dollars. The fast calculation and optimization makes the system easily expandable to robust and multi-criteria optimization. This work was funded in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  4. TH-A-19A-12: A GPU-Accelerated and Monte Carlo-Based Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Optimization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Beltran, C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a clinically applicable intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) optimization system that utilizes more accurate Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation, rather than analytical dose calculation. Methods: A very fast in-house graphics processing unit (GPU) based MC dose calculation engine was employed to generate the dose influence map for each proton spot. With the MC generated influence map, a modified gradient based optimization method was used to achieve the desired dose volume histograms (DVH). The intrinsic CT image resolution was adopted for voxelization in simulation and optimization to preserve the spatial resolution. The optimizations were computed on a multi-GPU framework to mitigate the memory limitation issues for the large dose influence maps that Result from maintaining the intrinsic CT resolution and large number of proton spots. The dose effects were studied particularly in cases with heterogeneous materials in comparison with the commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Results: For a relatively large and complex three-field bi-lateral head and neck case (i.e. >100K spots with a target volume of ∼1000 cc and multiple surrounding critical structures), the optimization together with the initial MC dose influence map calculation can be done in a clinically viable time frame (i.e. less than 15 minutes) on a GPU cluster consisting of 24 Nvidia GeForce GTX Titan cards. The DVHs of the MC TPS plan compare favorably with those of a commercial treatment planning system. Conclusion: A GPU accelerated and MC-based IMPT optimization system was developed. The dose calculation and plan optimization can be performed in less than 15 minutes on a hardware system costing less than 45,000 dollars. The fast calculation and optimization makes the system easily expandable to robust and multi-criteria optimization. This work was funded in part by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc

  5. Isolation of homoleptic platinum oxyanionic complexes with doubly protonated diazacrown cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Danila; Tkachev, Sergey; Baidina, Iraida; Romanenko, Galina; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Doubly protonated diazacrown ether cation (1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazoniacyclooctadecane DCH22+) was used for the efficient isolation of the homoleptic platinum complexes [Pt(NO3)6]2- and [Pt(C2O4)2]2- to crystalline solid phases from solutions containing mixtures of related platinum complexes. DCH22+ molecules in nitric acid solution were shown to prevent the condensation of mononuclear [Pt(H2O)n(NO3)6-n]n-2 species.

  6. The key physics and technology issues in the intense-beam proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shinian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    Beam power is required to raise one order in the next generation spallation neutron source. There are still some physics and technology difficulties need to be overcome, even though no fatal obstacle exists due to the rapid development of the technology in intense-beam accelerator in recent years. Therefore, it is highly demanded to clarify the key issues and to lunch an R and D program to break through the technological barriers before author start to build the expansive machine. The new technological challenge arises from the high beam current, the high accelerator power and the high demand on the reliability and stability of the accelerator operation. The author will discuss these issues and the means to resolve them, as well as the state of the art in a few of major technological disciplines. Finally, the choice the framework of intense-beam accelerator is discussed

  7. MMS Observations of Protons and Heavy Ions Acceleration at Plasma Jet Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, F.; Retino, A.; Zimbardo, G.; Cozzani, G.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Alexandrova, A.; Mirioni, L.; Cohen, I. J.; Turner, D. L.; Perri, S.; Greco, A.; Mauk, B.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Ergun, R.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma jet fronts in the Earth's magnetotail are kinetic-scale boundaries separating hot fast plasma jets, generally attributed to reconnection outflows, from colder ambient plasma. Jet fronts are typically associated with a sharp increase of the vertical component of the magnetic field Bz, an increase of the plasma temperature and a drop of plasma density. Spacecraft observations and numerical simulations indicate that jet fronts are sites of major ion acceleration. The exact acceleration mechanisms as well as the dependence of such mechanisms on ion composition are not fully understood, yet. Recent high-resolution measurements of ion distribution functions in the magnetotail allow for the first time to study the acceleration mechanisms in detail. Here, we show several examples of jet fronts and discuss ion acceleration therein. We show fronts that propagate in the mid-tail magnetotail both as isolated laminar boundaries and as multiple boundaries embedded in strong magnetic fluctuations and turbulence. We also show fronts in the near-Earth jet braking region, where they interact with the dipolar magnetic field and are significantly decelerated/diverted. Finally, we study the acceleration of different ion species (H+, He++, O+) at different types of fronts and we discuss possible different acceleration mechanisms and how they depend on the ion species.

  8. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  9. Radiological Characterization of TFA metallic tubes from CERN Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Saraiva, João Pedro de Carvalho; Carvalho, João

    The scope of this thesis consists in the radiological characterization of chilled water pipes used for air-conditioning and exposed to ionizing radiation in the PS accelerator, one of the CERN accelerators, for more than 40 years. Due to corrosion problems, the 1200 m of steel pipeline were removed from the PS tunnel during the long shutdowns between the years 2000 to 2004. The radiological characterization, that included the use of FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations and the JEREMY code, began in mid-2011 and revealed a radionuclide inventory with the presence of 55Fe as dominant radionuclide and 60Co as dominant gamma emitter. Due to operational reasons, only 5.5% of the pipeline were characterized for validation. In the course of this work it was found that the contribution of both aforementioned radionuclides corresponds to more than 90% of the total computed IRAS factor (Indice Radiologique d’Acceptation en Stokage). Two different methods were used for the characterization of the PS pipes, yielding two diffe...

  10. Decursin was Accelerated Human Lung Cancer Cell Death Caused by Proton Beam Irradiation via Blocking the p42/44 MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Ra, Se Jin; Kim, Kye Ryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Decursin, which is one of the extract of Angelica gigas Nakai root, has been traditionally used in Korean folk medicine as a tonic and for treatment of anemia and other common diseases. There are some reports about the pharmacological properties of decursin showing anti-bacterial and anti-amnestic effect, depression of cardiac contraction, antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity. Cell death induced by proton beam is identified as apoptosis. The study investigated that genes involved in apoptosis are checked by RT-PCR and used LET instead of SPBP of proton beam. Apoptosis is the tight regulated by multi-protein action in physiological cell death program. Proton therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumor. Recently, many researchers tried to new therapeutic strategy, combination of proton therapy and chemotherapy, in order to increase therapeutic effect. In this study, we investigate whether decursin can accelerate effect of human lung cell apoptosis in proton irradiated cancer cells

  11. Calibration and monitoring of the MEG experiment by a proton beam from a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Bai, X.; Baldini, A.; Baracchini, E.; Bemporad, C.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavoto, G.; Cei, F.; Cerri, C.; Corbo, M.; Curalli, N.; Bari, A. de; De Gerone, M.; Doke, T.; Dussoni, S.; Egger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The MEG experiment at PSI searches for the decay μ→eγ at a level of ∼10 -13 on the branching ratio BR(μ→eγ/μ→tot), well beyond the present experimental limit (BR≤1.2x10 -11 ) and is sensitive to the predictions of SUSY-GUT theories. To reach this goal the experiment uses one of the most intense continuous surface muon beams available (∼10 8 μ/s) and relies on advanced technology (LXe calorimetry, a gradient-field superconducting spectrometer as well as flexible and powerful trigger and acquisition systems). In order to maintain the highest possible energy, time and spatial resolutions for such detector, frequent calibration and monitoring, using a Cockcroft-Walton proton accelerator, are required. The proton beam is brought to the centre of MEG by a special bellows insertion system and travels in a direction opposite to the one of the normal μ-beam. Protons interact with a lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 ) nuclear target and produce one γ (17.6 MeV) from the reaction 7 3 Li(p,γ) 8 4 Be or two coincident γs (11.67 and 4.4 MeV) from the reaction 11 5 B(p,γ 1 ) 12 6 C * . The 17.6 MeV γ is used for calibrating and monitoring the LXe calorimeter (σ E γ /E γ =3.85±0.15% at 17.6 MeV) while the coincident 11.67 and 4.4 MeV γs are used to measure the relative timing of the calorimeter and the spectrometer timing counters (σ Δt =0.450±0.015ns). - Highlights: →Experiments that search for rare phenomena need to be constantly monitor and calibrated. →We show that proton induced nuclear reactions generate γ-rays useful for calibrating and monitoring the MEG experiment. →We describe the design, assembly and test of the calibration and monitoring accelerator for the MEG experiment.

  12. Detailed analysis of the cell-inactivation mechanism by accelerated protons and light ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kundrát, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2006), s. 1185-1199 ISSN 0031-9155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : biological effects of ionizing particles * cell inactivation * modelling * protons * light ions * hadron radiotherapy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.873, year: 2006

  13. Watching proton transfer in real time: Ultrafast photoionization-induced proton transfer in phenol-ammonia complex cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ching-Chi; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Wu, Jun-Yi; Ho, Jr-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Po-Yuan

    2017-10-28

    In this paper, we give a full account of our previous work [C. C. Shen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 171103 (2014)] on the study of an ultrafast photoionization-induced proton transfer (PT) reaction in the phenol-ammonia (PhOH-NH 3 ) complex using ultrafast time-resolved ion photofragmentation spectroscopy implemented by the photoionization-photofragmentation pump-probe detection scheme. Neutral PhOH-NH 3 complexes prepared in a free jet are photoionized by femtosecond 1 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization via the S 1 state. The evolving cations are then probed by delayed pulses that result in ion fragmentation, and the ionic dynamics is followed by measuring the parent-ion depletion as a function of the pump-probe delay time. By comparing with systems in which PT is not feasible and the steady-state ion photofragmentation spectra, we concluded that the observed temporal evolutions of the transient ion photofragmentation spectra are consistent with an intracomplex PT reaction after photoionization from the initial non-PT to the final PT structures. Our experiments revealed that PT in [PhOH-NH 3 ] + cation proceeds in two distinct steps: an initial impulsive wave-packet motion in ∼70 fs followed by a slower relaxation of about 1 ps that stabilizes the system into the final PT configuration. These results indicate that for a barrierless PT system, even though the initial PT motions are impulsive and ultrafast, the time scale to complete the reaction can be much slower and is determined by the rate of energy dissipation into other modes.

  14. Determination of protonation constants of hydroquinone and stability constants of Th(IV) hydroquinone complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, R.M.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Sharma, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Protonation constants of hydroquinone and stability constants of thorium hydroquinone complexes were determined in 1 M NaClO 4 medium at 25 ± 0.5 degC, by varying concentration of thorium, using pH titration technique. Protonation constants of hydroquinone (β 1H = [HQ]/[H][Q] and β 2H = [H 2 Q]/[H] 2 [Q]) were found to be β 1H = 11.404 ± 0.014 and β 2H = 21.402 ± 0.012. The analysis of titration data of thorium-hydroquinone system appears to indicate the formation of species Th(H 2 Q) 3 (OH) and Th(H 2 O) 4 (OH). Equilibrium constants obtained for these species are -log β 13-I = 48.51 ± 0.67 and -log β 14-1 64.86 ± 1.25 respectively which are not reported in the literature. (author)

  15. Complex flow morphologies in shock-accelerated gaseous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Vorobieff, P.; Orlicz, G.; Palekar, A.; Tomkins, C.; Goodenough, C.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Prestridge, K. P.; Benjamin, R. F.

    2007-11-01

    A Mach 1.2 planar shock wave impulsively and simultaneously accelerates a row of three heavy gas (SF 6) cylinders surrounded by a lighter gas (air), producing pairs of vortex columns. The heavy gas cylinders (nozzle diameter D) are initially equidistant in the spanwise direction (center to center spacing S), with S/D=1.5. The interaction of the vortex columns is investigated with planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in the plane normal to the axes of the cylinders. Several distinct post-shock morphologies are observed, apparently due to rather small variations of the initial conditions. We report the variation of the streamwise and spanwise growth rates of the integral scales for these flow morphologies.

  16. Elucidating the Protonation Site of Vanadium Peroxide Complexes And the Implications for Biomimetic Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.J.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Pecoraro, V.L.

    2009-05-27

    Coordination complexes of vanadium(5+) played a key role in understanding the structure and mechanism of vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases, particularly the effects of protonation on peroxide coordination to dioxovanadium(5+) species, and in the activation of the peroxo-oxovanadium(5+) complex for substrate oxidation. There has been no spectroscopic evidence that could test the presence of a hydroxo intermediate in a catalytically active oxovanadium(5+) complex. Herein we report the use of the pre-edge transition in X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a spectroscopic signature for V{double_bond}O bonding. Displacement of oxo donors with hydrogen peroxide or chloride donors dramatically decreases the pre-edge intensity, confirming that the source of the intense pre-edge feature is closely related to the {pi}-bonding associated with the V{double_bond}O. Protonation of a catalytically active tripodal amine oxovanadium(5+) complex has no affect on the pre-edge intensity and, therefore, rules out the possibility of a hydroxo intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  17. Access systems strategy in the accelerator complex and experimental areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.; Ninin, P.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Ladzinski, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the main features of the new PS Personnel Protection System (PSPSS) as well as the main milestones for its deployment during the Long Shutdown of 2013-2014. Access conditions in the PS, SPS and LHC complexes during this period shall be described as well as the upgrades and improvements that are under preparation. (authors)

  18. Pilot experiment on proton acceleration using the 25 TW femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser system at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokůpek, Jan; Margarone, Daniele; Hřebíček, Jan; Krůs, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Pšikal, J.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Mocek, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Ullschmied, Jiří; Jungwirth, Karel; Korn, Georg; Rus, Bedřich

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 690, Oct (2012), s. 48-52 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; AVČR(CZ) M100101210 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser driven acceleration * proton beams * ion diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  19. The research of the beam phase and energy test system for DTL in the proton accelerator of CSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lei; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2009-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source is now in the process of research and design,in which the proton accelerator is an important part. This beam phase and energy test system imports the signal from the Drift Tube Linac and computes its phase and energy, which is feedback to tune the beam. The signals to be processed here are modulated impulses of high frequency (repetition rate is 352.2 MHz, while the leading edge is only hundreds of ps), and the dynamic range of the amplitude is from 20 mv to 900 mv (peak to peak); therefore, special techniques are required to obtain its phase information. Moreover, to confirm the basic theory of corresponding techniques and evaluate their effects, some simulations are implemented in the platform of Matlab. (authors)

  20. Use of a Van de Graaff proton accelerator for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, J.P.

    1976-12-01

    A neutron radiographic capability has been established at the Pantex ERDA Plant. A 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator is being used to make neutron radiographs in order to observe defects of explosives encased in metal containers and ''O'' ring integrity

  1. Laser-driven acceleration of protons from hydrogenated annealed silicon targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Picciotto, A.; Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Serra, E.; Bellutti, P.; Scarduelli, G.; Calliari, L.; Krouský, Eduard; Rus, Bedřich; Dapor, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2010), 34008/1-34008/5 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-driven acceleration * laser ablation * plasma-material interactions * boundary layer effects Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.753, year: 2010

  2. Calculations of the photon dose behind concrete shielding of high energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, D.; Tesch, K.; Zazula, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    The photon dose per primary beam proton behind lateral concrete shieldings was calculated by using an extension of the Monte Carlo particle shower code FLUKA. The following photon-producing processes were taken into account: capture of thermal neutrons, deexcitation of nuclei after nuclear evaporation, inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear reactions below 140 MeV, as well as photons from electromagnetic cascades. The obtained ratio of the photon dose to the neutron dose equivalent varies from 8% to 20% and it well compares with measurements performed recently at DESY giving a mean ratio of 14%. (orig.)

  3. Thick target benchmark test for the code used in the design of high intensity proton accelerator project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Harada, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    In the neutronics design for the JAERI and KEK Joint high intensity accelerator facilities, transport codes of NMTC/JAM, MCNPX and MARS are used. In order to confirm the predict ability for these code, it is important to compare with the experiment result. For the validation of the source term of neutron, the calculations are compared with the experimental spectrum of neutrons produced from thick target, which are carried out at LANL and KEK. As for validation of low energy incident case, the calculations are compared with experiment carried out at LANL, in which target of C, Al, Fe, and 238 U are irradiated with 256-MeV protons. By the comparison, it is found that both NMTC/JAM and MCNPX show good agreement with the experiment within by a factor of 2. MARS shows good agreement for C and Al target. MARS, however, gives rather underestimation for all targets in the neutron energy region higher than 30 MeV. For the validation high incident energy case, the codes are compared with the experiment carried out at KEK. In this experiment, W and Pb targets are bombarded with 0.5- and 1.5-GeV protons. Although slightly disagreement exists, NMTC/JAM, MCNPX and MARS are in good agreement with the experiment within by a factor of 2. (author)

  4. Study on bulk shielding for a spallation neutron source facility in the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, F; Takada, H; Teshigawara, M; Watanabe, N

    2002-01-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project, a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed in a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. This report describes results of a study on bulk shielding performance of a biological shield for the spallation neutron source by means of a Monte Carlo calculation method, that is important in terms of radiation safety and cost reduction. A shielding configuration was determined as a reference case by considering preliminary studies and interaction with other components, then shielding thickness that was required to achieve a target dose rate of 1 mu Sv/h was derived. Effects of calculation conditions such as shielding materials and dimensions on the shielding performance was investigated by changing those parameters. By taking all the results and design margins into account, a shielding configuration that was identified as the most appropriate was finally determined as follows. An iron shield regi...

  5. Accelerating proton spin diffusion in perdeuterated proteins at 100 kHz MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmann, Johannes J.; Agarwal, Vipin; Hellwagner, Johannes; Lends, Alons; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    Fast magic-angle spinning (>60 kHz) has many advantages but makes spin-diffusion-type proton–proton long-range polarization transfer inefficient and highly dependent on chemical-shift offset. Using 100%-HN-[{sup 2}H,{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-ubiquitin as a model substance, we quantify the influence of the chemical-shift difference on the spin diffusion between proton spins and compare two experiments which lead to an improved chemical-shift compensation of the transfer: rotating-frame spin diffusion and a new experiment, reverse amplitude-modulated MIRROR. Both approaches enable broadband spin diffusion, but the application of the first variant is limited due to fast spin relaxation in the rotating frame. The reverse MIRROR experiment, in contrast, is a promising candidate for the determination of structurally relevant distance restraints. The applied tailored rf-irradiation schemes allow full control over the range of recoupled chemical shifts and efficiently drive spin diffusion. Here, the relevant relaxation time is the larger longitudinal relaxation time, which leads to a higher signal-to-noise ratio in the spectra.

  6. Electron trapping and acceleration by the plasma wakefield of a self-modulating proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, K.V.; Petrenko, A.V.; Amorim, L.D.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R.A.; Silva, L.O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Muggli, P.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that co-linear injection of electrons or positrons into the wakefield of the self-modulating particle beam is possible and ensures high energy gain. The witness beam must co-propagate with the tail part of the driver, since the plasma wave phase velocity there can exceed the light velocity, which is necessary for efficient acceleration. If the witness beam is many wakefield periods long, then the trapped charge is limited by beam loading effects. The initial trapping is better for positrons, but at the acceleration stage a considerable fraction of positrons is lost from the wave. For efficient trapping of electrons, the plasma boundary must be sharp, with the density transition region shorter than several centimeters. Positrons are not susceptible to the initial plasma density gradient.

  7. A DATA-DRIVEN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR PROTON ACCELERATION BY LARGE-SCALE SOLAR CORONAL SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarev, Kamen A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (United States); Schwadron, Nathan A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We have recently studied the development of an eruptive filament-driven, large-scale off-limb coronal bright front (OCBF) in the low solar corona, using remote observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ’s Advanced Imaging Assembly EUV telescopes. In that study, we obtained high-temporal resolution estimates of the OCBF parameters regulating the efficiency of charged particle acceleration within the theoretical framework of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). These parameters include the time-dependent front size, speed, and strength, as well as the upstream coronal magnetic field orientations with respect to the front’s surface normal direction. Here we present an analytical particle acceleration model, specifically developed to incorporate the coronal shock/compressive front properties described above, derived from remote observations. We verify the model’s performance through a grid of idealized case runs using input parameters typical for large-scale coronal shocks, and demonstrate that the results approach the expected DSA steady-state behavior. We then apply the model to the event of 2011 May 11 using the OCBF time-dependent parameters derived by Kozarev et al. We find that the compressive front likely produced energetic particles as low as 1.3 solar radii in the corona. Comparing the modeled and observed fluences near Earth, we also find that the bulk of the acceleration during this event must have occurred above 1.5 solar radii. With this study we have taken a first step in using direct observations of shocks and compressions in the innermost corona to predict the onsets and intensities of solar energetic particle events.

  8. Use of a low energy proton accelerator for calibrating a large NaI(Tl) array in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkbride, G.I.; O'Reilly, J.G.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a 500 keV Van de Graaff proton accelerator to produce γ-rays in the range 4 - 18 MeV via nuclear reactions for the purpose of calibrating a large NaI(Tl) crystal array is reported. Data analysis indicates an energy calibration to approx. 1% over this range

  9. Proton beam spatial distribution and Bragg peak imaging by photoluminescence of color centers in lithium fluoride crystals at the TOP-IMPLART linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ampollini, A.; Bazzano, G.; Picardi, L.; Nenzi, P.; Trinca, E.; Vadrucci, M.; Bonfigli, F.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state radiation detectors based on the photoluminescence of stable point defects in lithium fluoride crystals have been used for advanced diagnostics during the commissioning of the segment up to 27 MeV of the TOP-IMPLART proton linear accelerator for proton therapy applications, under development at ENEA C.R. Frascati, Italy. The LiF detectors high intrinsic spatial resolution and wide dynamic range allow obtaining two-dimensional images of the beam transverse intensity distribution and also identifying the Bragg peak position with micrometric precision by using a conventional optical fluorescence microscope. Results of the proton beam characterization, among which, the estimation of beam energy components and dynamics, are reported and discussed for different operating conditions of the accelerator.

  10. Shielding considerations for an electron linear accelerator complex for high energy physics and photonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.; Huntzinger, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation shielding considerations for a major high-energy physics and photonics research complex which comprise a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator injector, a 1.0 GeV electron linear accelerator and a 1.3 GeV storage ring are discussed. The facilities will be unique because of the close proximity of personnel to the accelerator beam lines, the need to adapt existing facilities and shielding materials and the application of strict ALARA dose guidelines while providing maximum access and flexibility during a phased construction program

  11. On waves below the local proton gyrofrequency in auroral acceleration regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, G.; Andre, M.; Matson, L.; Koskinen, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Viking wave electric field and density fluctuation measurements together with simultaneous particle observations are used to study waves at frequencies below the local proton gyrofrequency. Such waves were observed during about 20% of nightside auroral field line crossings by Viking at altitudes between 2,000 and 10,000 km. The observations are different from earlier spacecraft observations of similar waves in such a way that the center frequency in about one out of four of the observed events was below the gyrofrequency of singly charged helium, which has not been reported previously. The waves were well correlated with precipitating electrons of energies of a few keV and with VLF auroral hiss. Detailed investigations of simultaneously observed wave emissions, particles, and total densities strongly suggest that secondary peaks at keV energies in the distributions of downgoing electrons can cause the emissions

  12. Thermodynamics of HEDPA protonation in different media and complex formation with Mg2+ and Ca2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, Claudia; Giuffrè, Ottavia; Sammartano, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Acid–base properties of etidronic acid in different ionic media and at different ionic strengths. • Complex formation of etidronate with Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . • Dependence on ionic strength analysed by a Debye–Hückel type equation and the SIT approach. • Suggested protonation constants calculated at I = 0.1 mol · L −1 and t = 25 °C, in different ionic media. -- Abstract: Acid–base properties of etidronic acid [(1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diyil)bis(phosphonic acid), HEDPA] in different ionic media and at different ionic strengths (NaCl, KCl: I ⩽ 2 mol · L −1 ; (C 2 H 5 ) 4 NI: I ⩽ 1 mol · L −1 ) were studied at t = 25 °C, determining, by potentiometric and calorimetric techniques, protonation constants and enthalpy changes. The differences in the protonation constants in the different supporting electrolytes were also interpreted in terms of weak complex formation with M i L (with i = 1, 2), MLH j (with j = 1, 2, 3) and M 2 LH species (with L = HEDPA; M = Na + , K + ). The formation constants for the species of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , were determined by potentiometric titrations at different ionic strengths (0.1 ⩽ I/mol · L −1 ⩽ 1) in NaCl at t = 25 °C. The stability of these species is fairly high, as an example, at I = 0.1 mol · L −1 and t = 25 °C, for ML species, log β = 6.52 and 6.86, for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively, obtained by considering simultaneously HEDPA–Na + interactions. The dependence on ionic strength was analysed by a Debye–Hückel type equation and the SIT (Specific ion Interaction Theory) approach for protonation thermodynamic parameters and by a Debye–Hückel type equation for Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ complex formation. The sequestering ability of HEDPA toward Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ was also analysed. A comparison with literature data is given

  13. Accelerated proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) using GRAPPA with a 32-channel phased-array coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Otazo, Ricardo; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Wald, Lawrence L; Wiggins, Graham C; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2008-05-01

    Parallel imaging has been demonstrated to reduce the encoding time of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Here we investigate up to 5-fold acceleration of 2D proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T using generalized autocalibrating partial parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) with a 32-channel coil array, 1.5 cm(3) voxel size, TR/TE of 15/2000 ms, and 2.1 Hz spectral resolution. Compared to an 8-channel array, the smaller RF coil elements in this 32-channel array provided a 3.1-fold and 2.8-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the peripheral region and the central region, respectively, and more spatial modulated information. Comparison of sensitivity-encoding (SENSE) and GRAPPA reconstruction using an 8-channel array showed that both methods yielded similar quantitative metabolite measures (P > 0.1). Concentration values of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and the sum of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) for both methods were consistent with previous studies. Using the 32-channel array coil the mean Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLB) were less than 8% for NAA, tCr, and Cho and less than 15% for mI and Glx at 2-fold acceleration. At 4-fold acceleration the mean CRLB for NAA, tCr, and Cho was less than 11%. In conclusion, the use of a 32-channel coil array and GRAPPA reconstruction can significantly reduce the measurement time for mapping brain metabolites. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.

  15. Design and rf tuning of the KEK 40 MeV proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takao.

    1986-09-01

    An Alvarez linac was designed and constructed on the basis of a model linac study to increase the output energy from 20 to 40 MeV. The linac was tuned by frequency tuners and post couplers. Stabilization of the field was achieved and a variation within ± 0.7 % of the accelerating field was obtained. An equivalent circuit analysis which can numerically solve loop equations, including stem and post currents in addition to tank current, can explain the rf characteristics of a postcoupled structure. (author)

  16. Stable long range proton acceleration driven by intense laser pulse with underdense plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gu, Yanjun; Zhu, Z.; Li, F.X.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Zhang, F.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2014), "063104-1"-"063104-6" ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ion-acceleration * fast ignition * generation * beams * targets Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014

  17. A light-weight compact proton gantry design with a novel dose delivery system for broad-energetic laser-accelerated beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, U; Cowan, T E; Enghardt, W; Hofmann, K M; Karsch, L; Kroll, F; Schramm, U; Wilkens, J J; Pawelke, J

    2017-07-07

    Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra. For the application of laser-driven beams in PT, new solutions for beam transport, such as beam capture, integrated energy selection, beam shaping and delivery systems are required due to the specific beam parameters. The generation of these beams are limited by the low repetition rate of high-power lasers and this limitation would require alternative solutions for tumour irradiation which can efficiently utilize the available high proton fluence and broad-energy spectra per proton bunch to keep treatment times short. This demands new dose delivery system and irradiation field formation schemes. In this paper, we present a multi-functional light-weight and compact proton gantry design for laser-driven sources based on iron-less pulsed high-field magnets. This achromatic design includes improved beam capturing and energy selection systems, with a novel beam shaping and dose delivery system, so-called ELPIS. ELPIS system utilizes magnetic fields, instead of physical scatterers, for broadening the spot-size of broad-energetic beams while capable of simultaneously scanning them in lateral directions. To investigate the clinical feasibility of this gantry design, we conducted a treatment planning study with a 3D treatment planning system augmented for the pulsed beams with optimizable broad-energetic widths and selectable beam spot sizes. High quality treatment plans could be achieved with such unconventional beam

  18. A light-weight compact proton gantry design with a novel dose delivery system for broad-energetic laser-accelerated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, U.; Cowan, T. E.; Enghardt, W.; Hofmann, K. M.; Karsch, L.; Kroll, F.; Schramm, U.; Wilkens, J. J.; Pawelke, J.

    2017-07-01

    Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra. For the application of laser-driven beams in PT, new solutions for beam transport, such as beam capture, integrated energy selection, beam shaping and delivery systems are required due to the specific beam parameters. The generation of these beams are limited by the low repetition rate of high-power lasers and this limitation would require alternative solutions for tumour irradiation which can efficiently utilize the available high proton fluence and broad-energy spectra per proton bunch to keep treatment times short. This demands new dose delivery system and irradiation field formation schemes. In this paper, we present a multi-functional light-weight and compact proton gantry design for laser-driven sources based on iron-less pulsed high-field magnets. This achromatic design includes improved beam capturing and energy selection systems, with a novel beam shaping and dose delivery system, so-called ELPIS. ELPIS system utilizes magnetic fields, instead of physical scatterers, for broadening the spot-size of broad-energetic beams while capable of simultaneously scanning them in lateral directions. To investigate the clinical feasibility of this gantry design, we conducted a treatment planning study with a 3D treatment planning system augmented for the pulsed beams with optimizable broad-energetic widths and selectable beam spot sizes. High quality treatment plans could be achieved with such unconventional beam

  19. Collision-Induced Dissociation of Electrosprayed Protein Complexes: An All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Model with Mobile Protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Vlad; Trecroce, Danielle A; McAllister, Robert G; Konermann, Lars

    2016-06-16

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has become an indispensable technique for examining noncovalent protein complexes. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of these multiply protonated gaseous ions usually culminates in ejection of a single subunit with a disproportionately large amount of charge. Experiments suggest that this process involves subunit unfolding prior to separation from the residual complex, as well as H(+) migration onto the unravelling chain. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are a promising avenue for gaining detailed insights into these CID events. Unfortunately, typical MD algorithms do not allow for mobile protons. Here we address this limitation by implementing a strategy that combines atomistic force fields (such as OPLS/AA and CHARMM36) with a proton hopping algorithm, focusing on the tetrameric complexes transthyretin and streptavidin. Protons are redistributed over all acidic and basic sites in 20 ps intervals, subject to an energy function that reflects electrostatic interactions and proton affinities. Our simulations predict that nativelike conformers at the onset of collisional heating contain multiple salt bridges. Collisional heating initially causes subtle structural changes that lead to a gradual decline of these zwitterionic patterns. Many of the MD runs show gradual unfolding of a single subunit in conjunction with H(+) migration, culminating in subunit separation from the complex. However, there are also instances where two or more chains start to unfold simultaneously, giving rise to charge competition. The scission point where the "winning" subunit separates from the complex can be attained for different degrees of unfolding, giving rise to product ions in various charge states. The simulated product ion distributions are in close agreement with experimental CID data. Proton enrichment in the departing subunit is driven by charge-charge repulsion, but the combination of salt bridge depletion, charge migration

  20. Hadron cancer therapy complex using nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator and gantry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Keil

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG rings for cancer hadron therapy offer reduced physical aperture and large dynamic aperture as compared to scaling FFAGs. The variation of tune with energy implies the crossing of resonances during acceleration. Our design avoids intrinsic resonances, although imperfection resonances must be crossed. We consider a system of three nonscaling FFAG rings for cancer therapy with 250 MeV protons and 400   MeV/u carbon ions. Hadrons are accelerated in a common radio frequency quadrupole and linear accelerator, and injected into the FFAG rings at v/c=0.1294. H^{+}/C^{6+} ions are accelerated in the two smaller/larger rings to 31 and 250  MeV/68.8 and 400   MeV/u kinetic energy, respectively. The lattices consist of doublet cells with a straight section for rf cavities. The gantry with triplet cells accepts the whole required momentum range at fixed field. This unique design uses either high-temperature superconductors or superconducting magnets reducing gantry magnet size and weight. Elements with a variable field at the beginning and at the end set the extracted beam at the correct position for a range of energies.

  1. The Energy Selection System for the laser-accelerated proton beams at ELI-Beamlines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tramontana, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Bijan Jia, S.; Korn, Georg; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, Mario; Manti, L.; Margarone, Daniele; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, Francesco; Scuderi, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, May (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : instrumentation for hadron therapy * wake-field acceleration (laser-driven, electron-driven) * plasma diagnostics * charged-particle spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  2. Design change of tower cooling water system for proton accelerator research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, I. T.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Han, Y. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Tower Cooling Water System (TC) is designed to reject the heat load generated by operating the accelerators and the utility facilities through the component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers. The circulating water discharged from the circulating water pumps passes through the CCW heat exchangers, the Chiller condenser and the air compressor, and the heated circulating water is return to the cooling tower for the heat removal. In this study, The design of Tower Cooling Water System is changed as follows : At First, The quantity of cells is changed into six in order to operate the cooling tower accurately correspond with condition of each equipment of head loads. The fans of cooling tower are controlled by the signal of TEW installed in the latter parts of it. The type of circulation water pump is modified to centrifugal pump and debris filter system is deleted

  3. ActiWiz – optimizing your nuclide inventory at proton accelerators with a computer code

    CERN Document Server

    Vincke, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    When operating an accelerator one always faces unwanted, but inevitable beam losses. These result in activation of adjacent material, which in turn has an obvious impact on safety and handling constraints. One of the key parameters responsible for activation is the chemical composition of the material which often can be optimized in that respect. In order to facilitate this task also for non-expert users the ActiWiz software has been developed at CERN. Based on a large amount of generic FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations the software applies a specifically developed risk assessment model to provide support to decision makers especially during the design phase as well as common operational work in the domain of radiation protection.

  4. Design change of tower cooling water system for proton accelerator research center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, G. P.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, I. T.; Min, Y. S.; Mun, K. J.; Cho, J. S.; Nam, J. M.; Park, S. S.; Han, Y. G. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Tower Cooling Water System (TC) is designed to reject the heat load generated by operating the accelerators and the utility facilities through the component cooling water (CCW) heat exchangers. The circulating water discharged from the circulating water pumps passes through the CCW heat exchangers, the Chiller condenser and the air compressor, and the heated circulating water is return to the cooling tower for the heat removal. In this study, The design of Tower Cooling Water System is changed as follows : At First, The quantity of cells is changed into six in order to operate the cooling tower accurately correspond with condition of each equipment of head loads. The fans of cooling tower are controlled by the signal of TEW installed in the latter parts of it. The type of circulation water pump is modified to centrifugal pump and debris filter system is deleted.

  5. Current experiments using polarized beams of the JINR LHE accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehar, F.

    2001-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the spin-dependent experiments carried out or prepared at the JINR LHE Synchrocyclotron. The acceleration of polarized deuterons, and experiments using the internal targets, the beam extraction and the polarimetry are briefly described. Then, representative experiments using either the extracted deuteron beam or secondary beams of polarized nucleons produced by polarized deuterons are treated. Three current experiments: 'DELTA-SIGMA', 'DELTA' and 'pp-SINGLET', require the polarized nucleon beams in conjunction with the Dubna polarized proton target. Already available Δσ L (np) results from the first experiment show unexpected energy dependence. Experiment 'DELTA' should investigate the nucleon strangeness. The aim of the third experiment is to study a possible resonant behavior of the spin-singlet pp scattering amplitude. For all other Dubna experiments unpolarized nucleon or nuclei targets are used. The polarized deuteron beam allows determining spin-dependent observable necessary for understanding the deuteron structure, as well as the nucleon substructure. One part of investigations concerns deuteron break-up reactions and deuteron proton backward elastic scattering. A considerable amount of data was obtained in this domain. Another part is dedicated to the measurements of the same spin-dependent observable in a 'cumulative' region. Interesting results were obtained for proton or pion productions in inclusive and semi-inclusive measurements. In the field of inelastic deuteron reactions, the analyzing power measurements were performed in the region covering Roper resonances. Many existing models are in disagreement with observed momentum dependences of different results. Finally, the proton-carbon analyzing power measurements extended the momentum region of rescattering observables. Some inclusive Dubna results are compared to exclusive Saclay data, and to lepton-deuteron measurements. Most of the JINR LHE experiments are

  6. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  7. Induced radioactivity studies of the shielding and beamline equipment of the high intensity proton accelerator facility at PSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otiougova Polina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI is the largest national research center in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide ↓eld in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. The High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility (HIPA has been in operation at PSI since 1974. It includes an 870 keV Cockroft-Walton pre-accelerator, a 72 MeV injector cyclotron as well as a 590 MeV ring cyclotron. The experimental facilities, the meson production graphite targets, Target E and Target M, and the spallation target stations (SINQ and UCN are used for material research and particle physics. In order to ful↓ll the request of the regulatory authorities and to be reported to the regulators, the expected radioactive waste and nuclide inventory after an anticipated ↓nal shutdown in the far future has to be estimated. In this contribution, calculations for the 20 m long beamline between Target E and the 590 MeV beam dump of HIPA are presented. The ↓rst step in the calculations was determining spectra and spatial particle distributions around the beamlines using the Monte-Carlo particle transport code MCNPX2.7.0 [1]. To perform the analysis of the MCNPX output and to determine the radionuclide inventory as well as the speci↓c activity of the nuclides, an activation script [2] using the FISPACT10 code with the cross sections from the European Activation File (EAF2010 [3] was applied. The speci↓c activity values were compared to the currently existing Swiss exemption limits (LE [4] as well as to the Swiss liberation limits (LL [5], becoming e↑ective in the near future. The obtained results were used to estimate the total volume of the radioactive waste produced at HIPA and have to be reported to the Swiss regulatory authorities. The comparison of the performed calculations to measurements is discussed as well.

  8. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  9. Automated installations for reeling up of superconducting magnet windings of the accelerating-storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolzhenkov, V.I.; Elistratov, V.V.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Petrov, V.B.; Popov, V.V.; Savel'ev, A.V.; Sokolov, B.V.; Sytnik, V.V.; Tarakanov, N.M.; Ustinov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    An automated facility for reeling up the windings of model and full-scale superconducting magnets of the accelerating-storage complex is described. The control system monitors superconducting cable tension, transport carriage linear velocity and some other parameters. Maximum length of the winded coils is 6 m. Cable tension stability - 5%

  10. A conceptual study of actinide transmutation system with proton accelerator, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, T.; Takada, H.; Kanno, I.; Ogawa, T.; Nishida, T.; Kaneko, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal hydraulics of the accelerator-driven actinide incineration target system based on power distribution profiles to assess the maximum attainable power. In the case of Na cooling, the reference target operates at a thermal power of 404 MW and a beam current of 18.2 mA. The system transmutes 114 kg actinides per year, which implies that the annual actinide products from about 4.3 units of 3000 MWt pressurized water reactor (PWR) can be incinerated. The Pb-Bi cooled reference target operates at a thermal power of 163 MW and beam current of 5.4 mA. The system transmutes 42 kg actinides annually, and can serve about 1.8 units of PWR. The maximum thermal power can be increased by a factor of about 2 by introducing tungsten pins in the high flux region to flatten the power distribution. The Na cooled tungsten-loaded target operates at a thermal power of 691 MW and beam current of 22.6 mA. The system can serve about 7.6 PWRs. The tungsten-loaded target cooled by Pb-Bi operates at a thermal power of 343 MW at a 9.8 mA beam current. The system can process the actinide from about 3.8 PWRs. (N.K.)

  11. A measurement of the gravitational acceleration of the anti-proton

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, M H

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental experiment in gravity proposed by us, is the measurement of the gravitational force on antimatter. This measurement would constitute the first direct test of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) for antimatter. The availability of low-energy antiprotons at CERN has made such an experiment feasible, and a proposal to carry out such a measurement has been accepted by the CERN Program Committee. We plan to use a time-of-flight technique similar to that pioneered by Fairbank and Witteborn in their measurement of the gravitational force on an electron. Very slow particles are launched into a vertical drift tube and the time-of-flight spectrum of these particles is recorded. This spectrum will exhibit a cut-off point directly related to the gravitational acceleration of the particles. Obtaining very slow antiprotons involves several stages of deceleration. Antiprotons from LEAR will be initially decelerated from 2 MeY to tens of kilovolts by passing them through a thin foil. After capture and cooling ...

  12. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souli, M.

    2007-07-01

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q c in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  13. 3-dimensional shielding design for a spallation neutron source facility in the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaya; Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Evaluation of shielding performance for a 1 MW spallation neutron source facility in the Materials and Life Science Facility being constructed in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC) is important from a viewpoint of radiation safety and optimization of arrangement of components. This report describes evaluated results for the shielding performance with modeling three-dimensionally whole structural components including gaps between them in detail. A Monte Carlo calculation method with MCNPX2.2.6 code and LA-150 library was adopted. Streaming and void effects, optimization of shield for cost reduction and optimization of arrangement of structures such as shutters were investigated. The streaming effects were investigated quantitatively by changing the detailed structure of components and gap widths built into the calculation model. Horizontal required shield thicknesses were ranged from about 6.5 m to 7.5 m as a function of neutron beam line angles. A shutter mechanism for a horizontal neutron reflectometer that was directed downward was devised, and it was shown that the shielding performance of the shutter was acceptable. An optimal biological shield configuration was finally determined according to the calculated results. (author)

  14. Design study on large-scale mercury loop for engineering test of target of high-intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Sudo, Yukio; Koiso, Kohji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromichi.

    1997-03-01

    A heavy liquid-metal target has been proposed as a representative target of a 5MW-scale neutron source for a neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator. In the report, about mercury considered to be the best material of the heavy liquid-metal target, its properties needed for the design were formulated, and results of research on mercury treatment and of evaluation of heat removal performance on the basis of generating heat obtained by a numerical calculation of a spallation reaction were presented. From these results, a 1.5MW-scale mercury loop which equals to that for the first stage operation of the neutron science program of JAERI was designed conceptually for obtaining design data of the mercury target, and basic flow diagram of the loop and specifications of components were decided: diameter of pipelines flowing mercury at the velocity below 1m/s, power of an electro-magnet pump and structure of a cooler. Through the design, engineering problems were made clear such as selection and development of mercury-resistant materials and optimization of the loop and components for decreasing mercury inventory. (author)

  15. Antimony Complexes for Electrocatalysis: Activity of a Main-Group Element in Proton Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianbing; Materna, Kelly L; Hedström, Svante; Yang, Ke R; Crabtree, Robert H; Batista, Victor S; Brudvig, Gary W

    2017-07-24

    Main-group complexes are shown to be viable electrocatalysts for the H 2 -evolution reaction (HER) from acid. A series of antimony porphyrins with varying axial ligands were synthesized for electrocatalysis applications. The proton-reduction catalytic properties of TPSb(OH) 2 (TP=5,10,15,20-tetra(p-tolyl)porphyrin) with two axial hydroxy ligands were studied in detail, demonstrating catalytic H 2 production. Experiments, in conjunction with quantum chemistry calculations, show that the catalytic cycle is driven via the redox activity of both the porphyrin ligand and the Sb center. This study brings insight into main group catalysis and the role of redox-active ligands during catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The PS complex as proton pre-injector for the LHC - design and implementation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedikt, M.; Blas, A.; Borburgh, J.

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will be supplied with protons from the pre-injector chain comprising Linac2, PS Booster and PS. These accelerators have undergone a major upgrading programme during the last five years so as to meet the stringent requirements of the LHC. This implies that many high-intensity bunches of small emittance and tight spacing (25 ns) be available at the PS extraction energy (26 GeV/c). The upgrading project involved an increase of Linac2 current, new RF systems in the PS Booster and the PS, raising the PS Booster energy from 1 to 1.4 GeV, two-batch filling of the PS, and the installation of high-resolution beam profile measurement devices. With the project entering its final phase and most of the newly installed hardware now being operational, the emphasis switches to producing the nominal LHC beam and tackling the associated beam physics problems. This report describes all the hardware changes related to the upgrading project. (orig.)

  17. Multiple purpose research complex on the basis of electron accelerators and terahertz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the basic positioning parameters of multiple purpose research complex are presented, the list of potential experiments and technological uses on the example of results received in the multiuser center of G.I. Budker Institut of nuclear physics Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences is discussed. This research complex is directed on work in the big universities and nano technology centers. Electron accelerators is intended for development of electron-beam technologies different material modification, for production of nano powder, nano materials and solution of ecological tasks. In this work the project of multiple purpose research complex on the basis of new generation electron accelerator Il-14 and workable terahertz free electron laser is suggested. Terahertz free electron laser will be used for researches in the sphere of physics and chemistry, biology and medicine, nanotechnology engineering and different methods of nanodiagnostics.

  18. Neutron double differential distributions, dose rates and specific activities from accelerator components irradiated by 50-400 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, F.; Charitonidis, N.; Silari, M.; Charitonidis, N.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to estimate the induced radioactivity in five materials commonly used in particle accelerator structures: boron nitride and carbon (dumps and collimators), copper (RF cavities, coils and vacuum chambers), iron and stainless steel (magnets and vacuum chambers). Using a simplified geometry set-up, the five materials were bombarded with protons in the energy range from 50 to 400 MeV. This energy range is typical of intermediate-energy proton accelerators used as injectors to higher-energy machines, as research accelerators for nuclear physics, and in hadron therapy. Ambient dose equivalent rates were calculated at distances up to one meter around the target, for seven cooling times up to six months. A complete inventory of the radionuclides present in the target was calculated for all combinations of target, beam energy and cooling time. The influence of the target size and of self-absorption was investigated. The energy and angular distributions of neutrons escaping from the target were also scored for all materials and beam energies. The influence on the neutron spectra of the presence of concrete walls (the accelerator tunnel) around the target was also estimated. The results of the present study provide a simple database to be used for a first, approximate estimate of the radiological risk to be expected when intervening on activated accelerator components. (authors)

  19. Site layout and balance of plant design for an accelerator-driven materials processing complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunliffe, J.; Taussig, R.; Ghose, S. [Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    High energy proton beam accelerators are under consideration for use in radioisotope production, surplus weapons material destruction, radioactive waste transmutation, and thorium-based energy conversion cycles. While there are unique aspects to each of these applications that must be accommodated in the design of the associated facility, all share a set of fundamental characteristics that in large measure dictate the site layout features and many balance-of-plant (BOP) design requirements found to be common to all. This paper defines these key design determinants and goes on to discuss the manner in which they have been accommodated in the pre-conceptual design for a particular materials production application. An estimate of the costs associated with this BOP design is also presented with the aim of guiding future evaluations where the basic plant designs are similar to that of this specific case.

  20. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  1. Electro-activity of cobalt and nickel complexes for the reduction of protons into di-hydrogen; Electroactivite de complexes de cobalt et nickel pour la reduction des protons en di-hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantani, O.; Anxolabehere-Mallart, E.; Aukauloo, A.; Millet, P. [Paris-11 Univ., Equipe de Chimie Inorganique, UMR 8182, ICMMO, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the results obtained with different cobalt and nickel glyoximes are presented. These complexes have been characterized by various spectroscopies (UV-visible, ESR) and by electrochemistry (cyclic voltametry, spectro-electrochemistry). Their efficiency to electrochemically reduce the protons into dihydrogen in acid medium is discussed. More particularly, studies on solid support are carried out. At last, these complexes are being tested inside PEM electrolysis. (O.M.)

  2. Testing and interfacing intelligent power supplies for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Cohen, S.; Weintraub, B.L.; Hayden, D.J.; Archuleta, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    New high-current, high-precision microprocessor-controlled power supplies, built by Alpha Scientific Electronics of Hayward, CA, have been installed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex. Each unit has sophisticated microprocessor control on-board and communicates via RS-422 (serial communications). The units use a high level ASCII-based control protocol. Performance tests were conducted to verify adherence to specification and to ascertain ultimate long-term stability. The ''front-end'' software used by the accelerator control system has been written to accommodate these new devices. The supplies are interfaced to the control system through a terminal server port connected to the site-wide ediernet backbone. Test design and results as well as details of the software implementation for the analog and digital control of the supplies through the accelerator control system are presented

  3. Induced radioactivity studies of the shielding and beamline equipment of the high intensity proton accelerator facility at PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiougova, Polina; Bergmann, Ryan; Kiselev, Daniela; Talanov, Vadim; Wohlmuther, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is the largest national research center in Switzerland. Its multidisciplinary research is dedicated to a wide ↓eld in natural science and technology as well as particle physics. The High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility (HIPA) has been in operation at PSI since 1974. It includes an 870 keV Cockroft-Walton pre-accelerator, a 72 MeV injector cyclotron as well as a 590 MeV ring cyclotron. The experimental facilities, the meson production graphite targets, Target E and Target M, and the spallation target stations (SINQ and UCN) are used for material research and particle physics. In order to ful↓ll the request of the regulatory authorities and to be reported to the regulators, the expected radioactive waste and nuclide inventory after an anticipated ↓nal shutdown in the far future has to be estimated. In this contribution, calculations for the 20 m long beamline between Target E and the 590 MeV beam dump of HIPA are presented. The ↓rst step in the calculations was determining spectra and spatial particle distributions around the beamlines using the Monte-Carlo particle transport code MCNPX2.7.0 [1]. To perform the analysis of the MCNPX output and to determine the radionuclide inventory as well as the speci↓c activity of the nuclides, an activation script [2] using the FISPACT10 code with the cross sections from the European Activation File (EAF2010) [3] was applied. The speci↓c activity values were compared to the currently existing Swiss exemption limits (LE) [4] as well as to the Swiss liberation limits (LL) [5], becoming e↑ective in the near future. The obtained results were used to estimate the total volume of the radioactive waste produced at HIPA and have to be reported to the Swiss regulatory authorities. The comparison of the performed calculations to measurements is discussed as well. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  4. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  5. A new slip stacking RF system for a twofold power upgrade of Fermilab's Accelerator Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrak, Robyn [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Fermilab's Accelerator Complex has been recently upgraded, in order to increase the 120 GeV proton beam power on target from about 400 kW to over 700 kW for NOvA and other future intensity frontier experiments. One of the key ingredients of the upgrade is the offloading of some Main Injector synchrotron operations - beam injection and RF manipulation called ''slip stacking'' - to the 8GeV Recycler Ring, which had until recently been used only for low-intensity antiproton storage and cooling. This required construction of two new 53 MHz RF systems for the slip-stacking manipulations. The cavities operate simultaneously at Vpeak ≲150 kV, but at slightly different frequencies (Δf=1260 Hz). Their installation was completed in September 2013. This article describes the novel solutions used in the design of the new cavities, their tuning system, and the associated high power RF system. First results showing effective operation of the RF system, beam capture and successful slip-stacking in the Recycler Ring are presented.

  6. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals neuroprotection by oral minocycline in a nonhuman primate model of accelerated NeuroAIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Ratai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a significant problem. In efforts to understand and alleviate neurocognitive deficits associated with HIV, we used an accelerated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV macaque model of NeuroAIDS to test whether minocycline is neuroprotective against lentiviral-induced neuronal injury.Eleven rhesus macaques were infected with SIV, depleted of CD8+ lymphocytes, and studied until eight weeks post inoculation (wpi. Seven animals received daily minocycline orally beginning at 4 wpi. Neuronal integrity was monitored in vivo by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and post-mortem by immunohistochemistry for synaptophysin (SYN, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2, and neuronal counts. Astrogliosis and microglial activation were quantified by measuring glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1, respectively. SIV infection followed by CD8+ cell depletion induced a progressive decline in neuronal integrity evidenced by declining N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr, which was arrested with minocycline treatment. The recovery of this ratio was due to increases in NAA, indicating neuronal recovery, and decreases in Cr, likely reflecting downregulation of glial cell activation. SYN, MAP2, and neuronal counts were found to be higher in minocycline-treated animals compared to untreated animals while GFAP and IBA-1 expression were decreased compared to controls. CSF and plasma viral loads were lower in MN-treated animals.In conclusion, oral minocycline alleviates neuronal damage induced by the AIDS virus.

  7. Engineering a large application software project: the controls of the CERN PS accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benincasa, G.P.; Daneels, A.; Heymans, P.; Serre, Ch.

    1985-01-01

    The CERN PS accelerator complex has been progressively converted to full computer controls without interrupting its full-time operation (more than 6000 hours per year with on average not more than 1% of the total down-time due to controls). The application software amounts to 120 man-years and 450'000 instructions: it compares with other large software projects, also outside the accelerator world: e.g. Skylab's ground support software. This paper outlines the application software structure which takes into account technical requirements and constraints (resulting from the complexity of the process and its operation) and economical and managerial ones. It presents the engineering and management techniques used to promote implementation, testing and commissioning within budget, manpower and time constraints and concludes with experience gained

  8. Electro-activity of cobalt and nickel complexes for the reduction of protons into di-hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantani, O.; Anxolabehere-Mallart, E.; Aukauloo, A.; Millet, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the results obtained with different cobalt and nickel glyoximes are presented. These complexes have been characterized by various spectroscopies (UV-visible, ESR) and by electrochemistry (cyclic voltametry, spectro-electrochemistry). Their efficiency to electrochemically reduce the protons into dihydrogen in acid medium is discussed. More particularly, studies on solid support are carried out. At last, these complexes are being tested inside PEM electrolysis. (O.M.)

  9. Deprotonation/protonation of coordinated secondary thioamide units of pincer ruthenium complexes: modulation of voltammetric and spectroscopic characterization of the pincer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratani, Takuya; Koizumi, Take-aki; Yamamoto, Takakazu; Tanaka, Koji; Kanbara, Takaki

    2011-09-21

    New pincer ruthenium complexes, [Ru(SCS)(tpy)]PF(6) (1) (SCS = 2,6-bis(benzylaminothiocarbonyl)phenyl), tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridyl) and [Ru(SNS)(tpy)]PF(6) (2) (SNS = 2,5-bis(benzylaminothiocarbonyl)pyrrolyl), having κ(3)SCS and κ(3)SNS pincer ligands with two secondary thioamide units were synthesized by the reactions of [RuCl(3)(tpy)] with N,N'-dibenzyl-1,3-benzenedicarbothioamide (L1) and N,N'-dibenzyl-2,5-1H-pyrroledicarbothioamide (L2), respectively, and their chemical and electrochemical properties were elucidated. The structure of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The complexes 1 and 2 showed a two-step deprotonation reaction by treatment with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU), and the addition of DBU led to a shift of the metal-centered redox couples to a lower potential by 720 and 550 mV, respectively. The di-deprotonated complexes were also studied by (1)H-NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The addition of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) to the di-deprotonated complexes enabled the recovery of 1 and 2, indicating that the thioamide moiety underwent a reversible deprotonation-protonation process, which resulted in regulating the redox potentials of the metal center. The Pourbaix diagram of 1 revealed that 1 underwent a one-proton/one-electron transfer process in the pH range of 5.83-10.35, and a two-proton/one-electron process at a pH of over 10.35, indicating that the deprotonation/protonation process of the complexes is related to proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  11. Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  12. Positron probing of phosphorus-vacancy complexes in silicon irradiated with 15 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, N.; Emtsev, V.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Elsayed, M.; Kessler, C.; Kozlovski, V.; Oganesyan, G.

    2015-06-01

    Defects in phosphorus-doped silicon samples of floating-zone material, n-FZ-Si(P), produced under irradiation with 15 MeV protons at room temperature are studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy over the temperature range of ∼ 30 K - 300 K and by low- temperature Hall effect measurements. After annealing of E-centersand divacancies, we detected for the first time high concentrations of positron traps which had not been observed earlier. These defects are isochronally annealed over the temperature interval of ∼ 320 °C - 700 °C they manifest themselves as electrically neutral deep donor centersin the material of n-type. A long-lived component of the positron lifetime, τ2(I2 enthalpy and entropy of annealing of these centersare Ea ∼ 1.05(0.21) eV and ΔSm ≈ 3.1(0.6)kB, respectively. It is argued that the microstructure of the defect consists of two vacancies, VV, and one atom of phosphorus, P. The split configuration of the VPV complex is shortly discussed.

  13. Experimental and computational studies on creatininium 4-nitrobenzoate - An organic proton transfer complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K.

    2017-10-01

    A new organic proton transfer complex of creatininium 4-nitrobenzoate (C4NB) has been synthesized and its single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation technique. The grown single crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), FTIR, FT-Raman and Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG). The SCXRD analysis revealed that C4NB was crystallized into orthorhombic crystal system, with noncentrosymmetric (NCS), P212121 space group. The creatininium cation and 4-nitrobenzoate anion were connected through a pair of N__H⋯O hydrogen bonds (N(3)__H(6) ⋯ O(3) (x+1, y, z) and N(2)__H(5) &ctdot O(2) (x-1/2, -y-1/2, -z+2)) and fashioned a R22(8) ring motif. The crystal structure was stabilized by strong N__H⋯O and weak C__H⋯O intermolecular interactions and it was quantitatively analysed by Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint (FP) analysis. FTIR and FT-Raman studies confirmed the vibrational modes of functional groups present in C4NB compound indubitably. SHG efficiency of grown crystal was 4.6 times greater than that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) material. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies such as Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map, natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) and first order hyperpolarizability (β0) were calculated to explore the structure-property relationship.

  14. Electromagnetic design of a pos-accelerator of protons for ocular neoplasm therapy; Projeto eletromagnético de um pós-acelerador de prótons para tratamento de tumor ocular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luísa de Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Proton therapy is an effective technique in the treatment and control of cancer, which is not available in most countries. The low number of specialized centers for this type of treatment is because of the high cost of implementing and maintaining the accelerators. This study presents a model for the Electromagnetic (EM) acceleration of protons to sufficient energies for the treatment of ocular tumors. This is the scientific possibility of a compact technology that uses cyclotrons to produce radioisotopes (present in various countries) as accelerator guns via an analytical assessment of the physical parameters of the beam and a simulation of the electromagnetic equipment structures, acceleration, and movement of the proton beam using CST STUDIO® 3D 2015 (Computer Simulation Technology) software. In addition, the geometry required to provide synchronization between the acceleration and beam path was analyzed using the motion equations of the protons. The simulations show a final model that is compact and simplified as compared with the isochronic cyclotron and synchrotron (used for proton therapy). The synchronism requirements of a circular accelerator are fulfilled in this model so that in all orbits the beam has the same movement time. The extraction energy of the presented model is sufficient for the treatment of ocular tumors. This is an alternative method that could improve the quality of life for patients with ocular tumors in developing countries. Future studies will be conducted to complete the technical design presentation and evaluate the accelerated beam's interaction with neoplastic tissues. (author)

  15. The Fluka Linebuilder and Element Database: Tools for Building Complex Models of Accelerators Beam Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, A; Cerutti, F; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V

    2012-01-01

    Extended FLUKA models of accelerator beam lines can be extremely complex: heavy to manipulate, poorly versatile and prone to mismatched positioning. We developed a framework capable of creating the FLUKA model of an arbitrary portion of a given accelerator, starting from the optics configuration and a few other information provided by the user. The framework includes a builder (LineBuilder), an element database and a series of configuration and analysis scripts. The LineBuilder is a Python program aimed at dynamically assembling complex FLUKA models of accelerator beam lines: positions, magnetic fields and scorings are automatically set up, and geometry details such as apertures of collimators, tilting and misalignment of elements, beam pipes and tunnel geometries can be entered at user’s will. The element database (FEDB) is a collection of detailed FLUKA geometry models of machine elements. This framework has been widely used for recent LHC and SPS beam-machine interaction studies at CERN, and led to a dra...

  16. Do you want to build such a machine? : Designing a high energy proton accelerator for Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, E.

    2004-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's efforts toward researching, proposing and then building a high-energy proton accelerator have been discussed in a handful of studies. In the main, these have concentrated on the intense maneuvering amongst politicians, universities, government agencies, outside corporations, and laboratory officials to obtain (or block) approval and/or funds or to establish who would have control over budgets and research programs. These ''top-down'' studies are very important but they can also serve to divorce such proceedings from the individuals actually involved in the ground-level research which physically served to create theories, designs, machines, and experiments. This can lead to a skewed picture, on the one hand, of a lack of effect that so-called scientific and technological factors exert and, on the other hand, of the apparent separation of the so-called social or political from the concrete practice of doing physics. An exception to this approach can be found in the proceedings of a conference on ''History of the ZGS'' held at Argonne at the time of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron's decommissioning in 1979. These accounts insert the individuals quite literally as they are, for the most part, personal reminiscences of those who took part in these efforts on the ground level. As such, they are invaluable raw material for historical inquiry but generally lack the rigor and perspective expected in a finished historical work. The session on ''Constructing Cold War Physics'' at the 2002 annual History of Science Society Meeting served to highlight new approaches circulating towards history of science and technology in the post-WWII period, especially in the 1950s. There is new attention towards the effects of training large numbers of scientists and engineers as well as the caution not to equate ''national security'' with military preparedness, but rather more broadly--at certain points--with the explicit ''struggle for the hearts and minds of

  17. Accelerators of future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of the prospects of development of various of types accelerator over next 10 to 15 years is given. The following directions are considered: superhign energy proton accelerators and storage rings, electron-positron colliding beams, heavy ion accelerators, medium energy, high-current proton accelerators superhigh power particle beams (electrons light- and heavy ions) for inertial fusion

  18. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustov, S.A.; Mirokhin, I.V.; Morozov, N.A.; Onischenko, L.M.; Savchenko, O.V.; Sissakian, A.N.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Vorontsov, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient k eff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  19. Study of a spoke-type superconducting cavity for high power proton accelerators; Etude d'une cavite acceleratrice supraconductrice Spoke pour les accelerateurs de protons de forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olry, G

    2003-04-01

    Since a few years, a lot of projects (especially dedicated to transmutation, radioactive beams production, spallation neutron sources or neutrinos factories) are based on high power proton linear accelerators. It has been demonstrated, thanks to their excellent RF performances, that superconducting elliptical cavities represent the best technological solution for the high energy part of these linacs (proton energy from typically 100 MeV). On the contrary, between 5 and 100 MeV, nothing is clearly settled and intensive studies on low-beta cavities are under progress. The main objective of this thesis is the study of a new low-beta cavity, called 'spoke', which could be used in the low energy part of European XADS (experimental accelerator driven system) and EURISOL (European isotope separation on-line) accelerators projects. A complete study of a beta 0.35 spoke cavity has been done: from its electromagnetic and mechanical optimization to warm and, above all, cold experimental tests: an accelerating field of 12.2 MV/m has been reached at T=4.2 K, that is to say one of the best value among the spoke cavities performances in the world. It has been shown that the specific ratio of a third, between the spoke bar diameter and the cavity length, led to optimize the surface electromagnetic fields. Moreover, spoke cavities can be used without any trouble, in the low energy part, due to their good rigidity. The experimental measurements performed on the cavity have confirmed the theoretical calculations, especially, concerning the expected frequency and mechanical behavior. Another study, performed on elliptical cavities, gave an explanation of the discrepancies between the measured and calculated frequencies thanks to a precise 3-dimensional geometrical control. (author)

  20. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years