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Sample records for proterozoic mozambique belt

  1. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

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    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  2. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

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    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  3. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

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    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  4. Metasomatized granulites of the Mozambique belt: consequences for lithospheric U, Th, REE fertilisation and metallogenesis in the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hart, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The 1,0 Ga old Lurio belt extends for ca. 1 000 km from Nsanje (S Malawi) through NE Mozambique to the Indian ocean. Lower crustal levels are locally exposed along its southern tectonic front. In this article mineralogical and geochemical data for an andesinite-mafic-ultramafic suite from Nsanje were reported.The results indicate that this complex terrane equilibrated first at P ∼ 13 kbr and T ∼ 900 0 C and subsequently cooled under an eclogite-garnet granulite georem. During a later event (P ∼ 7-10 kbar, T ∼ 650 - 800 0 C) distinctive metasomatic mica, amphibole, scapolite, apatite, diopsidic pyroxene (MASAD)-bearing assemblages and pegmatoids were formed by CO 2 , Cl, H 2 O, S and F rich fluids with higher REE, U, Th and Zr concentrations than the high-grade precursors. MASAD and older high-pressure granulite parageneses underwent subsequent dehydratation and reequilibration under medium-pressure granulite facies conditions perhaps during the Lurio orogenic event. MASAD-like assemblages are relatively common within the late Proterozoic medium- and high-pressure granulite terranes of Central Gondwana, especially in the newly defined Lurio-Zambezi Eclogite Province. The data provide indicate that the metasomatizing, MASAD-forming fluids had crypto-carbonatitic affinities and were introduced into the crust from the upper mantle during protorifting episodes between ca. 1,1 and 0,5 Ga ago. The MASAD assemblages may therefore represent the crustal equivalent of the metasomatic and MARID suites discovered in mantle xenoliths

  5. Association of the Purana basins and the middle Proterozoic mobile belts in peninsular India: implications on targeting uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    The disparate Archaean Cratonic Nuclei of the Indian peninsular shield coalesced together through late Archaean - Palaeoproterozoic accretionary tectonic events. The subsequent Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sequences are preserved either in the Purana basins or in the middle Proterozoic mobile belts (MPMB). The latter contain deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal sequences; and can be ascribed to compressive tectonic regimes. The Purana basins on the other hand represent shallow marine, epicratonic, passive-margin sequences deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Major deformational events and metamorphism of the MPMB are known to have taken place around 1600 ±200 Ma and 900 ± 100 Ma. These two periods coincide with the ages of initiation and major intrabasinal breaks in the growth of the Purana basins. The contemporary juxtapositioning of these two dissimilar tectonic regimes in peninsular India, is examined within the framework of the available data on them and the current models of Proterozoic tectonics. Its implications on uranium mineralization and possible regions for targeting exploration activities are discussed on this basis. (author). 112 refs., 4 figs

  6. New stratigraphic proposal for supra crustal the Dom Feliciano Belt ( Proterozoic , Uruguay )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Pecoits, E.; Aubet, N.; Peel, E.; Basei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dom Feliciano Belt (Fragoso Cesar 1980) is represented in Uruguay so Preciozzi et to the. (1991) defined as Dionisio Blade Belt. It brings together all affected units by metamorphism and deformation during the Brasiliano (sensu Almeida et al. 1973) and magmatism in the same age range, which develops constituting a belt in southeastern Uruguay. Various supra crustal successions have been recognized in the Western domain of this belt in Uruguay, namely Fm. Zanja del Tigre (Sanchez-Bettucci 1998), Lavalleja Group (Bossi 1966), Arroyo del Soldado Group (Gaucher et al. 1996) and Formations Playa Hermosa (Masquelin and Sanchez Bettucci 1993) and Las Ventanas (Midot 1984), among others. The Group has been Lavalleja correlated with Porongos Group and the Brazilian Brusque Metamorphic Complex (Hasui et al. 1975; Silva and Dias 1981). This group has a granitic basement-probably associated gnéissico to Block Valentines (Preciozzi et al. 1979) and the Land Pavas, aged Paleoproterozoicas and Archean (Hartmann et al. 2001). It comprises varied lithologies, metasedimentary; metavolcanic acid; basic and metagabbros metavolcanic

  7. Reconnaissance isotopic investigations in the Namaqua mobile belt and implications for proterozoic crustal evolution - Namaqualand geotraverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen rock units in the western portion of the Namaqua mobile belt were investigated by some or all of the following isotopic methods: Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb, Th-Pb total-rock and Rb-Sr mineral age measurements. Two major tectogenetic events are recongnised. The early Orange River event is represented by the emplacement and metamorphism of the volcanic rocks of the Haib Subgroup and the emplacement of granitoids of the Vioolsdrif and Gladkop suites in the regions of the Richtersveld Province and the Steinkopf domain. The later Namaqua event is represented mainly by extensive granitoid emplacement and high-grade granulite facies metamorphism in the Okiep Copper District, with minor granitoid and dyke emplacement taking place in the Steinkopf domain. The polymetamorphism associated with these tectonic events had far-reaching effects in the form of long continued isotopic resetting of rock and mineral systems. In the instances where the regression of the total-rock isotopic data define errorchron results, geological disturbance is inferred. The Sr-isotopic results indicate substrantial crustal reworking and two periods of mantle differentiation producing continental crust at approximately 2 000 and approximately 1 200 Ma ago. The Pb-isotopic data for these rocks indicate μ 2 values for the source regions that are compatible with crustal reworking for the felsic rocks or a significant amount of crustal recycling into the mantle for the mafic rocks. On this basis a magmatic arc environment is envisaged for the rocks generated during the Orange River event. The deformation fabrics associated with the Orange River and Namaqua tectogenetic episodes are dated by the time of emplacement of syn- and post-tectonic granitic rocks. The regional fabric observed in the Steinkopf domain and in the Okiep Copper District was not synchronously developed

  8. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

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    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report equilibrium sapphirine + quartz assemblage in biotite–orthopyroxene–garnet granulites from a new locality in Panasapattu of Paderu region in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, which provide new evidence for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metamorphism at 1030–1050 °C and 10 kbar in this region. The development of migmatitic texture, stabilization of the garnet–orthopyroxene–plagioclase–K-feldspar association, prograde biotite inclusions within garnet and sapphirine as well as sapphirine and cordierite inclusions within garnet in these granulites indicate that the observed peak assemblages probably formed during prograde dehydration melting of a Bt–Sill–Qtz assemblage, and constrain the prograde stage of the p–T path. The core domains of orthopyroxene porphyroblasts have up to w(Al2O3 9.6%, which suggest that the temperatures reached up to 1150 °C suggesting extreme crustal metamorphism. These conditions were also confirmed by the garnet–orthopyroxene thermobarometery, which yields a p–T range of 1012–960 °C and 9.4 kbar. The p–T phase topologies computed using isochemical sections calculated in the model system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (NCKFMASH for metapelites, garnet-free sapphirine granulites and garnet-bearing sapphirine granulites match the melt-bearing assemblages observed in these rocks. Isochemical sections constructed in the NCKFMASH system for an average sub-aluminous metapelite bulk composition, and contoured for modal proportions of melt and garnet, as well as for the compositional isopleths of garnet, predict phase and reaction relations that are consistent with those observed in the rocks. Garnet and orthopyroxene contain Ti-rich phlogopite inclusions, suggesting formation by prograde melting reactions at the expense of phlogopite during ultrahigh-temperature conditions. These p–T results underestimate ‘peak’ conditions, in part as a result of the modification

  9. Toward a new tectonic model for the Late Proterozoic Araçuaí (SE Brazil)-West Congolian (SW Africa) Belt

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    Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Noce, C. M.; Vidal, Ph; Monteiro, R. L. B. P.; Leonardos, O. H.

    1992-08-01

    The Araçuaí Belt is a Late Proterozoic (Brasiliano Cycle) geotectonic unit which was developed along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco Craton (SE Brazil) and was formerly considered as being an ensialic orogen. It is correlated with the Pan-African West Congolian Belt (SW Africa) in many reports. In the western domain of the belt, the Macaúbas Group—the most important supracrustal sequence related to the evolution of the Araçuaí Belt —comprises the Terra Branca and Carbonita Formations, which consist of littoral glacial sediments to shelf turbidites. These formations grade upward and eastward to the Salinas Formation, consisting of distal turbidites related to submarine fans, pelagic sediments, and a rock association (the Ribeirão da Folha Facies) typical of an ocean-floor environment. Banded iron formations, metacherts, diopsidites, massive sulfides, graphite schists, hyperaluminous schists, and ortho-amphibolites, intercalated with quartz-mica schists and impure quartzites, characterize the most distinctive and restricted volcano-sedimentary facies yet found within the Salinas Formation. Ultramafic slabs were tectonically emplaced within the Ribeirão da Folha Facies. Eight whole rock samples of meta-ultramafic rocks and ortho-amphibolites yielded a SmNd isochronic age of 793 ± 90 Ma ( ɛNd(T) = +4.1 ± 0.6. MSWD = 1.76 ). The structures of the northern Araçuaí Belt are marked by a doen-dip stretching lineation (western domain) related to frontal thrusts which controlled tectonic transport from east to west; stretching lineation rakes decrease in the eastern tectonic domain, indicating dominant oblique to transcurrent motion; the northern arch of the belt is characterized by major high-dip transcurrent shear zones. Our tectonic model starts with marked fracturing, followed by rifting that took place in the São Francisco-Congo Craton around 1000 ± 100 Ma (ages of basic intrusions and alkaline anorogenic granites). A sinistral transfer

  10. Late Proterozoic island-arc complexes and tectonic belts in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Greenwood, William R.; Stoeser, D.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Sr ratios are not included in the appendix, but all rocks more than 660 m.y. old have initial ratios in the range 0.7021-0.7035, with only two greater than 0.7030. Thus, nothing in the Rb-Sr data suggests involvement of an older continental crust during the evolution of the southern Shield. A lead isotope study of ore minerals and potassium feldspars of the Arabian Shield by Stacey and others (1980) also suggests that no older (Archean to early Proterozoic) evolved continental-type crust underlies the southern Shield. An early summary of mapping (Schmidt and others, 1973) suggests that older sialic basement underlies the late Proterozoic layered rocks in the southern Shield. However, subsequent-mapping and the isotopic studies cited above have established that all of these rocks are of late Proterozoic age and that all rocks of the southern Shield that are more than 660 m.y. old have ensimatic or mantle isotopic characteristics. Figure 2 shows, with only two exceptions, that rocks more than 800 m.y. old are present west of the boundary separating the Tayyah and Khadra belts. The exceptions are two poorly controlled Rb-Sr ages obtained by Fleck (1980) on two quartz diorite plutons in the Malahah region (appendix 1, localities 26 and 27). Preliminary uranium-thorium zircon data of Stacey now suggest that one of these quartz diorite plutons (locality 26) has an age of approximately 640 m.y. Therefore, we prefer to discount the two dates of Fleck until further information is available. As noted earlier and as described below, most of the rocks of the southern Arabian Shield have characteristics typical of those formed in the island-arc environment by subduction-related processes. We shall refer to the group of rocks in the western part of the southern Shield, which formed from 1100 to 800 m.y. ago, as the 'older ensimatic-arc complex' and those in the eastern and northwestern parts, which formed from 800 to 690 m.y. ago, as the 'younger marginal-arc compl

  11. Audio-magnetotelluric investigation of sulfide mineralization in Proterozoic-Archean greenstone belts of Eastern Indian Craton

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    Singh, Shailendra; Maurya, Ved P.; Singh, Roshan K.; Srivastava, Shalivahan; Tripathi, Anurag; Adhikari, P. K.

    2018-04-01

    Greenstone belts are well known for gold occurrences at different regions of the world. The Dhanjori basin in the eastern Singhbhum region shows major characteristics of a rifted greenstone belt. Initially, we conducted 14 audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) measurements for a profile of ˜ 20 km in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 10 Hz over this rather complex geologic environment covering Dhanjori Volcanics (DhV) and Kolhan Group (KG). Subsequently, gravity and magnetic surveys were also conducted over this AMT profile. The purpose of the survey was to identify and map conductive features and to relate them to metallogeny of the area along with the mapping of the basement of Dhanjori basin. The strike analysis showed N30°W strike for DhV for all the frequencies and for sites over KG domain in the frequency range of 100-10 Hz, but for KG domain, the obtained strike in 1 kHz to 100 Hz is N45°E. As the combination of transverse electric (TE), transverse magnetic (TM) and tipper (Tzy) can recover the electrical signature in complex geological environment, we discuss the conductivity model obtained from TE+TM+Tzy only. The inversion was carried for the regional profile with 14 sites and for 7 sites over KG domain. Conductivity model shows two well resolved conductors, one each in KG and Quartz Pebble Conglomerate Dhanjori (QPCD) domains respectively showing common linked concordant features between these regional and KG profiles. The conductors are interpreted as sulfide mineralization linked with QPCD group of rocks which may host gold. These conductors are also horizontally disposed due to the intrusive younger Mayurbhanj Granite. These intrusives correlate well with the gravity modeling as well. The thickness of the Dhanjori basin at the central is about 3.0 km, similar to that from gravity modeling. The conductivity model also indicates the presence of shallow conductors, but could not be resolved due to lack of high frequency data. However, the results from the close

  12. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  13. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

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    Caine, Jonathan S.; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  14. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaguedje, Diondoh

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author) [fr

  15. Ages of detrital zircon from siliciclastic sucessions of the Brasilia belt, southern border of Sao Francisco craton: Implications for the evolution of proterozoic basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, C.S; Machado, N; Ribeiro, A.; Paciullo, F.V.P; Heilbron, M; Gauthier, G

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the age distribution of detrital zircon suites from greenschist and amphibolite facies metassedimentary rocks using 207 Pb/ 206 Pb laser-ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectometry (LA-ICPMS) was previously discussed by Machado and Gauthier (1996) and is an useful tool on determinating the ages interval of the source area. Although 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are, in principle, mimimum ages, Feng et al. (1993) and Machado and Gauthier (1996) showed that these ages are identical within error to U-Pb ages. The advantage of the method for sedimentary provenance studies is that the number of grains that can be analysed per day (ca. 50) on the same sample, providing a stastically meaningful age distribution. The most significant limitations of the method used in this work are the inability to yield reliable U-Pb values and the large analytical error of, at least, 1-10%. Neverthless, in provenance studies high precision are not required. In this work we report ages of detrital zircon from from lower greenschist metamorphic facies quartzites from the Proterozoic Sao Joao del Rei and Andrelandia basin successions. The data yield information about the ages of the source areas and provide an approach for constraining sedimentation ages in these basins (au)

  16. Geology and geochemistry of the Middle Proterozoic Eastern Ghat mobile belt and its comparison with the lower crust of the Southern Peninsular shield

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    Rao, M. V. Subba

    1988-01-01

    Two prominent rock suites constitute the lithology of the Eastern Ghat mobile belt: (1) the khondalite suite - the metapelites, and (2) the charnockite suite. Later intrusives include ultramafic sequences, anorthosites and granitic gneisses. The chief structural element in the rocks of the Eastern Ghats is a planar fabric (gneissosity), defined by the alignment of platy minerals like flattened quartz, garnet, sillimanite, graphite, etc. The parallelism between the foliation and the lithological layering is related to isoclinal folding. The major structural trend (axial plane foliation trend) observed in the belt is NE-SW. Five major tectonic events have been delineated in the belt. A boundary fault along the western margin of the Eastern Ghats, bordering the low grade terrain has been substantiated by recent gravity and the deep seismic sounding studies. Field evidence shows that the pyroxene granulites (basic granulites) post-date the khondalite suite, but are older than the charnockites as well as the granitic gneisses. Polyphase metamorphism, probably correlatable with different periods of deformation is recorded. The field relations in the Eastern Ghats point to the intense deformation of the terrain, apparently both before, during and after metamorphism.

  17. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  18. Differential decay of the East-African Antarctic Orogen : an integrated examination of Northeastern Mozambique

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    Ueda, K.; Jacobs, J.; Emmel, B.; Thomas, R. J.; Matola, R.

    2009-04-01

    In Northeastern Mozambique, the late Proterozoic - early Paleozoic East African-Antarctic Orogen can be subdivided into two major blocks that exhibit some relevant differences. The line of divide is represented by the Lurio Belt, a kinematically poorly constrained shear zone that also marks the conceptual northern limit of frequent late-tectonic granitoid intrusions. Moreover, far-travelled granulite-facies nappes cover a much larger area north of this belt (Viola et. al, 2008), giving rise to the assumption of different exhumation and present exposure levels. U/Pb data from previous surveys (e.g., Norconsult consortium, 2007) show coeval high-grade metamorphism in the whole region between c. 610 - 550 Ma, while the block south of the Lurio Belt also shows continuing metamorphism until c. 490 Ma that can be related to extension. Geothermobarometry for samples from within the Lurio Belt (Engvik et. al, 2007) indicates rapid exhumation after high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism and is consistant with the assumption of long tectonic activity. A possible model for the outlined pattern is the delamination of the orogenic root only in the southern part, followed by rapid mechanical thinning as well as by isostatic accommodation along the Lurio Belt. A valuable marker was identified in the metasedimentary Mecuburi group that overlies the southern basement. U/Pb analysis of detrital zircons have yielded a maximum deposition age of c. 600 Ma, while metamorphism is recorded until c. 505 Ma. Investigations of the relationship between metasediments and older basement show that the basal contact is a fairly preserved depositional contact, allowing to suppose a conjoint post-depositional evolution. It is notable that the timing of deposition shortly follows the onset of the main, widespread high-grade metamorphism. Relatively high but variable degrees of migmatisation in the Mecuburi Group require a phase of burial from surface to deep levels after 600 Ma, followed by

  19. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvania Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, Danielle P.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Armstrong, Richard

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic meta volcanic rocks from the Silvania Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasilia Belt. Zircon grains from a meta volcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ±14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six meta volcanic samples of the Silvania Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ±110 Ma and positive ε Nd (T) = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T DM model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and ε Nd (T) values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T DM value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvania volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasilia Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  20. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvania Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischel, Danielle P.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2001-09-15

    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic meta volcanic rocks from the Silvania Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasilia Belt. Zircon grains from a meta volcanic sample yielded 2115 {+-} 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 {+-}14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six meta volcanic samples of the Silvania Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 {+-}110 Ma and positive {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T{sub DM} model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T{sub DM} value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvania volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasilia Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  1. Middle proterozoic supra crustal and brazilian orogeny in the southeast Ceara state: a mono cyclic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, J.M.; Bezerra, F.H.R.; Freitas Macedo, M.H. de; Pereira, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Oros belt is situated in the southeastern part of Ceara state, Brazil, and geologically pertains to the Borborema province. This belt comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence of middle proterozoic age resting unconformably upon basement of Archean/low proterozoic age. In the geological map of Ceara state, this belt displays an elongate shape towards N-S, turning to ENE-WSW in the south, and reaches 12 km wide in the central park. This paper describes the relationships between the country rocks and the supra crustal sequence, as well as the plutonic intrusions and their tectonic metamorphic evolution. New Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are presented which are very important to separate anorogenic and syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  2. The MOZART Project - MOZAmbique Rift Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, J. F.; Chamussa, J. R.; Domingues, A.; Helffrich, G. R.; Fishwick, S.; Ferreira, A. M.; Custodio, S.; Brisbourne, A. M.; Grobbelaar, M.

    2012-12-01

    Project MOZART (MOZAmbique Rift Tomography) is an ongoing joint effort of Portuguese, Mozambican and British research groups to investigate the geological structure and current tectonic activity of the southernmost tip of the East African Rift System (EARS) through the deployment of a network of 30 broad band seismic stations in Central and Southern Mozambique. In contrast with other stretches of the EARS to the North and with the Kapvaal craton to the West and South, the lithosphere of Mozambique was not previously studied with a dense seismographic deployment on account of past political instability, and many questions remain unanswered with respect to the location and characteristics of the EARS to the south of Tanzania. In recent years, space geodesy revealed the existence of three microplates in and off Mozambique - Victoria, Rovuma, Lwandle - whose borders provide a connection of the EARS to the South West Indian Ridge as required by plate tectonics. However, the picture is still coarse concerning the location of the rift structures. The 2006 M7 Machaze earthquake in Central Mozambique highlighted the current tectonic activity of the region and added a further clue to the location of the continental rift, prompting the MOZART deployment. Besides helping unravel the current tectonics, the project is expected to shed light on the poorly known Mesoproterozoic structure described by Arthur Holmes in 1951 as the Mozambique Belt, and on the mechanisms of transition from stable craton to rifted continental crust, through the development of a tomographic model for the lithosphere. The MOZART network is distributed South of the Zambezi river at average inter-station spaces of the order of 100 km and includes four stations across the border in South Africa. Data exchange was agreed with AfricaArray. The deployment proceeded in two phases in March 2011, and November and December 2011. Decommissioning is foreseen for August 2013. We report preliminary results for this

  3. Latest Proterozoic stratigraphy and earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    1992-01-01

    Novel biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data furnish an improved framework for stratigraphic correlation of the Proterozoic Eon as well as tools for a chronostratigraphic division of the late Proterozoic. It is argued that, in conjunction with geochronometric data, protistan microfossils and isotope geochemistry can furnish a means for an eventual integration of the latest Proterozoic Eon. Attention is given to the emerging methodologies of fossil protists and prokaryotes and of isotopic chemostratigraphy.

  4. A reappraisal of polymetamorphism in the Eastern Ghats belt – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. ∗e-mail address: ...... tributed to the improvement of the manuscript. .... logical evolution of the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile. Belt; Geol.

  5. Astronomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; Paulo, Cláudio M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the state of Astronomy in Mozambique and how it has evolved since 2009 following the International Year of Astronomy. Activities have been lead by staff at University Eduardo Mondlane and several outreach activities have also flourished. In 2010 the University introduced its first astronomy module, Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, for the second year students in the Department of Physics. The course has now produced the first students who will be graduating in late 2012 with some astronomy content. Some of these students will now be looking for further studies and those who have been keen in astronomy have been recommended to pursue this as a career. At the university level we have also discussed on the possibility to introduce a whole astronomy course by 2016 which falls well within the HCD that the university is now investing in. With the announcement that the SKA will be split between South Africa with its partner countries (including Mozambique), and Australia we have been working closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology to make astronomy a priority on its agenda. In this respect, an old telecommunications antenna is being converted by the South Africa SKA Project Office, and donated to Mozambique for educational purposes. It will be situated in Maluana, Mozambique.

  6. A proterozoic tectonic model for northern Australia and its economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, A.G.; Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that at the end of Archaean time the Australian continent was confined to the area now occupied by the Yilgarn, Pilbara, Gawler, and Musgrave Blocks, and the southern part of the Arunta Block. During the Early Proterozoic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks were laid down in an extensive depositional zone trending roughly east-west along the northern margin of the Archaean continent. Copper and gold mineralization, commonly showing stratigraphic control, is widespread in this belt. Following deformation and metamorphism of the Early Proterozoic rocks, felsic and mafic igneous activity, and accumulation of platform sediments on the newly stabilized crust, a predominantly north-south depositional zone developed along the eastern margin of the continent during the Middle Proterozoic. Lead and zinc assume much more importance in the mineral deposits of this belt. It is postulated that the present positions of rocks of the Pine Creek and Georgetown regions are due to horizontal displacements of several hundred kilometres along major fault zones. Apparent rifting of these blocks away from palaeo-continental margins may be related to the occurrence of uraniferous granitic rocks and uranium mineralization within them via a mantle plume mechanism. Although current data are limited, tectonic environments suggested for Proterozoic mafic igneous rocks of northern Australia by their geochemistry are compatible with the geological settings of these rocks and with the tectonic model put forward. (author)

  7. Anesthetic Care in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Camila B; Merchant, Amina I; Schwalbach, Teresa; Pinto, Emilia F V; Jeque, Emilia C; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The World Bank and Lancet Commission in 2015 have prioritized surgery in Low-Income Countries (LIC) and Lower-Middle Income Countries (LMICs). This is consistent with the shift in the global burden of disease from communicable to noncommunicable diseases over the past 20 years. Essential surgery must be performed safely, with adequate anesthesia monitoring and intervention. Unfortunately, a huge barrier to providing safe surgery includes the paucity of an anesthesia workforce. In this study, we qualitatively evaluated the anesthesia capacity of Mozambique, a LIC in Africa with limited access to anesthesia and safe surgical care. Country-based solutions are suggested that can expand to other LIC and LMICs. A comprehensive review of the Mozambique anesthesia system was conducted through interviews with personnel in the Ministry of Health (MOH), a school of medicine, a public central referral hospital, a general first referral hospital, a private care hospital, and leaders in the physician anesthesia community. Personnel databases were acquired from the MOH and Maputo Central Hospital. Quantitative results reveal minimal anesthesia capacity (290 anesthesia providers for a population of >25 million or 0.01:10,000). The majority of physician anesthesiologists practice in urban settings, and many work in the private sector. There is minimal capacity for growth given only 1 Mozambique anesthesia residency with inadequate resources. The most commonly perceived barriers to safe anesthesia in this critical shortage are lack of teachers, lack of medical student interest in and exposure to anesthesia, need for more schools, low allocation to anesthesia from the list of available specialist prospects by MOH, and low public payments to anesthesiologists. Qualitative results show assets of a good health system design, a supportive environment for learning in the residency, improvement in anesthetic care in past decades, and a desire for more educational opportunities and teachers

  8. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes

  9. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the analysis of time- or environment-related changes, a major emphasis of .... The environments of deposition for different units ...... Hill, and Keefer Formations, Lower and Middle Silurian ... architecture of the Proterozoic succession in the east-.

  10. Mozambique - National Land Administration Interventions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of this study is to establish a baseline for the impact evaluation of the institutional strengthening of the land administration system in Mozambique,...

  11. Examples that illustrate sedimentological aspects of the proterozoic placer model on the Kaap-Vaal Craton, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the fluvial-fan model of Proterozoic placers in South Africa, mid-fan and fanbase environments are illustrated by the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, proximal braided-belt environments by the B Reef, distal braided-belt environments by the Vaal Reef, and deltaiclike environments by sheets, ribbons, and pods at the extremities of the South and Basal Reefs. The nature of distribution of gold and uranium in these various environments has been evaluated and the knowledge successfully applied by the author to the valuation and practical mining of the reefs since 1965

  12. Tectonics and sedimentation of late Proterozoic Damaran convergent continental margin, Khomas Hochland, central Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Late Proterozoic Khomas Trough comprises metasedimentary and metabasic rocks of the Kuiseb Formation and its evolution plays an important role in understanding the Damara orogenic belt as a whole. An attempt was made to characterize the metasedimentary and metabasic rocks encountered by means of sedimentological, structural, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical methods. This led to the modelling of the geotectonic evolution of the Khomas Trough with particular focus on the sedimentary palaeoenvironments and the structural evolution of this area during Pan-African orogeny in Namibia. 251 refs., 81 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Some problems of geologic relations between the Amazon craton and east margins fold belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.F.M. de

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with some geologic problems related to the limits between the Amazon craton and the fold belts developed at its margins during the Precambrian. These limits are diversified but clearly recognized. To the north, the Araguaia-Tocantins fold belt, of presumed Middle Proterozoic age, is separated from the cratonic block by a deep marginal fracture zone permeated by mafic and ultramafic rocks. The geologic, magmatic and aeromagnetic characteristics of this zone point out the presence of deep faults, supposed to be of Middle Proterozoic age. The southern Paraguay fold belt constitutes and accurated zone of linear structures supposed to be of Late Proterozoic development. Despite the great increase of knowledge during the last ten years many tectonic, stratigraphic and geochronologic problems remain unsolved. The aim of this paper is to point out some of these problems and suggest specific studies to solve them. (author)

  14. Geochronology and geochemistry of upper proterozoic granites from Southern Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.; Vancini, K.R.B.; Cadoppi, P.; Sacchi, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Upper Proterozoic basement of Benin, like that of nearby Nigeria and like the polycyclic basement of Central Hoggar, belongs to the hinterland of the Pharusian Chain (Pan-African Trans-Saharan Belt) generated by the collision between the (passive) margin of the West African craton and the (reactivated) margin of the Tuareg Shield and its southern extension. Rb-Sr dating of sub alkaline, meta-aluminums, syn-Kinematic granite forming tabular bodies near Dassa-Zoume and near Save yielded two WR isochron ages of 650 ± 35 Ma (I.R. = 0.7043) and 705 ± 70 Ma (I.R. = 0.7045). Emplacement of these bodies was clearly controlled by trans current movements along the Kandi Fault System. The analyzed granites are comparable with those of Central Hoggar and North-Central Nigeria on the ground of field, geochronological and geochemical data; they also display some affinities with the late-tectonic granites of the Adrar des Iforas. They are expected to find their Brazilian continuation in the Chaval Granitoids west of Fortaleza, but data for comparison are inadequate. (author)

  15. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  16. Jobs and welfare in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn

    Mozambique has achieved remarkable macroeconomic success over recent decades, boasting one of the world’s highest rates of GDP growth. However, absolute poverty remains persistent, spilling over into social unrest. To better understand the link between aggregate growth and household welfare...

  17. on the evolution of the kazaure schist belt of nw nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2007-05-25

    May 25, 2007 ... ensialic processes, and an evaluation of previous data suggested in previous works is consistent with the new .... Ma ago, led to the formation of a marginal back-arc ..... Turner, D.C., 1983: Upper Proterozoic schist belts in the.

  18. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    spectrometry, Ind. Inst. Petroleum, Dehradun, Abst.vol. pp.480-482. ... range of settings including volcanic areas, continental shields and orogenic belts. .... represents the northern margin, the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone marks the southern ...... due to feldspar accumulation or assimilation of feldspar rich material (Ragland ...

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Proterozoic granitic rocks from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Proterozoic granitic ... This study presents the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks located on the northern ... Frost and Frost 2013). ...... King P L, White A J R, Chappell B W and Allen C M 1997.

  20. Mozambique Cell Phone Savings Project: Endline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Smallholders in rural Mozambique are typically characterized by low agricultural productivity, which is in part caused by very low levels of input usage. In the...

  1. Mozambique Cell Phone Savings Project: Baseline Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Smallholders in rural Mozambique are typically characterized by low agricultural productivity, which is in part caused by very low levels of input usage. In the...

  2. Strengthening Health Systems Research Capacity in Mozambique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mozambique's health sector is dealing with system-wide challenges. ... the Ministry's work on national health accounts, resource allocation, and national health ... a combined INS-FIOCRUS program, and the master's in public health and field ...

  3. The Doha Trade Round and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Channing

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the potential implications of the Doha Development Agenda, as well as other trade liberalization scenarios, for Mozambique. An applied general equilibrium model, which accounts for high marketing margins and home consumption in the Mozambique economy, is linked to results from the GTAP model of global trade. In addition, a microsimulation module is used to consider the subsequent implications of trade liberalization for poverty. The implications of trade liberalization, p...

  4. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  5. Precambrain Rb-Sr isochron ages from the crystalline complexes of inner Forsblads Fjord, East Greenland fold belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rex, D.C.; Gledhill, A.R.; Higgins, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Several collections of samples were made from crystalline units in inner Forsblads Fjord in 1974. Results of whole rock Rb-Sr analyses on two of these collections are presented, and give an Archaean age for banded gneisses and a middle Proterozoic age for quartzitic metasediments. These ages confirm the occurence of major Precambrian complexes within the East Greenland Caledonian fold belt. (author)

  6. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  7. Geological characters and petrological characters of metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes in Ludong Orogenic Belt,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌贤长; 胡庆立; 王丽霞

    2002-01-01

    Ludong orogenic belt in China is an importantal continent collision orogenic belt in eastern Asia, between Sino-Korean landmass and Yangtze landmass. The host rock of the orogenic belt is metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes, which can be divided into four types, that's, quartz dioritz, granite dioritz, monzonitic granite and undertint monzonitic granite, principal minerals are plagioclases, potassium feldspars and quartzs, minor minerals are hornblendes, biotites, clinopyxenes and garnets, accessory mineral types and assemblages are very similar, specially, various rocks are mainly fine-grained textures. They have the history of regional amphibolite facies metamorphism and deep-middle-shallow structural layer deformation, and are changed into various gneiss and tectonic system. There are many xenolithes of middle Proterozoic eclogite-host rock extrahigh-high pressure metamorphic complexes, a small xenolithes of early Proterozoic layered metamorphite system and granulites, and ultrabasic-basic rocks of various epoches in the metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes.

  8. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  9. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Johnson and Johnson 2002 etc) shows that the fold shape modification may be brought about by buckling and flattening operating simultaneously throughout the development of fold. In the present paper a series of F1 folds devel- oped in slates with interlayered alternations with quartzite of Proterozoic age and unaffected ...

  10. Radiochronological age and correlation of proterozoic sediments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.; Macedo, M.-H.F.; Filho, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    A review of available Rb-Sr and K-Ar datings obtained on sedimentary sequences, metamorphosed or not, interbedded volcanics and cross-cutting intrusives of the Precambrian of Brazil yields the following conclusions: (1) The Roraima and Rio Fresco Formations, resting upon the Amazonian craton, have been affected by the Trans-Amazonian orogeny and are of Lower Proterozoic age. (2) The Beneficiente Group, in the same region, seems to be of Middle Proterozoic, Lower Riphean age. (3) Upon the Sao Francisco craton, and upon the Lower Proterozoic Rio dos Remedios complex, the Paraguacu Group might be of middle Riphean age and the glacial sequences, Macaubas Group and Bebedouro Formation, date back to between 950 and 1000 Ma. (4) The age of the Bambui and Una Groups, in the same region, remains undetermined. It might be either Upper Riphean, or Upper Riphean and Vendian. (5) The molassic series associated with the Brazilian orogeny are dated back to between the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary and the Ordovician. (Auth.)

  11. Mozambique Information and Communication Technology : Micro ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goals of the Mozambique Information and Communication Technology Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator (MICTI Incubator) are twofold: to identify sustainable opportunities for technology-based businesses in priority development areas; and to test the assumption that technology-based businesses can mentor the ...

  12. Mozambique Science, Technology and Innovation Review | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the Mozambique Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) to govern the country's science, technology and innovation (STI) system, and of researchers and policymakers to conduct systematic reviews of STI policy implementation. It will do so by supporting a review of the ...

  13. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Mozambique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available as 3 trillion cubic feet. Natural gas is exported to South Africa via a pipeline. The current electricity generation in Mozambique is dominated by hydropower which supplies 95 per cent of the electricity demand followed by 5 per cent supplied via...

  14. Implementation Strategy for Land Administration in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joaquim, S.; Carvalho, J.A.; Marques, M.R.; Carrilho, J.; Balas, M.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Unger, E.-M.; Tomberg, M.

    2018-01-01

    Land administration inMozambique needs to become less bureaucratic, simpler, cheaper and more transparent. Design and implementation of traditional approaches is so time consuming that land laws are to be adapted to provide for simpler procedures. Delivery of results (maps, DUATs, spatial plans)

  15. Stabilization and structural adjustment in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines the complex historical legacy and structural adjustment efforts in Mozambique in addition to reviewing recent economic developments. An in-depth analysis of new and more reliable national accounts data show that macroeconomic stabilization has occurred through recovery from...

  16. Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique and is considered a major impediment to development. The effectiveness of any malaria control program depends on reliable data delivered in timely fashion, something that is currently lacking in the nation's health service. This grant will allow the ...

  17. Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique and is considered a major impediment to development. The effectiveness of any malaria control program depends on reliable data delivered in timely fashion, something that is currently lacking in the nation's health service. This grant will allow the ...

  18. K-Ar cooling age profile from Joinville massif (PR and SC, Brazil) and Dom Feliciano belt (SC, Brazil) - Tectonics entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Basei, M.A.S.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    A K-Ar cooling age profile using different minerals from metamorphic rocks of the Joinville Massif and Dom Feliciano Belt is presented. Three main geochronological domains are distinguishable, from NW to SE: 1) Northern part of the Joinville Massif (NJM); 2) Southern part of the Joinville Massif (SJM) and 3) Dom Feliciano Belt (DBF). Geochronological domains 1 and 3 yielded K-Ar values in the range 800-500 Ma and 700-500 Ma, respectively, which show a clear influence of the Brasiliano Cycle. The granulite terrain comprising the SMJ exhibits ages older than 1700 Ma, indicating that this area was cool during the Late Proterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. The SJM and NJM limit is marked by a rapid Transition from Early Proterozoic ages in the SJM to Late Proterozoic ages in the NJM. On the other hand the contact between the SJM and DFB is interpreted as a thrust at a high, relatively cool crustal level. (author)

  19. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  20. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  1. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households......Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...

  2. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, James A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  3. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of bauxite and bentonite deposits from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Muchangos, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of bauxites, kaolinitic clays and bentoniteS from Mozambique are presented in this thesis. The bauxite and kaolinitic clay deposits in Penhalonga area (in the central western part of Mozambique) are associated with Precambrian magmatic rocks and

  5. The upsurge of tension between Renamo and Frelimo in Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upsurge of tension between Renamo and Frelimo in Mozambique: The contest for traditional leadership support. Happy Kayuni. Abstract. Soon after independence in 1975, Mozambique was plunged into a protracted civil war involving the ruling party Frelimo and the rebel movement Renamo. Renamo controlled ...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of improved banana varieties in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) production in Mozambique is largely confined to the Cavendish variety that is eaten as a dessert. On the other hand, banana is a staple food crop in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction of a range of high yielding and disease resistant cooking and dessert varieties in Mozambique ...

  7. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.......Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo....

  8. Business plan Tilapia Pond Farming in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Herman; Meer, van der Magnus

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique.

    Freshwater aquaculture in Mozambique consists mainly of small-scale tilapia

  9. Tectonic setting of the Great Dyke, Chembadzi, Chewore and Atchiza layered complexes in Zimbabwe and Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Dyke of Zimbabwe is one of the largest ultramafic-mafic layered igneous complexexs in the world. Because of the economic importance of large layered intrusions like the Great Dyke, their tectonic setting is of great interest. The Chembadzi complex is a 14 km long, dyke-like layered intrusion up to 800m wide. The Chewore complex, which was thought to have the structure of an irregular lopolith, outcrops over an area of about 200 km in horst blocks in the lower Zambezi Valley in northern Zimbabwe. The Atchiza complex is situated just north of the Cahora Bassa lake and the Zambezi River valley in Mozambique. In considering the tectonic setting of the Great Dyke and its correlatives, most attention has been focussed on events in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, which were responsible for producing the fractures in the Zimbabwe craton that is occupied by the intrusives. 39 refs

  10. Seismites in a Proterozoic tidal succession, Singhbhum, Bihar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip

    1998-08-01

    Early Proterozoic metasediments of the Chaibasa Formation (Galudih-Ghatsila-Dhalbhumgarh region, Singhbhum, Bihar, India) comprise a number of cyclic fining-upward prograding successions of tidalites. The tidalites show indications for earthquakes in the form of synsedimentary deformation features, apart from the structures due to high-energy wave action. Deformed cross-bedding, convolute laminations, synsedimentary faults, graben-like structures, sandstone dykes, pseudonodules and slump folds record the seismic activity. A gradual decline in the frequency of seismites and tsunami-related depositional features, in combination with an upward increase in thickness of the tidal cycles, are attributed to gradual diminishing of tectonic activity within the basin.

  11. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  12. Magmatism and underplating, a broadband seismic perspective on the Proterozoic tectonics of the Great Falls and Snowbird Tectonic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Dokht, R.; Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal and lithospheric structures beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and northern Montana contain vital records of the Precambrian tectonic development of Laurentia. In this study, we analyze the broadband seismic data recorded by the USArray and the most complete set of regional seismic networks to date near the WCSB. We adopt an integrated approach to investigate crustal structure and history, based primarily on P-to-S receiver functions but incorporate results from noise correlation functions, finite-frequency tomography and potential field measurements. In comparison with existing regional and global models, our stacked receiver functions show considerable improvements in the resolution of both Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. We identify major variations in Moho depth from the WCSB to the adjacent Cordillera. The Moho deepens steeply from 40 km in the Alberta basin to 50 km beneath the foothills, following Airy isostasy, but thermal buoyancy may be responsible for a flat, shallow ( 35 km) Moho to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. The Moho depth also increases sharply near the Snowbird Tectonic Zone (STZ), which is consistent with earlier findings from active-source data. Multiple lower crustal phases, a high velocity shallow mantle and elevated Vp/Vs ratios along the westernmost STZ jointly suggest major Proterozoic subduction and magmatism along this collisional boundary. In northern Montana, the Moho deepens along the Great Falls Tectonic Zone (GFTZ), a proposed Proterozoic suture between the Medicine Hat Block and Wyoming craton. This transition occurs near the Little Belt Mountain, which is located south of the Great Falls Shear Zone, an extensive northeast striking fault system characterized by strong potential field gradients. Similar to the STZ, our receiver functions offer new evidence for Proterozoic underplating in the vicinity of the GFTZ. In view of similar rock ages near the collisional boundaries in all parts of northern

  13. Transfusion practice and knowledge in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, Emily; Muanantatha, Olegario; Valigy, Valigy Ismael; Salimo, Sara; Ziman, Alyssa; DeUgarte, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In Mozambique, there is a limited supply of blood and elevated risks for transmission of infections. Prior studies have documented that many transfusions in Mozambique are potentially avoidable. Transfusion training workshops with a survey and exam were held for providers to understand their perceptions and to improve knowledge and clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Health care providers completed a survey and a knowledge assessment. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was utilized to compare the relative importance of each factor in the survey, and pre- and posttraining exam scores were compared using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS A total of 216 health care providers participated; the majority worked in a referral hospital (74%) and reported transfusing blood at least once per week (56%). Most acknowledged the limited blood supply and transfusion risks. Providers rated low hemoglobin (Hb) levels and pallor as significantly important indications for transfusion (p transfuse with age under 5 years when compared to other ages (p transfusion practice were increased reliability of the blood supply, education about transfusion indications, and assessment of perfusion. Before training, the majority of participants identified an incorrect Hb threshold for preoperative or critically ill patients. Overall exam scores improved from a mean of 58% to 74% (p blood transfusions. Preoperative patients, the critically ill, and children appear to be at highest risk for receiving an avoidable blood transfusion. These results will help guide planning for future provider training. PMID:25648912

  14. Community Forestry Incentives and Challenges in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although communities have been living within forests and dependent on forest resources, in Mozambique, their role was not formally recognized until the late 1990s. The forest law of 1997 was the first to refer to communities as stakeholders in the forest sector, in line with the national Policy and Strategy for the Development of the Forestry and Wildlife Sector. As a new element, several pilot projects were established during the late 1990s and early 2000s to produce lessons that would inform policy and technical aspects. Community forestry received most of the attention until the first decade of this century, however, it seems that while communities have gained a role in the management of the forest sector, there are still challenges to fully implementing and securing community forestry initiatives. In this study, we document the advent and evolution of community forestry in Mozambique, discuss the conditions for success in community forestry, and discuss two cases of community forestry that have survived over beyond the end of external support. We conclude that devolution and training are the basic incentives, but additional incentives, including diversification of sources of revenue from non-destructive forestry activities, are required to maintain the stability of community forestry over time.

  15. System Transfer, Education, and Development in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cossa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author used conceptual historical method to assess the phenomenon of system transfer and the association between education and development in Mozambique. The assessment was administered through critical analysis of documents pertaining to the Salazar (1924-1966, Machel (1975-1986, and Chissano (1986-2005 administrations. The findings were that (a the colonial government created economic and educational systems for colonizing Mozambique, whereas the Machel and Chissano administrations adapted foreign systems of government and education (i.e., Socialism, Soviet, Democracy, Portuguese, etc., to their particular context without altering the inherent theoretical basis of the systems transferred; (b the Machel and Chissano administrations, implicitly or explicitly, perceived the relationship between education and development as circular causality rather than a unidirectional linear causality, while the Salazar administration perceived it as unidirectional linear causality; and (c while the Machel and Chissano administrations focused on primary education, literacy campaigns, and education of women and girls, they differed in the reasons for such focus.

  16. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  17. Punta del este terrane: meso proterozoic basement and neo proterozoic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Basei, M.; Peel, E.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Cordani, U.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eastern basement of Uruguay consists of Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. Mesoproterozoic basement had been deformed by pre-Brasiliano and Brasiliano events. Regional variations in this basement and in the Neoproterozoic cover show equivalent deformation styles and intensities. Models proposed for tectonic evolution have been scarce and confusing. Specially, the ones that concern the moment of collision and/or juxtaposition of blocks. The Punta del Este Terrane (PET) is composed of gneisses and migmatites formed between 1000 Ma to 900 Ma (Preciozzi et al., 2001). These rocks had been strongly reworked during Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis (ca. 900-500 Ma). This crustal segment represents a high grade metamorphic terrane, which is correlated to some gneissic complexes southwest of Africa. Particularly, it is correlated to Kibaran-Namaqua Belt in Namibia. U-Pb ages between 1000 Ma and 900 Ma, obtained in zircons from tonalitic granitoids, are interpreted as indicative of their crystallization (Fig. 1). Besides, anatectic fluids related to migmatites leucosomes yielded ages of ca. 520 to 540 Ma. This denotes that superimposed metamorphic conditions during Brasiliano orogenesis reached, at least, lower amphibolite facies. PET basement gneisses present Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) between 2.4 to 1.8 Ga, showing long crustal residence, corroborated by the very negative εNd values of –1.3 and –14.3. During Brazilian orogenesy they were affected by deformation processes and anatexis. Metasedimentary PET cover occurs near La Paloma and Rocha towns. It is represented by a siliciclastic metasedimentary succession corresponding to the Rocha formation. In La Pedrera town recognized three sedimentary facies were (1-3): (1) sandstones and pelites; (2) green pelites; and (3) rhytmites. The transition from facies (1) to facies (3) shows the passage from fluvial environment with tidal influence to tidal flat with predominance of sub tidal deposits (Pazos and S

  18. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  19. Instability of the southern Canadian Shield during the late Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannell, Kalin T.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Schneider, David A.

    2018-05-01

    Cratons are generally considered to comprise lithosphere that has remained tectonically quiescent for billions of years. Direct evidence for stability is mainly founded in the Phanerozoic sedimentary record and low-temperature thermochronology, but for extensive parts of Canada, earlier stability has been inferred due to the lack of an extensive rock record in both time and space. We used 40Ar/39Ar multi-diffusion domain (MDD) analysis of K-feldspar to constrain cratonic thermal histories across an intermediate (∼150-350 °C) temperature range in an attempt to link published high-temperature geochronology that resolves the timing of orogenesis and metamorphism with lower-temperature data suited for upper-crustal burial and unroofing histories. This work is focused on understanding the transition from Archean-Paleoproterozoic crustal growth to later intervals of stability, and how uninterrupted that record is throughout Earth's Proterozoic "Middle Age." Intermediate-temperature thermal histories of cratonic rocks at well-constrained localities within the southern Canadian Shield of North America challenge the stability worldview because our data indicate that these rocks were at elevated temperatures in the Proterozoic. Feldspars from granitic rocks collected at the surface cooled at rates of histories suggest that at ca. 1.1-1.0 Ga these rocks were still near ∼200 °C - signaling either reheating, or prolonged residence at mid-crustal depths assuming a normal cratonic geothermal gradient. After 1.0 Ga, the regions we sampled then underwent further cooling such that they were at or near the surface (≪60 °C) in the early Paleozoic. Explaining mid-crustal residence at 1.0 Ga is challenging. A widespread, prolonged reheating history via burial is not supported by stratigraphic information, however assuming a purely monotonic cooling history requires at the very least 5 km of exhumation beginning at ca. 1.0 Ga. A possible explanation may be found in evidence of

  20. Determinants of social inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    Determinants of social inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: What do we know? What could ... Health inequalities are no longer an issue only for developed countries. In recent years there is ... This review of evidence suggests that if ...

  1. Business plan Fish feed factory Tete Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Boon, Hans; Brouwer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the region of Tete, Mozambique.

  2. Gender Differences in Time Poverty in Rural Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Diksha Arora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the nature and extent of time poverty experienced by men and women in subsistence households in Mozambique. Gender roles, shaped by patriarchal norms, place heavy work obligations on women. Time-use data from a primary household survey in Mozambique is used for this analysis. The main findings suggest that women’s labor allocation to economic activities is comparable to that of men. Household chores and care work are women’s responsibility, which they perform with minimal ...

  3. Uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is the result of an effort to gather together the most important information on uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates in the United States of America, Canada, Finland, Ghana, South Africa and Australia. The paper discusses the uranium potential (and in some cases also the gold potential in South Africa, Western Australia and Ghana) in terms of ores, sedimentation, mineralization, metamorphism, placers, geologic formations, stratigraphy, petrology, exploration, tectonics and distribution. Geologic history and application of geologic models are also discussed. Glacial outwash and water influx is also mentioned. The uranium deposits in a number of States in the USA are covered. The Witwatersrand placers are discussed in several papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. An example of Lower Proterozoic sediments: the Francevillian in Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.

    1982-01-01

    New mineralogical and isotopic data have been obtained on diagenetic fine fractions of the Francevillian sediments. Together with the Rb-Sr age of a syenitic intrusive and already published isotopic ages determined by means of uranium ore and uranium fission products, they allow us to present a more complete geological history of the Francevillian. The main steps are: deposition of the FA Formation before 2140 Ma deposition of the FB-FE Formations between 2140 and 2050 Ma, siliceous diagenesis followed by nuclear reactions between 2050 and 1930 Ma, carbonate diagenesis at nearly 1870 Ma, end of cooling at 1700 Ma and dolerite intrusion at ca. 970 Ma. The Francevillian sediments are, to date, the oldest true sediments known; they are diagenetic, Lower Proterozoic sediments. (Auth.)

  5. The proterozoic Georgetown Province - a Broken Hill analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative work between CSIRO and AGSO has resulted in the development of a Pb isotope model that attempts to place relatively precise (∼5 Ma) age constraints on Proterozoic mineralisation in the Mount Isa and McArthur River terrains (Sun et al., 1994). Although this model was developed for sediment hosted mineralisation in low grade metamorphic terrains, the CSIRO-AGSO model ages for other mineralisation in high-grade terrains such as Broken Hill appear to be consistent with the U-Pb zircon ages obtained for the high-grade host sequences. Without independent evidence that the model is applicable to such terrains, the observations cannot be used to indicate the age of the mineralisation. Lead isotope data obtained on potassium feldspar separates from five felsic intrusive samples in the Georgetown terrain show a wide range of Pb isotope ratios. The lowest 206 Pb/ 204 Pb analyses are considered to approximate to the Proterozoic initial ratio and indicate a model age of ∼1510 Ma based on the CSIRO-AGSO model. This age is 45 Ma younger than the crystallisation age of the granite, but must be considered a minimum as the initial 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio may well prove to be lower after more comprehensive analysis. Sulfide mineralisation within the Einasleigh Metamorphics has a wide range of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios that lie between this granite value and the relatively homogeneous population from Railway Flat. The Railway Flat data are very similar to values for Broken Hill and also the Broken Hill-type Pegmont mineralisation in the Mount Isa Eastern Succession. These data all have significantly lower 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios than the CSIRO-AGSO model, suggesting a significantly different source rock environment for this style of mineralisation from that for the sediment hosted deposits

  6. Proterozoic Milankovitch cycles and the history of the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Stephen R; Malinverno, Alberto

    2018-06-19

    The geologic record of Milankovitch climate cycles provides a rich conceptual and temporal framework for evaluating Earth system evolution, bestowing a sharp lens through which to view our planet's history. However, the utility of these cycles for constraining the early Earth system is hindered by seemingly insurmountable uncertainties in our knowledge of solar system behavior (including Earth-Moon history), and poor temporal control for validation of cycle periods (e.g., from radioisotopic dates). Here we address these problems using a Bayesian inversion approach to quantitatively link astronomical theory with geologic observation, allowing a reconstruction of Proterozoic astronomical cycles, fundamental frequencies of the solar system, the precession constant, and the underlying geologic timescale, directly from stratigraphic data. Application of the approach to 1.4-billion-year-old rhythmites indicates a precession constant of 85.79 ± 2.72 arcsec/year (2σ), an Earth-Moon distance of 340,900 ± 2,600 km (2σ), and length of day of 18.68 ± 0.25 hours (2σ), with dominant climatic precession cycles of ∼14 ky and eccentricity cycles of ∼131 ky. The results confirm reduced tidal dissipation in the Proterozoic. A complementary analysis of Eocene rhythmites (∼55 Ma) illustrates how the approach offers a means to map out ancient solar system behavior and Earth-Moon history using the geologic archive. The method also provides robust quantitative uncertainties on the eccentricity and climatic precession periods, and derived astronomical timescales. As a consequence, the temporal resolution of ancient Earth system processes is enhanced, and our knowledge of early solar system dynamics is greatly improved.

  7. The Lufilian arc and Irumide belt of Zambia: Results of a geotraverse across their intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M. C.; Chakraborty, S. K.; Kasolo, P.; Musiwa, M.; Mumba, P.; Naidu, B.; Namateba, C.; Ngambi, O.; Coward, M. P.

    The Kibaran aged Irumide belt and the Pan African aged Lufilian arc intersect in central Zambia. The Irumide belt is a thrust belt comprising northwesterly verging structures in the north, upright structures in the central zone and southeasterly verging structures in the south. Tectonic transport, as deduced from regional stretching lineations, changes across the central upright zone. To the north of this zone, movement is to the northwest; to the south of the zone, movement is to the southeast. This divergence of structures about a central upright zone is recognized throughout the belt. The Lufilian arc comprises a northeasterly verging thrust belt involving large basement thrust sheets forming domal culimations throughoutregion. These thrusts climb up-section towards the northeast and have telescoped the Katangan stratigraphy. In the Copperbelt area of the arc, the Irumide and Lufilian structures are separated by a marked unconformity. However in the Mubalashi area, south of the Copperbelt, there is aa coincidence of strike of Lufilian and Irumide structures which, in the past, has made their separation difficult. The structures can be separated on the basis of stretching lineations associated with the deformation. In the ENE striking Lufilian structures stretching lineations are seen to be sub-horizontal, suggesting a lateral ramp relationship to the main Lufilian deformation. Similar striking Irumide structures have a steeply plunging down dip lineation. The intersection of these two belts represents the junction of two different tectonic systems operating in Africa during the Late Proterozoic.

  8. Sr-isotope stratigraphy and dating of Neo-proterozoic carbonates and glacials from the northern and western parts of the Congo Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poidevin, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous occurrences of Neo-proterozoic carbonate platforms and glacigenic litho-facies are present around the Congo craton. They are especially well developed on its western and northern borders, i.e. in the fore-lands of the West Congo and Oubanguides belts. Sr isotopic stratigraphy enables us to characterize the deposition age of some carbonate units from these two domains. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios of limestones from the late 'Haut Shiloango' (0.7068) and the 'Schisto-calcaire' (0.7075) of the West-Congo domain are of post-Sturtian and post-Marinoan ages, respectively. The Lenda carbonates (0.7066) from the Northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the limestones (0.7076) from the Bangui Basin, both in the Oubanguides fore-land, are of pre-Sturtian and post-Marinoan ages, respectively. These data associated with lithostratigraphic correlations allow us to ascribe the 'Bas Congo' lower mixtite (tillite) and the Akwokwo tillite (Lindian) to the Sturtian ice age. In the same way, the 'Bas Congo' upper mixtite (tillite) and the Bondo tillite (Bakouma Basin) are likely Marinoan in age. A new synthetic stratigraphy for these Neo-proterozoic domains is developed. (author)

  9. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  10. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  11. Advancing nursing scholarship: the Mozambique model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Judith C; Dippenaar, Joan; Schmollgruber, Shelley; Mphuthi, David D; Huiskamp, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of Human Resources for Health for the development and functioning of health systems worldwide, many countries continue to be plagued by poor health systems and a lack of adequate health care. Health systems failures may be attributed to both quantitative and qualitative nursing shortages including the lack of advanced skills to lead health initiatives, to conduct research and to educate other nurses. The response by development partners is usually framed around the production of skilled nurses through the processes of up-skilling and scaling-up. The outcome is expanded practice but with scant attention to the professional advancement of nurses. In this paper we present a two-phased capacity development model that adopted professionalization strategies to advance nursing scholarship and consequent postgraduate specialization of the first cohort of nurses in Mozambique. The main objectives were to: develop and implement a clinical course work master's degree in nursing; and ensure sustainability by capacitating the host institution to continue with the master's programme following graduation. Rigorous processes for project discussions, negotiations and monitoring were necessary amid limited resources and a challenging political climate. Forging in-country partnerships, sustaining alliances and government investment are thus key to the success of the Mozambique model. Notwithstanding some difficulties, the process unfolded over a five-year period, graduating the first cohort of 11 senior nurses with a master's degree, specializing either in critical care and trauma nursing, or maternal and neonatal health. Bridging the skills gap between generalist and specialist nurses is essential for them to manage complex and high acuity cases and to reverse associated morbidity and mortality. We conclude that this model serves as a professionalization strategy to advance nurses' scholarship of clinical practice, research and teaching.

  12. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  13. Proterozoic events recorded in quartzite cobbles at Jack Hills, Western Australia: New constraints on sedimentation and source of > 4 Ga zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Marion L.; Wilde, Simon A.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Pidgeon, Robert T.

    2010-03-01

    Rare heavy mineral bands within quartzite cobbles were identified in two conglomerate units within the Jack Hills belt, Western Australia. Seven zircon-bearing cobbles were analysed from one location (site 152) and three from another (site 154), both approximately 1 km west of the site where zircons in excess of 4 Ga are abundant (W74 'discovery' site). Individual pebbles from the 152 site reveal three distinctive features, containing either zircons > 3.0 Ga in age, 4 Ga was discovered from the entire suite of pebbles, in contrast to the well-studied W74 site. A single detrital zircon with an age of 1220 ± 42 Ma from location 152 is the youngest grain so far reported from sedimentary rocks at Jack Hills. It shows magmatic oscillatory zoning and thus implies at least two sedimentary cycles within the Proterozoic; requiring erosion of an igneous precursor, incorporation into a clastic sediment, induration and subsequent erosion and transport to be hosted in the conglomerate. The nearest source for rocks of this age is the Bangemall Supergroup in the Collier Basin, ˜ 100 km northeast in the Capricorn Orogen. This would imply tectonic interleaving of originally more extensive Bangemall rocks, possibly related to activity along the Cargarah Shear Zone that traverses the Jack Hills belt. The lack of > 4.1 Ga zircons in the pebbles is highly significant, suggesting the immediate source of ancient zircons was no longer present at the Earth's surface. This equates with a general lack of ancient crystals noted in rocks that contain Proterozoic zircons from previous studies and implies that such grains diminish in number as earlier sedimentary rocks were successively recycled.

  14. Earth history. Low mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J; Reinhard, Christopher T; Wang, Xiangli; Thomson, Danielle; McGoldrick, Peter; Rainbird, Robert H; Johnson, Thomas; Fischer, Woodward W; Lyons, Timothy W

    2014-10-31

    The oxygenation of Earth's surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium (Cr) isotope data from a suite of Proterozoic sediments from China, Australia, and North America, interpreted in the context of data from similar depositional environments from Phanerozoic time, we find evidence for inhibited oxidation of Cr at Earth's surface in the mid-Proterozoic (1.8 to 0.8 billion years ago). These data suggest that atmospheric O2 levels were at most 0.1% of present atmospheric levels. Direct evidence for such low O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic helps explain the late emergence and diversification of metazoans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. New proposal for the Piedras de Afilar lithostratigraphic formation, upper Neo proterozoic of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Gaucher, C.; Poire, D.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the Piedras de Afilar lithostratigraphic formation which is part of Tandilia Precambrian terrain of Uruguay. This sedimentary sequence of Neo proterozoic age is supported by a Paleoproterozoic basement

  16. Microfossils' diversity from the Proterozoic Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Jérémie; Houzay, Jean-Pierre; Blanpied, Christian; Javaux, Emmanuelle

    2014-05-01

    Prokaryotes and microscopic eukaryotes are known to have appeared well before the Cambrian's adaptative radiation which flourished perceptibly as a generalized macroscopic world. What do we know about the trigger events which stimulated eukaryotic diversification during the Proterozoic? Biological innovations or environmental changes, and indeed probably both (Knoll et al., 2006), played a fundamental role controlling this important step of life's evolution on Earth. Javaux (2011), proposed a diversification pattern of early eukaryotes divided into three steps and focusing on different taxonomic levels, from stem group to within crown group, of the domain Eukarya. Here, we present a new, exquisitely preserved and morphologically diverse assemblage of organic-walled microfossils from the 1.1 Ga El Mreiti Group of the Taoudeni Basin (Mauritania). The assemblage includes beautifully preserved microbial mats comprising pyritized filaments, prokaryotic filamentous sheaths and filaments, microfossils of uncertain biological affinity including smooth isolated and colonial sphaeromorphs (eukaryotes and/or prokaryotes), diverse protists (ornamented and process-bearing acritarchs), as well multicellular microfossils interpreted in the literature as possible xanthophyte algae. Several taxa are reported for the first time in Africa, but are known worldwide. This study improves microfossil diversity previously reported by Amard (1986) and shows purported xanthophyte algae contrary to a previous biomarker study suggesting the absence of eukaryotic algae, other than acritarchs, in the basin (Blumenberg et al., 2012). This new microfossil assemblage and others provide, all together, evidences of early and worldwide diversification of eukaryotes. Thereby, those first qualitative results also provide a basis for further and larger quantitative studies on the Taoudeni Basin. To better understand the palaeobiology (stem or crown group, aerobic or anaerobic metabolism) and

  17. Pb-Pb geochronology in zircon of the basement rocks of the southern portion of the Araguaia Belt - Paraiso do Tocantins region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcanjo, Silvia Helena de Souza; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso

    2000-01-01

    Recent geochronological studies of the basement orthogneisses of the northern region of the Araguaia belt showed the occurrence of both Archean (2.85 Ga) and Early Proterozoic (1.85 Ga) rocks. The oldest gneisses were grouped in the Colmeia Complex, the younger were named the Cantao Gneiss. In the southern portion of the Araguaia belt, the basement sequences include metavolcanic-sedimentary rocks, tonalitic, calc-silicate, and alkaline gneisses, and granitic rocks. All of these sequences have been considered as Archean in age, although no geochronological data are available to test this hypothesis. The metavolcanic-sedimentary rocks are included in the Rio do Coco Group, while the granitic rocks are represented by the Serrote and Matanca granites. The tonalitic and calc-silicate gneisses were grouped with Colmeia and Rio do Mangues Complexes, and the alkaline gneisses in the Monte Santo Suite. These gneisses were investigated geochronologically by single zircon Pb-evaporation methods in order to define their stratigraphic interrelationships, and to contribute to a greater understanding of the geological evolution of this crustal segment. The single zircon ages of the tonalitic and calc-silicate gneisses range between 1.8 and 2.1 Ga. An age of about 1.0 Ga, was obtained for the alkaline gneisses of Serra da Estrela (Monte Santo Suite). These data along with the single zircon age of 1.85 Ga. published for the Serrote Granite, indicate the widespread occurrence of Proterozoic rocks in the basement of the southern part of Araguaia belt. However, the existence of Arquean sequences in this region can not be discarded since the volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Rio do Coco Group have not as yet been dated. The correlation of tonalitic and calc-silicate gneisses with the Colmeia Complex was not confirmed, so these gneisses have been grouped with the Early proterozoic Rio dos Mangues Complex. Thus, it is suggested that a significant part of the basement of the southern

  18. The Mozambique Ridge: a document of massive multistage magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Maximilian D.; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Jacques, Guillaume; Werner, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    The Mozambique Ridge, a prominent basement high in the southwestern Indian Ocean, consists of four major geomorphological segments associated with numerous phases of volcanic activity in the Lower Cretaceous. The nature and origin of the Mozambique Ridge have been intensely debated with one hypothesis suggesting a Large Igneous Province origin. High-resolution seismic reflection data reveal a large number of extrusion centres with a random distribution throughout the southern Mozambique Ridge and the nearby Transkei Rise. Intrabasement reflections emerge from the extrusion centres and are interpreted to represent massive lava flow sequences. Such lava flow sequences are characteristic of eruptions leading to the formation of continental and oceanic flood basalt provinces, hence supporting a Large Igneous Province origin of the Mozambique Ridge. We observe evidence for widespread post-sedimentary magmatic activity that we correlate with a southward propagation of the East African Rift System. Based on our volumetric analysis of the southern Mozambique Ridge we infer a rapid sequential emplacement between ˜131 and ˜125 Ma, which is similar to the short formation periods of other Large Igneous Provinces like the Agulhas Plateau.

  19. Geochronology of La Tinta Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingolani, C.A.; Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Olavarria-Sierras Bayas, Barker-San Manuel and Balcarce-Mar del Plata fine-grained sedimentary rocks from La Tinta Formation, the pre-Cenozoic cover of the Tandilia region, were studied using the Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology. The mineralogical study of the fine fraction has shown that only the Olavarria-Sierras Bayas area presents suitable material comprising typical sedimentary clays, affected only by diagenetic processes. Two Rb-Sr isochrons were obtained from Olavarria-Sierras Bayas rocks. They show: (1) an age of 769 +- 12 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7121 +- 0.0005, for Aust Quarry rocks; and (2) an age of 723 +- 21 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7171 +- 0.0012 for Cerro Negro and Losa Quarries rocks. Considering the above-mentioned isochron data and the mineralogy of the clays studied, the conclusion is drawn that the ages obtained reflect the isotopic setting of a late diagenetic process, dated back to nearly 720 Ma. K-Ar data also support the Rb-Sr isochrons and the late diagenetic clay origin. The lower section of La Tinta sequence in the Sierras Bayas area must then be considered as Upper Proterozoic in age. These new data support the recently reported stratigraphical divisions and ages. (Auth.)

  20. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. T.; Wolfe-Simon, F.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580–550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O2 production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe2+ rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. PMID:19805080

  1. Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghel, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

  2. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Soil phytoliths from miombo woodlands in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Esselmont, Chris; Simpson, Steven; Walde, Dale

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes topsoil phytolith assemblages from 25 loci underneath miombo woodlands on an eco-transect intersecting the Mozambican Rift along a geographical, altitudinal, climatic and botanical gradient. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the phytolith spectrum that defines northern Mozambique's Zambezian floristic zone. Our classifying criteria derive from comparison with previously described and quantified reference collections of trees and grasses growing in the study area. We characterize the sedimentological and soil features of the matrices where phytoliths are found, establishing correlation among geo-edaphic variables and phytoliths. Descriptive statistics along with nonparametric and parametric statistical analyses evaluate phytolith grouping criteria, variation, robustness, and membership. From a taphonomic perspective, we attest that topsoil phytolith assemblages are polygenic and do not represent an episodic snapshot of extant vegetation, but a palimpsest from plants representing various disturbance episodes, succession stages, and ecological trends. Phytoliths retrieved from Mozambican miombo soils do not seem to trace altitudinal, temperature, or precipitation gradients, and no significant differences exist between highland and lowland phytolith assemblages. This article provides a phytolith analog for woodland environments that can guide future paleoenvironmental research. It also confirms that phytolith analysis is able to detect shifts in the woodland/grassland interface.

  4. The southern cape conductive belt (South Africa): Its composition, origin and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J. H.; Van Zijl, J. S. V.; Gough, D. I.

    1982-03-01

    Magnetometer array studies have led to the discovery and mapping of the Southern Cape Conductive Belt (SCCB) crossing the southern tip of Africa from west to southeast coasts. The SCCB lies just south of the Namaqua-Natal Belt of cratonic rocks remobilized about 1000 m.y. B.P. It is shown that it coincides with a zone of weakness which has been exploited by three major geosynclinal accumulations over some 600 m.y. Relationships between the SCCB and the basement geochronology, geology and tectonics are considered in detail. These relationships support the view that the conductive belt was formed by an accumulation of marine sediments and oceanic lithosphere at the top of a Proterozoic subduction which stopped about 1000 to 800 m.y. B.P. Associated with this subduction we propose a Proterozoic range of Andean mountains, whose roots are now exposed in the Namaqua-Natal Belt. Later subduction further south, near the present south coast, is proposed to account for the intrusion, between the south coast and the SCCB, of the Cape Granites in the time interval 600-500 m.y. B.P. There is some evidence for a third, yet more distant, subduction episode off Permian Gondwanaland. After outlining this tectonic history, the paper turns to a closer examination of the hypothesis that the Southern Cape Conductive Belt consists of partly serpentinized basalt accumulated at the top of a Proterozoic subduction. A large static magnetic anomaly, which correlates with the SCCB over most of its length, is well fitted by a model which strongly supports this hypothesis. Bouguer gravity anomalies along western and central profiles likewise support the hypothesis. A discussion follows of the process of formation of the proposed block of serpentinized marine rocks, beginning with serpentinization of the crust near oceanic ridges by reaction of warm, porous, newly-extruded basalt with seawater convecting through it. The serpentinized basalt is stable at crustal temperatures and pressures and so

  5. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  6. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  7. POETIC AND PICTORIAL REVISITS OF THE MOZAMBIQUE ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Tindó Secco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The rewriting of Mozambique with the pen of poetry and the ink of affections. Landscapes: poetry, painting and history. The intercrossing of people, cultures and different knowledges in the Mozambican ground of multiple inheritances.

  8. Elderly women in Mozambique: with the word, Teresinha da Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divina de Fátima dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Teresinha da Silva reflects on her practice and professional activities related to human rights issues and on the elderly in Mozambique. It also discusses a bit about his life and about the need for greater respect between human beings regardless of age, gender, ethnicity and religion.

  9. Christianity’s Role in Dispute Resolution in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, L.J.; Jacobs, Carolien

    2014-01-01

    Religion is often portrayed as either a source of conflict or as a source of peace and reconciliation. In this paper we explore the role of religion in day-to-day conflicts in different regions of Mozambique, in Maputo and Gorongosa. We analyse the factors that are of importance in determining

  10. The use of the Arabic script in northern Mozambique | Bonate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Mozambican Muslim population has been using the Arabic script for writing in KiSwahili and local African languages for centuries. Even today, many people continue using this script in private correspondence. Despite the abundance of the documents in this script that are housed at the Mozambique Historical ...

  11. Business plan Seed potato programmes Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, F.; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand/start their business portfolio and are looking for an opportunity of investment in the agricultural sector in the Zambezi Valley in Mozambique. We propose the creation of a seed potato programme for the red skinned

  12. Assessing the performance of urban water utilities in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benchmarking analysis has become a strategic tool through which water regulators around the world measure the performance of water utilities. Since 2008, the Water Regulatory Council of Mozambique has been implementing a benchmarking framework to analyse the performance of urban water utilities. This paper ...

  13. The upsurge of tension between Renamo and Frelimo in Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Happy Kayuni. Abstract. Soon after independence in 1975, Mozambique was plunged into a protracted civil war involving the ruling party Frelimo and the rebel movement Renamo. Renamo controlled several areas until when a ceasefire was reached in October 1992. After the restoration of peace in the country Renamo ...

  14. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Ellen M. H.; Kwizera, Amata; Usta, Momade; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration

  15. On the discontinuous nature of the Mozambique Current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; Biastoch, A.; van der Werf, P.M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a spatially continuous western boundary current in the Mozambique Channel has historically been based on erroneous interpretations of ships' drift. Recent observations have demonstrated that the circulation in the Channel is instead dominated by anti-cyclonic eddies drifting poleward.

  16. In the Making: Constructing In-School Pregnancy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    This article examines current in-school pregnancy policy in Mozambique, Decree 39/GM/2003, discussing how it discursively constructs in-school pregnancy as a problem, thereby raising the need to regulate its occurrence. Decree 39/GM/2003 indicates that pregnant schoolgirls should be transferred to night courses in order to complete their…

  17. Primary factors threatening survival of SMEs in Mozambique | Alen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of business start-ups to address the scourge of unemployment in Mozambique. This paper is based on a research that was carried out in Greater Maputo, the capital of ... The research was carried out applying quantitative methodology, using ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. Divorced, separated and widowed female workers in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sender, J.; Oya, C.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to other rural women, a high proportion of female wageworkers in rural Mozambique are divorced, separated or widowed. The paper explores the factors underlying this difference and establishes a significant relationship between labour market participation and female divorce or widowhood. The

  19. Incidence of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Three Regions of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Casabonne, Delphine; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Zaqueu, Clesio; Nhabomba, Augusto; Aguilar, Ruth; Bassat, Quique; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Dobaño, Carlota; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 106 person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries. PMID:27799648

  20. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  1. Polyphase Rifting and Breakup of the Central Mozambique Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkans, Andrew; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi

    2017-04-01

    The breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent resulted in the formation of the Central Mozambique passive margin as Africa and Antarctica were separated during the mid-Jurassic period. The identification of magnetic anomalies in the Mozambique Basin and Riiser Larsen Sea means that post-oceanisation plate kinematics are well-constrained. Unresolved questions remain, however, regarding the initial fit, continental breakup process, and the first relative movements of Africa and Antarctica. This study uses high quality multi-channel seismic reflection profiles in an effort to identify the major crustal domains in the Angoche and Beira regions of the Central Mozambique margin. This work is part of the integrated pluri-disciplinary PAMELA project*. Our results show that the Central Mozambique passive margin is characterised by intense but localised magmatic activity, evidenced by the existence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) in the Angoche region, as well as magmatic sills and volcanoclastic material which mark the Beira High. The Angoche region is defined by a faulted upper-continental crust, with the possible exhumation of lower crustal material forming an extended ocean-continent transition (OCT). The profiles studied across the Beira high reveal an offshore continental fragment, which is overlain by a pre-rift sedimentary unit likely to belong to the Karoo Group. Faulting of the crust and overlying sedimentary unit reveals that the Beira High has recorded several phases of deformation. The combination of our seismic interpretation with existing geophysical and geological results have allowed us to propose a breakup model which supports the idea that the Central Mozambique margin was affected by polyphase rifting. The analysis of both along-dip and along-strike profiles shows that the Beira High initially experienced extension in a direction approximately parallel to the Mozambique coastline onshore of the Beira High. Our results suggest that the Beira High results

  2. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  3. Sociocultural and epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Troy D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Methods To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar™, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. Results UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Conclusions Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.

  4. Association between Precipitation and Diarrheal Disease in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lindsay M; Hajat, Anjum; Sheppard, Lianne; Quinn, Colin; Colborn, James; Zermoglio, Maria Fernanda; Gudo, Eduardo S; Marrufo, Tatiana; Ebi, Kristie L

    2018-04-10

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Although research documents the magnitude and pattern of diarrheal diseases are associated with weather in particular locations, there is limited quantification of this association in sub-Saharan Africa and no studies conducted in Mozambique. Our study aimed to determine whether variation in diarrheal disease was associated with precipitation in Mozambique. In secondary analyses we investigated the associations between temperature and diarrheal disease. We obtained weekly time series data for weather and diarrheal disease aggregated at the administrative district level for 1997-2014. Weather data include modeled estimates of precipitation and temperature. Diarrheal disease counts are confirmed clinical episodes reported to the Mozambique Ministry of Health ( n = 7,315,738). We estimated the association between disease counts and precipitation, defined as the number of wet days (precipitation > 1 mm) per week, for the entire country and for Mozambique's four regions. We conducted time series regression analyses using an unconstrained distributed lag Poisson model adjusted for time, maximum temperature, and district. Temperature was similarly estimated with adjusted covariates. Using a four-week lag, chosen a priori, precipitation was associated with diarrheal disease. One additional wet day per week was associated with a 1.86% (95% CI: 1.05-2.67%), 1.37% (95% CI: 0.70-2.04%), 2.09% (95% CI: 1.01-3.18%), and 0.63% (95% CI: 0.11-1.14%) increase in diarrheal disease in Mozambique's northern, central, southern, and coastal regions, respectively. Our study indicates a strong association between diarrheal disease and precipitation. Diarrheal disease prevention efforts should target areas forecast to experience increased rainfall. The burden of diarrheal disease may increase with increased precipitation associated with climate change, unless additional health system interventions are undertaken.

  5. Large dunes on the outer shelf off the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique: evidence for the existence of a Mozambique Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Burghard W.; Kudrass, Hermann-Rudolf

    2018-02-01

    The existence of a continuously flowing Mozambique Current, i.e. a western geostrophic boundary current flowing southwards along the shelf break of Mozambique, was until recently accepted by oceanographers studying ocean circulation in the south-western Indian Ocean. This concept was then cast into doubt based on long-term current measurements obtained from current-meter moorings deployed across the northern Mozambique Channel, which suggested that southward flow through the Mozambique Channel took place in the form of successive, southward migrating and counter-clockwise rotating eddies. Indeed, numerical modelling found that, if at all, strong currents on the outer shelf occurred for not more than 9 days per year. In the present study, the negation of the existence of a Mozambique Current is challenged by the discovery of a large (50 km long, 12 km wide) subaqueous dune field (with up to 10 m high dunes) on the outer shelf east of the modern Zambezi River delta at water depths between 50 and 100 m. Being interpreted as representing the current-modified, early Holocene Zambezi palaeo-delta, the dune field would have migrated southwards by at least 50 km from its former location since sea level recovered to its present-day position some 7 ka ago and after the former delta had been remoulded into a migrating dune field. Because a large dune field composed of actively migrating bedforms cannot be generated and maintained by currents restricted to a period of only 9 days per year, the validity of those earlier modelling results is questioned for the western margin of the flow field. Indeed, satellite images extracted from the Perpetual Ocean display of NASA, which show monthly time-integrated surface currents in the Mozambique Channel for the 5 month period from June-October 2006, support the proposition that strong flow on the outer Mozambican shelf occurs much more frequently than postulated by those modelling results. This is consistent with more recent modelling

  6. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  7. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  8. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  9. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  10. Proterozoic rifting and major unconformities in Rajasthan, and their implications for uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Roy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of the Precambrian terrain in Rajasthan has taken place via crustal consolidation of the basement at ca. 2.9 Ga, its cratonisation at ca. 2.5 Ga, through protracted tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Proterozoic cover sequences, following repeated rifting and Wilson cycles in the Aravalli and Delhi foldbelts. Consequently, the Proterozoic rift basins are characterised by growth faults and pull-aparts, and multitier volcanose dimentary sequences that contain a number of unconformities and stratigraphic breaks. The Archaean basement of the Mewar terrain that witnessed end-Archaean K-magmatism and ductile shearing, led to the creation of a possible uranium province, namely uranium enriched basement. This province acted as the source of remobilised uranium and its concentration at suitable multilevel structural and stratigraphic traps within the Proterozoic rift basins to give rise to unconformity-related syngenetic uranium mineralisation. Late Neoproterozoic to Pan-African tectonothermal reworking of the basement rocks produced fracture zones and caused Na-metasomatism giving rise to albitite-related uranium mineralisation. Based on an analysis of Proterozoic rift kinematics and lithofacies characteristics, five possible uranium-enriched stratigraphic horizons have been identified in the Aravalli and its equivalent sequences as well as in the North Delhi foldbelt sequences. From a regional synthesis, ten possible uranium metallogenic events, spanning ca. 2.5-0.5 Ga, are recognised in Rajasthan. These uranium events have predictive value for delineation of target areas for exploration. (author)

  11. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature and correlation of early proterozoic rocks of the Darwin - Katherine region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    New stratigraphic names and correlations are given for parts of the Early Proterozoic Pine Creek Geosyncline metasedimentary sequence and overlying felsic volcanics of the Darwin-Katherine region. They have significant implications for the stratigraphic distribution of uranium mineralisation in the Rum Jungle, Alligator Rivers and South Alligator Valley uranium fields

  12. Geochemistry and petrology of mafic Proterozoic and Permian dykes on Bornholm, Denmark:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Pedersen, Lise E.; Højsteeen, Birte

    2010-01-01

    More than 250 dykes cut the mid Proterozoic basement gneisses and granites of Bornholm. Most trend between NNW and NNE, whereas a few trend NE and NW. Field, geochemical and petrological evidence suggest that the dyke intrusions occurred as four distinct events at around 1326 Ma (Kelseaa dyke...

  13. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  14. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended. Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  15. Using observed warming to identify hazards to Mozambique maize production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Harrison, Laura; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    New Perspectives on Crop Yield Constraints because of Climate Change. Climate change impact assessments usually focus on changes to precipitation because most global food production is from rainfed cropping systems; however, other aspects of climate change may affect crop growth and potential yields.A recent (2011) study by the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group, determined that climate change may be affecting Mozambique's primary food crop in a usually overlooked, but potentially significant way (Harrison and others, 2011). The study focused on the direct relation between maize crop development and growing season temperature. It determined that warming during the past three decades in Mozambique may be causing more frequent crop stress and yield reductions in that country's maize crop, independent of any changes occurring in rainfall. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of that study.

  16. [International cooperation in combatting illicit drugs in Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvana, Flávia; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2011-06-01

    Countries from Southern Africa have formed a Development Community (SADC) to stimulate common actions in several areas, among them illicit drugs combat. In this context, the goal of this qualitative study was to identify information and perception about the cooperation set up between Mozambique and other SADC members in combatting illicit drugs. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with public employees developing actions directed at the implementation of the Protocol to Combat Drugs in SADC. After transcriptions, the interviews were analyzed by content analysis and resulted in the categories: "Mozambique as a drugs corridor", "Cooperation Initiatives on Drugs among African countries", "Cooperation Difficulties in Africa", "Problems in Protocol Implementation" and "Difficulties to implement a control policy". As a consequence, there is a need to review and update the policies and strategies in the drugs area, as they are not contextualized in the country's current reality.

  17. Career exploration in Mozambique : exploratory study with secondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Ussene, Camilo; Taveira, Maria do Céu

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of a larger research project on the evaluation of career intervention needs in Mozambique. It consists of an exploratory study of the career exploration process of Mozambican students attending the 12th grade. The results of the construct validity and clustering analyses of the responses to the Career Exploration Survey (CES; Stumpf, Colarelli, & Hartman, 1983) are discussed, in the light of the career exploration theory and empirical research, namely the cognitive-motiva...

  18. Cloud Formation, Sea-Air-Land Interaction, Mozambique, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This rare depiction of the physical interactions of air land and sea in cloud formation was seen over Mozambique (12.0S, 40.5E). Moist low air, heated as it moves over land, rises and forms clouds. Even the coastal islands have enough heat to initiate the process. Once begun, the circulation is dynamic and the descending motion suppresses cloud formation on either side of the cloud stream. As clouds move inland, they rise to follow the land upslope.

  19. The Social and Economic Impact of Refractive Error in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Stephen James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential key determinants of the success, or otherwise, of endeavours to address avoidable Visual Impairment (VI) by addressing Uncorrected Refractive Error (URE) in Mozambique and the wider region of sub-Saharan Africa by providing optometric services. It includes a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) of a higher education optometry training programme, barriers that might prevent the realisation of overarching goals despite a successful training programm...

  20. Child Height and Maternal Health Care Knowledge in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Stunting prevalence rates in Mozambique are very high (41 percent), especially in rural areas (46 percent). Recent research shows that consumption growth alone will not be sufficient to solve the problem of malnutrition. To investigate the role of additional determinants I use a two-stage quantil...... of education and community health care facilities in rural areas and positively affect the height of the most severely stunted children...

  1. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  2. The multidimensional nature of HIV stigma: evidence from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria A; Arias, Rosario; Figueroa, Maria E

    2017-03-01

    HIV stigma continues to be a major challenge to addressing HIV/AIDS in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique. This paper explores the multidimensional nature of HIV stigma through the thematic analysis of five qualitative studies conducted in high HIV prevalence provinces in Mozambique between 2009 and 2012. These studies included 23 interviews with people living with HIV (PLHIV) (10 women and 13 men); 6 focus groups with 32 peer educators (24 women and 8 men) working for community-based organisations (CBOs) providing services to PLHIV; 17 focus groups with community members (72 men and 70 women); 6 interviews (4 women and 2 men) with people who had family members living with HIV/AIDS; 24 focus groups (12 with men and 12 with women) and 6 interviews with couples. Our findings indicate that HIV stigma is a barrier to HIV testing and counselling, status disclosure, partner notification, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and adherence, and that moral stigma seems to be more common than physical stigma. Additionally, the findings highlight that HIV stigma is a dynamic social process that is conceptualised as being tied to personal responsibility. To effectively diminish HIV stigma in Mozambique, future interventions should address moral stigma and re-conceptualise HIV as a chronic disease.

  3. Mozambique's journey toward accreditation of the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Sofia O; Azam, Khalide; Madeira, Carla; Aguiar, Carmen; Dolores, Carolina; Mandlaze, Ana P; Chongo, Patrina; Masamha, Jessina; Cirillo, Daniela M; Jani, Ilesh V; Gudo, Eduardo S

    2017-01-01

    Internationally-accredited laboratories are recognised for their superior test reliability, operational performance, quality management and competence. In a bid to meet international quality standards, the Mozambique National Institute of Health enrolled the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory (NTRL) in a continuous quality improvement process towards ISO 15189 accreditation. Here, we describe the road map taken by the NTRL to achieve international accreditation. The NTRL adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme as a strategy to implement a quality management system. After SLMTA, the Mozambique National Institute of Health committed to accelerate the NTRL's process toward accreditation. An action plan was designed to streamline the process. Quality indicators were defined to benchmark progress. Staff were trained to improve performance. Mentorship from an experienced assessor was provided. Fulfilment of accreditation standards was assessed by the Portuguese Accreditation Board. Of the eight laboratories participating in SLMTA, the NTRL was the best-performing laboratory, achieving a 53.6% improvement over the SLMTA baseline conducted in February 2011 to the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) assessment in June 2013. During the accreditation assessment in September 2014, 25 minor nonconformities were identified and addressed. In March 2015, the NTRL received Portuguese Accreditation Board recognition of technical competency for fluorescence smear microscopy, and solid and liquid culture. The NTRL is the first laboratory in Mozambique to achieve ISO 15189 accreditation. From our experience, accreditation was made possible by institutional commitment, strong laboratory leadership, staff motivation, adequate infrastructure and a comprehensive action plan.

  4. On the discontinuous nature of the Mozambique Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmus P.M. de Ruijter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a spatially continuous western boundary current in the Mozambique Channel has historically been based on erroneous interpretations of ships’ drift. Recent observations have demonstrated that the circulation in the Channel is instead dominated by anti-cyclonic eddies drifting poleward. It has therefore been suggested that no coherent Mozambique Current exists at any time. However, satellite and other observations indicate that a continuous current – not necessarily an inherent part of Mozambique Eddies – may at times be found along the full Mozambican shelf break. Using a high-resolution, numerical model we have demonstrated how such a feature may come about. In the model, a continuous current is a highly irregularly occurring event, occurring about once per year, with an average duration of only 9 days and with a vertical extent of about 800 m. Surface speeds may vary from 0.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s and the volume flux involved is about 10 Sv. The continuous current may occasionally be important for the transport of biota along the continental shelf and slope.

  5. Contamination of mantle magmas by crustal contributions: evidence from the brasiliano mobile belt in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, Cristina M.; mendes, Julio C.; Ludka, Isabel P.

    1995-01-01

    In the beginning of the late orogenic phase of the Pan african/Brasiliano Mobile Belt, in Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro States, along the Brazilian coast, tholeiitic gabbros intruded the coast Small bodies of clinopyroxene -gabbro-norites, hornblendi-gabbros and clinoorthopyroxenes -pyroxenites/hornblendites typical tholeiitic AFM-trends. The series of rocks reveal evidence of crustal contamination, but no signs of in situ mixing with granitic melts. The geochemical characteristics of the tholeiitic series and suites of magmatites,- present in the different evolutionary stages of the post-collisional magmatic arc, in the Brasiliano Coastal Mobile belt, in the States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro-, are regarded as an important tool for the recognition of a further contamination process of an already enriched mantle, at crustal levels, during Late Proterozoic/Early Paleozoic times. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Copper-bearing (Paraíba-type) tourmaline from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurs, B.M.; Zwaan, J.C.; Breeding, C.M.; Simmons, W.B.; Beaton, D.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; Befi, R.; Falster, A.U.

    2008-01-01

    Copper-bearing tourmaline from Mozambique was first recovered in 2001, but its Cu content was not recognized until 2003, and it was not widely sold with its Mozambique origin disclosed until 2005. It has been mined from alluvial deposits in an approximately 3 km2 area near Mavuco in the eastern

  7. Multicomponent Seismic Imaging of the Cheyenne Belt: Data Improvement Through Non-Conventional Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. A.; Shoshitaishvili, E.; Sorenson, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    The Cheyenne Belt in southeastern Wyoming separates Archean Wyoming Craton from accreted juvenile Proterozoic crust making it one of the fundamental sutures in the Proterozoic assemblage of western North America. As one of the multidisciplinary components of the Continental Dynamics - Rocky Mountains Transect project (CDROM), reflection seismic data were acquired from south-central Wyoming to central Colorado to characterize crustal structure associated with this boundary and younger Proterozoic shear zones to the south. In addition to acquisition of more conventional vertical-component data, 3-component data were acquired to better constrain rock properties and reflection directionality, providing information that tends to be lost with one-component recording. In order to achieve the highest possible signal-to-noise ratios in the processed data, considerable work was focused on removal of noise caused by private vehicles driving on forest roads during active recording and, perhaps more problematical, harmonic noise generated from power-line and other electrical-equipment interference. Noise generated from these sources was successfully attenuated using 1) short-window 2D FFT filtering to remove irregular, high-amplitude vehicular noise, and 2) harmonic-noise-subtraction algorithms developed at the University of Arizona to remove harmonic electrical-induction noise. This latter filtering procedure used a time-domain-based method of automatic estimation of noise frequencies and their amplitudes, followed by subtraction of these estimated anomalous harmonics from the data. Since the technique estimates the best fit of noise for the entire trace, subtraction of the noise avoids many of the deleterious effects of simple notch filtering. After noise removal, it was possible to pick both P-wave and S-wave first arrivals and model shallow subsurface rock properties. This model provides a link between deeper events and the surface geology.

  8. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Understanding and modelling Neo-proterozoic glaciations and their associated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hir, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to provide a consistent image of extreme glaciations which occurred during the Neo-proterozoic era. By using climate and carbon cycle models (or model of bio-geochemical cycles), the author aims at answering various scientific questions raised by the Snowball Earth hypothesis. After a description of the main geological features which characterize the Proterozoic, scientific problems are presented. The author then reports the study of carbon cycle during glaciation in order to understand its operation. Based on this constraint, a consistent scenario of exit from glaciation is defined. The physical-chemical evolution of the ocean during and after a global glaciation is then quantified in order to assess its potential effects on the environment and on the Precambrian biosphere. The last part focuses on the post-glacial evolution to establish the delay for a return to equilibrium of climate after such an extreme event [fr

  10. Nitrogen cycle feedbacks as a control on euxinia in the mid-Proterozoic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, R. A.; Clark, J. R.; Poulton, Simon W.

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical evidence invokes anoxic deep oceans until the terminal Neoproterozoic similar to 0.55 Ma, despite oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere nearly 2 Gyr earlier. Marine sediments from the intervening period suggest predominantly ferruginous (anoxic Fe(II)-rich) waters, interspersed with euxinia...... (anoxic H2S-rich conditions) along productive continental margins. Today, sustained biotic H2S production requires NO3- depletion because denitrifiers outcompete sulphate reducers. Thus, euxinia is rare, only occurring concurrently with (steady state) organic carbon availability when N-2-fixers dominate...... the production in the photic zone. Here we use a simple box model of a generic Proterozoic coastal upwelling zone to show how these feedbacks caused the mid-Proterozoic ocean to exhibit a spatial/temporal separation between two states: photic zone NO3- with denitrification in lower anoxic waters, and N-2...

  11. Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites and a preliminary age for the Argyle lamproite pipe, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, E.M.W.; Bristow, J.W.; Smith, C.B.; Scott Smith, B.H.; Dawson, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Argyle pipe occurring in the East Kimberley Province of Western Australia is a unique, highly-diamondiferous lamproite. Although it resembles other lamproites located in the West Kimberley Province with respect to its setting, structure, petrography and geochemistry, it is probably Proterozoic in age and hence substantially older than Tertiary occurrences of the West Kimberley Province. Rb-Sr measurements on whole rock and phlogopite samples from magmatic olivine-phlogopite lamproite, reveals a two point model age of 1126 +- 9 Ma for the Argyle pipe. This age is consistent with ages of other, similar volcanic igneous rocks occurring in several localities worldwide. The widespread occurrence of Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites suggests that this was an important period of worldwide alkalic intrusive activity

  12. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  13. Strontium geochemistry and carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of Lower Proterozoic dolomite and calcite marbles from the Marmorilik Formation, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Marmorilik Formation, Rinkian mobile belt, West Greenland, is a large, Lower Proterozoic carbonate-rock sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions. The pre-deformation thickness of the sequence is at least 2000 m, with about 1400 m of dolomite marble and 350 m of calcite marble. Strontium contents of forty-two dolomite and calcite marbles range from 30 to 100 ppm and 300 to 800 ppm, respectively, whereas samples with calcite of secondary origin have strontium contents between 80 ppm and 200 ppm. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were determined for forty calcite and dolomite marbles as -0.2+-1.0 per 1000 delta 13 C and -9.9+-1.5 per 1000 delta 18 O (vs. PDB) and are compatible with the isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed carbonates of similar age. Calcite from eight calciumsilicate rocks, breccias and calcite veins is significantly more negative in delta 13 C and delta 18 O. Five 13 C analyses of graphite in marble range from -9.6 to -14 per 1000. Possible post-depositional changes in the strontium content and carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are discussed. It is concluded that (a) the calcite marbles are not dedolomites and are therefore of primary origin, (b) the delta 13 C and delta 18 O values of the marbles are primary or diagenetic (i.e., pre-metamorphic), and (c) the isotopic composition of the graphite is compatible with, though not necessarily evidence for, a biogenic origin. (Auth.)

  14. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  15. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  16. Evidences of a tangential proterozoic tectonic from Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo de Oliveira, O.A.; Teixeira, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radiometric Rb/Sr ages of 2,1 - 2,2 Ga determined for milonites of the Caete complex, combined with tectonic relationships among the sequences of the Espinhaco, Minas and Rio das Velhas Supergroups, suggest that the thrust and fold tectonic style observed around Caete results from two deformation episodes, with similar vergence and style. The parautochthonous domain in Caete Region has been affected by both deformations episodes (Early Proterozoic and Upper Proterozoic) whereas the allochthonous domain apparently was affected only by the younger episode. A preliminary analysis of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero as a whole, considering these two major deformation episodes, is compatible, at least in part, with the large scale features observed in maps. In an effort to understand the tectonic framework of Q.F. an speculation is made on av evolutive model, considering also the existence of two district extensional events (Late Archean and Middle Proterozoic), respectively related to the deposition of Minas and Espinhaco Supergroups in a rift/aulacogen systems. (author)

  17. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  18. Factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Bilotto, Luigi; Loughman, James

    2015-06-01

    The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model of optometry training at UniLúrio in Mozambique. There are many composite elements to the development of sustainable eye health structures, and appropriate education for eye health workers remains a key determinant of successful eye care development. However, from the first intake of 16 students, only 9 students graduated from the program, whereas only 6 graduated from the second intake of 24 students. This low graduation rate is attributable to a combination of substandard academic performance and student dropout. The aim of this article was to identify factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique. Nine lecturers (the entire faculty) and 15 students (9 from the first intake and 6 from the second) were recruited to the study. Clinical competency assessments were carried out on the students, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with the course lecturers, and a course evaluation questionnaire was completed by students. The results were combined to understand the complexities surrounding the optometry student training and performance. One student out of nine from the first intake and three students out of six from the second were graded as competent in all the elements of the refraction clinical competency examination. Analysis of data from the interviews and questionnaire yielded four dominant themes that were viewed as important determinants of student refraction competencies: student learning context, teaching context, clinic conditions and assessment, and the existing operating health care context. The evaluations have helped the university and course partners to better structure the teaching and adapt the learning environments by recommending a preparatory year and a review of the curriculum and clinic structure, implementing more transparent entry requirements, increasing awareness of

  19.  Trade reform and gender in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    treatment of production technology and import protection, and is linked to a top-down microsimulation model of households. We find that trade policy has only a modest effect on gender wage differentials, and conclude that policy concerns with gender imbalances should focus on skill upgrading and sectoral......This paper uses an economywide model to study the impact of trade policy reform on male and female labor in Mozambique. The model disaggregates factor markets by skill and gender, and incorporates links between trade reform, product prices and wages by gender. The model also includes a detailed...... mobility rather than on trade policy...

  20. Regional Differences in Food Consumption in Urban Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer

    A nationwide household survey for Mozambique is used to estimate a large censored food demand system with 12 food groups for the sample of urban households. Using the translog indirect utility approach, the censored nature of the data is addressed by estimating a system of Tobit equations...... with a recently suggested quasi maximum likelihood estimator. Augmenting the system with demographic and geographical variables in a theoretically consistent way, I find that differences in elasticities between regions are significant. The results show that regional variation has to be taken into account when...

  1. Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarias Antonio Eugenio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique. Methods Data were collected during a 12 month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once from 1,442 women aged 15–49 years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2, and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R. The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12 months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8 ± 120.9.a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1 ± 9.1-12.8 ± 26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3 ± 117.6 of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7 ± 80.3-64.9 ± 110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child. Conclusions In our study

  2. Controls on Atmospheric O2: The Anoxic Archean and the Suboxic Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemists have now reached consensus that the Archean atmosphere was mostly anoxic, that a Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred at around 2.5 Ga, and that the ensuing Proterozoic atmosphere was consistently oxidized [1,2]. Evidence for this broad-scale change in atmospheric composition comes from a variety of sources, most importantly from multiple sulfur isotopes [3,4]. The details of both the Archean and Proterozoic environments remain controversial, however, as does the underlying cause of the GOE. Evidence of 'whiffs' of oxygen during the Archean [5] now extend back as far as 3.0 Ga, based on Cr isotopes [6]. This suggests that O2 was being produced by cyanobacteria well before the GOE and that the timing of this event may have been determined by secular changes in O2 sinks. Catling et al. [7] emphasized escape of hydrogen to space, coupled with progressive oxidation of the continents and a concomitant decrease in the flux of reduced gases from metamorphism. But hydrogen produced by serpentinization of seafloor could also have been a controlling factor [8]. Higher mantle temperatures during the Archean should have resulted in thicker, more mafic seafloor and higher H2 production; decreasing mantle temperatures during the Proterozoic should have led to seafloor more like that of today and a corresponding decrease in H2 production, perhaps by enough to trigger the GOE. Once the atmosphere became generally oxidizing, it apparently remained that way during the rest of Earth's history. But O2 levels in the mid-Proterozoic could have been as low at 10-3 times the Present Atmospheric Level (PAL) [9]. The evidence, once again, is based on Cr isotopes. Possible mechanisms for maintaining such a 'suboxic' Proterozoic atmosphere will be discussed. Refs: 1. H. D. Holland, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 2. H. D. Holland, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 361, 903 (Jun 29, 2006). 3. J. Farquhar, H. Bao, M. Thiemans, Science

  3. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  4. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique, 2011 to 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapaco, L.P.; Monjane, I.V.A.; Nhamusso, A.E.; Viljoen, G.J; Dundon, W.G.; Achá, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from eleven Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all eleven isolates was 112RRRKRF117 indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994 to 1995 and 2005. The characterization of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique. (author)

  6. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  7. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, Chris; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  8. Valuable Subversions: Gendered Generativity and Sorcerous Production in Central Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Enge Bertelsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How is one to analyze the existence of a subterranean dwarfish couple (zwidoma occupying the space underneath cooking places and whose central purpose is to reinforce a market woman's sales - but simultaneously feeding off her very body? Using urban and rural ethnographic material from central Mozambique, where such assemblages comprising the zwidoma and a woman are integral to economic life and social orders, this article contextualizes such constellations - effectively interferences within various domains of value - by undertaking an analysis of gendered modalities of generativity. Further, by meditating on various understandings of cosmology and, ultimately, the dynamics constituting the realms of the real, it presents an alternative to influential analyses of capitalism, such as the notion of "occult economies." An argument is made not only for value's dynamic and changeable nature but also for the necessity to appreciate instances of its subversion with destructive effects. The article underlines, therefore, how such subversions of value, in various forms, is in line with Tsing's (2015 general argument that critical explorations of capitalism and regimes of valuation and production are best undertaken in peri-capitalist zones- such as urban and rural Mozambique.

  9. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  10. CMS: LiDAR Data for Mangrove Forests in the Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high-resolution LiDAR point cloud data collected during surveys over mangrove forests in the Zambezi River Delta in Mozambique in May 2014....

  11. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height from High-resolution Stereo Image Pairs, Mozambique, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides canopy height estimates for mangrove forests at 0.6 x 0.6 m resolution in three study sites located in southeastern Mozambique, Africa: two...

  12. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height Estimates from Remote Imagery, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high resolution canopy height estimates for mangrove forests in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique, Africa. The estimates were derived from three...

  13. Model photoautrophs isolated from a Proterozoic ocean analog - aerobic life under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; de Beer, D.; Klatt, J.; Macalady, J.; Weber, M.; Lott, C.; Chennu, A.

    2016-12-01

    The 1-2 billion year delay before the final rise of oxygen at the end of the Proterozoic represents an important gap in our understanding of ancient biogeochemical cycling. Primary production fueled by sulfide-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis, including the activity of metabolically versatile cyanobacteria, has been invoked as a mechanism for sustaining low atmospheric O2 throughout much of the Proterozoic. However, we understand very little about photoautotrophs that inhabit Proterozoic-like environments present on Earth today. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of a cyanobacterium and a green sulfur bacterium that are the dominant members of pinnacle mats in Little Salt Spring—a karst sinkhole in Florida with perennially low levels of dissolved oxygen and sulfide. The red pinnacle mats bloom in the anoxic basin of the sinkhole and receive light that is of very poor quality to support photosynthesis. Characterization of the isolates is consistent with observations of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in situ—both organisms perform anoxygenic photosynthesis under conditions of very low light quality and quantity. Oxygenic photosynthesis by the cyanobacterium isolate is inhibited by the presence of sulfide and under optimal light conditions, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double that of oxygenic photosynthesis. The green sulfur bacterium is tolerant of oxygen and has a very low affinity for sulfide. In Little Salt Spring, oxygenic photosynthesis occurs for only four hours a day and the water column remains anoxic because of a continuous supply of sulfide. Isolation and characterization of these photoautotrophs combined with our high resolution microsensor data in situ highlight microbial biogeochemical cycling in this exceptional site where aerobic microorganisms persist in a largely anoxic ecosystem.

  14. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane‐derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O 2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co‐occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low‐oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic

  15. Cuddapah basin and its environs as first-order uranium target in the Proterozoics of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mithilesh; Rai, A.K.; Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sinha, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    In peninsular India the middle Proterozoic intracratonic Cuddapah basin and its environs possess good geological favorability for several types of uranium deposits. Investigations so far have revealed the strata bound carbonate-hosted uranium mineralization in the Vempalle dolomitic limestone (e.g. Tummallapalle) and in the Pulivendla quartzite, confined to the lower part of the Cuddapah supergroup, and the structurally controlled uranium mineralization in the late Archaean/early Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphics along eastern (e.g. Kasturigattu), south-western (e.g. Sanipaya and T-Sanipaya and T-Sundapalle), and northern margins (e.g. Lambapur-Yellapur) of the Cuddapah basin. Based on the present level of work within the Cuddapah Basin and its environs, the following favourable locales and prospecting techniques have been suggested to identify the unconformity/vein-type high grade uranium deposits. (i) Detailed geological examination of the contact of basement with mid-Proterozoic Gulcheru/Nagari quartzite for locating unconformity-type uranium mineralisation. (ii) Extensive ground radiometric survey along the unconformity between basement granite and outliers of Srisailam formation, Banganpalle formation, Cumbum/Pullampet formation and Bairenkonda formation along northern and eastern margins of Cuddapah basin. (iii) Examination of the contact zone of the igneous intrusives (syenite and granite) into the Cumbum formation of central and northeastern parts of the basin e.g. Chelima - Giddalur area. (iv) Geophysical survey like resistivity (viz. SP, IP, TEM) to (a) delineate the concealed sulphide-rich zones along the prominent structures of the basinal margins and (b) study the possible existence under cover of quartzite and their subsurface behaviour for the fracture zones identified in the T. Sundapalle-Sanipaya, Pincha, Maddireddigaripalle, Chakrayapeta and Vepamanipeta areas. (author). 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Geodynamic evolution of the West Africa between 2.2 and 2 Ga: the Archaean style of the Birimian greenstone belts and the sedimentary basins in northeastern Ivory-Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.; Pouclet, A.; Delor, C.; Simeon, Y.; Alric, G.

    1996-01-01

    The litho-structural features of Palaeo-proterozoic terrains of northeastern Ivory-Coast, greenstones belts and then sedimentary basin Birimian), are similar to those of Archaean terrains. Their early deformation is only voluminal deformation due to granitoid intrusions, mainly between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga. The shortening deformation (main deformation) is expressed by right folds and transcurrent shear zones ca 2.1 Ga. Neither thrust deformation nor high pressure metamorphic assemblages are known. This pattern of flexible and hot crust, at least between 2.2 and 2.16 Ga, is pole apart to a collisional pattern, proposed for West African Craton by some authors. The Archaean/Palaeo-proterozoic boundary would not represent a drastic change of the geodynamic evolution of the crust. (authors). 60 refs., 5 figs., 6 photos

  17. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low?oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well?preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5?Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5?Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and m...

  18. Characterization of organic matter associated with uranium deposits in the Francevillian formation of Gabon (Lower Proterozoic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortial, F.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.; Oberlin, A.

    1990-01-01

    Elemental analysis, organic petrography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to study organic matter in Lower Proterozoic rocks of the Francevillian Series in Africa. Results show a convincing relationship between solid bitumens derived from thermal alteration of crude oil, and deposition of uraninite ores. Evidence is presented that suggests the presence of migration paths for crude oil in associated sandstones. Moreover, the solid bitumens appear to have been further altered by radiation damage as a consequence of oxidation and uranium mineralization. (author)

  19. Geotectonic aspects of the proterozoic triple junction in the center-south part of Goias state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to made up, in a regional synthesis the tectonical framework of intracontinental proterozoic rifts, from the point of view of an evolutive model through plate tectonic mechanism. based upon lithoenvironment and geotectonics. In this context, this analysis take into account the tectonical interpretation and typification of Canastra, Cuiaba, Estrondo and Tocantins Groups. Structurally these geological entities are found to be settled in rifts of triple junction, in the center-south part of Goias State, individualized among the Oriental Plate (Sao Francisco Craton and Goias Central Massif) Occidental Plate (Amazonic Craton) and Meridional Plate (Paramirim Craton and Parana Block). (author)

  20. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth H. Leeney

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sawfishes (Pristidae were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron. The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to

  1. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeney, Ruth H

    2017-01-01

    Sawfishes (Pristidae) were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish ( Pristis pristis) and Green Sawfish ( P. zijsron) . The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to sawfishes in

  2. Canine filariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis in Mozambique : a small survey based on the identification of microfilariae : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis was diagnosed in 4 of 13 indigenous dogs from the Province of Zambézia, Mozambique, by acid phosphatase staining of microfilariae. The finding reconfirms the occurrence of the parasite in Mozambique after 3 decades and emphasises the need for extensive surveys. Additionally, in 1 of the infected dogs, microfilariae of Dipetalonema reconditum were detected, which is the 1st record of this parasite in Mozambique.

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  4. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  5. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  6. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  8. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  9. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-07-15

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.

  10. South-South REDD: A Brazil-Mozambique initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-06-15

    The South-South REDD initiative - that aims to help facilitate the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ for Mozambique based on sound baselines and monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), clear analysis of the causes of deforestation and degradation, and appropriate benefit sharing mechanisms in support of activities to address them - is now in its second year. Extensive national consultations have led to the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ which is currently being used as the basis for developing the countries REDD-Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) for submission to the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). The National Action Plan for REDD+ seeks to create favourable conditions for the progressive reduction of the current rate of deforestation (0.58%) to 0.21% by 2025 and ultimately to zero, simultaneously reducing the rate of degradation and encouraging forest restoration to sequester 30 million tonnes of carbon by 2025.

  11. Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2017-08-01

    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left-behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labor migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labor out-migration. Results show that fathers' economically successful labor migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non-migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared to sons of non-migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation no different than daughters of non-migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labor migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys' schooling, but not girls'. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.

  12. Father's Migration and Leaving the Parental Home in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia; Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an increasingly common demographic phenomenon and has important implications for the well-being of family members left behind. Although extensive research has examined the impact of parental labor migration on school-age children, less is known about its effect on adolescents. In this study, the authors used longitudinal survey data collected in rural Mozambique (N = 515) to assess the association between father's migration and adolescent children's leaving the parental home, an important component of the transition to adulthood. The results showed that father's migration delays home-leaving for adolescent girls and that these effects are not mediated by school enrollment. The results for boys were inconclusive. The authors also found that remittances and longer durations of paternal migration were negatively associated with the transition out of the home. On the basis of the findings, they argue that father's migration delays girls’ marriage. PMID:27499554

  13. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  14. Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco Martinez, Andrea

    children. By identifying children’s reasons for migrating, it identifies the main risks they encounter once they start living and working in Ressano Garcia. These include: lack of access to educational opportunities, exposure to child labour exploitation, trafficking and smuggling. This paper argues......This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant...... that child protection systems must respond to the unique situation of migrant children’s needs. Child protection and migration policies need to strike a balance between discouraging unsafe migration, which has the potential to expose children to violence, and ensuring that systems are in place for safe...

  15. Fine particles flotation of the Moatize coal/Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Amilton; de Brum, Irineu A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This study was done from a sample of coal mined at the Vale-Mozambique mine, located in Moatize district, Tete Province. The aim of this work is to analyze the reagent system in the flotation of coal fines belonging to the UCB layer. Among coal processing methods, flotation stands out as one of the most important for the concentration of this material, in particular in the treatment of fine particles. The total feed of the Vale-Mozambique processing plant is 8000 tph of coal, where 10% of this feed corresponds to the fine fraction that feeds the flotation circuit. The material used in this study had a particle size of 96% smaller than 0.25 mm. The reagents used in the flotation tests were Betacol and diesel oil as hydrophobizing agents and MIBC as frother. The range of Betacol concentrations in the first test phase was 200 g / t at 500 g / t, and in the second phase 200 g / t at 500 g / t of diesel oil and MIBC were kept constant at 300 g / t. The immediate analysis followed the Brazilian standards: NBR 8289, NBR 8293, NBR 8290, NBR 8299. The results showed that it is possible, from a feed with the ash content around 22.84%, to obtain products with levels below of 10% ash, with a mass recovery around 50%. The recovery of carbonaceous matter was also evaluated and presented positive results. Complementing this study, the effect of H2O recovery was evaluated and it was observed that for the concentrations of Betacol the recoveries ranged from 6 to 9%, and for diesel oil plus MIBC were 4 to 7%.

  16. Assessing immunization data quality from routine reports in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavimbe João C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide immunization coverage shows an increase in the past years but the validity of the official reports for measuring change over time has been questioned. Facing this problem, donor supported initiatives like the Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunizations, have been putting a lot of effort into assessing the quality of data used, since accurate immunization information is essential for the Expanded Program on Immunization managers to track and improve program performance. The present article, discusses the practices on record keeping, reporting and the support mechanism to ensure data quality in Mozambique. Methods A process evaluation study was carried out in Mozambique in one district (Cuamba in Niassa Province, between January and March 2003. The study was based on semi-structured interviews, participant observation and review of the data collection materials. Results Differences were found for all vaccine types when comparing facility reports with the tally sheets. The same applies when comparing facility reports with district reports. The study also showed that a routine practice during supervision visits was data quality assessment for the outpatient services but none related to data consistency between the tally sheets and the facility report. For the Expanded Program on Immunization, supervisors concentrated more on the consistency checks between data in the facility reports and the number of vaccines received during the same period. Meetings were based on criticism, for example, why health workers did not reach the target. Nothing in terms of data quality was addressed nor validation rules. Conclusion In this paper we have argued that the quality of data, and consequently of the information system, must be seen in a broader perspective not focusing only on technicalities (data collection tools and the reporting system but also on support mechanisms. Implications of a poor data quality system will be

  17. Geochemistry and geochronology of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of southern Cameroon (Ntem group, Congo craton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rchameni, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the crustal evolution of the NW margin of the Congo craton using structural, petrography, isotopic, geochemical and geochronological studies of the Archean and palaeo-Proterozoic formations of the Ntem group of southern Cameroon. The synthesis of these studies allows to propose a diapir-type gravity model linked with the genesis of granitoids to explain the geodynamical evolution of this part of the craton during the Archean. A convergence model with the collision of the Congo and Sao-Francisco cratons and with crust thickening followed by a relaxation phase is proposed for the palaeo-Proterozoic. (J.S.)

  18. Contribution for geochronological evolution study of the Pianco-Alto Brigida fold belt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Neves, B.B. de; Basei, M.A.S.; Van Schmus, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic Painco-Alto Fold Belt is situated in the central portion of the Borborema Province and it probably is just a segment of a longer structural development encompassed between the Patos (N) and Pernambuco (S) lineaments. The geochronological study was carried out along a cross section in the central part of the belt (Paraiba State) where biotite-muscovite quartz schists are the predominating rock types, including intercalations of bi-modal volcanics, marbles and quartzites. These rocks were metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies, and they display a complex history of folding. Zircons of the acid volcanics (meta-rhyolytes where analysed through U/Pb method and they plot in a discordia diagram with superior intercept indicating ages around 1100 Ma. Whole rocks Rb/Sr analyses on the same meta-volcanics are indicating isochrons of 950Ma. These data are being respectively interpreted as ages of sedimentation (and volcanism) and regional metamorphism associated to the main (D sub(2)) phase of folding. One of the main purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of the ages around 950Ma, in the central domain of the Borborema Province, as result of regional folding and metamorphism. Some other occurence of ages in the 1000-900Ma range will be discussed as support for this interpretation from now on adopted. (author)

  19. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  20. Evolution of Migmatitic Granulite Complexes: implications from Lapland Granulite Belt, Part I: metamorphic geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuisku

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Lapland granulite belt was juxtaposed between Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the NE part of the Fennoscandian Shield concurrently with the accretion of Svecofennian arc complexes at ~1.9 Ga. The belt consists mainly of aluminous migmatiticmetagreywackes. Abundant noritic to enderbitic magmas were intruded concordantly into the metasediments and were probably an important heat source for metamorphism, which took place during the crystallization of the magmas. This is supported by structural and contact relations of metasediments and igneous rocks, and by the lack progressive metamorphic reaction textures in the igneous rock series. The peak of metamorphism took place above the dehydration melting temperature of the biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz assemblageat 750−850°C and 5−8.5 kbar which lead to formation of a restitic palaeosome and peraluminous granitic melt in metapelites. Subsequently, the rocks were decompressed and cooled below the wet melting temperature of pelitic rocks (650°C under the stability field of andalusite coexisting with potassium feldspar (2−3 kbar. Cooling was accompanied by the crystallization of the neosomes, often carrying aluminium-rich phases. Postmetamorphic duplexing of the LGB is clearly seen in the distribution of calculated PT conditions.

  1. Proterozoic microbial reef complexes and associated hydrothermal mineralizations in the Banfora Cliffs, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The Proterozoic Guena-Souroukoundinga Formation of the Mopti arm (Gourma Aulacogen, southerm Taoudeni Basin) consists of a shale-dominated succession, up to 200 m thick, with scattered microbial reef complexes. Quarry exposures of the Tiara reef complex allow reconstruction of a transect across back-reef peritidal laminites, reef margin and peri-reef ooidal shoals, and fore-reef slope strata. Microbial carbonate productivity nucleated on isolated palaeohighs during transgression, whereas its end was controlled by two tectonically induced drowning pulses that led to the successive record of onlapping kerogenous limestones and pelagic shales. Reef carbonates are crosscut by fractures and fissures occluded by hydrothermal mineralizations, which are related to the rifting activity of the Gourma Aulacogen. The Tiara reef complex is similar to other Proterozoic reefs in being composed nearly entirely of stromatolites, although calcimicrobial (filamentous) and thromboid textures are locally abundant, which contrast with their scarcity or absence in coeval stable-platform microbial reefs of the northern Taoudeni Basin.

  2. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, D.J.; Clarke, G.L.; White, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Stable isotope, chemical, and mineral compositions of the Middle Proterozoic Lijiaying Mn deposit, Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsueh-Wen; Hein, James R.; Ye, Jie; Fan, Delian

    1999-01-01

    The Lijiaying Mn deposit, located about 250 km southwest of Xian, is a high-quality ore characterized by low P and Fe contents and a mean Mn content of about 23%. The ore deposit occurs in shallow-water marine sedimentary rocks of probable Middle Proterozoic age. Carbonate minerals in the ore deposit include kutnahorite, calcite, Mn calcite, and Mg calcite. Carbon (−0.4 to −4.0‰) and oxygen (−3.7 to −12.9‰) isotopes show that, with a few exceptions, those carbonate minerals are not pristine low-temperature marine precipitates. All samples are depleted in rare earth elements (REEs) relative to shale and have negative Eu and positive Ce anomalies on chondrite-normalized plots. The Fe/Mn ratios of representative ore samples range from about 0.034 to deep ocean-floor during the Cenozoic. Because the Lijiaying precursor mineral formed in a shallow-water marine environment, the atmospheric oxygen content during the Middle Proterozoic may have been lower than it has been during the Cenozoic.

  4. Modern and ancient geochemical constraints on Proterozoic atmosphere-ocean redox evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, D. S.; Horner, T. J.; Wankel, S. D.; Lu, Z.; Lyons, T.; Nielsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere-ocean system through the Precambrian has important implications for the environments capable of sustaining early eukaryotic life and the evolving oxidant budget of subducted sediments. Proxy records suggest an anoxic Fe-rich deep ocean through much of the Precambrian and atmospheric and surface-ocean oxygenation that started in earnest at the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE). The marine photic zone represented the initial site of oxygen production and accumulation via cyanobacteria, yet our understanding of surface-ocean oxygen contents and the extent and timing of oxygen propagation and exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean are limited. Here, we present an updated perspective of the constraints on atmospheric, surface-ocean, and deep-ocean oxygen contents starting at the GOE. Our research uses the iodine content of Proterozoic carbonates as a tracer of dissolved iodate in the shallow ocean, a redox-sensitive species quantitatively reduced in modern oxygen minimum zones. We supplement our understanding of the ancient record with novel experiments examining the rates of iodate production from oxygenated marine environments based on seawater incubations. Combining new data from iodine with published shallow marine (Ce anomaly, N isotopes) and atmospheric redox proxies, we provide an integrated view of the vertical redox structure of the atmosphere and ocean across the Proterozoic.

  5. Nitrogen cycle feedbacks as a control on euxinia in the mid-Proterozoic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R A; Clark, J R; Poulton, S W; Shields-Zhou, G; Canfield, D E; Lenton, T M

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical evidence invokes anoxic deep oceans until the terminal Neoproterozoic ~0.55 Ma, despite oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere nearly 2 Gyr earlier. Marine sediments from the intervening period suggest predominantly ferruginous (anoxic Fe(II)-rich) waters, interspersed with euxinia (anoxic H(2)S-rich conditions) along productive continental margins. Today, sustained biotic H(2)S production requires NO(3)(-) depletion because denitrifiers outcompete sulphate reducers. Thus, euxinia is rare, only occurring concurrently with (steady state) organic carbon availability when N(2)-fixers dominate the production in the photic zone. Here we use a simple box model of a generic Proterozoic coastal upwelling zone to show how these feedbacks caused the mid-Proterozoic ocean to exhibit a spatial/temporal separation between two states: photic zone NO(3)(-) with denitrification in lower anoxic waters, and N(2)-fixation-driven production overlying euxinia. Interchange between these states likely explains the varying H(2)S concentration implied by existing data, which persisted until the Neoproterozoic oxygenation event gave rise to modern marine biogeochemistry.

  6. Provenance and tectonic setting of the supra-crustal succession of the Qinling Complex: Implications for the tectonic affinity of the North Qinling Belt, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Qianwen; Liu, Xijun; Krapež, Bryan; Yu, Jinhai; Bai, Zhian

    2018-06-01

    The Qinling Complex lies in the Qinling orogenic belt of Central China and holds the key to understanding the evolution of this feature. The Qinling Complex comprises a basement complex composed of amphibolite and ecologite, overlain by a supra-crustal succession that has been metamorphosed to the upper greenschist facies at approximately 516-509 Ma. The protoliths of the meta-sedimentary rocks are graywackes, which are divided into lower, middle and upper units. Detrital zircons from nine samples of the supra-crustal succession have ages ranging from 1182 to 1158 Ma for the lower unit, 957 to 955 Ma for the middle unit and 917 to 840 Ma for the upper unit. The lower unit is intruded by a ca. 960 Ma pluton. The bulk compositions of these meta-sedimentary rocks and their detrital zircon ages clearly indicate derivation from Meso- and Neo-proterozoic granites. Thus, we suggest that the sedimentary succession was derived from an arc-related tectonic setting and that none of the detritus was sourced from the southern margin of the North China Block or from the northern and western margins of the South China Block. We conclude that the North Qinling Belt was an independent micro-continental block during the Meso- to Neo-proterozoic.

  7. Mozambique - Beating the Odds : Sustaining Inclusion in a Growing Economy - A Mozambique Poverty, Gender, and Social Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This assessment, reflecting poverty's many dimensions in Mozambique, combines multiple disciplines and diagnostic tools to explore poverty. It combines quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand trends in poverty and the dynamics that shape them. The objective is to support the development and implementation of proper policies that really work by taking poverty's multiple dimens...

  8. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  9. Geochemical evidence for subduction in the early Archaean from quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization, Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Quartz, carbonate and fuchsite (chromian muscovite) is a common metasomatic assemblage observed in orogenic gold systems, both in Phanerozoic convergent margin settings, and within supracrustal and greenstone belts of Precambrian rocks. Geologic and geochemical observations in younger orogenic...... systems suggest that ore-forming metasomatic fluids are derived from subduction-related devolitilization reactions, implying that orogenic Au-deposits in Archaean and Proterozoic supracrustal rock suites are related to subduction-style plate tectonics beginning early in Earth history. Justification...... with Phanerozoic orogenic deposits and that this type of metasomatism is a unique result of subduction-related processes. Fuchsite from the ISB has a δ18O and δD of 7.7 to 17.9‰ and -115 to -61‰, respectively. δ18O of quartz from the same rocks is between 10.3 and 18.6‰. Muscovite-quartz oxygen isotope thermometry...

  10. Strongly seasonal Proterozoic glacial climate in low palaeolatitudes: Radically different climate system on the pre-Ediacaran Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran glaciations occurred under strongly seasonal climates near sea level in low palaeolatitudes. Metre-scale primary sand wedges in Cryogenian periglacial deposits are identical to those actively forming, through the infilling of seasonal (winter thermal contraction-cracks in permafrost by windblown sand, in present-day polar regions with a mean monthly air temperature range of 40 °C and mean annual air temperatures of −20 °C or lower. Varve-like rhythmites with dropstones in Proterozoic glacial successions are consistent with an active seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. The seasonal (annual oscillation of sea level recorded by tidal rhythmites in Cryogenian glacial successions indicates a significant seasonal cycle and extensive open seas. Palaeomagnetic data determined directly for Proterozoic glacial deposits and closely associated rocks indicate low palaeolatitudes: Cryogenian deposits in South Australia accumulated at ≤10°, most other Cryogenian deposits at 54° during Proterozoic low-latitude glaciations, whereby the equator would be cooler than the poles, on average, and global seasonality would be greatly amplified.

  11. Uraniferous concentrations in the Francevillian of Gabon: their association with fossil hydrocarbon-bearing ore deposits of the lower Proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois; Weber, Francis

    1981-01-01

    The Francevillian U deposits of Gabon are located in one of the oldest non metamorphic sedimentary series of the Lower Proterozoic 2150 M.Y. old. The uraniferous mineralization 2050 M.Y. old is strongly related to organic matter concentrated in oil-bearing structures after migration. No geological event remobilized the mineralizations since their settling [fr

  12. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low-oxygen Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Bryant, Donald A; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane-derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co-occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low-oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic photosynthesis

  13. A model for the oceanic mass balance of rhenium and implications for the extent of Proterozoic ocean anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Alex I.; Kendall, Brian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bekker, Andrey; Poulton, Simon W.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2018-04-01

    Emerging geochemical evidence suggests that the atmosphere-ocean system underwent a significant decrease in O2 content following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), leading to a mid-Proterozoic ocean (ca. 2.0-0.8 Ga) with oxygenated surface waters and predominantly anoxic deep waters. The extent of mid-Proterozoic seafloor anoxia has been recently estimated using mass-balance models based on molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and chromium (Cr) enrichments in organic-rich mudrocks (ORM). Here, we use a temporal compilation of concentrations for the redox-sensitive trace metal rhenium (Re) in ORM to provide an independent constraint on the global extent of mid-Proterozoic ocean anoxia and as a tool for more generally exploring how the marine geochemical cycle of Re has changed through time. The compilation reveals that mid-Proterozoic ORM are dominated by low Re concentrations that overall are only mildly higher than those of Archean ORM and significantly lower than many ORM deposited during the ca. 2.22-2.06 Ga Lomagundi Event and during the Phanerozoic Eon. These temporal trends are consistent with a decrease in the oceanic Re inventory in response to an expansion of anoxia after an interval of increased oxygenation during the Lomagundi Event. Mass-balance modeling of the marine Re geochemical cycle indicates that the mid-Proterozoic ORM with low Re enrichments are consistent with extensive seafloor anoxia. Beyond this agreement, these new data bring added value because Re, like the other metals, responds generally to low-oxygen conditions but has its own distinct sensitivity to the varying environmental controls. Thus, we can broaden our capacity to infer nuanced spatiotemporal patterns in ancient redox landscapes. For example, despite the still small number of data, some mid-Proterozoic ORM units have higher Re enrichments that may reflect a larger oceanic Re inventory during transient episodes of ocean oxygenation. An improved understanding of the modern oceanic Re

  14. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  15. Using Michael Young's Analysis on Curriculum Studies to Examine the Effects of Neoliberalism on Curricula in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavale, Nelson Casimiro

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to examine the effects of neoliberalism on curricula in Mozambique. Despite the fact that the introduction of neoliberal policies in Mozambique has affected the whole system of education, the focus in this article is only on curriculum reforms in secondary and technical/vocational education. The description and…

  16. Mozambique's Debt and the International Monetary Fund's Influence on Poverty, Education, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Jason; Pfeiffer, James

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, Mozambique has been facing austerity measures regulated by the IMF. These austerity measures, grounded in macroeconomic policies, were supposed to lift Mozambique out of poverty, and improve its healthcare and education systems. By taking an in-depth look at the major etiologies of Mozambique's debt and the conditions which forced the country to accept austerity measures-despite their protests-prior to receiving IMF funding, this paper examines how IMF policies over the past 30 years have affected poverty, health, and the education system. The results of these policies have contributed to Mozambique's enduring classification as one of the poorest countries in the world. Aside from economic outcomes, Mozambique also has abysmal health and education systems, with one of the lowest life expectancies in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is time to re-evaluate how the current IMF macroeconomic policies negatively affect, health, education and the socioeconomic status of those who live in abject poverty. As short term macroeconomic policies of PARPA have been ineffective at reducing poverty, promoting education and improving health, the IMF should consider using longer term macroeconomic policies which invest in-rather than limit-public services such as health and education. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The kinematic evolution of the Serra Central Salient, Eastern Brazil: A Neoproterozoic progressive arc in northern Espinhaço fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersan, Samuel Moreira; Danderfer, André; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Costa, Alice Fernanda de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Convex-to-the-foreland map-view curves are common features in fold-thrust belts around cratonic areas. These features are easily identifiable in belts composed of supracrustal rocks but have been rarely described in rocks from relatively deeper crustal levels where plastic deformation mechanisms stand out. Several local salients have been described in Neoproterozoic marginal fold-thrust belts around the São Francisco craton. In the northern part of the Espinhaço fold-thrust belt, which borders the eastern portion of the São Francisco craton, both Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement rocks and Proterozoic cover rocks are involved in the so-called Serra Central salient. A combination of conventional structural analysis and microstructural and paleostress studies were conducted to characterize the kinematic and the overall architecture and processes involved in the generation of this salient. The results allowed us to determine that the deformation along the Serra Central salient occur under low-grade metamorphic conditions and was related to a gently oblique convergence with westward mass transport that developed in a confined flow, controlled by two transverse bounding shear zones. We propose that the Serra Central salient nucleates as a basin-controlled primary arc that evolves to a progressive arc with secondary vertical axis rotation. This secondary rotation, well-illustrated by the presence of two almost orthogonal families of folds, was dominantly controlled by buttress effect exert by a basement high located in the foreland of the Serra Central salient.

  18. Spatial Resilience of Outdoor Domestic Space in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Felicio Veríssimo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the people of Mozambique have faced oppression and social spatial segregation and responded in a way that has reinforced rather than dismantled their traditional values. Since pre-colonial times, the population’s strategy for escaping from environmental and foreign political disruption has been to reinvent tradition, based on the principles of resilience, resistance and self-reliance. The development of decentralised human settlements, involving the appropriation of land for domestic space and the self-organisation of neighbourhoods, were strategies to protect communities from adversity and secure collective self-reliance. Following Mozambique’s conversion to globalization, the post-colonial ‘cement city’ is now the core of neo-liberalism, as a node of the global economy, where foreign donors and international market economy control national political economy, exacerbating the premise of the negation of self-sufficiency that continues to evolve resiliently at its margins. The adoption of a neo-liberal model of development during the 1990s, completely bypasses the realities of Mozambican society. This paper argues that the strategy of self-production of space regarding the household/Outdoor Domestic Space unit, which existed previously as a resistance strategy, first of all against colonialism and secondly, against the statist definition of socialism, thirdly, has become a successful strategy for survival, as the building block of the decentralised Agrocity, in the face of a global economy which totally neglects both the people and the land. Outdoor Domestic Space is a multifaceted space that refers to the external space surrounding the built house and which, in the case of Mozambique, is where daily life takes place, involving strong social, ecological and productive functions. Under successive periods of political economy oppression and environmental adversity, the Outdoor Domestic Space has been adapted and refined to

  19. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Kenneth; Mussa, Antonio; Chilundo, Baltazar; Gimbel, Sarah; Pfeiffer, James; Hagopian, Amy; Gloyd, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the private sector. An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties. Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693) were working full-time, including 71.1% (493) as clinicians, 20.5% (142) as health system managers, and 6.9% (48) as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181) of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113) continued working in-country and 37.6% (68) emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75) worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24) for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14) in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113) of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector. Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they seek

  20. Spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting in rural districts of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevene, Esperança; Mariano, Alda; Mehta, Ushma; Machai, Maria; Dodoo, Alexander; Vilardell, David; Patel, Sam; Barnes, Karen; Carné, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The roll out of various public health programmes involving mass administration of medicines calls for the deployment of responsive pharmacovigilance systems to permit identification of signals of rare or even common adverse reactions. In developing countries in Africa, these systems are mostly absent and their performance under any circumstance is difficult to predict given the known shortage of human, financial and technical resources. Nevertheless, the importance of such systems in all countries is not in doubt, and research to identify problems, with the aim of offering pragmatic solutions, is urgently needed. To examine the impact of training and monitoring of healthcare workers, making supervisory visits and the availability of telecommunication and transport facilities on the implementation of a pharmacovigilance system in Mozambique. This was a descriptive study enumerating the lessons learnt and challenges faced in implementing a spontaneous reporting system in two rural districts of Mozambique - Namaacha and Matutuíne - where remote location, poor telecommunication services and a low level of education of health professionals are ongoing challenges. A 'yellow card' system for spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was instituted following training of health workers in the selected districts. Thirty-five health professionals (3 medical doctors, 2 technicians, 24 nurses, 4 basic healthcare agents and 2 pharmacy agents) in these districts were trained to diagnose, treat and report ADRs to all medicines using a standardized yellow card system. There were routine site visits to identify and clarify any problems in filling in and sending the forms. One focal person was identified in each district to facilitate communication between the health professionals and the National Pharmacovigilance Unit (NPU). The report form was assessed for quality and causality. The availability of telecommunications and transport was assessed. Fourteen months after

  1. Brain drain and health workforce distortions in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Sherr

    Full Text Available Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, and the private sector.An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980-2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties.Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980-2006, 95.9% (693 were working full-time, including 71.1% (493 as clinicians, 20.5% (142 as health system managers, and 6.9% (48 as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181 of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113 continued working in-country and 37.6% (68 emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75 worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24 for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14 in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113 of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector.Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they

  2. Arachania, A neo proterozoic magmatic arc and its fragments in south America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Bossi, J.; Frimmel, H.

    2010-01-01

    The name Arachania has been recently proposed for the block that comprises the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas, Marmora, Tygerberg and correlative terranes at both sides of the south Atlantic, which is considered a fragment of the Kalahari Craton that a later stage (660-550 Ma) evolved into an active margin. The block played a key role in the amalgamation of southwestern Gondwana, which has been only recently recognized. Arachania is composed of three different lithotectonic elements: (1) a high-grade metamorphic basement of Namaquan age with evidence of older, Eburnean components that crop out mainly in southern Uruguay; (2) a voluminous calc alkaline granitic batholith s mostly within the 660-550 Ma age range, representing the roots of a Neo proterozoic magmatic arc; and (3) deep-water, turbiditic, Ediacaran sedimentary successions marking the eastern border of Arachania, often associated with mafic to ultramafic rocks

  3. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  4. Stages of material transformations of Archean-Proterozoic rocks (Central-Karelian domain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, V.I.; Buyakajte, M.I.; Kolodyazhnyj, S.Yu.; Leonov, M.G.; Orlov, S.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The age of the Archean-Proterozoic rocks from the south-east part of the Central-Karelian domain was determined by the method of Rb-Sr dating. It was ascertained that the age of the least tectonized rocks of granite-greenstone Archean foundation makes up 2800±70 mln. years at initial strontium isotopic ratio of 0.7022±0.0007. Gneisses of mainly plagiogranite composition, their age 1930±118 mln. years and strontium isotopic ratio 0.7170±0.0026, constitute the second group of the rocks. It is shown that isotopic age defined for the two groups of rocks agrees well with major geological events on the Baltic shield and planet as a whole [ru

  5. Sedimentary petrography of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, U. M.; Eriksson, P. G.; van der Neut, M.; Snyman, C. P.

    1992-11-01

    Sandstone petrography, geochemistry and petrotectonic assemblages of the predominantly clastic sedimentary rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, point to relatively stable cratonic conditions at the beginning of sedimentation, interrupted by minor rifting events. Basement uplift and a second period of rifting occurred towards the end of Pretoria Group deposition, which was followed by the intrusion of mafic sill swarms and the emplacement of the Bushveld Complex in the Kaapvaal Craton at about 2050 Ma, the latter indicating increased extensional tectonism, and incipient continental rifting. An overall intracratonic lacustrine tectonic setting for the Pretoria Group is supported by periods of subaerial volcanic activity and palaeosol formation, rapid sedimentary facies changes, significant arkosic sandstones, the presence of non-glacial varves and a highly variable mudrock geochemistry.

  6. Upper Proterozoic (1800-570 Ma) stratigraphy: a survey of lithostratigraphic, paleontological, radiochronological and magnetic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompette, R.

    1982-01-01

    Classical stratigraphy which was conceived in relation to the Phanerozoic, can be extended into the Precambrian, particularly the upper part. Stromatolite biostratigraphy provides natural subdivisions of the Upper Proterozoic, as indicated by studies on the Riphean of the U.S.S.R. The correlation techniques are identical to those used in the Phanerozoic. Imperfections in the biostratigraphic record, however, have encouraged the development of lithostratigraphic, radiochronological and paleomagnetic techniques. The possibility of dating argillaceous sedimentary rocks largely depends on the care taken in the selection of samples. The samples should have the necessary mineralogy and should not contain inherited 40 Ar or 87 Sr. Good results have been obtained on glauconites rich in K 2 O and particularly on illite and smectite, using the Rb-Sr method. Geochronology is the most precise of the four methods of correlation considered. It also provides a framework on which to hang the results of lithostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. (Auth.)

  7. Distribution and sedimentary arrangement of carbon in South African proterozoic placer deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon, which occurs as grains, films, and thin seams in Witwatersrand Proterozoic placer deposits, is generally confined to carbon-seam reefs that were deposited in distal environments. The distribution of carbon on paleosurfaces, on sedimentary accumulation surfaces like pebble layers, on trough-shaped bedforms of pi-crossbedded units and foresets, and on the winnowed top of placer sediments implies that its growth took place contemporaneously with placer deposition in an aquatic fluvial environment. The areal distribution of carbon seams in distal environments is patchy, and its sparsity or total absence in some areas does not affect either the gold or the uranium content of the placer. High gold and uranium contents that appear to be associated with carbon seams are at the base of the reef because that position represents both the stable consolidated paleosurface upon which the plant material anchored itself and also the surface of bedload concentration

  8. Uranium exploration target selection for proterozoic iron oxide/breccia complex type deposits in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Sinha, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    Multimetal iron oxide/breccia complex (IOBC) type deposits exemplified by Olympic Dam in Australia, fall under low grade, large tonnage deposits. A multidisciplinary integrated exploration programme consisting of airborne surveys, ground geological surveys, geophysical and geochemical investigations and exploratory drilling, supported adequately by the state of the art analytical facilities, data processing using various software and digital image processing has shown moderate success in the identification of target areas for this type of deposits in the Proterozoic terrains of India. Intracratonic, anorogenic, continental rift to continental margin environment have been identified in a very wide spectrum of rock associations. The genesis and evolution of such associations during the Middle Proterozoic period have been reviewed and applied for target selection in the (i) Son-Narmada rift valley zone; (ii) areas covered by Dongargarh Supergroup of rocks in Madhya Pradesh; (iii) areas exposing ferruginous breccia in the western part of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) around Lotapahar; (iv) Siang Group of rocks in Arunachal Pradesh; (v) Crystalline rocks of Garo Hills around Anek; and (vi) Chhotanagpur Gneissic complex in the Bahia-Ulatutoli tract of Ranchi Plateau. Of theses six areas, the Son-Narmada rift area appears to be the most promising area for IOBC type deposits. Considering occurrences of the uranium anomalies near Meraraich, Kundabhati, Naktu and Kudar and positive favourability criteria observed in a wide variety of rocks spatially related to the rifts and shears, certain sectors in Son-Narmada rift zone have been identified as promising for intense subsurface exploration. 20 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Empirical Records of Environmental Change across the Archean-Proterozoic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series geochemical analyses of scientific drill cores intersecting the Archean-Proterozoic transition suggest a coupling of environmental and biological change that culminated in the pervasive oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Elemental and multiple isotope measurements of sedimentary archives, including carbonate, shale, and banded iron-formation from Western Australia, South Africa, Brazil, and southern Canada, indicate important changes in the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles that monitor the redox state of the oceans and the cyanobacterial buildup of atmospheric oxygen and ozone. In response, continental weathering would have increased, resulting in the enhanced delivery of sulfate and nutrients to seawater, further stimulating photoautotrophic fluxes of oxygen to surface environments. The positive feedback may additionally be responsible for the decline of atmospheric methane and surface refrigeration, represented by a series of discrete ice ages beginning around 2.4 billion years ago, due to the loss of greenhouse capacity during a time of lower solar luminosity. While speculative, the linkage of surface oxidation with enhanced nutrient supply and development of stratospheric sunscreen soon after the Archean-Proterozoic boundary suggests that the earliest perturbation in the carbon cycle may be associated with the rapid expansion of single-celled eukaryotes. Both sterol synthesis in eukaryotes and aerobic respiration require significant levels of oxygen in the ambient environment. Hence, Earth's earliest ice age(s) and onset of a modern and far more energetic carbon cycle may have been directly related to the global expansion of cyanobacteria that released oxygen to the environment, and of eukaryotes that respired it.

  10. Iron-dependent nitrogen cycling in a ferruginous lake and the nutrient status of Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Céline C.; Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur A. E.; Morana, Cédric; Llirós, Marc; García-Armisen, Tamara; Thamdrup, Bo; Borges, Alberto V.; Canfield, Donald E.; Servais, Pierre; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Crowe, Sean A.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen limitation during the Proterozoic has been inferred from the great expanse of ocean anoxia under low-O2 atmospheres, which could have promoted NO3- reduction to N2 and fixed N loss from the ocean. The deep oceans were Fe rich (ferruginous) during much of this time, yet the dynamics of N cycling under such conditions remain entirely conceptual, as analogue environments are rare today. Here we use incubation experiments to show that a modern ferruginous basin, Kabuno Bay in East Africa, supports high rates of NO3- reduction. Although 60% of this NO3- is reduced to N2 through canonical denitrification, a large fraction (40%) is reduced to NH4+, leading to N retention rather than loss. We also find that NO3- reduction is Fe dependent, demonstrating that such reactions occur in natural ferruginous water columns. Numerical modelling of ferruginous upwelling systems, informed by our results from Kabuno Bay, demonstrates that NO3- reduction to NH4+ could have enhanced biological production, fuelling sulfate reduction and the development of mid-water euxinia overlying ferruginous deep oceans. This NO3- reduction to NH4+ could also have partly offset a negative feedback on biological production that accompanies oxygenation of the surface ocean. Our results indicate that N loss in ferruginous upwelling systems may not have kept pace with global N fixation at marine phosphorous concentrations (0.04-0.13 μM) indicated by the rock record. We therefore suggest that global marine biological production under ferruginous ocean conditions in the Proterozoic eon may thus have been P not N limited.

  11. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  12. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  13. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  14. Reptiles sold as traditional medicine in Xipamanine and Xiquelene Markets (Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L. Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zootherapy plays a role in healing practices in Mozambican society. Although several studies have focused on ethnobotany and traditional medicine in the country, little research has been conducted on the use of reptiles in zootherapy. The aim of this study was therefore to fill this gap by assessing the reptile species traded for traditional medicine in the Xipamanine and Xiquelene Markets in Maputo, Mozambique. We found that few reptile species are traded domestically for traditional medicine and that their use appears to be in decline in Mozambique. Our findings also suggest that the domestic trade of reptiles for traditional medicines in Maputo markets is unlikely to have a significant impact on the conservation of reptiles in Mozambique. However, we suggest that international trade with South Africa is likely having a larger impact, given observations of Mozambican nationals selling a diverse range of fauna in urban traditional medicine markets in Johannesburg and Durban.

  15. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years...... before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong...... statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war...

  16. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  17. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  18. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  19. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  20. Flooding, resettlement, and change in livelihoods: evidence from rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, Alex; Thomas, David S G; Twyman, Chasca; Liverman, Diana

    2013-07-01

    Post-disaster development policies, such as resettlement, can have major impacts on communities. This paper examines how and why people's livelihoods change as a result of resettlement, and relocated people's views of such changes, in the context of natural disasters. It presents two historically-grounded, comparative case studies of post-flood resettlement in rural Mozambique. The studies demonstrate a movement away from rain-fed subsistence agriculture towards commercial agriculture and non-agricultural activities. The ability to secure a viable livelihood was a key determinant of whether resettlers remained in their new locations or returned to the river valleys despite the risks posed by floods. The findings suggest that more research is required to understand i) why resettlers choose to stay in or abandon designated resettlement areas, ii) what is meant by 'voluntary' and 'involuntary' resettlement in the realm of post-disaster reconstruction, and iii) the policy drivers of resettlement in developing countries. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  1. General characterisation of the solar radiation behaviour in Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuamba, B.C. [Renewable Energies Research and Training Programme, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique)]|[Action Group for Renewable Energies and Sustainable Development, Maputo (Mozambique); Chenene, M.L.; Mahumane, G. [Renewable Energies Research and Training Programme, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique); Quissico, D.Z. [Renewable Energies Research and Training Programme, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM), Maputo (Mozambique)]|[National Institute of Meteorology, Maputo (Mozambique); Vasco, E. [National Institute of Meteorology, Maputo (Mozambique); Lovseth, J. [Solar Energy and Environmental Group, Department of Physics (LADE), Trondheim University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway); O' Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Just as with the other Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, Mozambique faces severe and interrelated problems of energy and environment linked with the massive consumption of fuel wood biomass. The conventional power grid caters for less than 7% of the energy needs for the country's 17 million inhabitants, and about 83% of the energy consumed in the country comes from biomass. Areas around the major urban centres and along the main development corridors are the most affected by energy shortages. This hinders the country's economic and social development as it is generally acknowledged that no development can be sustainable without linking it to energy planning and environmental management. Renewable energy resources can play an important role in the process of development of the country. From the vast renewable energy resources available in the country, solar energy represents one of those with the highest potential. Thus the evaluation of its potential is of extreme importance. This paper represents a first attempt to systemise the solar radiation data being measured by the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM). The period considered for analysis is from 1970 to 2000. Results of the present work reveal that the country has substantial solar energy resources for a variety of solar energy technologies. (orig.)

  2. Global general pediatric surgery partnership: The UCLA-Mozambique experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Vanda; Martins, Deborah B; Karan, Abraar; Johnson, Brittni; Shekherdimian, Shant; Miller, Lee T; Taela, Atanasio; DeUgarte, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing recognition of the disparities in surgical care throughout the world. Increasingly, efforts are being made to improve local infrastructure and training of surgeons in low-income settings. The purpose of this study was to review the first 5-years of a global academic pediatric general surgery partnership between UCLA and the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, Mozambique. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to perform an ongoing needs assessment. A retrospective review of admission and operative logbooks was performed. Partnership activities were summarized. The needs assessment identified several challenges including limited operative time, personnel, equipment, and resources. Review of logbooks identified a high frequency of burn admissions and colorectal procedures. Partnership activities focused on providing educational resources, on-site proctoring, training opportunities, and research collaboration. This study highlights the spectrum of disease and operative case volume of a referral center for general pediatric surgery in sub-Saharan Africa, and it provides a context for academic partnership activities to facilitate training and improve the quality of pediatric general surgical care in limited-resource settings. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocational Literacy in Mozambique: Historical Development, Current Challenges and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Popov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the historical development of vocational literacy in basic education and Non-Formal Vocational Education (NFVE in Mozambique, as well as current challenges and contradictions. The theoretical lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT is employed in the study. Methodologically the study was executed through an analysis of oral, printed and e-resources produced by the main stakeholders and also the reflective experiences of the authors in their extensive educational work in the country. The findings reveal poorly developed vocational literacy education in schools and non-formal settings in spite of recurrent political declarations about its importance. There is a strong dependence by formal and particularly NFVE sectors on the technical and financial support provided by international organisations. Vocational literacy courses are characterized by a lack of adequate equipment and poor practice. As a consequence, theoretical or elementary forms of vocational knowledge are dominant in the courses, resulting in the dissatisfaction of both learners and educators. Vocational literacy development proved to be a complex field that faces many challenges and ischaracterised by diverse internal contradictions.

  4. Household cost of malaria overdiagnosis in rural Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armázio Luiz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 70% of patients with suspected malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, diagnose and manage their illness at home without referral to a formal health clinic. Of those patients who do attend a formal health clinic, malaria overdiagnosis rates are estimated to range between 30–70%. Methods This paper details an observational cohort study documenting the number and cost of repeat consultations as a result of malaria overdiagnosis at two health care providers in a rural district of Mozambique. 535 adults and children with a clinical diagnosis of malaria were enrolled and followed over a 21 day period to assess treatment regimen, symptoms, number and cost of repeat visits to health providers in patients misdiagnosed with malaria compared to those with confirmed malaria (determined by positive bloodfilm reading. Results Diagnosis based solely on clinical symptoms overdiagnosed 23% of children ( Conclusion Overdiagnosis of malaria results in a greater number of healthcare visits and associated cost for adult patients. Additionally, it is clear that the poorest individuals pay significantly more proportionally for their healthcare making it imperative that the treatment they receive is correct in order to prevent wastage of limited economic resources. Thus, investment in accurate malaria diagnosis and appropriate management at primary level is critical for improving health outcomes and reducing poverty.

  5. Urban Re-qualification and New Centralization in Quelimane, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klayde Karmila Gaspar Evaristo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses urban restructuring caused by the introduction of new economic activities undertaken by private sector agents in Quelimane, Mozambique. The research investigated the process of urbanization and expansion of the city, economic dynamics and production of urban space, the growth of commerce and specialized services, social inequality and socio-spatial precariousness. The study seeks to demonstrate how issues related to the economic activities, agents and roles of actors in the process of urban restructuring are portrayed. A qualitative approach was used, involving interviews of key actors. The research revealed that urban restructuring in Quelimane in the recent past occurred informally and spontaneously as it still does today. Urban expansion reflects occupational models, the most expressive being economic activities undertaken by small and medium enterprises involving hotels, the provision of specialized goods and services, commerce, civil construction, entertainment and passenger transport in bicycle taxis. The study suggests that in the process of urban restructuring planners must be morecareful to embrace excluded actors. Similarly, the process of urban restructuring and city expansion must follow models of urban re-qualification based not only on official norms but which also take indigenous knowledge into account. This is fundamental in times of globalization in order to accommodate political, cultural and socio-economic functional systems.

  6. Gas in Mozambique, a highly risky economic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    As, after the discovery of gas resources and the development of important coal projects, Mozambique has become an important place of investments and is about to enter a new development phase whereas its steady economic history is only twenty year old, and conflicts left the country with endemic poverty in some regions, an almost total absence of trained workforce, and a striking lack of infrastructures. Moreover, private sector is still poorly developed and in the hands of leaders of the governing party. Based on meetings with politicians, representatives of oil companies, ambassadors, fund donors, representatives of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, journalists and representatives of NGOs, this note proposes an analysis of the way the Mozambican government prepares this new phase of development. The author presents an overview of the status of gas exploitation, outlines that the extraction sector is far from being actually operational, that counter-powers are still weak, and that donors are bringing a support which is often perceived as contradictory

  7. X-ray-induced changes in growth of Mozambique tilapia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, B.B.; Basu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Early fry (30 d postfertilization) and 7-8-week-old Mozambique tilapias (Tilapia mossambica) were exposed to X rays in dosages of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 roentgens and reared in outdoor culture tanks between May 1981 and October 1988. Fish of either sex that were irradiated as fry grew faster than controls at all test X-ray doses. Among fish irradiated at 7-8 weeks, males grew significantly faster, but females grew significantly slower, than controls at all test doses. X-ray-induced changes in growth were dose-dependent: growth rates of fry (both sexes) and of juvenile males rose relative to those of controls with increased radiation dose. The growth increase per unit of radiation dose was higher for fry than for older juveniles. The length-weight regression was steeper for irradiated males than for controls. The average weights of F 1 offspring of irradiated fish were greatly reduced as compared with controls, which suggests the transfer of the detrimental effects of X rays from irradiated parents to their offspring. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

  9. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  10. Islam, secularist government, and state-civil society interaction in Mozambique and South Africa since 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2015-01-01

    This article explores state–civil society interactions in Mozambique and South Africa with a focus on Islamic groupings, and places the two countries within an Indian Ocean coastal continuum of links to East Africa, India, and the Arab world. Contrasting the histories of dominant-party rule since...... the transitions in 1994 to multiparty-ism in Mozambique and to democracy in South Africa, the article discusses the development of Islamic organisations including both transnational Sufi orders and modernist reform movements as important components in local civil societies. The article contrasts the spaces...

  11. Modelling the influence of climate on malaria occurrence in Chimoio Municipality, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Ferr?o, Jo?o Lu?s; Mendes, Jorge M.; Painho, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Ferrão, J. L., Mendes, J. M., & Painho, M. (2017). Modelling the influence of climate on malaria occurrence in Chimoio Municipality, Mozambique. Parasites and Vectors, 10(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2205-6 Background: Mozambique was recently ranked fifth in the African continent for the number of cases of malaria. In Chimoio municipality cases of malaria are increasing annually, contrary to the decreasing trend in Africa. As malaria transmission is influenced to a large extent by cli...

  12. Pre-feasibility analysis of a project for a rational refrigeration of shrimp at Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura Mondlane, Mario; José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Grupo Combustibles alternativos. UTH José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" >Rodríguez Ramos, Pedro A.; José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (CETER. UTH José Antonio Echeverría.La Habana (Cuba))" >Ferras Valcárce, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the economic feasibility of a project for increasing shrimp refrigerated installation efficiency in Mozambique. The following contents are presented: determination of the volume of shrimp to be refrigerate from the annual capture in the main fishing industries at Mozambique; determination of the design conditions of the refrigeration rooms in order to find the proper temperature conditions and relative humidity for shrimp conservation; estimation of thermal load of the refrigeration plant based on three chambers of equal volume and with different conservation temperatures. Finally, a pre-feasibility analysis of the project is assessed. (author)

  13. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  14. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  15. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  16. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  17. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  18. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  19. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Isotopic data from proterozoic sediment-hosted sulfide deposits of Brazil: Implications for their metallogenic evolution and for mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misi, Aroldo; Coelho, Carlos E.S.; Franca Rocha, Washington J.S.; Gomez, Adriana S.R.; Cunha, Iona A.; Iyer, Sundaram S.; Tassinari, Colombo C.G.; Kyle, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    Geological, petrographic, fluid inclusions studies and isotopic data of seven Proterozoic sediment-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide deposits of Brazil, permit the estimation of the age of the hosting sequence and the mineralization, the nature of the sulfur and metal sources, the temperature range of sulfide formation and the environment of deposition of the mineral deposits. The studies suggest that they were formed during periods of extensional tectonics: Growth faults or reactivated basement faults were responsible for localized circulation of metal-bearing fluids within the sedimentary sequences. In most cases, sulfides were formed by the reduction of sedimentary sulfates. Linear structures are important controls for sulfide concentration in these Proterozoic basins. (author)

  1. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  2. Trends in cancer incidence in Maputo, Mozambique, 1991-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina Lorenzoni

    Full Text Available Very limited information is available regarding the incidence of cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed changes in cancer patterns from 1991 to 2008 in Maputo (Mozambique.We calculated the rates of incidence of different cancer sites by sex in the 5-year age-group of the population of Maputo city as well as age-standardized rates (ASRs and average annual percentage changes (AAPC.Over the 18-year study period a total of 12,674 cases of cancer (56.9% females were registered with an overall increase in the risk of cancer in both sexes. In males, the most common cancers were those of the prostate, Kaposi sarcoma (KS and the liver. Prostate cancer showed the most dramatic increase over the whole study period (AAPC +11.3%; 95% CI: 9.7-13.0, with an ASR of 61.7 per 105 in 2003-2008. In females, the most frequent cancers were of the uterine cervix, the breast and KS, with the former increasing along the whole study period (AAPC + 4.7%; 95% CI: 3.4-6 with an ASR of 62.0 per 105 in 2003-2008 as well as breast cancer (AAPC +6.5%; 95%CI: 4.3-8.7.Overall, the risk of cancer rose in both sexes during the study period, particularly among cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (prostate, breast, combined with increasingly rising incidences or limited changes in cancers associated with infection and poverty (uterine cervix, liver. Moreover, the burden of AIDS-associated cancers has shown a marked increase.

  3. How Strong is the Case for Proterozoic Low-Latitude Glaciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. A.

    2004-05-01

    The most recent global compilations of paleomagnetic depositional latitudes for Proterozoic glaciogenic formations indicate a dominant mode near the paleo-equator (Evans 2000 AJS; Evans 2003 Tectonophysics). This result would therefore support either the snowball Earth or the large-obliquity hypotheses for Precambrian ice ages, but would reject the uniformitarian comparison to polar-temperate-restricted Phanerozoic glaciogenic deposits. The most reliable low-latitude results come from the Australian Marinoan succession, but a recent summary of these units has suggested that a glaciogenic origin is not yet demonstrated (Eyles and Januszczak 2004 Earth-Sci Reviews). It becomes useful, then, to review the global evidence for Proterozoic low-latitude glaciation. Eyles and Januszczak (ibid.) identified 13 Neoproterozoic deposits with "demonstrated" glacial influence. Among these, poor age constraints and lack of paleomagnetic data prohibit estimation of depositional paleolatitudes for the Fiq, Sturtian, Vreeland, Taoudeni, East Greenland, Port Askaig, and Zhengmuguan units. Moderate paleolatitudes are reasonably well supported for the South China, Gaskiers, Smalfjord, and Moelv units. Among the three remaining units, the Rapitan Group can be assigned a near-equatorial paleolatitude indirectly through use of the Galeros and Franklin-Natkusiak paleomagnetic results, as long as the Rapitan age lies within 750-720 Ma as generally expected. The Moonlight Valley Formation in northern Australia may be assigned a tropical paleolatitude according to high-quality paleomagnetic results from compellingly correlated Marinoan strata in southern Australia. Those strata, including the famous Elatina Formation, have yielded a robust paleomagnetic signature that is commonly interpreted to imply frigid climate (manifest in part by frost-wedge polygons) at near-equatorial latitudes. Concerns that the Neoproterozoic geomagnetic field was either nonaxial or nondipolar are valid in principle

  4. Limits to Decentralization in Mozambique: Leadership, Politics and Local Government Capacities for Service Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.J. Machohe (Antonio)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMozambique has been a centralized State since its independence in 1975. During this time, local government has depended on the Central Government and has lacked autonomy in both local policy decisions and resource management in addition to the complete failure of effective local services

  5. The politics of water payments and stakeholder participation in the Limpopo River Basin, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, Rossella; Bolding, Alex; Ducrot, Raphaëlle

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the experience of the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique, the chapter analyses the articulation of a water rights framework in the context of decentralised river basin governance and IWRM-inspired reforms. The nexus between financial autonomy, service provision, stakeholder participation

  6. The politics of water payments and stakeholder participation in the Limpopo River Basin, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alba, R.; Bolding, J.A.; Ducrot, R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from the experience of the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique, the paper analyses the articulation of a water rights framework in the context of decentralised river basin governance and IWRM-inspired reforms. The nexus between financial autonomy, service provision, stakeholder participation

  7. Business plan Production of potato crisps and chips Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand/start their business portfolio and are looking for an opportunity of investment in the agricultural sector in the Zambezi Valley in Mozambique. We propose the creation of two small-scale processing industries (can

  8. Evaluation of Follow-Up Effects of the International Child Development Programme on Caregivers in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Ane-Marthe Solheim; Sherr, Lorraine; Clucas, Claudine; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Parenting programs have been used to good effect in many settings, yet few are systematically introduced and evaluated in developing countries. This study explores the relative long-term effect of participation in the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in a group of caregivers in Mozambique. A quasi-experimental design was used to…

  9. Diet and distribution of elephant in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, WF; Ntumi, CP; Correia, AU; Mafuca, JM

    The distribution and diet of the elephants of the Maputo Elephant Reserve were studied using dung counts, satellite tracking and faecal analysis. The results were compared with earlier data from before the civil war in Mozambique. The elephant population decreased during the civil war, but 180

  10. Effects of the 2000 southern Mozambique floods on a marginal coral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In early 2000 the southern part of Mozambique suffered the worst flooding in 50 years, causing fatalities and considerable material loss. This study aimed to investigate the impact of this flood on the coral communities in Xai-Xai lagoon. Benthic cover was assessed in January 2000 (before the floods) and September 2000 ...

  11. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, M.; Slingerland, M.A.; Locke, A.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of

  12. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto

    Introduction: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonosis of both public health and agricultural importance in many lowincome countries. This study aimed at estimating the societal burden of T. solium cysticercosis in Angonia district, Mozambique, an area highly endemic for the disease. Materials...

  13. Floods, resettlement and land access and use in the lower Zambezi, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artur, L.; Hilhorst, D.

    2014-01-01

    Planned resettlement is increasingly legitimated on account of disasters and vulnerability to climate change. This article looks at resettlement following the 2007 floods in the delta Zambezi in Mozambique. The flooding displaced about 56,000 households, which the government intended to permanently

  14. Poverty Mapping Based on First-Order Dominance with an Example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    for welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  15. Performance Management of the Police in the Context of Public Sector Reform in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.I. Alar (Francisco Inácio)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis investigates police performance management in Maputo, which is the capital city of Mozambique. To conduct the analysis, it applies a multiangle and multi-factor framework that enables examination of core values and indicators of governance while taking into account the

  16. Between Tradition and Modernity: Girls' Talk about Sexual Relationships and Violence in Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…

  17. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  18. Emerging challenges to long-term peace and security in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adedokun, Ayokunu

    2017-01-01

    Mozambique's transition from civil war to peace is often considered among the most successful implementations of a peace agreement in the post-Cold War era. Following the signing of the 1992 Rome General Peace Accords (GPA), the country has not experienced any large-scale recurrence of war. Instead,

  19. Implementing the Strategy for financial reform of higher education in Mozambique (EFES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonteyne, Bart; Jongbloed, B.W.A.

    2018-01-01

    This report describes the results of more than fifteen years of cooperation between the Government of Mozambique, the Government of the Netherlands, the Mozambican higher education institutions and the relevant stakeholders in designing and implementing reforms in the financing of higher education

  20. ‘Becoming Mozambicanised’: Nostalgic amnesia among Zimbabweans adapting to ‘disorder’ in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    -simplifications and stereotypes. It suggests that rememberings and representations of an ‘ordered’ past in Zimbabwe set in contrast to a ‘disordered’ Mozambique, are part of a nostalgic amnesia that assists these ambivalent migrants to deal with (or deny) their displacement and losses, and helps them adapt to the new and strange...

  1. Epidemic waves of cholera in the last two decades in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, José Paulo; Sema, Cynthia; De Deus, Nilsa; Colombo, Mauro Maria; Taviani, Elisa

    2015-07-04

    Africa is increasingly affected by cholera. In Mozambique, cholera appeared in the early 1970s when the seventh pandemic entered Africa from the Indian subcontinent. In the following decades, several epidemics were registered in the country, the 1997-1999 epidemic being the most extended. Since then, Mozambique has been considered an endemic area for cholera, characterized by yearly outbreaks occurring with a seasonal pattern. At least three pandemic variants are thought to have originated in the Indian subcontinent and spread worldwide at different times. To understand the epidemiology of cholera in Mozambique, whether the disease re-emerges periodically or is imported by different routes of transmission, we investigated clinical V. cholerae O1 isolated during 1997-1999 and 2012-2014 epidemics. By detecting and characterizing seven genetic elements, the mobilome profile of each isolate was obtained. By comparing it to known seventh pandemic reference strains, it was possible to discern among different V. cholerae O1 variants active in the country. During 1997-1999, epidemic strains showed two different genetic profiles, both related to a pandemic clone that originated from India and was reported in other African countries in the 1990s. Isolates from 2012-2014 outbreaks showed a genetic background related to the pandemic strains currently active as the prevalent causative agent of cholera worldwide. Despite cholera being endemic in Mozambique, the epidemiology of the disease in the past 20 years has been strongly influenced by the cholera seventh pandemic waves that originated in the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Health Costs of Wealth Gains: Labor Migration and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risks in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Arnaldo, Carlos; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    The study employs survey data from rural Mozambique to examine how men's labor migration affects their non-migrating wives' perceptions of HIV/AIDS risks. Using a conceptual framework centered on tradeoffs between economic security and health risks that men's migration entails for their left-behind wives, it compares women married to migrants and…

  3. Wages in the food chain in Mozambique: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force, conducted between the 27th of May and the 1st of June 2013 in all provinces of Mozambique. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 43% were under 30 years

  4. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  5. Human rights and access to AIDS treatment in Mozambique | Høg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores key issues related to the agitation for human rights in Mozambique and its weak performance power. I define human rights in the context of HIV/AIDS as well as rights-based approaches to development and health. Based on fieldwork, I describe and analyse how human rights are received and applied in ...

  6. 'Let's move, let's not remain stagnant': nationalism, masculinism and school-based education in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Millei, Z.; Imre, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I examine the role of public schools in shaping young people’s gendered understanding of citizenship and their "sense of place" in Mozambique. I seek to illuminate two interrelated features of processes of civil enculturation, which is defined as education for and about citizenship

  7. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tote, C.; Patricio, D.; Boogaard, H.L.; Wijngaart, van der R.; Tarnavsky, E.; Funk, C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and

  8. Elephant crop damage and electric fence construction in the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Ntumi, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    An electric fence is at present being constructed around the Maputo Elephant Reserve, Mozambique, to protect farmers from elephant raids. Elephants cause crop damage, estimated at US$ 8800 yr-1, or US$ 50 elephant-1. Elephants preferred maize, melons and beans and their raid frequency increased

  9. Crony capitalism in Mozambique : evidence from networks of politicians and businessmen

    OpenAIRE

    Chivangue, Andes

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses crony capitalism in Mozambique, by analysing the social networks that exist among political and economic players, using the SNA – Social Networks Analysis method. The variables are selected to identify cliques and the covariates that explain this network relationship are taken into account, namely military, ethnicity, family, politics, business, entrepreneurship, political party and gender. Policy implications are derived.

  10. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection of unvaccinated backyard chickens in Mandlhakazi, Southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Taunde

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggested that AIV is widespread within backyard chickens in the studied villages. Further research is needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes and determine the potential role of backyard chickens in the zoonotic transmission of AIV in Mozambique.

  11. A geological investigation of the Proterozoic T'Oubep Suite, northwestern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agenbacht, A.L.D.; Schoch, A.E.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The T'Oubep Suite occurs in the central part of the Namaqua mobile belt approximately 80km southwest of Kakamas. The Suite comprises seven different rock types with compositions ranging from betabasite through granodiorite and tonalite to granite. The igneous rocks were extensively metamorphosed during the Namaqua tectogenesis. The comagmatic origin for the granitic rocks suggested by the field relations is corroborated by whole rock, trace element and REE chemistry. 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. Sporulation and ultrastructure in a late Proterozoic cyanophyte - Some implications for taxonomy and plant phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P.; Moorman, M.; Pierce, D.

    1975-01-01

    Electron microscopical studies of a morphologically diverse, coccoid, presumably late Proterozoic blue-green alga are here reported. They show, together with light microscopy, that the form studied is widespread in the Cordilleran geosyncline, extend the record of well-defined endosporangia perhaps 700 million years into the past, and reveal previously unrecorded ultrastructural details. Coming from northeastern Utah, southwestern Alberta, and east central Alaska, these minute fossils belong to the recently described, morphologically diverse taxon Sphaerocongregus variabilis Moorman, are related to living entophysalidaceans, and have affinities with both the chroococcalean and chamaesiphonalean cyanophytes. Included in the morphological modes displayed by this alga are individual unicells, coenobial clusters of unicells, and a range of endosporangia comparable to those described for living entophysalidaceans. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the endospores are commonly embedded in a vesicular matrix, that some of them show what appears to be a bilaminate or perhaps locally multilaminate wall structure, and that some remain together to mature as coenobial clones or 'colonies'. Taxonomic classification and phylogeny are discussed.

  13. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  14. Identifying high-grade uranium deposits in the Proterozoic basins of India- a challenge to exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The favorability factors that bestow on the Proterozoic formation of India, a potential to host high grade uranium deposits are discussed in the light of the known features of the new class of unconformity- related and strata bound uranium deposits. The need to reorient several past approaches is emphasised and it is suggested that future programmes must avail of the constraining benefits of a spectrum of geophysical, geochemical, and sedimentological studies in the choice of target areas for detailed exploration and development. A synthesis of geological and geochemical data with such geophysical features as magnetic and gravity anomalies, velocity structure, seismic reflectivity, electrical conductivity, and radioactivity can effectively lead to relatively more favourable exploration targets. Such efforts may lead to the generation of more than one model of the deep basinal features, which then provide wider options for drilling and proving of ore bodies. The alternative to the above approach is saturation drilling, which is a costly and time-consuming process and, therefore, very often self-defeating. (author). 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. New paleomagnetic data from Siberia: Non-uniformitarian geomagnetic field around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Kouznetsov, N.; Gazieva, E.

    2017-12-01

    There is a range of evidence, mainly from sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Laurentia and Baltica cratons, that argue for the anomalous character of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian paleomagnetic record. This feature could be linked either to some peculiarities of the paleomagnetic record itself or to some unusual geophysical event that would have taken place around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary (e.g., true polar wander or nonuniformitarian geomagnetic field behavior). In the latter case, the traces of this event should be observed in Ediacaran-Early Cambrian rocks anywhere there is a possibility to observe a primary paleomagnetic signal. In previous work, we reported results that suggested an anomalous paleomagnetic record in Siberian Ediacaran-Lower Cambrian rocks. Here we present new Siberian data that indicate a very high geomagnetic reversal frequency during this period and the coexistence of two very different paleomagnetic directions. We speculate that these features could be due either to a near-equatorial geomagnetic dipole during the polarity transitions or to alternation between axial and near equatorial dipoles not directly linked with polarity reversals.

  16. Some aspects of the genesis of heavy mineral assemblages in Lower Proterozoic uranium-gold conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmey, H.

    1982-01-01

    Some genetic models for Lower Proterozoic gold- and uranium-bearing pyritic conglomerates favour a modified placer origin in which low levels of atmospheric oxygen are used to account for the survival of uraninite and pyrite. There are many difficulties with such models. New evidence concerning the genesis of the deposits is derived from a clast of ferric iron clay thought to represent a precursor sediment of the Witwatersrand Basin. Reworking of such clays and transport of a magnetite and ferric clay assemblage with subsequent sulphidation, could account for the porous pyrites, the absence of magnetite and the lack of hydraulic equivalence of the mineral grains in the conglomerates. The presence of oxygen, as indicated by the ferric iron clasts, would account for the evidence of mobility of uranium and of gold and would enhance their extraction from source rocks; particularly the release of gold from a precursor auriferous iron formation source. It is suggested that some aspects of the genesis of uranium deposits of the Witwatersrand and Elliott Lake may be similar to those of the Phanerozoic 'Roll Front' ores involving interaction between oxidizing uraniferous groundwaters and previously sulphidized and reduzate facies sediments. (author)

  17. Stratigraphy and uranium potential of early proterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming contain an eight mile (13 km) thick section of Early Proterozoic (2500 to 1700 My b.p.) metasedimentary rocks which is subdivided into three successions: the Phantom Lake Metamorphic Suite (oldest), Deep Lake Group, and Libby Creek Group. The most promising units are the basal conglomerate of the upper Phantom Lake Suite, which appears to unconformably overlie metavolcanics of the lower Phantom Lake Suite, and the Magnolia Formation, which unconformably overlies the upper Phantom Lake Suite. Outcrops of the former have yielded assays of up to 141 ppM U and 916 ppM Th, with no appreciable gold. Outcrops of the Magnolia Formation have yielded up to 8.4 ppM U and 38 ppM Th. Several factors indicate that these units deserve further study. First, the lithologies of the radioactive and nonradioactive units are remarkably similar to those found in known uranium fossil-placers. Second, the paleogeography was favorable for placer accumulation if the conglomerates are fluvial sediments in an epicontinental clastic succession which was deposited during several transgressive-regressive cycles, as interpreted to be, Third, the age of the conglomerates may be similar to the age of other known uranium placers-i.e., more than 2000 My b.p. And fourth, geological and geochemical studies indicate that both uranium and pyrite have been strongly leached from outcrops and that subsurface rocks contain more uranium than surface rocks do

  18. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  19. Uranium in early proterozoic phosphate-rich metasedimentary rocks of east-central Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwiggen, P.L.; Morey, G.B.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration for unconformity-type uranium deposits in the late 1970s in east-central Minnesota led to the discovery of several uranium-bearing phosphorite occurrences in rocks of early Proterozoic age. In this report the authors use the term phosphorite for a rock or specimen that contains substantial sedimentary apatite (Altschuler et al., 1958). The deposits in Minnesota are especially interesting because of their high uranium content but low metamorphic grade. These occurrences characteristically contain 0.025 to 0.085 percent U and locally as much as 0.157 percent U (Ullmer, 1981), whereas typical primary marine phosphorites have uranium contents of 0.005 to 0.02 percent U (Altschuler et al., 1958). The presence of uranium in a marine phosphorite generally is explained by either the replacement of calcium in the apatite crystal structure or the adsorption of uranium in admixed organic matter and cryptocrystalline apatite. In east-central Minnesota the uranium is closely associated with the finely crystalline apatite, but the uranium has also been involved in several episodes of remobilization and redeposition. Thus, even though the phosphorite deposits are an interesting geologic phenomenon in themselves, they also are important as a possible source for epigenetic uranium deposits that may occur in the area

  20. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from Southern Granulite Terrain, India: Implications for Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellappa, T.; Rao, J. Mallikharjuna

    2018-03-01

    Granitoid intrusions occur widely in the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of India, particularly within the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), which is considered as the trace of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean closure. Here we present the petrological and geochemical features of 19 granite plutons across the three major tectonic blocks of the terrain. Our data show a wide variation in the compositions of these intrusions from alkali feldspathic syenite to granite. The whole rock geochemistry of these intrusions displays higher concentrations of SiO2, FeO*, K2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and low MgO, Na2O, Ti, P, Nb, Y and HREE's. The granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous in nature revealing both I-type and A-type origin. In tectonic discrimination plots, the plutons dominantly show volcanic arc and syn-collisional as well as post-collisional affinity. Based on the available age data together with geochemical constrains, we demonstrate that the granitic magmatism in the centre and south of the terrain is mostly associated with the Neoproterozoic subduction-collision-accretion-orogeny, followed by extensional mechanism of Gondwana tectonics events. Similar widespread granitic activity has also been documented in the Arabian Nubian shield, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Antarctica, providing similarities for the reconstruction of the crustal fragments of Gondwana supercontinent followed by Pan-African orogeny.

  2. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  3. Multi-actor governance of sustainable biofuels in developing countries: The case of Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, Marc; Cunha Soares, Núria; Ven, Gerrie van de; Slingerland, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the multi-actor governance process that made Mozambique the first African nation-state to develop a national policy framework for sustainable biofuels. The paper draws on findings from action research conducted in Mozambique between December 2008 and July 2012. We analyse interactions between the changing governance context, the course of the multi-actor governance process, and the choices in relation to governance framework characteristics and content for four successive stages of governance framework development. This provides the basis for reflection on the competences required for effective multi-actor sustainability governance, and a discussion about the role of the nation-state in sustainability governance of global economies such as biofuels. The governance framework for sustainable biofuels has contributed to a more transparent and secure investment climate for biofuels in Mozambique. Key factors for success were (1) the presence of different types of competences during the various stages of the governance framework development, (2) closing the gap between ‘licences to sell’ and ‘licences to produce’ across different governance levels, and (3) balancing between the short- and long-term objectives for biofuel production in Mozambique and requirements of global biofuel markets. Developing-country nation-states can provide an essential contribution to these success-factors for global governance of sustainable biofuels. - Highlights: • Mozambique is the first African country that developed a national governance framework for sustainable biofuels. • Independence, representation, expertise and operational capacity are essential competences in multi-actor sustainability governance. • Developing country's nation-states play an essential role in harmonizing short- and long-term objectives across different governance levels. • Synergies between licences to sell and licences to produce biofuels sustainably should

  4. Stock-outs of essential health products in Mozambique-longitudinal analyses from 2011 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Gimbel, Sarah; Hoek, Roxanne; Pfeiffer, James; Michel, Cathy; Manuel, João Luis; Cuembelo, Fatima; Quembo, Titos; Afonso, Pires; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    objectives To assess the relationship between health system factors and facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique. methods Service provisions were assessed in 26 health facilities and 13 district warehouses in Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August in 2011–2013. Generalised estimating equations were used to model factors associated with facility-level availability of essential drugs, supplies and equipment. results Stock-out rates for drugs ranged from 1.3% for oral rehydration solution to 20.5% for Depo-Provera and condoms, with a mean stock-out rate of 9.1%; mean stock-out rates were 15.4% for supplies and 4.1% for equipment. Stock-outs at the district level accounted for 27.1% (29/107) of facility-level drug stock-outs and 44.0% (37/84) of supply stock-outs. Each 10-km increase in the distance from district distribution warehouses was associated with a 31% (CI: 22–42%), 28% (CI: 17–40%) or 27% (CI: 7–50%) increase in rates of drug, supply or equipment stock-outs, respectively. The number of heath facility staff was consistently negatively associated with the occurrence of stock-outs. conclusions Facility-level stock-outs of EHPs in Mozambique are common and appear to disproportionately affect those living far from district capitals and near facilities with few health staff. The majority of facility-level EHP stock-outs in Mozambique occur when stock exists at the district distribution centre. Innovative methods are urgently needed to improve EHP supply chains, requesting and ordering of drugs, facility and district communication, and forecasting of future EHP needs in Mozambique. Increased investments in public-sector human resources for health could potentially decrease the occurrence of EHP stock-outs. PMID:24724617

  5. Age and origin of coeval TTG, I- and S-type granites in the Famatinian belt of NW Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapela, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Located on the Palaeozoic Pacific margin of Gondwana, at the opposite extreme to the Lachlan Fold Belt, the Sierras Pampeanas of central and NW Argentina also constitute a large granitic province displaying the coeval concurrence of I and S-type magmas. The Famatinian magmatic belt consists mostly of granitoids emplaced in Early Ordovician times, after Cambrian accretion of the Pampean terrane and before the Late Ordovician/Silurian accretion of the Precordillera terrane. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, isotope and geochemical data are used to interpret the petrogenesis of this belt. Three types of granitoid are recognized in the Famatinian belt, based on lithology and geochemical data. These are (a) a minor trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) group, which occurs only in the Pampean foreland, (b) a metaluminous I-type gabbromonzogranite suite, and (c) S-type granites, which occur both as small cordieritic intrusions associated with l-type granodiorites and as large batholithic masses. Twelve new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages establish the contemporaneity of all three types in Early Ordovician times (mainly 470-490 Ma ago). Sr- and Nd-isotopic data suggest that, apart from some TTG plutons with asthenospheric characteristics, the remaining magmas were derived from a Proterozoic crust-lithospheric mantle section (Nd model ages of 1500-1700 Ma). Granulite xenoliths in Cretaceous alkalic rocks that have been described by other authors may represent samples of this source region. Trace element modelling suggests that the TTG and I-type gabbros originated by variable melting of a lithospheric gabbroid source at 10-12 kbar and ca. 5 kbar, respectively. The voluminous intermediate and acidic I-types, which show a trend to slightly more evolved isotopic signatures than the inferred source, probably represent hybridization of the most primitive magmas with lower and middle crustal melts. The highly peraluminous S-type granites have similar isotopic and inherited

  6. Constraining the redox landscape of the mid-Proterozoic oceans: new insights from the carbonate uranium isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Kaufman, A. J.; Luo, G.; Romaniello, S. J.; Zhang, F.; Kah, L. C.; Azmy, K.; Bartley, J. K.; Sahoo, S. K.; Knoll, A. H.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The redox landscape of the global oceans during the prolonged period between the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) and the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE) is a topic of considerable debate. Data from local redox proxies such as iron speciation suggest largely ferruginous conditions in the subsurface oceans (with the exception of one report of oxic subsurface waters) and a variable degree of euxinia in shallow shelf and epeiric sea environments. There is general consensus that anoxia was more widespread than in the modern ocean, but quantifying the degree of seafloor anoxia is challenging given that most redox proxies are inherently local and/or based on the relatively sparse black shale record. Here, we present new uranium (U) isotope data from carbonate rocks than span the mid-Proterozoic Eon. U-isotopes operate as a proxy for seafloor anoxia because the δ238U value of seawater is largely controlled by the size of the anoxic/euxinic U sink, which preferentially removes isotopically heavy 238U, leaving the oceans enriched in 235U. Our compilation of data from mid-Proterozoic successions reveals δ238U values similar to modern seawater (-0.39 ± 0.19 ‰ [1 s.d.] for the Gaoyuzhuang, Angmaat, El Mreiti, Vazante, and Turukhansk successions spanning 1.5 to 0.9 Ga). Given the potential for an isotopic offset between carbonate minerals and seawater of up to 0.3 ‰, we suggest that mid-Proterozoic seawater had a δ238U value generally between -0.4 and -0.7 ‰, which is lower than modern seawater, but higher than has been inferred for intervals of expanded anoxia elsewhere in Earth history. These results are consistent with recently published U-isotope data from the 1.36 Ga Velkerri Formation, and suggest that large portions of the seafloor may have been covered by at least weakly oxygenated waters during the mid-Proterozoic Eon. Uncertainty remains, however, because the isotopic effects of the non-euxinic anoxic sink are poorly constrained. Nonetheless, our data

  7. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  8. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  9. Book Review: Dams, displacement, and the delusion of development: Cahora Bassa and its legacies in Mozambique, 1965–2007

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal of International Affairs Book Review: Dams, displacement, and the delusion of development: Cahora Bassa and its legacies in Mozambique, 1965–2007 Richard Meissner Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa...

  10. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous extension-related silicic volcanism in the northern New England Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.E.; Holcombe, R.J.; Fielding, C.R.; Allen, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis of zircons confirm a Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous age (ca 360-350 Ma) for silicic volcanic rocks of the Campwyn Volcanics and Yarrol terrane of the northern New England Fold Belt (Queensland). These rocks are coeval with silicic volcanism recorded elsewhere in the fold belt at this time (Connors Arch, Drummond Basin). The new U-Pb zircon ages, in combination with those from previous studies, show that silicic magmatism was both widespread across the northern New England Fold Belt (>250 000 km 2 and >500 km inboard of plate margin) and protracted, occurring over a period of -15 million years. Zircon inheritance is commonplace in the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous volcanics, reflecting anatectic melting and considerable reworking of continental crust. Inherited zircon components range from ca 370 to ca 2050 Ma, with Middle Devonian (385-370 Ma) zircons being common to almost all dated units. Precambrian zircon components record either Precambrian crystalline crust or sedimentary accumulations that were present above or within the zone of magma formation This contrasts with a lack of significant zircon inheritance in younger Permo-Carboniferous igneous rocks intruded through,and emplaced on top of, the Devonian-Carboniferous successions. The inheritance data and location of these volcanic rocks at the eastern margins of the northern New England Fold Belt, coupled with Sr-Nd, Pb isotopic data and depleted mantle model ages for Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic magmatism, imply that Precambrian mafic and felsic crustal materials (potentially as old as 2050 Ma), or at the very least Lower Palaeozoic rocks derived from the reworking of Precambrian rocks, comprise basement to the eastern parts of the fold belt. This crustal basement architecture may be a relict from the Late Proterozoic breakup of the Rodinian supercontinent. Copyright (2004) Geological Society of Australia

  11. Study of the metamorphic belts and tectonics; Henseitai kenkyu to tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    Study of metamorphic belts and tectonics is introduced. Minerals supposedly originating in the transitional zone and the lower mantle, that is, inclusions in diamond in kimberlite, are deemed to carry information about the depth level of 670km and lower. The place of origin of peridotite, Alpe Arami of Switzerland, is again estimated at a level of 300km or deeper. In the tectonic cross section in this region, the oceanic crust is bent and folded, and such a structure enables the supposition that fragments off the transitional zone may be carried upward to the ground surface. This region is now being limelighted, with plume tectonics enjoying popularity. The split of Pangaea is related with the ascent of plume. In the eastern part of Australia, there are alkali rocks attributable to the plume that was supposedly active at the end of the Proterozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating by SHRIMP offers a new approach to the tectonics of metamorphic rocks, and is reinforcing the position of metamorphic petrology relative to the study of collision and split of continents. 64 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Orogen-transverse tectonic window in the Eastern Himalayan fold belt: A superposed buckling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Acharyya, S. K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Saha, Puspendu

    2014-09-01

    The Eastern Lesser Himalayan fold-thrust belt is punctuated by a row of orogen-transverse domal tectonic windows. To evaluate their origin, a variety of thrust-stack models have been proposed, assuming that the crustal shortening occurred dominantly by brittle deformations. However, the Rangit Window (RW) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) shows unequivocal structural imprints of ductile deformations of multiple episodes. Based on new structural maps, coupled with outcrop-scale field observations, we recognize at least four major episodes of folding in the litho-tectonic units of DSH. The last episode has produced regionally orogen-transverse upright folds (F4), the interference of which with the third-generation (F3) orogen-parallel folds has shaped the large-scale structural patterns in DSH. We propose a new genetic model for the RW, invoking the mechanics of superposed buckling in the mechanically stratified litho-tectonic systems. We substantiate this superposed buckling model with results obtained from analogue experiments. The model explains contrasting F3-F4 interferences in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS). The lower-order (terrain-scale) folds have undergone superposed buckling in Mode 1, producing large-scale domes and basins, whereas the RW occurs as a relatively higher-order dome nested in the first-order Tista Dome. The Gondwana and the Proterozoic rocks within the RW underwent superposed buckling in Modes 3 and 4, leading to Type 2 fold interferences, as evident from their structural patterns.

  13. Priests, technicians and traders: actors, interests and discursive politics in Brazil’s agricultural development cooperation programmes with Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Lídia Vilela

    2016-01-01

    This research is about Brazil’s international development cooperation in agriculture. I take two cooperation programmes carried out by the Brazilian government in Mozambique – ProSAVANA and More Food International (MFI) – to analyse the processes whereby cooperation policy is formed and transformed. I ask how Brazil’s domestic politics interact with international affairs to shape agricultural cooperation with Mozambique. I consider the ‘priests, technicians and traders’ of Brazilian cooperati...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  17. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  18. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  19. Brazilian policies and strategies for rural territorial development in Mozambique: South-South cooperation and the case of ProSAVANA and PAA

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Elizabeth Alice [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Brazil's present role in South-South development cooperation in Africa, focusing on the implementation and impact of Brazilian policies for rural territorial development in Mozambique. Specifically, two different programs for agricultural development-ProSAVANA and PAA Africa-are examined. ProSAVANA is an ongoing trilateral program run by the governments of Brazil, Japan and Mozambique that aims to modernize agriculture in three provinces in Northern Mozambique. PAA Africa...

  20. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  1. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  2. Reactivation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture along the southern margin of Laurentia during the Mazatzal orogeny: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of ca. 1.63 Ga granite in southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Barnes, Calvin G.; Premo, Wayne R.; Snoke, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of ca. 1.63 Ga monzogranite (the “white quartz monzonite”) in the southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is anomalous given its distance from the nearest documented plutons of similar age (central Colorado) and the nearest contemporaneous tectonic margin (New Mexico). It is located immediately south of the Cheyenne belt—a ca. 1.75 Ga Archean-Proterozoic tectonic suture. New geochronological, isotopic, and geochemical data suggest that emplacement of the white quartz monzonite occurred between ca. 1645 and 1628 Ma (main pulse ca. 1628 Ma) and that the white quartz monzonite originated primarily by partial melting of the Big Creek Gneiss, a modified arc complex. There is no evidence that mafic magmas were involved. Open folds of the ca. 1750 Ma regional foliation are cut by undeformed white quartz monzonite. On a regional scale, rocks intruded by the white quartz monzonite have experienced higher pressure and temperature conditions and are migmatitic as compared to the surrounding rocks, suggesting a genetic relationship between the white quartz monzonite and tectonic exhumation. We propose that regional shortening imbricated the Big Creek Gneiss, uplifting the now-exposed high-grade rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss (hanging wall of the thrust and wall rock to the white quartz monzonite) and burying correlative rocks, which partially melted to form the white quartz monzonite. This tectonism is attributed to the ca. 1.65 Ga Mazatzal orogeny, as foreland shortening spread progressively into the Yavapai Province. Mazatzal foreland effects have also been described in the Great Lakes region and have been inferred in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We suggest that the crustal-scale rheologic contrast across the Archean-Proterozoic suture, originally developed along the southern margin of Laurentia, and including the Cheyenne belt, facilitated widespread reactivation of that boundary during the Mazatzal orogeny. This finding emphasizes the degree to

  3. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  4. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  5. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  6. Proterozoic to Quaternary events of fracture mineralisation and oxidation in SE Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, Henrik

    2008-12-01

    Fracture minerals and altered wall rock have been analysed to reveal the low-temperature evolution, especially regarding redox conditions, of the Simpevarp area, SE Sweden. This area is one of the two areas in Sweden investigated by the Swedish Nuclear fuel and Waste Management Co. in order to find a potential geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The 1.8 Ga granitic to dioritic rocks in the area are generally un-metamorphosed and structurally well-preserved, although low-grade ductile shear zones and repeatedly reactivated fractures exist. Investigations of cross-cutting fractures along with a wide variety of fracture mineral analyses, such as stable isotopes and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, have been used to distinguish a sequence of fracture filling generations. The characteristics of these generations indicate the low-temperature evolution of the area, including information of e.g. fluid origin, formation temperature, paleo stresses and relation to known geological events. Knowledge of the fracture mineral evolution is important for the conceptual geological and hydrogeochemical understanding of the site and supports predictions of future scenarios in the safety assessment. The fracture mineral generations identified have been formed at widely varying conditions starting in the Proterozoic with formation from inorganic hydrothermal fluids, continuing in the Paleozoic with formation from lower temperature brine type fluids with organic influence, and ranging into minerals formed from waters of varying salinity and with significant organic influence at conditions similar to the present conditions. However, the amount of potentially recent precipitates is very small compared to Proterozoic and Paleozoic precipitates. The fracture mineral parageneses have been associated, with varying confidence, to far-field effects of at least four different orogenies; the Svecokarelian orogeny (>1.75 Ga), the Danapolonian orogeny (∼1.47-1.44 Ga), the Sveconorwegian orogeny

  7. Vent Complexes above Dolerite Sills in Phanerozoic LIPs: Implications for Proterozoic LIPs and IOCG Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, R. E.; Bleeker, W.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Polozov, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    New insights into the origin of IOCG (iron oxide copper gold) deposits [e.g., 1, 2, 3] follow from recent studies of Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Detailed seismic studies of the 62-55 Ma North Atlantic Igneous Province and complementary studies in the 183 Ma Karoo and 250 Ma Siberian LIPs reveal thousands of hydrothermal vent complexes (HVCs). Up to 5-10 km across at the paleosurface, these vents connect to underlying dolerite sills at paleodepths of up to 8 km [4, 5, 6, 7]. They originate from explosive release of gases generated when thick sills (>50 m) are emplaced into volatile-rich but low-permeability sedimentary strata. HVCs are phreatomagmatic in origin. Their architecture, economic potential for IOCG-type deposits, and effects on climate strongly depend on the type of host rocks (black shales at Karoo and evaporites at Siberian LIPs) and its fluid (brines) saturation at the time of emplacement. About 250 HVCs associated with the Siberian LIP are mineralized having magnetite in the matrix. Some are being mined for Fe (Korshunovskoe and Rudnogorskoe), but their economic potential for copper and gold mineralization is understudied. These observations from the Phanerozoic LIP record suggest that HVCs should also be an essential component of sill provinces associated with Proterozoic LIPs, with a potential for causing major climatic shifts and IOCG-type deposits, particularly if the host sediments include substantial evaporites. Two examples are discussed here. The 725 Ma Franklin LIP covers 1.1 Mkm2 in northern Canada [8]; in the Minto Inlier of Victoria Island, this event comprises volcanics, sills, and breccia pipes [9, 10]. The breccia pipes appear identical to HVCs and, furthermore, the presence of evaporites in the host sediments of the Shaler Supergroup suggests (based on the Siberian trap example) the potential for IOCG-type mineralization. Could 1.59 Ga sills, as exemplified by the exposed Western Channel Diabase sills on the eastern

  8. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  9. Microbial communities and organic biomarkers in a Proterozoic-analog sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T L; Welander, P V; Albrecht, H L; Fulton, J M; Schaperdoth, I; Bird, L R; Summons, R E; Freeman, K H; Macalady, J L

    2017-11-01

    Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, FL, USA) is a sinkhole with groundwater vents at ~77 m depth. The entire water column experiences sulfidic (~50 μM) conditions seasonally, resulting in a system poised between oxic and sulfidic conditions. Red pinnacle mats occupy the sediment-water interface in the sunlit upper basin of the sinkhole, and yielded 16S rRNA gene clones affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, and sulfate-reducing clades of Deltaproteobacteria. Nine bacteriochlorophyll e homologues and isorenieratene indicate contributions from Chlorobi, and abundant chlorophyll a and pheophytin a are consistent with the presence of Cyanobacteria. The red pinnacle mat contains hopanoids, including 2-methyl structures that have been interpreted as biomarkers for Cyanobacteria. A single sequence of hpnP, the gene required for methylation of hopanoids at the C-2 position, was recovered in both DNA and cDNA libraries from the red pinnacle mat. The hpnP sequence was most closely related to cyanobacterial hpnP sequences, implying that Cyanobacteria are a source of 2-methyl hopanoids present in the mat. The mats are capable of light-dependent primary productivity as evidenced by 13 C-bicarbonate photoassimilation. We also observed 13 C-bicarbonate photoassimilation in the presence of DCMU, an inhibitor of electron transfer to Photosystem II. Our results indicate that the mats carry out light-driven primary production in the absence of oxygen production-a mechanism that may have delayed the oxygenation of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon. Furthermore, our observations of the production of 2-methyl hopanoids by Cyanobacteria under conditions of low oxygen and low light are consistent with the recovery of these structures from ancient black shales as well as their paucity in modern marine environments. © 2017 The Authors. Geobiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  11. The thermal history of the Karoo Moatize-Minjova Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique: An integrated vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track thermochronology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul C. G. S.; Marques, João; Jamal, Daud; Vasconcelos, Lopo

    2015-12-01

    The Moatize-Minjova Basin is a Karoo-aged rift basin located in the Tete Province of central Mozambique along the present-day Zambezi River valley. In this basin the Permian Moatize and Matinde formations consist of interbedded carbonaceous mudstones and sandstones with coal seams. The thermal history has been determined using rock samples from two coal exploration boreholes (ca. 500 m depth) to constrain the burial and exhumation history of the basin. Organic maturation levels were determined using vitrinite reflectance and spore fluorescence/colour. Ages and rates of tectonic uplift and denudation have been assessed by apatite fission track analysis. The thermal history was modelled by inverse modelling of the fission track and vitrinite reflectance data. The Moatize Formation attained a coal rank of bituminous coals with low to medium volatiles (1.3-1.7%Rr). Organic maturation levels increase in a linear fashion downhole in the two boreholes, indicating that burial was the main process controlling peak temperature maturation. Calculated palaeogeothermal gradients range from 59 °C/km to 40 °C/km. According to the models, peak burial temperatures were attained shortly (3-10 Ma) after deposition. Apatite fission track ages [146 to 84 Ma (Cretaceous)] are younger than the stratigraphic age. Thermal modelling indicates two episodes of cooling and exhumation: a first period of rapid cooling between 240 and 230 Ma (Middle - Upper Triassic boundary) implying 2500-3000 m of denudation; and a second period, also of rapid cooling, from 6 Ma (late Miocene) onwards implying 1000-1500 m of denudation. The first episode is related to the main compressional deformation event within the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, which transferred stress northwards on pre-existing transtensional fault systems within the Karoo rift basins, causing tectonic inversion and uplift. During the Mesozoic and most of the Cenozoic the basin is characterized by very slow cooling. The second period

  12. Re-appraisal of the Santa Rita Greenstone Belt stratigraphy, central Brazil, based on new U-Pb SHRIMP age and Sm-Nd data of felsic metavolcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Junges, Sergio Luiz; Armstrong, Richard; Resende, Marcelo Goncalves

    2000-01-01

    The Santa Rita greenstone belt represents one of the supracrustal belts of the Archaen terranes of Goias, central Brazil. The stratigraphic sequence of this greenstone belt comprises a lower of komatities and basalts and an upper metasedimentary unit made of carbonaceous schits, chert, iron formation and marble, unconformably overlain by clastic metasedimentary rocks. Felsic metavolcanics occur at the interface between the metabasalts and the upper metasedimentary pile. U-Pb SHRIMP age for zircons from the felsic metavolcanics reveal that it is not part of the Archaean sequence, but represents the product of mesoproterozoic (1580 ± 12 Ma) magmatic event. Sm-Nd isotopic data (initial e CHUR values between -10.5 and -14.9) and T DM values of 3.0 and 3.2 Ga, within the range of the surrounding TTG terranes, indicate that the original felsic magmas were produced by re-melting of Archaen crust. The data demonstrate that the Goias greenstone belt contains infolded and imbricated proterozoic rocks, as previously suggested by Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of some of the upper detrital metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  13. Re-appraisal of the Santa Rita Greenstone Belt stratigraphy, central Brazil, based on new U-Pb SHRIMP age and Sm-Nd data of felsic metavolcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Junges, Sergio Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Resende, Marcelo Goncalves [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental

    2000-03-01

    The Santa Rita greenstone belt represents one of the supracrustal belts of the Archaen terranes of Goias, central Brazil. The stratigraphic sequence of this greenstone belt comprises a lower of komatities and basalts and an upper metasedimentary unit made of carbonaceous schits, chert, iron formation and marble, unconformably overlain by clastic metasedimentary rocks. Felsic metavolcanics occur at the interface between the metabasalts and the upper metasedimentary pile. U-Pb SHRIMP age for zircons from the felsic metavolcanics reveal that it is not part of the Archaean sequence, but represents the product of mesoproterozoic (1580 {+-} 12 Ma) magmatic event. Sm-Nd isotopic data (initial e{sub CHUR} values between -10.5 and -14.9) and T{sub DM} values of 3.0 and 3.2 Ga, within the range of the surrounding TTG terranes, indicate that the original felsic magmas were produced by re-melting of Archaen crust. The data demonstrate that the Goias greenstone belt contains infolded and imbricated proterozoic rocks, as previously suggested by Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of some of the upper detrital metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  14. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  15. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  16. A note on coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits within proterozoic lacustrine sedimentary rocks, Transvaal sequence, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, P. G.

    A widely developed, thin, coarse-matrix conglomerate occurs within early Proterozoic lacustrine mudrocks in the Transvaal Sequence, South Africa. The poorly sorted tabular chert clasts, alternation of a planar clast fabric with disorientated zones, plus normal and inverse grading in the former rock type suggest deposition by density-modified grain-flow and high density turbidity currents. The lower fan-delta slope palæenvironment inferred for the conglomerate is consistent with the lacustrine interpretation for the enclosing mudrock facies. This intracratonic setting contrasts with the marine environment generally associated with density-modified grain-flow deposits.

  17. Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Established in Northern Mozambique (2015-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludele, John; Lesko, Birgitta; Mahumane Gundane, Isabel; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; Muianga, Argentina; Ali, Sadia; Mula, Flora; Chelene, Imelda; Falk, Kerstin I; Barreto Dos Santos, Flávia; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2017-11-01

    After the report of an outbreak of dengue virus serotype 2 in 2014 in Nampula and Pemba cities, northern Mozambique, a surveillance system was established by the National Institute of Health. A study was performed during 2015-2016 to monitor the trend of the outbreak and confirm the circulating serotype of dengue virus (DENV). After the inclusion of consenting patients who met the case definition, samples from 192 patients were tested for the presence of nonstructural protein 1 antigen, and 60/192 (31%) samples were positive. Further analysis included DENV IgM antibodies, with 39 (20%) IgM positive cases. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was performed for identification of the prevailing DENV serotype; 21/23 tested samples were DENV-2 positive, with DENV-2 present in both affected cities. When sequencing DENV, phenotype Cosmopolitan was identified. The surveillance indicates ongoing spread of DENV-2 in northern Mozambique 2 years after the first report of the outbreak.

  18. Comparative analysis of tomato value chain competitiveness in selected areas of Malawi and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses tomato value chain performance in Malawi and Mozambique using data collected from a market study commissioned by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture as part of a regional research on conservation agriculture in maize-based farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. The results show that Malawi has a slightly higher competitive advantage in the production of tomato compared to Mozambique. Malawi’s relative competitiveness in tomato is mainly due to slightly higher productivity and the cost advantage in labor (low wages and irrigation costs. The paper proposes policy implications aimed at raising the productivity and trade competitiveness of tomato, as this will ensure the overall productivity of the maize-based smallholder farming systems in the two countries.

  19. Rural electrification in an imperfect world: A case study from Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Peter; Tembe, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Electricity is universally recognized as a necessary, although not sufficient, requirement for social and economic development. However, increasing access to electricity in developing countries has proven to be difficult and expensive, particularly in rural areas. In this article, we analyze the dynamics of the relationship between electricity and socio-economic development by means of a cost-benefit analysis of a typical rural electrification project in Mozambique, assessing the impact of electricity on households, education, agro-business, commerce, and the public sector. We show that rural electrification can be commercially viable and cause structural transformation in rural areas within a short period of time. Finally, illustrated by the actual policy practice in Mozambique, we argue that low institutional quality is a key barrier to promote increased access to electricity for the poor

  20. Health Care in Mozambique: Wartime clinics confront shortages, parasites, and terror

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Betsy

    1992-01-01

    Mozambique has been in a state of near civil war since 1980, which has prevented the country from providing any health care at all to most of its rural citizens. Medications are scarce, and the range of diagnostic tools is limited. The health clinics treat illnesses that include severe anemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, sexually transmitted diseases, and injuries that are a result of the war, but the biggest killer of all remains malaria.

  1. TOWARDS THE LEGAL RECOGNITION AND GOVERNANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Norfolk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.

  2. Men’s Migration and Women’s Fertility in Rural Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-01-01

    Labor migration profoundly affects households throughout rural Africa. This study looks at how men’s labor migration influences marital fertility in a context where such migration has been massive while its economic returns are increasingly uncertain. Using data from a survey of married women in southern Mozambique, we start with an event-history analysis of birth rates among women married to migrants and those married to nonmigrants. The model detects a lower birth rate among migrants’ wives...

  3. Exploring opportunities for rural livelihoods and food security in Central Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo, Wilson José

    2017-01-01

    Growing awareness of widespread hunger and poverty in many countries in the SSA is spurring a focus on productivity increase in smallholder farming systems. The rationale is that with current production systems many SSA countries are not keeping pace with population growth and changing of peoples’ lifestyles. To respond to this challenge the Government of Mozambique developed its Strategic Plan for Agricultural Development (PEDSA) aiming to improve agricultural productivity of the majority of...

  4. The Successes and Challenges of Reintegrating Street Children through Nonformal Education in Maputo City, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    SALOKANGAS, RIIKKA

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the research was to explore challenges and successes that street children centres encounter while reintegrating and educating their children. Research questions divide in two: what kind of nonformal education is available for street children in certain organisations and what are the challenges and successes of children's nonformal education and the reintegration process? Research targets are two centres, a closed and an open one in Maputo city, Mozambique. The research ap...

  5. The Welfare Effects of Farm Household Activity Choices in Post-War Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Brück, Tilman

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of activity choices on farm household income and consumption in a war-affected developing country. The study uses household survey data from Mozambique and controls for the endogeneity of activity choices with instrumental variables. War-time activity choices (such as subsistence farming) are shown to enhance welfare in the post-war period. Market and social exchange induce only limited welfare gains. Cotton adoption reduces household welfare, which contradicts...

  6. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Carolien Toté; Domingos Patricio; Hendrik Boogaard; Raymond van der Wijngaart; Elena Tarnavsky; Chris Funk

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day) gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Cl...

  7. Monitoring the operational impact of insecticide usage for malaria control on Anopheles funestus from Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Brian L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS has again become popular for malaria control in Africa. This combined with the affirmation by WHO that DDT is appropriate for use in the absence of longer lasting insecticide formulations in some malaria endemic settings, has resulted in an increase in IRS with DDT as a major malaria vector control intervention in Africa. DDT was re-introduced into Mozambique's IRS programme in 2005 and is increasingly becoming the main insecticide used for malaria vector control in Mozambique. The selection of DDT as the insecticide of choice in Mozambique is evidence-based, taking account of the susceptibility of Anopheles funestus to all available insecticide choices, as well as operational costs of spraying. Previously lambda cyhalothrin had replaced DDT in Mozambique in 1993. However, resistance appeared quickly to this insecticide and, in 2000, the pyrethroid was phased out and the carbamate bendiocarb introduced. Low level resistance was detected by biochemical assay to bendiocarb in 1999 in both An. funestus and Anopheles arabiensis, although this was not evident in WHO bioassays of the same population. Methods Sentinel sites were established and monitored for insecticide resistance using WHO bioassays. These assays were conducted on 1–3 day old F1 offspring of field collected adult caught An. funestus females to determine levels of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector population. WHO biochemical assays were carried out to determine the frequency of insecticide resistance genes within the same population. Results In surveys conducted between 2002 and 2006, low levels of bendiocarb resistance were detected in An. funestus, populations using WHO bioassays. This is probably due to significantly elevated levels of Acetylcholinesterase levels found in the same populations. Pyrethroid resistance was also detected in populations and linked to elevated levels of p450 monooxygenase activity. One site had

  8. Constructing a history of independent Mozambique, 1974-1982: a study in photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Thompson

    Full Text Available The taking and publication of photographs played an important role in Mozambique's independence and in the years after 1975. As settlers departed Mozambique in the wake of riots and the Portuguese handover of power, the newly independent government, Frelimo, assumed control of abandoned commercial studios and other photographic equipment. Frelimo used legal and technical distinctions to create a group of photographers who traveled with and photographed its leader President Machel, while the other photographers, lumped under the heading 'commercial', were responsible for studio portraits also known as headshots. In one respect, press photographs allowed Frelimo to document and transmit its political ideologies to public audiences. In another respect, commercial studio portraits, which individuals carried on identification cards in their wallets, permitted Frelimo to categorise populations as employed versus unemployed or as possible enemies of the state. These contrasting forms of image making illuminate the reality that Frelimo supplemented the 'more positive' political power represented through press photographs of President Machel with 'more negative' forces of self-identification and public shaming. This article uses photographs and oral histories with photographers, journalists and government leaders to explore the inter-relationship between press and commercial photography from 1974 to 1982, a time of transition for the Frelimo government from a liberation movement into a political party. By exploring the uneasy and tenuous relationship that ensued between institutions and technologies that supported photography's practice in Mozambique, this article considers how Frelimo's control over photography - and photographers' own compliance - impacted on the historical and visual representation of Mozambique's independence.

  9. Discovery of Novel Viruses in Mosquitoes from the Zambezi Valley of Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harindranath Cholleti

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes carry a wide variety of viruses that can cause vector-borne infectious diseases and affect both human and veterinary public health. Although Mozambique can be considered a hot spot for emerging infectious diseases due to factors such as a rich vector population and a close vector/human/wildlife interface, the viral flora in mosquitoes have not previously been investigated. In this study, viral metagenomics was employed to analyze the viral communities in Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes in the Zambezia province of Mozambique. Among the 1.7 and 2.6 million sequences produced from the Culex and Mansonia samples, respectively, 3269 and 983 reads were classified as viral sequences. Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Iflaviridae families were detected, and different unclassified single- and double-stranded RNA viruses were also identified. A near complete genome of a flavivirus, tentatively named Cuacua virus, was obtained from the Mansonia mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of this flavivirus, using the NS5 amino acid sequence, showed that it grouped with 'insect-specific' viruses and was most closely related to Nakiwogo virus previously identified in Uganda. Both mosquito genera had viral sequences related to Rhabdoviruses, and these were most closely related to Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus (CTRV. The results from this study suggest that several viruses specific for insects belonging to, for example, the Flaviviridae and Rhabdoviridae families, as well as a number of unclassified RNA viruses, are present in mosquitoes in Mozambique.

  10. Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Slingerland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatropha experiments and incumbent energy, agriculture and rural development regimes in Mozambique. Investors in agro-industrial Jatropha projects focused on establishing projects in areas with relatively good infrastructure, rather than in remote rural areas. Furthermore, they predominantly focused on Jatropha production instead of investing in the entire Jatropha value chain, which turned out to be a challenge in itself, as growing a productive Jatropha crop was much more complex than initially anticipated. The development of institutions that could nurture and protect Jatropha projects from the prevailing regimes lagged behind Jatropha project establishment, leading to an insecure investment climate. Strong inter-ministerial collaboration and organized civil society interaction and representation contrasted with non-organized private sector and rather isolated smallholder Jatropha projects. The global financial crisis and limited adaptive capacity reduced the time and space for experimentation and learning to overcome disappointing crop performance. Together, this hampered Jatropha’s potential to challenge the energy, agricultural and rural development regimes. Nevertheless, the Jatropha experience did initiate the development of policy and regulation and stimulated interaction and collaboration between specific groups of stakeholders, which could provide the basis to capture future biofuel momentum in Mozambique.

  11. System redesign of the immunization supply chain: Experiences from Benin and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Wendy; Jaillard, Philippe; Assy, Emmanuelle; Brown, Shawn T; Matsinhe, Graça; Dekoun, Mawutondji; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Evidence suggests that immunization supply chains are becoming outdated and unable to deliver needed vaccines due to growing populations and new vaccine introductions. Redesigning a supply chain could result in meeting current demands. The Ministries of Health in Benin in Mozambique recognized known barriers to the immunization supply chain and undertook a system redesign to address those barriers. Changes were made to introduce an informed push system while consolidating storage points, introducing transport loops, and increasing human resource capacity for distribution. Evaluations were completed in each country. Evaluation in each country indicated improved performance of the supply chain. The Effective Vaccine Management (EVM) assessment in Benin documented notable improvements in the distribution criteria of the tool, increasing from 40% to 100% at the district level. In Mozambique, results showed reduced stockouts at health facility level from 79% at baseline to less than 1% at endline. Coverage rates of DTP3 also increased from 68.9% to 92.8%. Benin and Mozambique are undertaking system redesign in order to respond to constraints identified in the vaccine supply chain. Results and learnings show improvements in supply chain performance and make a strong case for system redesign. These countries demonstrate the feasibility of system redesign for other countries considering how to address outdated supply chains. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Increase in cases of malaria in Mozambique, 2014: epidemic or new endemic pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison

    2016-01-01

    To describe the increase in cases of malaria in Mozambique. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014, in Mozambique with national weekly epidemiological bulletin data. I analyzed the number of recorded cases in the 2009-2013 period, which led to the creation of an endemic channel using the quartile and C-Sum methods. Monthly incidence rates were calculated for the first half of 2014, making it possible to determine the pattern of endemicity. Months in which the incidence rates exceeded the third quartile or line C-sum were declared as epidemic months. The provinces of Nampula, Zambezia, Sofala, and Inhambane accounted for 52.7% of all cases in the first half of 2014. Also during this period, the provinces of Nampula, Sofala and Tete were responsible for 54.9% of the deaths from malaria. The incidence rates of malaria in children, and in all ages, have showed patterns in the epidemic zone. For all ages, the incidence rate has peaked in April (2,573 cases/100,000 inhabitants). The results suggest the occurrence of an epidemic pattern of malaria in the first half of 2014 in Mozambique. It is strategic to have a more accurate surveillance at all levels (central, provincial and district) to target prevention and control interventions in a timely manner.

  13. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  14. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  15. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  16. Late Proterozoic glacially controlled shelf sequences in western Mali (west Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deynoux, M.; Prousti, J. N.; Simon, B.

    The Late Proterozoic deposits of the Bakoye Group (500 m) in western Mali constitute a remarkable example of a glacially influenced sedimentary record on an epicratonic platform. They are composed of alternating marine and continental formations which represent accumulation in a basin located in the vicinity of upland areas covered by ice sheets. One of these formations (the Ba4 Formation), which is the focus of this study, is composed of three major units. The basal Unit 1 is made up of carbonaceous coarse to fine grained sandstones which are organized in fining upward sequences and which comprise lenticular diamictite intercalations. This Unit is considered to represent the fore slope gravity flows of a subaqueous ice-cootact fan fed by meltwater streams (≪glacioturbidites≫). Unit 2 is made up of coarse to fine grained sandstones in a highly variable association of facies. This Unit is characterized by the abundance of wave ripples associated with convolute beddings. planar or wavy beddings and tabular or hummocky crossbeddings in a general shallowing upward trend. It also comprises evidence of gravity processes including debris flows and large slumped sandstone bodies. Unit 2 represents the progressive filling of the Ba4 basin and reflects the combined effect of glacially induced eustatism and isostacy during a phase of glacial retreat. The basal part of Unit 3 is made up of a succession (a few meters thick) of conglomerates, diamictites, sandstones, siltstones or carbonates lying on an erosional unconformity marked by periglacial frost wedges. The upper part of Unit 3 is thicker (100-150 m) and onlaps on these basal facies with a succession of sandstone bars exhibiting swaley and hummocky crossbeddings, large cut and fill structures, and planar laminations. Unit 3 is strongly transgressive, the lower shoreface and backshore deposits include algal mats and are onlapped by sand ridges emplaced in a high energy upper to middle shoreface environment. Overall

  17. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  18. Biogeochemical and micropaleontological study of black chert, Sete Lagoas Formation, Bambui Group (Late Proterozoic), Sao Gabriel (GO), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subacius, S.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The biogeochemical study of amorphous and structured organic matter (OM) in two samples of thinly laminated black cherts (SG-1 and SG-2) from Sete Lagoas Formation, State of Goias, Brazil, is presented. The spectra analysis of infra-red, electron paramagnetic resonance and isotope ratio of C-12 and C-13 shown that: the amorphous OM consists of a soluble fraction (SF) and a insoluble fraction (Kerogen), which only the latter is syngenetic; the allochthonous SF comes from several sources, mainly from Phanerozoic sediments and soil contamination; the SG-1 and SG-2 Kerogens have δ 13 C values (-27.2 per mille and - 29.2 per mille respectively), which suggest OM photosynthetized and submitted to a mild thermal hystory; although the preserved microbiota is dominated by allochthonous elements (colonial fragments) and planktonic forms, both Kerogens were derived for the most part from photo-autotrophic benthonic communities, probably responsible for the lamination in the original carbonate rock, both SG-1 and SG-2 Kerogens exhibits O/C and H/C ratios comparable to Proterozoic humic Kerogens (type IV); the preserved microflora represents a microbial community of the chert-algae facies typical of the Middle and upper Proterozoic; and the occurence of rare acritarchs (Kildinella spp.) in the microflora is biostratigraphically significant in that it suggests a Late Riphean or Vendian age (950-570 m.y.) for the Sete Lagoas Formation. (Author) [pt

  19. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  20. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  1. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is

  2. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur geochemistry of Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yumiko; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Condie, Kent C.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1997-08-01

    The C, N, and S contents and VC and δ 13Cδ 34S values were analyzed for 100 shale samples from ten formations, 3.0 to 2.1 Ga in age, in the central and eastern regions of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. The Kaapvaal shales are characterized by generally low contents of organic C (range 0.06-2.79 wt%, average 0.47 wt%), N (range facies). From the theoretical relationships between the H/C ratios of kerogen and organic C contents of shales, the original C contents of the Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton are estimated to be on average ˜2 wt%. These values are similar to the average organic C content of modern marine sediments. This suggests that the primary organic productivity and the preservation of organic matter in the ocean during the period of 3.0 to 2.1 Ga were similar to those in the Phanerozoic era, provided the flux of clastic sediments to the ocean was similar. This would also imply that the rate of O 2 accumulation in the atmosphere-ocean system, which has equaled the burial rate of organic matter in sediments, has been the same since ˜3.0 Ga. The δ 34S values of bulk-rock sulfides (mostly pyrite) range from +2.7 to +7.4%‰ for seven sulfide-rich samples of ˜2.9 Ga to ˜2.6 Ga. These values are consistent with a suggestion by Ohmoto (1992) and Ohmoto et al. (1993) that most pyrite crystals in Archean shales were formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate with δ 34S values between +2 and +10‰, and that the Archean seawater was sulfate rich. Changes in the δ 13C org values during maturation of kerogen were evaluated with theoretical calculations from the experimental data of Peters et al. (1981) and Lewan (1983), and from the observations by Simoneit et al. (1981) on natural samples. These evaluations suggest that the magnitudes of δ 13C org increase are much less than those estimated by Hayes et al. (1983) and Des Marais et al. (1992), and only about 2 to 3%‰ for the kerogens that decreased their H/C ratios from

  3. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  4. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  5. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  6. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller in Angola and Mozambique after the introduction of the ACTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carlos; Pateira, Sara; Lobo, Elsa; Lobo, Lis; Teodosio, Rosa; Dias, Fernanda; Fernandes, Natercia; Arez, Ana Paula; Varandas, Luis; Nogueira, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    We report the presence of SNPs in Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller gene in two African countries, Angola and Mozambique, where malaria is a serious public health problem. Samples were collected before and after ACT introduction as first-line treatment. In each country 50 samples collected before and 50 after ACT introduction were analysed. A total of three different mutations (R471R and R575R in Angola and V494I in Mozambique) were identified in five samples, all collected after the introduction of ACT. The R471R mutation detected in Angola has already been reported in Africa (DR-Congo and Gabon). However, the mutations R575R (Angola) and V494I (Mozambique), have never been reported. V494I is adjacent to the known K13 resistance-associated mutation Y493H, although functional analysis did not predict a deleterious effect on protein function.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  8. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  9. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  10. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  11. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  12. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  13. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  14. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  15. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  16. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  17. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  18. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  19. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  20. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  1. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  2. Archean and proterozoic continental crust in South America: Main building events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A; Brito Neves, B.B; Pimentel, M.M

    2001-01-01

    Available geochronological data reveal that the first building blocks of the South American continental crust were set up in the early Paleoarchean, ca. 3.4-3.5 Ga ago, although the presence of components as old as 3.7 Ga is indicated by Nd TDM model ages. The oldest rocks so far recognized are exposed in northeast Brazil and Uruguay. In the Sao Jose do Campestre block, Rio Grande do Norte, 3.45 Ga old tonalite, migmatized and intruded by granitoids between 3.3 and 3.0 Ga, is part of the basement to the Borborema Province (Dantas et al. 1998). In Bahia 3.42 Ga old tonalitic grey gneisses of Sete Voltas, Boa Vista, and Mairi form the basement of the Gaviao block, within the core of the Sao Francisco Craton (Nutman and Cordani, 1993, Martin et al., 1997). The Paleoarchean TTG suites as well as greenstone remnants of unknown age were involved in crust accretion events between 3.1 and 3.3 Ga ago (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein), which are also recorded in Campo Belo and Uaua (Teixeira et al., 1998, Oliveira et al., 1999), as attested by TTG intrusions and the ca. 3.1 Ga Pium-hi greenstone belt of W Minas Gerais (Machado and Schrank 1989). Microcontinents then formed were involved in deformation, metamorphism, and migmatization around 2.8-3.0 Ga ago, probably during amalgamation events. Widespread granite-greenstone associations in the Quadrilatero Ferrifero and other areas represent new crust built during the very important Neoarchean Rio das Velhas cycle, ca. 2.7-2.8 Ga ago (Machado and Carneiro 1992, Machado et al. 1992). Layered mafic-ultramafic and granite intrusions ca. 2.5-2.7 Ga old are recorded all over the Sao Francisco Craton, including the high-grade terrain of southern Bahia, formed during the late Archean Jequie Cycle (Teixeira et al. 2000 and references therein). Similar intrusions are recorded in many basement areas within Neoproterozoic fold belts (au)

  3. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  4. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  5. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  6. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  7. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  8. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the paleoproterozoic Silvania magmatic arc in the neoproproterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, D.P.; Pimentel, M.M.; Fuck, R.A; Armstrong, R

    2001-01-01

    The Brasilia Belt is a large Neoproterozoic orogen formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco/Congo Craton in central Brazil. It comprises: (i) a thick Meso-Neoproterozoic metasedimentary/sedimentary pile with eastward tectonic vergence; (ii) a large Neoproterozoic juvenile arc in the west (Goias Magmatic Arc); and (iii) a micro-continent (or exotic sialic terrain) formed by Archean rock units (the Crixas -Goias granitegreenstones) and associated Proterozoic formations (Almeida et al. 1981, Fuck et al. 1993,1994, Pimentel et al. 2000a, b). The sialic basement on which the Brasilia Belt sediments were deposited is poorly understood, despite being well exposed in some areas of Goias and Tocantins. Gneiss and volcano-sedimentary units form most of this basement. Early studies have suggested that these rock units are dominantly Archean ( Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984). However, recent Sm- Nd isotopic studies have indicated that most of them are Paleoproterozoic (Sato 1998, Pimentel et al. 1999a, 2000b). Granite gneiss to the south and east of the Barro Alto mafic-ultramafic layered complex has been dated at 2128+/- 15 Ma (Correia et al. 1997). Calc-alkaline granite gneiss from Almas-Dianopolis is dated at ca. 2.2-2.45 Ga old (U-Pb SHRIMP on zircon and titanite, Cruz et al. 2000). The latter is probably the western extension of Paleoproterozoic rocks which underlie the San Francisco Craton to the east of the northern part of the Brasilia Belt. In central Goias, a large part of the Brasilia Belt is underlain by high-grade metamorphic rocks known as the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, together with surrounding greenschist to amphibolite facies Mesoto Neoproterozoic cover metasediments of the Araxa group. These rocks represent the main constituent of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994, Pimentel et al. 2000b). Between the Araxa Group, and the easternmost part of the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex a volcano-sedimentary association known as Silvania

  9. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  10. A review of the sedimentology of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Schreiber, U. M.; van der Neut, M.

    The sedimentary rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group form the floor rocks to teh 2050 M.a. Bushveld Complex. An overall alluvial fan-fan-delta - lacustrine palaeoenvironmental model is postulated for the Pretoria Group. This model is compatible with a continental half-graben tectonic setting, with steep footwall scarps on the southern margin and a lower gradient hanging wall developed to the north. The latter provided much of the basin-fill detritus. It is envisaged that the southern boundary fault system migrated southwards by footwall collapse as sedimentation continued. Synsedimentary mechanical rifting, associated with alluvial and deltaic sedimentation (Rooihoogte-Strubenkop Formations) was followed by thermal subsidence, with concomitant transgressive lacustrine deposition (Daspoort-Magaliesberg Formations). The proposed half-graben basin was probably related to the long-lived Thabazimbi-Murchison and Sugarbush-Barberton lineaments, which bound the preserved outcrops of the Pretoria Group.

  11. A summary of Rb-Sr isotope studies in the Archean Hopedale Block and the adjacent proterozoic Makkovik subprovince, Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, N.K.; Hickman, M.H.; Marzano, M.S.; Ermanovics, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope study of thirteen whole-rock suites of Archean and Proterozoic rocks from Hopedale block and Makkovik Subprovince shows that the crustal history began about 3115 Ma ago. We tentatively recognize younger crustal segments that formed 2920 Ma ago, from which Kanairktok intrusives were derived at 2832 +- 178 Ma. In Makkovik Subprovince the Island Harbour granites range in age from 1843 +- 90 to 1794 +- 71 Ma. These ages overlap with the 1847 +-87 Ma age for Kanairktok shear zone mylonites. The Island Harbour granodiorites from inland localities to the southwest are contaminated with Archean rocks in Makkovik Subprovince and their initial 87 Sr/ 86 ratios imply a crustal contribution to their source. In contrast, the Island Harbour granites of Striped Island were derived from a mantle source. The sills of Striped Island are 1635 +- 47 Ma old. An undeformed northeast trending Kikkertavak dolerite dyke from Hopedale block is 1206 +- 120 Ma

  12. The development of a public optometry system in Mozambique: a Cost Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen; Naidoo, Kovin; Harris, Geoff; Bilotto, Luigi; Ferrão, Jorge; Loughman, James

    2014-09-23

    The economic burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) is thought to be high in Mozambique, largely as a consequence of the lack of resources and systems to tackle this largely avoidable problem. The Mozambique Eyecare Project (MEP) has established the first optometry training and human resource deployment initiative to address the burden of URE in Lusophone Africa. The nature of the MEP programme provides the opportunity to determine, using Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), whether investing in the establishment and delivery of a comprehensive system for optometry human resource development and public sector deployment is economically justifiable for Lusophone Africa. A CBA methodology was applied across the period 2009-2049. Costs associated with establishing and operating a school of optometry, and a programme to address uncorrected refractive error, were included. Benefits were calculated using a human capital approach to valuing sight. Disability weightings from the Global Burden of Disease study were applied. Costs were subtracted from benefits to provide the net societal benefit, which was discounted to provide the net present value using a 3% discount rate. Using the most recently published disability weightings, the potential exists, through the correction of URE in 24.3 million potentially economically productive persons, to achieve a net present value societal benefit of up to $1.1 billion by 2049, at a Benefit-Cost ratio of 14:1. When CBA assumptions are varied as part of the sensitivity analysis, the results suggest the societal benefit could lie in the range of $649 million to $9.6 billion by 2049. This study demonstrates that a programme designed to address the burden of refractive error in Mozambique is economically justifiable in terms of the increased productivity that would result due to its implementation.

  13. Re-designing the Mozambique vaccine supply chain to improve access to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Haidari, Leila A; Prosser, Wendy; Connor, Diana L; Bechtel, Ruth; Dipuve, Amelia; Kassim, Hidayat; Khanlawia, Balbina; Brown, Shawn T

    2016-09-22

    Populations and routine childhood vaccine regimens have changed substantially since supply chains were designed in the 1980s, and introducing new vaccines during the "Decade of Vaccine" may exacerbate existing bottlenecks, further inhibiting the flow of all vaccines. Working with the Mozambique Ministry of Health, our team implemented a new process that integrated HERMES computational simulation modeling and on-the-ground implementers to evaluate and improve the Mozambique vaccine supply chain using a system-re-design that integrated new supply chain structures, information technology, equipment, personnel, and policies. The alternative system design raised vaccine availability (from 66% to 93% in Gaza; from 76% to 84% in Cabo Delgado) and reduced the logistics cost per dose administered (from $0.53 to $0.32 in Gaza; from $0.38 to $0.24 in Cabo Delgado) as compared to the multi-tiered system under the current EPI. The alternative system also produced higher availability at lower costs after new vaccine introductions. Since reviewing scenarios modeling deliveries every two months in the north of Gaza, the provincial directorate has decided to pilot this approach diverging from decades of policies dictating monthly deliveries. Re-design improved not only supply chain efficacy but also efficiency, important since resources to deliver vaccines are limited. The Mozambique experience and process can serve as a model for other countries during the Decade of Vaccines. For the Decade of Vaccines, getting vaccines at affordable prices to the market is not enough. Vaccines must reach the population to be successful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Teenage pregnancies in Mozambique: the experience of "Servicios Amigos dos Adolescentes" clinics in Beira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Damiano; Di Gennaro, Francesco; Boscardin, Chiara; Putoto, Giovanni; Cuppini, Elena; Pita, Graciana; George, Alexandra; Monno, Laura; Saracino, Annalisa; Da Dalt, Liviana; De Palma, Angela

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the demand for pregnancy-related health services by adolescent girls and young women in Mozambique. We analysed the patient registers for the first year of operation (2014) of the Servicios Amigos dos Adolescentes (SAAJ) [Friendly Services for Adolescents] clinics in Beira, Mozambique. These registers provide details of the service demands of, and services provided to the 8 290 adolescent girls and young women who accessed the 6 SAAJ clinics in 2014. Analysis of that record, with disaggregation of the patients according to age (9 years or less; 10-14; 15-19; 20-24; 25 and older), show that 3 021 (36%) were pregnant or had previously been pregnant; most being girls in the 15-19 age band (59%). Being pregnant or having been pregnant previously was associated with dropping out of school. Of all the girls and women, 60% agreed to HIV testing and counselling; the HIV prevalence rate amongst this group was 4-5% amongst adolescents and 25% amongst women 25 years and older. A minority of the girls and women who were pregnant or had been pregnant previously agreed to HIV testing and counselling. Notwithstanding the limitations for analysis, the results were alarming: substantially high HIV prevalence rates were indicated (2% amongst 10-14 year old girls; 8% amongst 15-19 year olds; 10% amongst 20-24 year olds; and 28% amongst >24 year olds). The data from the SAAJ clinics and results pertain only to conditions in Beira. However, as the first empirical assessment of pregnancy-related service demand amongst adolescent girls and young women in the country and involving a relatively large sample, we contend that this study affirms the need for expansion of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, including HIV services, for adolescent girls and young women in Mozambique.

  15. Strategic implementation of integrated water resources management in Mozambique: An A’WOT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Ayala, Jordi; Juízo, Dinis

    The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) paradigm has become an important framework in development and management of water resources. Many countries in the Southern Africa region have begun water sector reforms to align the sector with the IWRM concepts. In 2007 the Mozambican Government started to update the policy and the legal framework of the water sector to foster the application of IWRM concept as a basis for achieving sustainable development. However the steps towards the implementation of this national framework are still in preparation. This research aims to identify and establish a priority ranking of the fundamental factors likely to affect the outcome of the IWRM reforms in Mozambique. This study uses the hybrid multi-criteria decision method A’WOT, a methodology coined by Kurttila et al. (2000). This method relies on the combination of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) technique and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Using this procedure it is possible to identify and rank the factors affecting the functioning of a system. The key factors affecting the implementation of the IWRM, analysed in this study, were identified through an expert group discussion. These factors have been grouped into different categories of SWOT. Subsequently, the AHP methodology was applied to obtain the relative importance of each factor captured in the SWOT analysis; to this end the authors interviewed a panel of water resources management experts and practitioners. As a result, of this study and the application of the A’WOT methodology, the research identified and ranked the fundamental factors for the success of the IWRM strategy in Mozambique. The results of this study suggest that in Mozambique a planning strategy for the implementation of the IWRM should be guided mainly by combination of interventions in factors falling under opportunity and weakness SWOT groups.

  16. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.

  17. HBV infection in untreated HIV-infected adults in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Mabalane Chambal

    Full Text Available HIV/ HBV coinfected patients are at high risk of developing chronic HBV infection, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Mozambique, where HIV prevalence is one of the highest in the world, HIV-infected patients are scarcely characterized in terms of HBV coinfection and 3TC-resistance mutations profile.To characterize ART-naïve HIV-infected adults, with and without HBV coinfection, a cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2012 in two health centers from Maputo city, Mozambique. Subjects were consecutively enrolled in the study and, then, tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Moreover, CD4+ T cells count, HBV DNA in plasma, HBV genotyping and 3TC-resistance mutations profile of HBV were assessed in HIV/HBV coinfected patients.In total, 518 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 33 years old and 66.8% were women. The median CD4+ T cells count was 361 cells/mm3 and 47 (9.1% were coinfected with HBV. Out of 46 coinfected patients, 24 (55.2% had HBV DNA ≥ 20 - 2.0 was reported in 4.3% of coinfected and 1.7% of monoinfected patients (p = 0.228, while FIB-4 > 3.25 was reported in 4.4% of coinfected and 1.3% of monoinfected patients (p = 0.112. Genotype A was the most frequent, identified in 25/27 (92.6% patients, whereas genotype E was present in 2/27 (7.4% patients. No patient had 3TC-resistance mutations.This study showed that HBV coinfection was prevalent among ART-naïve HIV-infected adults in Mozambique. Overall, these data highlight the importance of screening HBV coinfection as an integrated measure of HIV routine care to improve health conditions and treatment of HIV/HBV coinfected patients.

  18. Community perspectives on the determinants of maternal health in rural southern Mozambique: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Boene, Helena; Chiaú, Rogério; Sevene, Esperança; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Munguambe, Khátia

    2016-09-30

    Mozambique has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The main influences on maternal health encompass social, economic, political, environmental and cultural determinants of health. To effectively address maternal mortality in the post-2015 agenda, interventions need to consider the determinants of health so that their delivery is not limited to the health sector. The objective of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify key community groups' perspectives on the perceived determinants of maternal health in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with women of reproductive age, pregnant women, matrons, male partners, community leaders and health workers. Participants were recruited using sampling techniques of convenience and snow balling. Focus groups had an average of nine participants each. The heads of 12 administrative posts were also interviewed to understand the local context. Data were coded and analysed thematically using NVivo software. A broad range of political, economic, socio-cultural and environmental determinants of maternal health were identified by community representatives. It was perceived that the civil war has resulted in local unemployment and poverty that had a number of downstream effects including lack of funds for accessing medical care and transport, and influence on socio-cultural determinants, particularly gender relations that disadvantaged women. Socio-cultural determinants included intimate partner violence toward women, and strained relationships with in-laws and co-spouses. Social relationships were complex as there were both negative and positive impacts on maternal health. Environmental determinants included natural disasters and poor access to roads and transport exacerbated by the wet season and subsequent flooding. In rural southern Mozambique, community perceptions of the determinants of maternal health included political, economic, socio

  19. Iron and chlorine as guides to stratiform Cu-Co-Au deposits, Idaho Cobalt Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.; Connor, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Cu-Co-Au deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt are in lithostratigraphic zones of the Middle Proterozoic Yellowjacket Formation characterized by distinctive chemical and mineralogical compositions including high concentrations of Fe (15- > 30 wt. percent Fe2O3), Cl (0.1-1.10 wt. percent), and magnetite or biotite (> 50 vol. percent). The Cu-Co-Au deposits of the Blackbird mine are stratabound in Fe-silicate facies rocks that are rich in biotite, Fe, and Cl, but stratigraphically equivalent rocks farther than 10 km from ore deposits have similar compositions. A lower lithostratigraphic zone containing magnetite and small Cu-Co-Au deposits extends for more than 40 km. The Fe-rich strata are probably exhalative units related to mafic volcanism and submarine hot springs, but the origin of the high Cl concentrations is less clear. Former chlorine-rich pore fluids are suggested by the presence of supersaline fluid inclusions, by Cl-rich biotite and scapolite (as much as 1.87 percent Cl in Fe-rich biotite), and by high Cl concentrations in rock samples. Chlorine is enriched in specific strata and in zones characterized by soft-sediment deformation, thus probably was introduced during sedimentation or diagenesis. Unlike some metasedimentary rocks containing scapolite and high Cl, the Yellowjacket Formation lacks evidence for evaporitic strata that could have been a source of Cl. More likely, the Cl reflects a submarine brine that carried Fe, K, and base metals. Strata containing anomalous Fe-K-Cl are considered to be a guide to sub-basins favorable for the occurrence of stratiform base-metal deposits. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Elite capture and the development of natural resource linkages in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Monjane, Celso Marcos

    2017-01-01

    for a more fair distribution of opportunities for local firms to gain from large-scale natural resource investments and for learning and spillover effects to other parts of the economy. In a longer term perspective, it is a potential key source of economic transformation towards higher value added activities......This chapter explores these broader processes from the perspective of linkage creation in Mozambique related to mega-projects in natural resource extraction and development from a political economy perspective. From a resource fairness perspective, linkage creation is essential as it allows...

  1. Poverty mapping based on first order dominance with an example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar M.; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously...... for welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  2. Poverty mapping based on first order dominance with an example from Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    We explore a novel first order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly; is straightforward to implement; is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare; and accounts rigorously...... for welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  3. Seasonal household income dependency on forest and environmental resources in rural Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Nielsen, Øystein Juul

    2013-01-01

    Households in agrarian societies engage in variety of income generating activities. These activities are often seasonal and the associated income generated is volatile. Based on an income survey from 2006 in rural Mozambique, this study assesses the seasonal contribution of different income sources....... The volatility did vary across income sources; crop income seems the most volatile income component. Volatility in crop income is likely to have severe negative implications for rural households as poverty is widespread and other income opportunities are few. Therefore, the government and other developments...

  4. Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis causing mixed infections in febrile children in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García V

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanesa García,1 Inácio Mandomando,2,3 Joaquim Ruiz,4 Silvia Herrera-León,5 Pedro L Alonso,3,4 M Rosario Rodicio1 1Departamento de Biología Funcional, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain; 2Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça, 3Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; 4ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain Background and purpose: Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mostly caused by serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis of Salmonella enterica, has emerged as a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was the clinical and microbiological characterization of nontyphoidal salmonellosis episodes affecting febrile children in Mozambique. Patients and methods: The clinical records of the patients were evaluated, and S. enterica isolates were characterized with regard to serovar, phage type, antimicrobial resistance (phenotype/responsible genes, plasmid content, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. Results: Fifteen S. Typhimurium and 21 S. Enteritidis isolates were recovered from blood samples of 25 children, the majority with underlying risk factors. With regard to phage typing, most isolates were either untypeable or reacted but did not conform, revealing that a number of previously unrecognized patterns are circulating in Mozambique. Most isolates were multidrug-resistant, with nearly all of the responsible genes located on derivatives of serovar-specific virulence plasmids. ST313 and ST11 were the predominant sequence types associated with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, respectively, and the uncommon ST1479 was also detected in S. Enteritidis. A distinct XbaI fragment of ~350 kb was associated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of

  5. Methodological approach to the comparative study between digital libraries in Mozambique, Brazil and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the results of a PhD thesis that it intends to investigate the social impact of digital libraries, comparatively in Brazil, Mozambique and Paraguay. The study outlines the integrated systems of the Libraries of the Universities of São Paulo, Eduardo Mondlane and National de Asuncion, trough checking qualitative and quantitative indicators of the impact from digital libraries, uses as methodology the survey and interview applied to its users, students, teachers, librarians, support staff and directors. The results aim to foster the creation of other similar libraries, reduce the digital gap and contribute significantly to the sustainable development of each country.

  6. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  7. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syria))

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  8. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seer, Hildor Jose; Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and ε Nd(T) =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and ε Nd(T) = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  9. Early lineations in a later shear zone: case study from the Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Gupta, S.

    2016-12-01

    In polydeformed gneissic terranes, ductile shear zones may cut across rocks with older penetrative fabrics. Earlier lineations in later ductile shear zones need to be identified to avoid incorrect kinematic interpretation. To investigate the fate of early lineations during later ductile shearing, the Mahanadi Shear Zone (MSZ) from the Eastern Ghats Belt (EGB) in India is taken as a case study. The EGB is a Proterozoic granulite terrane correlated with Indo-Antarctica collision. The MSZ lies within the EGB, but is oriented almost perpendicular to the trend of the belt. The penetrative structural fabric in the EGB is NE-SW trending and dipping SE. However, a broad swing in structural trend from NE-SW to WNW-ESE can be detected near the MSZ from satellite imagery. In mylonitised rocks of the shear zone, a discrepancy between the shear zone lineation and inferred shear sense leads to uncertainty in kinematic interpretation of the shear zone. The EGB rock types include charnockites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses and garnet-sillimanite-bearing metapelitic gneisses (khondalites). Outside the MSZ, gneisses preserve an earlier, dominantly down-dip intersection lineation. Sillimanite needles in khondalites are aligned parallel to this lineation, while quartz and garnet are also annealed into the granulite facies fabric. In the vicinity of the shear zone, evidence of dextral non-coaxial shearing progressively increases but the lineation distribution is scattered. Quartz grains show strong undulose extinction caused by strain at lower temperatures, and crystallographic c-axis fabric analyses using EBSD indicate deformation by basal c-slip mechanism. Preferred alignment of the sillimanite needles is disrupted in khondalites within the MSZ because of partial rotation of the needles towards the sub-horizontal movement direction, with the extent of rotation of the needles being apparently controlled by grain size. Some sillimanite needles also appear to have undergone

  10. Neoarchean granite-greenstone belts and related ore mineralization in the North China Craton: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic processes involving amalgamations of microblocks along zones of ocean closure represented by granite-greenstone belts (GGB were fundamental in building the Earth's early continents. The crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton (NCC are correlated to the amalgamation of microblocks welded by 2.75–2.6 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga GGBs. The lithological assemblages in the GGBs are broadly represented by volcano-sedimentary sequences, subduction-collision related granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks (basalt and dacite interlayered with minor komatiites and calc-alkalic volcanic rocks (basalt, andesite and felsic rock. The geochemical features of meta-basalts in the major GGBs of the NCC display affinity with N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB and calc-alkaline basalt, suggesting that the microblocks were separated by oceanic realm. The granitoid rocks display arc signature with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, Sr, Ba and LREE, and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Th, U, Ti and HREE, and fall in the VAG field. The major mineralization includes Neoarchean BIF-type iron and VMS-type Cu-Zb deposits and these, together with the associated supracrustal rocks possibly formed in back-arc basins or arc-related oceanic slab subduction setting with or without input from mantle plumes. The 2.75–2.60 Ga TTG rocks, komatiites, meta-basalts and metasedimentary rocks in the Yanlingguan GGB are correlated to the upwelling mantle plume with eruption close to the continental margin within an ocean basin. The volcano-sedimentary rocks and granitoid rocks in the late Neoarchean GGBs display formation ages of 2.60–2.48 Ga, followed by metamorphism at 2.52–2.47 Ga, corresponding to a typical modern-style subduction-collision system operating at the dawn of Proterozoic. The late Neoarchean komatiite (Dongwufenzi GGB, sanukitoid (Dongwufenzi GGB and Western Shandong GGB, BIF (Zunhua GGB and VMS deposit (Hongtoushan-Qingyuan-Helong GGB have closer connection to a combined

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of Late Proterozoic hornblende gabbros from southeast of Fariman, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoud Homam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks are quite common in subduction-related magmatic suites and considered to represent magmatic differentiation process in arc magmas (Heliker, 1995; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The presence of hornblende as an important mineral phase in gabbroic rocks of subduction zone has been considered either as an early crystallizing mineral from water-bearing mafic magmas (Beard and Borgia 1989; Mandal and Ray, 2012 or as a product of reaction of early crystallized minerals (olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase and water-rich evolved melt/aqueous fluid (Costa et al., 2002; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The careful study of petrology and geochemistry of hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks from Chahak area, of Neoproterozoic age, can provide important information about their petrogenesis. Because of the special characteristics of Chahak hornblende gabbros according to their age and their situation in the main structural units of Iran, their study can present critical keys for the knowledge of geological history of Iran specially central Iran zone. Material and Methods This study carried out in two parts including field and laboratory works. Sampling and structural studies were carried out during field work. Geological map for the study area was also prepared. 65 thin and polished thin sections for petrographical purpose were studied. Major oxides, rare earth elements and trace elements were analyzed for 4 samples (92P-1, 92P-3, B1and B6 from hornblende gabbros on the basis of 4AB1 method using ICP-MS of ACME Laboratory from Canada. In addition, major oxides of three hornblende gabbro samples (89P-62, 89P-59 and 89P-46 were used from Partovifar (Partovifar, 2012. Results and discussion Fariman metamorphic terrains, of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous (plutonic and volcanic rocks. Hornblende gabbros of the study area include plagioclase, hornblende, biotite pyroxene and

  12. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  13. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  14. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  15. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  16. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  17. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  18. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  19. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  20. Economic and social sustainability performance of jatropha projects: results from field surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H.A.; Heijnen, S.; Rom Colthoff, J.; Jong, de B.; Eijck, van J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel

  1. Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Henny; Heijnen, Sanne; Rom Colthoff, Jouke; de Jong, Boris; van Eijck, Janske

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel

  2. Barriers to access to antiretroviral treatment in Mozambique, as perceived by patients and health workers in urban and rural settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posse, M.E.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study identifies, ranks, and compares factors perceived as barriers to accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) in urban and rural settings in Mozambique. Data were collected between March and July 2008. It consisted of 13 focus group discussions and a structured questionnaire administered to

  3. Plurality of religion, plurality of justice : exploring the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Religion is alive, especially - and increasingly - in the global South. What impact does religion have in everyday life as provider of normative orientations? This research investigates the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Mozambique, where both traditional religion and

  4. Impulses for Perishable Products : Quick Scan of Potato, Aquaculture, and Horticulture Cold Chain Opportunities in the Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.; Haverkort, A.J.; Montsma, M.P.; Rothuis, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the fast-changing Zambezi Valley in Mozambique food security is not yet a reality, despite the economic growth due to e.g. mining. Quick scans were conducted for Zambezi Valley Development Agency to assess the potential for market-driven inclusive development of three value chains: potato,

  5. Sexuality education in Ghana and Mozambique : An examination of colonising assemblages informing school-based sexuality education initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, E.; Oduro, G.Y.; Rasmussen, M.L.; Allen, L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the historical and socio-political contexts of the design and delivery of school-based sexuality education for young women and men in two sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana and Mozambique. The chapter interrogates colonising tendencies within, and created through,

  6. Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the research programme Home Space in the African City (www.homespace.dk) and aims at providing insights to the development of African cities with an emphasis on planning and housing, based on in-depth empirical data from Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. The Home Space concept...

  7. Development of a Study Module on and Pedagogical Approaches to Industrial Environmental Engineering and Sustainability in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husgafvel, Roope; Martikka, Mikko; Egas, Andrade; Ribiero, Natasha; Dahl, Olli

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the sustainability challenges in the forest sector in Mozambique requires capacity building for higher education and training of new skilled expert and future decision-makers. Our approach was to develop a study module on and pedagogical approaches to industrial environmental engineering and sustainability. The idea was to develop a…

  8. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  9. Neurologic manifestations associated with an outbreak of typhoid fever, Malawi--Mozambique, 2009: an epidemiologic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James; Lutterloh, Emily; Naiene, Jeremias; Likaka, Andrew; Manda, Robert; Nygren, Benjamin; Monroe, Stephan; Khaila, Tadala; Lowther, Sara A; Capewell, Linda; Date, Kashmira; Townes, David; Redwood, Yanique; Schier, Joshua; Barr, Beth Tippett; Demby, Austin; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kampondeni, Sam; Blount, Ben; Humphrys, Michael; Talkington, Deborah; Armstrong, Gregory L; Mintz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, which is typically associated with fever and abdominal pain. An outbreak of typhoid fever in Malawi-Mozambique in 2009 was notable for a high proportion of neurologic illness. Describe neurologic features complicating typhoid fever during an outbreak in Malawi-Mozambique Persons meeting a clinical case definition were identified through surveillance, with laboratory confirmation of typhoid by antibody testing or blood/stool culture. We gathered demographic and clinical information, examined patients, and evaluated a subset of patients 11 months after onset. A sample of persons with and without neurologic signs was tested for vitamin B6 and B12 levels and urinary thiocyanate. Between March - November 2009, 303 cases of typhoid fever were identified. Forty (13%) persons had objective neurologic findings, including 14 confirmed by culture/serology; 27 (68%) were hospitalized, and 5 (13%) died. Seventeen (43%) had a constellation of upper motor neuron findings, including hyperreflexia, spasticity, or sustained ankle clonus. Other neurologic features included ataxia (22, 55%), parkinsonism (8, 20%), and tremors (4, 10%). Brain MRI of 3 (ages 5, 7, and 18 years) demonstrated cerebral atrophy but no other abnormalities. Of 13 patients re-evaluated 11 months later, 11 recovered completely, and 2 had persistent hyperreflexia and ataxia. Vitamin B6 levels were markedly low in typhoid fever patients both with and without neurologic signs. Neurologic signs may complicate typhoid fever, and the diagnosis should be considered in persons with acute febrile neurologic illness in endemic areas.

  10. Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, Marc; Slingerland, Maja; Locke, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, rising oil prices and concerns about future energy supplies have contributed to a growing interest in using biomass for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the biophysical potential of biofuel production on the African continent, and analysts see Mozambique as one of the most promising African countries. Favorable growing conditions and the availability of land, water and labor are mentioned as major drivers behind this potential. Moreover, the potential of biofuel production to generate socio-economic benefits is reflected in the government's policy objectives for the development of the sector, such as reducing fuel import dependency and creating rural employment. This article provides an overview of biofuel developments in Mozambique and explores to what extent reality matches the suggested potential in the country. We conclude that biofuel developments mainly take place in areas near good infrastructure, processing and storage facilities, where there is (skilled) labor available, and access to services and goods. Moreover, our analysis shows the need to timely harmonize current trends in biofuel developments with the government's policy objectives as the majority of existing and planned projects are not focusing on remote rural areas, and - in absence of domestic markets - principally target external markets.

  11. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women’s Autonomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353

  12. Surgical treatment of peritonitis due to typhoid fever in a Hospital in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Gallego Mariño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typhoid fever is a cause of peritonitis by perforation of the intestinal loops and provokes the death of many people; therefore it constitutes a health problem in Mozambique.Objective: To describe the patients operated on, with the diagnosis of peritonitis resulting from typhoid fever, at the surgery department of the Provincial Hospital in Quelimane, Zambezia Province, Mozambique, from November 1, 2011 to April 30, 2012.Methods: A descriptive study of the patients operated on with the diagnosis of peritonitis resulting from typhoid fever, at the hospital and period herein mentioned, was performed. The study population consisted of 96 patients who were operated on. The variables that were measured were: age, sex, onset of symptoms, total perforations, performed surgical treatment and complications.Results: Male patients of the 25 to 50 age group prevailed; most of them visited the service after 72 hours of the onset of symptoms; in 66 patients only one perforation was found and the surgical procedure mostly used was the suture of the perforation and the washout of the abdominal cavity.Conclusions: Most of the patients visited the service 72 hours after the onset of symptoms; they underwent surgery; and wound infection was the most frequent complication.

  13. Effects of grain-producing cover crops on rice grain yield in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Besides providing benefits to the environment such as soil protection, release of nutrients, soil moisture maintenance, and weed control, cover crops can increase food production for grain production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and grain cover crops (and its respective effects on soil chemical and physical attributes, yield components, and grain yield of rice in Mozambique. The study was conducted in two sites located in the province of Cabo Delgado, in Mozambique. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 2 × 6 factorial, with four repetitions. Treatments were carried out in two locations (Cuaia and Nambaua with six cover crops: Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.; namarra bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet, velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens L., oloco beans (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., and fallow. Cover crops provided similar changes in chemical and physical properties of the soil. Lablab purpureus, Vigna unguiculata, and Mucuna pruriens produced the highest dry matter biomass. Vigna unguiculada produced the highest amount of grains. Rice grain yields were similar under all cover crops and higher in Cuaia than Nambaua.

  14. Language policies and sign language translation and interpreting: connections between Brazil and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2015v16n2p101 This paper is the result of an initial attempt to establish a connection between Brazil and Mozambique regarding sign language translation and interpreting. It reviews some important landmarks in language policies aimed at sign languages in these countries and discusses how certain actions directly impact political decisions related to sign lan­guage translation and interpreting. In this context, two lines of argument are developed. The first one addresses the role of sign language translation and interpreting in the Por­tuguese-speaking context, since Portuguese is the official language in both countries; the other offers some reflections about the Deaf movements and the movements of sign lan­guage translators and interpreters, the legal recognition of sign languages, the develop­ment of undergraduate courses and the contemporary challenges in the work of transla­tion professionals. Finally, it is suggested that sign language translators and interpreters in both Brazil and Mozambique undertake efforts to press government bodies to invest in: (i area-specific training for translators and interpreters, (ii qualification of the ser­vices provided by such professionals, and (iii development of human resources at mas­ter’s and doctoral levels in order to strengthen research on sign language translation and interpreting in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.

  15. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique): A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Graca, A. da

    2009-01-01

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools.

  16. HIV drug resistance patterns in pregnant women using next generation sequence in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez, María; Noguera-Julian, Marc; González, Raquel; Maculuve, Sonia; Bellido, Rocío; Vala, Anifa; Rodríguez, Cristina; Sevene, Esperança; Paredes, Roger; Menéndez, Clara

    2018-01-01

    Few data on HIV resistance in pregnancy are available from Mozambique, one of the countries with the highest HIV toll worldwide. Understanding the patterns of HIV drug resistance in pregnant women might help in tailoring optimal regimens for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (pMTCT) and antenatal care. To describe the frequency and characteristics of HIV drug resistance mutations (HIVDRM) in pregnant women with virological failure at delivery, despite pMTCT or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Samples from HIV-infected pregnant women from a rural area in southern Mozambique were analysed. Only women with HIV-1 RNA >400c/mL at delivery were included in the analysis. HIVDRM were determined using MiSeq® (detection threshold 1%) at the first antenatal care (ANC) visit and at the time of delivery. Ninety and 60 samples were available at the first ANC visit and delivery, respectively. At first ANC, 97% of the women had HIV-1 RNA>400c/mL, 39% had CD4+ counts HIV-1 genotyping, less than 20% of women with detectable viremia at delivery had HIVDRM before initiating pMTCT or ART. This suggests that factors other than pre-existing resistance, such as lack of adherence or interruptions of the ANC chain, are also relevant to explain lack of virological suppression at the time of delivery in women receiving antiretrovirals drugs during pregnancy.

  17. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  18. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  19. Excess Ar in biotites from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya: implications for the tectonothermal history of the Mozambique Belt and its Archaean foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, K.; Suwa, K.; Uchiumi, S.; Agata, T.

    1996-10-01

    RbSr whole rock and KAr mineral age determinations were made on rocks from the Broderick Falls (Webuye) area, western Kenya. Granitic rocks yielded a RbSr whole rock isochron age of 2555 ± 101 Ma with an initial {87Sr}/{86Sr} ratio of 0.70121 ± 0.00038. This age represents the time of granitoid emplacement. KAr mineral ages range from 574 to 3420 Ma, which is very variable with respect to mineral type and locality. Mylonitic granodiorite very close to the Nandi Escarpment gave a KAr age of 916 Ma from biotite, suggesting the time of the activity of the Nandi Fault, which may be an earlier phase of the Pan-African Orogeny. Ages of biotites in a zone between 4 and 6 km northeast of the Nandi Fault are anomalously high compared to those of coexisting hornblende and the RbSr isochron age, confirming the existence of excess 40Ar in biotite. Excess 40Ar was probably introduced into biotite under the appropriate temperature conditions prevailing near the Nandi Fault. Taramite, a rare sodic-calcic amphibole, was found in a cordierite-biotite gneiss of the Kavirondian Supergroup and gave a typical Pan-African KAr age of 574 Ma. The last Pan-African metamorphism occurred in the terrane east of the Surongai Thrust.

  20. Structural observations and U-Pb mineral ages from igneous rocks at the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary in the Salahmi Schist Belt, central Finland: constraints on tectonic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietikäinen, K.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area in Vieremä, central Finland, contains part of Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic boundary. In the east, the area comprises Archaean gneiss and the Salahmi Schist Belt. The rocks of the schist belt are turbiditic metagreywackes, with well-preserved depositional structures, occurring as Proterozoic wedge-shaped blocks, and staurolite schists, the latter representing higher-strained and metamorphosed equivalents of the metagreywackes. In the west of the area there is an Archaean gneiss block, containing strongly elongated structures, and deformed Svecofennian supracrustal rocks, which are cut by deformed granitoids. These are juxtaposed with the schist belt. The boundaries of these tectonometamorphic blocks are narrow, highly strained mylonites and thrust zones. The metamorphic grade of the supracrustal rocks increases from east to west, the increase being stepwise across the mylonitic block boundaries. The rocks are more deformed from east to west with younger structures overprinting. In the staurolite schists of the Salahmi Schist Belt, the most prominent structure is a lineation (L2 that overprints the bedding and axial plane foliation. In Sorronmäki quarry, at the western boundary of the schist belt, this Palaeoproterozoic lineation dominates all the structures in tonalite gneiss, which gives a U-Pb age of 2731±6 Ma. Southeast of the quarry, at the same boundary, the Salahmi schists have been overturned towards the northeast, suggesting that the Archaean gneiss at Sorronmäki has been thrust towards the northeast over these rocks. In the western part of the study area, the Leppikangas granodiorite that intrudes the Svecofennian supracrustal rocks gives a U-Pb age of 1891+6 Ma. In the granodiorite, a strong lineation formed by the intersection of two foliations, which maybe L2 is associated with thrusting towards the northeast. The monazite age of the Archaean Sorronmäki gneiss is 1817+3 Ma, and the titanite age of the Svecofennian

  1. The characteristics of soda metasomatite type uranium mineralization for proterozoic strata in the central-southern part of Kang-Dian earth's axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Farong

    1995-12-01

    The uranium mineralization for Proterozoic strata in the central-southern part of Kang-Dian earth's axis can be divided into four typy (sandstone, soda metasomatite, proterozoic epimetamorphics and quartzite). The soda metasomatite type is the dominant type of uranium mineralization and has the prospecting potential in the area. The characteristics of this type uranium mineralization and the problems of metallogenesis are discussed. Soda metasomatite type uranium mineralization is controlled by soda metasomatite and structure. Uranium exists mainly in the forms of minerals (pitchblende, uranate). Its cell parameter is high and oxygenated coefficient is low, belonging to moderate-low temperature hydrothermal origin. The metallogenetic materials originated from deep-seated crust and country rocks. The metallogenetic solution includes a great quantity of atmospheric water, besides hydrothermal solution from deep-seated crust. The metallogene underwent the two stages i.e. Jinnin and Chengjiang. (4 tabs., 3 figs.)

  2. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  3. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  4. Post-Panafrican late Proterozoic basins in the Central Anti-Atlas (Morocco): their influence on the Variscan contractional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimerà, Joan; Arboleya, María. Luisa

    2010-05-01

    Located South of the High Atlas, in Morocco, The Anti-Atlas is a 700 km-long chain trending NE-SW. In the Central Anti-Atlas region, between Warzazat and Taznakht, the Proterozoic Pan-African basement (X1 to X2-3) crops out in isolated areas (boutonnières), where it is overlaid by late to post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic and Palaeozoic rocks. Late to post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic rocks (X3) have been classically divided into three units (X3i, X3m and X3s) which include volcanic rocks — mainly rhyolites— and continental siliciclastic rocks, the older units intruded by late granites (Choubert, 1952 and Choubert et al., 1970). Rocks belonging to the upper unit of post Pan-African Upper Proterozoic rocks (X3s) were deposited in basins bounded by faults with a dominant dip-slip normal motion; as a result, this unit have a variable thickness, being locally absent in the uplifted blocks. Uppermost Proterozoic (Adoudounian) and Palaeozoic rocks deposited unconformable on the older rocks in the Anti-Atlas. The Central Anti-Atlas was slightly deformed during the Variscan orogeny by folds and high-angle thrusts. Two areas are selected to study the post Pan-African to Variscan evolution of the area: the Tiwiyyine basin and the Anti-Atlas Major Fault. Tiwiyyine basin This basin is delimited by kilometric-scale normal faults. Three of them can be observed in the field: two striking NE-SW (NW and SE boundaries) and one striking NW-SE (SW boundary), while the NE boundary is covered by Cenozoic rocks. The basin fill reaches 725 m and has been divided into three units: 1. X3s1: Coarse conglomerates with basal breccias. 2. X3s2: Laminated dolomites at the base, red pelites and conglomerates. 3. X3s3: Conglomerates with interbedded andesites. Unit X3s2 passes laterally to the SW to unit X3s1. The thickness of the basin fill diminishes to the SE. This is specially visible at the basal X3s1 unit. At both sides of the two NE-SW-striking faults, only the upper X3s3 unit is

  5. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  6. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  7. The Proterozoic of NW Mexico revisited: U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes of Sonoran rocks and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L. A.; González-León, C. M.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Valencia-Moreno, M.; Rascón-Heimpel, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Several Proterozoic basement units crop out in the Sonora State of NW Mexico, and the same can be correlated with crustal provinces of southern Laurentia in the neighboring southwestern USA. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic determinations in more than 300 grains separated from igneous and metaigneous rocks from these units indicate that the crystalline basement in Sonora is made up of different components, which are from west to east: (1) The Caborca-Mojave province to the west, characterized by the so-called Bámori Complex, have U-Pb ages between 1696 and 1772 Ma, with moderately juvenile to slightly evolved ɛHf values, yielding T DM ages of ca. 2.1-2.4 Ga; (2) in the intermediate area, east of Hermosillo, the Palofierral and La Ramada orthogneiss units yield an age of 1640 and 1703 Ma, respectively, both having juvenile ɛHf with the Palofierral overlapping the depleted mantle curve at ca. 1.65 Ga; and (3) in the northeastern Sonora, samples from the southern extension of the Mazatzal province, represented by the Pinal Schist, yielded ages between 1674 and 1694 Ma, with moderately juvenile to juvenile ɛHf values and a T DM age of ca. 1.9 Ga. In addition, a suite of post-tectonic granites was also studied in Caborca (San Luis granite) as well as in northeastern Sonora (Cananea granite), both yielding ages of ca. 1.44 Ga with moderately juvenile ɛHf values ranging from -1 to +8 and T DM dates of ca. 1.8-1.9 Ga and 1.6-1.7 Ga, respectively. These two isotopically contrasting provinces may imply the existence of a Proterozoic paleo-suture. However, if the Palofierral gneiss, of which the Hf signature straddles the depleted mantle array, is taken as the source for the 1.44 Ga Cananea granite, then the location of such a suture zone should lay farther south than the proposed trace of the Mojave-Sonora megashear.

  8. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  9. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  10. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  11. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  12. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  13. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  14. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  15. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  16. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  17. Geophysical evidence for the crustal variation and distribution of magmatism along the central coast of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian Olaf; Jokat, Wilfried

    2017-08-01

    For our understanding of the timing and geometry of the initial Gondwana break-up, still a consistent image of the crustal composition of the conjugated margins of central Mozambique and Antarctica and the location of their continent-ocean boundaries is missing. In this regard, a main objective is the explanation for the source of the different magnetic signature of the conjugate margins. Based on a revised investigation of wide-angle seismic data along two profiles across the Mozambican margin by means of an amplitude modelling, this study presents the crustal composition across and along the continental margin of central Mozambique. Supported by 2D magnetic modelling, the results are compared to the conjugate margin in Antarctica and allow new conclusions about their joined tectonic evolution. An observed crustal diversity between the north-eastern and south-western parts of the central Mozambican margin, testifies to the complex break-up history of this area. Conspicuous is the equal spatial extent of the HVLCB along the margin of 190-215 km. The onset of oceanic crust at the central Mozambican margin is refined to chron M38n.2n (164.1 Ma). Magnetic modelling supports the presence of reversed polarized SDRs in the continent-ocean transition that were mainly emplaced between 168.5 and 166.8 Ma (M42-M40). Inferred SDRs in the Riiser-Larsen Sea might be emplaced sometime between 166.8 and 164.1 Ma (M39-M38), but got overprinted by normal polarized intrusions of a late stage of rift volcanism, causing the opposite magnetic signature of the conjugate margins. The distribution of the magmatic material along the central coast of Mozambique clearly indicates the eastern extension of the north-eastern branch of the Karoo triple rift along the entire margin. The main magmatic phase affecting this area lasted for at least 12 Myr between 169 and 157 Ma, followed by the cease of the magmatism, perhaps due to the relative southwards motion of the magmatic centre.

  18. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%-5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%-6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking stoves

  19. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N; da Sousa, C P; Paredes, S

    1995-09-16

    To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. 206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. 174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast killed 1.45 people and wounded 1.27. Households with a land mine victim

  20. The hydrography of the Mozambique Channel from six years of continuous temperature, salinity, and velocity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullgren, J. E.; van Aken, H. M.; Ridderinkhof, H.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

    2012-11-01

    Temperature, salinity and velocity data are presented, along with the estimated volume transport, from seven full-length deep sea moorings placed across the narrowest part of the Mozambique Channel, southwest Indian Ocean, during the period November 2003 to December 2009. The dominant water mass in the upper layer is Sub-Tropical Surface Water (STSW) which overlies South Indian Central Water (SICW), and is normally capped by fresher Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Upper ocean salinity increased through 2005 as a result of saline STSW taking up a relatively larger part of the upper layer, at the expense of TSW. Upper waters are on average warmer and lighter in the central Channel than on the sides. Throughout the upper 1.5 km of the water column there is large hydrographic variability, short-term as well as interannual, and in particular at frequencies (four to seven cycles per year) associated with the southward passage of anticyclonic Mozambique Channel eddies. The eddies have a strong T-S signal, in the upper and central waters as well as on the intermediate level, as the eddies usually carry saline Red Sea Water (RSW) in their core. While the interannual frequency band displays an east-west gradient with higher temperature variance on the western side, the eddy frequency band shows highest variance in the centre of the Channel, where the eddy band contains about 40% of the total isopycnal hydrographic variability. Throughout the >6 years of measurements, the frequency and characteristics of eddies vary between periods, both in terms of strength and vertical structure of eddy T-S signals. These changes contribute to the interannual variability of water mass properties: an increase in central water salinity to a maximum in late 2007 coincided with a period of unusually frequent eddies with strong salinity signals. The warmest and most saline deep water is found within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent, on the western side of the Channel. The Undercurrent

  1. The Global Fund's paradigm of oversight, monitoring, and results in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ashley; Cordon, Roberto; Told, Michaela; de Savigny, Don; Kickbusch, Ilona; Tanner, Marcel

    2017-12-12

    The Global Fund is one of the largest actors in global health. In 2015 the Global Fund was credited with disbursing close to 10 % of all development assistance for health. In 2011 it began a reform process in response to internal reviews following allegations of recipients' misuse of funds. Reforms have focused on grant application processes thus far while the core structures and paradigm have remained intact. We report results of discussions with key stakeholders on the Global Fund, its paradigm of oversight, monitoring, and results in Mozambique. We conducted 38 semi-structured in-depth interviews in Maputo, Mozambique and members of the Global Fund Board and Secretariat in Switzerland. In-country stakeholders were representatives from Global Fund country structures (eg. Principle Recipient), the Ministry of Health, health or development attachés bilateral and multilateral agencies, consultants, and the NGO coordinating body. Thematic coding revealed concerns about the combination of weak country oversight with stringent and cumbersome requirements for monitoring and evaluation linked to performance-based financing. Analysis revealed that despite the changes associated with the New Funding Model, respondents in both Maputo and Geneva firmly believe challenges remain in Global Fund's structure and paradigm. The lack of a country office has many negative downstream effects including reliance on in-country partners and ineffective coordination. Due to weak managerial and absorptive capacity, more oversight is required than is afforded by country team visits. In-country partners provide much needed support for Global Fund recipients, but roles, responsibilities, and accountability must be clearly defined for a successful long-term partnership. Furthermore, decision-makers in Geneva recognize in-country coordination as vital to successful implementation, and partners welcome increased Global Fund engagement. To date, there are no institutional requirements for

  2. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, R Graham; Nhamahanga, Eduardo; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen

    2011-02-09

    The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS) programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475) of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167), 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53) and of those identified (n = 33) 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality), less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality) and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%). Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo), strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166). One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of bendiocarb within the estate for seven years and the

  3. Urogenital schistosomiasis in Cabo Delgado, northern Mozambique: baseline findings from the SCORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna E; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Aurelio, Herminio O; Dhanani, Neerav; Ferro, Josefo; Nala, Rassul; Deol, Arminder; Fenwick, Alan

    2018-01-10

    The results presented here are part of a five-year cluster-randomised intervention trial that was implemented to understand how best to gain and sustain control of schistosomiasis through different preventive chemotherapy strategies. This paper presents baseline data that were collected in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, northern Mozambique, before treatment. A cross-sectional study of 19,039 individuals was sampled from 144 villages from May to September 2011. In each village prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium were investigated in 100 children first-year students (aged 5-8 years), 100 school children aged 9-12 years (from classes 2 to 7) and 50 adults (20-55 years). Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection were evaluated microscopically by two filtrations, each of 10 ml, from a single urine specimen. Given that individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis influence control efforts, community knowledge and environmental risk factors were collected using a face-to-face interview. Data were entered onto mobile phones using EpiCollect. Data summary was made using descriptive statistics. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis was 60.4% with an arithmetic mean intensity of infection of 55.8 eggs/10 ml of urine. Heavy infections were detected in 17.7%, of which 235 individuals (6.97%) had an egg count of 1000 eggs/10 ml or more. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females across all ages (62% vs 58%; P Cabo Delgado. In addition, poor community knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it increases the significant public health challenge for the national control program. This was the first study in Mozambique that examined infection levels among adults, where results showed that S. haematobium infection was also extremely high. Given

  4. Community perceptions of malaria and vaccines in two districts of Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Allison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Mozambique, with nearly three-quarters of the country’s malaria-related deaths occurring in children younger than five years. A malaria vaccine is not yet available, but planning is underway for a possible introduction, as soon as one becomes available. In an effort to inform the planning process, this study explored sociocultural and health communications issues among individuals at the community level who are both responsible for decisions about vaccine use and who are likely to influence decisions about vaccine use. Methods Researchers conducted a qualitative study in two malaria-endemic districts in southern Mozambique. Using criterion-based sampling, they conducted 23 focus group discussions and 26 in-depth interviews. Implementation was guided by the engagement of community stakeholders. Results Community members recognize that malaria contributes to high death rates and affects the workforce, school attendance, and the economy. Vaccines are seen as a means to reduce the threat of childhood illnesses and to keep children and the rest of the community healthy. Perceived constraints to accessing vaccine services include long queues, staff shortages, and a lack of resources at health care facilities. Local leaders play a significant role in motivating caregivers to have their children vaccinated. Participants generally felt that a vaccine could help to prevent malaria, although some voiced concern that the focus was only on young children and not on older children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Probed on their understanding of vaccine efficacy, participants voiced various views, including the perception that while some vaccines did not fully prevent disease they still had important benefits. Overall, it would be essential for local leaders to be involved in the design of specific messages for a future malaria vaccine communications strategy, and for those

  5. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhamahanga Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. Results No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475 of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167, 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53 and of those identified (n = 33 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality, less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%. Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo, strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166. One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Conclusion Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of

  6. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  7. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  8. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  9. Belt, Road, and Circle: The Arctic and Northern Europe in China's Belt and Road Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna

    2018-01-01

    Sørensen offers a much-needed analysis of the how the development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) links to China’s growing interests and ambitions in the Arctic showing how China is using the BRI to further intensify and strengthen relations with the Nordic countries in the Arctic. Conducting...

  10. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  11. Lead isotopic composition of paleozoic and late proterozoic marine carbonate rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountains, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zartman, R.E.; Kwak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Paleozoic and Late Proterozoic marine carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites, and their metamorphic equivalents) cropping out in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain contain lead with an isotopic composition strongly suggesting them to be a major source of the lead observed at Trench 14 in the carbonate phase of carbonate-silica veins and nearby surficial calcrete deposits. Six whole-rock samples of marine carbonate rocks yield 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 19.21-29.06, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.74-16.01, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 37.90-39.25, and leachate and residue fractions of the rocks reveal additional isotopic heterogeneity within individual samples. Two samples of eolian dust also have isotopic compositions lying along a 'carbonate' to 'silicate' mixing trend that appears to arise entirely from pedeogenic processes. The tendency for the marine carbonate rocks to evolve highly uranogenic, but not thorogenic, lead results in a distinctive isotopic composition that serves as a tracer in eolian dust and secondary carbonate minerals derived from the marine carbonate rocks

  12. Late Archaean-early Proterozoic source ages of zircons in rocks from the Paleozoic orogen of western Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, R P; Priem, H N.A. [Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Den Tex, E [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Aardwetenschappen

    1982-08-01

    U-Pb data are reported for nine suites of zircons and three monazites from the Paleozoic orogen in western Galicia: one paragneiss and six orthogneisses from the early Paleozoic basement, and two Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma old) intrusions of two-mica granite. New whole-rock Rb-Sr analyses, along with earlier data, indicate an age of ca. 470-440 Ma (Ordovician) for the emplacement of the granitic precursors of the orthogneisses. Monazite from the paragneiss also yields an U-Pb age of ca. 470 Ma. From the high initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios an involvement of Precambrian continental crust material is evident in the generation of the early Paleozoic suite of granites, while the zircon U-Pb data give evidence of the presence of about 3.0-2.0 Ga old (late Archaean-early Proterozoic) components in the source material. Zircons from the oldest sedimentary rocks in the area, now present as catazonal paragneisses and a likely source for the granites, likewise reveal a provenance age of 3.0-2.0 Ga.

  13. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  14. Antibiotics resistance in El Tor Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated during cholera outbreaks in Mozambique from 2012 to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Candida Dengo-Baloi

    Full Text Available Mozambique has recorded cyclically epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Antibiotic therapy is recommended in specific situations for management and control of cholera outbreaks. However, an increase in resistance rates to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae has been reported in several epidemic outbreaks worldwide. On the other hand, there are few recent records of continuous surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of V. cholerae in Mozambique.The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during Cholera outbreaks in Mozambique to commonly used antibiotics.We analyzed data from samples received in the context of surveillance and response to Cholera outbreaks in the National Reference Laboratory of Microbiology from the National Institute of Health of Mozambique, 159 samples suspected of cholera from cholera treatment centers of, Metangula (09, Memba (01, Tete City (08, Moatize (01, Morrumbala (01 districts, City of Quelimane (01, Lichinga (06 and Nampula (86 districts, from 2012 to 2015. Laboratory culture and standard biochemical tests were employed to isolate and identify Vibrio cholerae; serotypes were determined by antisera agglutination reaction in blade. Biotype and presence of important virulence factors analysis was done by PCR. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern was detected by disk diffusion method Kirby Bauer. Antibiotic susceptibility and results were interpreted by following as per recommendations of CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2014. All samples were collected and tested in the context of Africhol Project, approved by the National Bioethics Committee for Health.Among isolates from of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa resistance to Sulphamethoxazole-trimethropim was 100% (53/53 to Trimethoprim-, being 100% (54/54 for Ampicillin, 99% (72/74 for Nalidixic Acid, 97% (64/66 to Chloramphenicol, 95% (42/44 for Nitrofurantoin and (19/20 Cotrimoxazole, 83% (80

  15. Antibiotics resistance in El Tor Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated during cholera outbreaks in Mozambique from 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengo-Baloi, Liliana Candida; Semá-Baltazar, Cynthia Amino; Manhique, Lena Vania; Chitio, Jucunu Elias; Inguane, Dorteia Luísa; Langa, José Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Mozambique has recorded cyclically epidemic outbreaks of cholera. Antibiotic therapy is recommended in specific situations for management and control of cholera outbreaks. However, an increase in resistance rates to antibiotics by Vibrio cholerae has been reported in several epidemic outbreaks worldwide. On the other hand, there are few recent records of continuous surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility pattern of V. cholerae in Mozambique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibiotics resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during Cholera outbreaks in Mozambique to commonly used antibiotics. We analyzed data from samples received in the context of surveillance and response to Cholera outbreaks in the National Reference Laboratory of Microbiology from the National Institute of Health of Mozambique, 159 samples suspected of cholera from cholera treatment centers of, Metangula (09), Memba (01), Tete City (08), Moatize (01), Morrumbala (01) districts, City of Quelimane (01), Lichinga (06) and Nampula (86) districts, from 2012 to 2015. Laboratory culture and standard biochemical tests were employed to isolate and identify Vibrio cholerae; serotypes were determined by antisera agglutination reaction in blade. Biotype and presence of important virulence factors analysis was done by PCR. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern was detected by disk diffusion method Kirby Bauer. Antibiotic susceptibility and results were interpreted by following as per recommendations of CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) 2014. All samples were collected and tested in the context of Africhol Project, approved by the National Bioethics Committee for Health. Among isolates from of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa resistance to Sulphamethoxazole-trimethropim was 100% (53/53) to Trimethoprim-, being 100% (54/54) for Ampicillin, 99% (72/74) for Nalidixic Acid, 97% (64/66) to Chloramphenicol, 95% (42/44) for Nitrofurantoin and (19/20) Cotrimoxazole, 83% (80

  16. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  17. The economics and politics of local content in African extractives: Lessons from Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendelboe Hansen, Michael; Buur, Lars; Kjær, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    expectations, local content is limited, shallow and inefficient. The paper explores why local content apparently is so difficult to achieve in these African countries. It is argued that conventional economic explanations, focusing on market failures and weak institutions, are partial at best and therefore must......Extractive foreign direct investment (FDI) is heralded as the new development opportunity in Africa. A key precondition for FDI’s contribution, however, is that foreign investors create ‘local content’ by linking up to the local economy. Consequently, African host governments are contemplating ways...... in which they can promote local content. This paper examines local content policies and practices in three African countries – Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique – all countries with huge expectations for extractive based economic development. It is found that in spite of high ambitions and strong...

  18. Four-year treatment outcomes of adult patients enrolled in Mozambique's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Mozambique during 2004-2007 numbers of adult patients (≥15 years old enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART increased about 16-fold, from 60 kg, WHO stage IV (AHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4, reference group WHO stage I/II, lack of co-trimoxazole prescription (AHR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, and later calendar year of ART initiation (AHR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8. Rates of immunologic treatment failure and regimen-switch were 14.0 and 0.6 events per 100-patient years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ART initiation at earlier disease stages and scale-up of co-trimoxazole among ART patients could improve outcomes. Research to determine reasons for low regimen-switch rates and increasing rates of attrition during program expansion is needed.

  19. Measuring the Impact of Road Rehabilitation on Spatial Market Efficiency in Maize Markets in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, Xavier; Arndt, Channing

    2008-01-01

    to the existing literature in three ways. First, a unique data set, where road rehabilitation episodes between market pairs are identified, is developed. Second, special care is devoted to estimation of transaction costs due to the sensitivity of the PBM model to the quality of transaction costs estimates......This article analyzes the impact of road rehabilitation on the spatial market efficiency of maize markets in Mozambique. We estimate a modified version of the Parity Bounds Model (PBM) that allows us to test the impact of road rehabilitation on spatial efficiency. This article seeks to contribute....... Finally, as opposed to most existing literature that focuses on relatively distant markets, the article focuses on spatially closed markets. We find that maize markets tend to be segmented due to high transport costs. Following road rehabilitation, inefficiency and average absolute price differentials...

  20. Asymmetry of ARCH effects and natural resources disease or virtue: Mozambique experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faias, Marta; Mota, Pedro; Mulenga, Alberto; Pina, Joaquim P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the exchange rate behavior, mainly as to the presence of asymmetry in the shocks to conditional variance. Particularly, we investigate if the presence of that asymmetric response is specific to a marked behavior of the currency, appreciation/Dutch disease/depreciation, and if it appears masked when taking long non-homogeneous periods. Taking Mozambique Metical bilateral exchange rate against South Africa Rand, a major trading partner, we identify specific movements in defined sub-periods, where the most recent has the Dutch disease under scrutiny. Our results point out that asymmetry emerges especially when the currency is depreciating, while it is masked when considering larger periods that combine differences in currency behavior.

  1. Social and behavior change communication in the fight against malaria in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison

    2017-03-23

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique. RESUMO As redes mosquiteiras impregnadas com insecticidade de longa duração e/ou pulverização intra-domiciliária, associada ao manejo de casos são intervenções-chave no controlo da malária em África. O objetivo deste estudo foi comentar o papel da comunicação para a mudança social e de comportamento como intervenção potencialmente chave no controlo da malária em Moçambique.

  2. Radial variation of wood physical properties in Pinus patula growing in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gumane Francisco Juizo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  This study aimed to evaluate wood physical properties of Pinus patula, aged 38, from a forest stand located in Machipanda, central region of Mozambique. Determination of physical properties, such as basic specific gravity, shrinkage, and moisture content of wood in the pith-bark followed the recommendations of the Panamerican Standard - COPANT. Results showed statistically significant differences at significance level of 5%, in the radial direction for the shrinkage coefficient in the pith-bark. Radial and tangential shrinkage values were 6.06 and 8.80% in juvenile wood and 6.18 and 8.65% in adult wood, respectively, with anisotropy coefficient of 1.43 for juvenile wood and 2.44 for adult wood. Pinus patula growing in Inhamacari forest shows stable wood at age 38. It can be used for structural purposes and for manufacture of joinery and furniture.

  3. Cash income, intrahousehold cooperative conflict, and child health in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James

    2003-01-01

    This study presents qualitative data on individual cash income generation and intrahousehold bargaining in a sample of 100 households in central Mozambique. It is now recognized that intrahousehold resource allocation patterns can be critical determinants of children's health in the developing world. Recently developed "bargaining-power" models suggest that individual incomes are often not pooled in households and that decisions are the result of a bargaining process that involves cooperation and conflict between men and women. Women's income, many believe, is more often spent on child welfare. Development projects should target benefits to women for greater impact on child health. Some argue that households consist of separate, gendered spheres of economic responsibility that intersect through a "conjugal contract" that defines the terms of cooperation. The findings here support the "separate-spheres" depiction of the household and reveal women's subordinated position in the external cash economy, which undermines their intrahousehold bargaining power.

  4. [Stigma and discrimination: the experiences of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosário Gregório; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2015-03-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. The country has high prevalence rates, and the epidemic's impact is aggravated by the stigma affecting HIV-positive persons. This study takes a socio-anthropological perspective to analyze the experience of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo and the ways they cope with stigma and discrimination. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 HIV-positive women. The results show how gender inequalities increase women's vulnerability to HIV and contribute to their stigmatization and discrimination. In dealing with stigma, women try to keep their diagnosis confidential, seeking support in group meetings with others living with HIV. Public policies should focus on women's empowerment and the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  5. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  6. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  7. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  8. The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines

  9. Mozambique field epidemiology and laboratory training program: a pathway for strengthening human resources in applied epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, Cynthia Semá; Taibo, Cátia; Sacarlal, Jahit; Gujral, Lorna; Salomão, Cristolde; Doyle, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, Mozambique has been undergoing demographic, epidemiological, economic and social transitions, which have all had a notable impact on the National Health System. New challenges have emerged, causing a need to expand the preparation and response to emerging disease threats and public health emergencies. We describe the structure and function of the Mozambique Field Epidemiology Training Program (MZ-FELTP) and the main outputs achieved during the first 6 years of program implementation (consisting of 3 cohorts). We also outline the contribution of the program to the National Health System and assess the retention of the graduates. The MZ-FELTP is a post-graduate in-service training program, based on the acquisition of skills, within two tracks: applied epidemiology and laboratory management. The program was established in 2010, with the objective of strengthening capacity in applied epidemiology and laboratory management, so that events of public health importance can be detected and investigated in a timely and effective manner. The program is in its seventh year, having successfully trained 36 health professionals in the advanced course. During the first six years of the program, more than 40 outbreaks were investigated, 37 surveillance system evaluations were conducted and 39 descriptive data analyses were performed. Surveillance activities were implemented for mass events and emergency situations. In addition, more than 100 oral and poster presentations were given by trainees at national and international conferences. The MZ-FELTP has helped provide the Ministry of Health with the human and technical resources and operational capacity, to rapidly and effectively respond to major public health challenges in the country. The continuous involvement of key stakeholders is necessary for the continuation, expansion and ongoing sustainability of the program.

  10. Influence of mesoscale features on micronekton and large pelagic fish communities in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Ménard, Frédéric; Marsac, Francis

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of two communities, micronekton organisms and large predatory fishes, sampled in mesoscale features of the Mozambique Channel from 2003 to 2009, by combining mid-water trawls, stomach contents of fish predators and instrumented longline fishing surveys. The highest species richness for assemblages was found in divergences and fronts rather than in the core of eddies. Despite an unbalanced scheme, diversity indices did not differ significantly between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, divergences and fronts. We found that eddies and associated physical cues did not substantially affect the distribution of micronektonic species which are mainly driven by the diel vertical migration pattern. Top predators exhibited a more complex response. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) associated better with mesoscale features than tunas, with a clear preference for divergences which is consistent with the diel vertical migrations and occurrence of its main prey, the flying squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Ommastrephidae). On the other hand, the probability of presence of yellowfin tuna was not tied to any specific eddy structure. However, the highest values of positive yellowfin CPUEs were associated with low horizontal gradients of sea-level anomalies. We also showed a non-linear response of positive yellowfin CPUEs with respect to the depth of the minimal oxygen content. The larger the distance between the hooks and the minimal oxygen layer, towards the surface or at greater depths, the higher the CPUE, highlighting that yellowfin congregated in well-oxygenated waters. Micronekton sampled by mid-water trawls and stomach contents exhibited different species composition. The highly mobile organisms were not caught by trawling whereas they remain accessible to predators. The combination of stomach contents and mid-water trawls undoubtedly improved our understanding of the micronekton assemblage distribution. Our results provide some

  11. Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Promote Option B+ Retention in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James T; Napúa, Manuel; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Chale, Falume; Hoek, Roxanne; Micek, Mark; Manuel, João; Michel, Cathy; Cowan, Jessica Greenberg; Cowan, James F; Gimbel, Sarah; Sherr, Kenneth; Gloyd, Stephen; Chapman, Rachel R

    2017-11-01

    This randomized trial studied performance of Option B+ in Mozambique and evaluated an enhanced retention package in public clinics. The study was conducted at 6 clinics in Manica and Sofala Provinces in central Mozambique. Seven hundred sixty-one pregnant women tested HIV+, immediately initiated antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, and were followed to track retention at 6 clinics from May 2014 to May 2015. Clinics were randomly allocated within a stepped-wedge fashion to intervention and control periods. The intervention included (1) workflow modifications and (2) active patient tracking. Retention was defined as percentage of patients returning for 30-, 60-, and 90-day medication refills within 25-35 days of previous refills. During control periods, 52.3% of women returned for 30-day refills vs. 70.8% in intervention periods [odds ratio (OR): 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05 to 3.08]. At 60 days, 46.1% control vs. 57.9% intervention were retained (OR: 1.82; CI: 1.06 to 3.11), and at 90 days, 38.3% control vs. 41.0% intervention (OR: 1.04; CI: 0.60 to 1.82). In prespecified subanalyses, birth before pickups was strongly associated with failure-women giving birth before ARV pickup were 33.3 times (CI: 4.4 to 250.3), 7.5 times (CI: 3.6 to 15.9), and 3.7 times (CI: 2.2 to 6.0) as likely to not return for ARV pickups at 30, 60, and 90 days, respectively. The intervention was effective at 30 and 60 days, but not at 90 days. Combined 90-day retention (40%) and adherence (22.5%) were low. Efforts to improve retention are particularly important for women giving birth before ARV refills.

  12. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D Villarreal

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol (Ins is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase, by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P, mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  13. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Fernando D; Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol (Ins) is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1) were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P), mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P) is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  14. Safety and Acceptability of Community-Based Distribution of Injectable Contraceptives: A Pilot Project in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Ana; Mobaracaly, Mahomed Riaz; Ustáb, Momade Bay; Bique, Cassimo; Blazer, Cassandra; Weidert, Karen; Prata, Ndola

    2016-09-28

    Mozambique has witnessed a climbing total fertility rate in the last 20 years. Nearly one-third of married women have an unmet need for family planning, but the supply of family planning services is not meeting the demand. This study aimed to explore the safety and effectiveness of training 2 cadres of community health workers-traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs) (polyvalent elementary health workers)-to administer the injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and to provide evidence to policy makers on the feasibility of expanding community-based distribution of DMPA in areas where TBAs and APEs are present. A total of 1,432 women enrolled in the study between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority (63% to 66%) of women in the study started using contraception for the first time during the study period, and most women (over 66%) did not report side effects at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up visits. Very few (less than 0.5%) experienced morbidities at the injection site on the arm. Satisfaction with the performance of TBAs and APEs was high and improved over the study period. Overall, the project showed a high continuation rate (81.1%) after 3 injections, with TBA clients having significantly higher continuation rates than APE clients after 3 months and after 6 months. Clients' reported willingness to pay for DMPA (64%) highlights the latent demand for modern contraceptives. Given Mozambique's largely rural population and critical health care workforce shortage, community-based provision of family planning in general and of injectable contraceptives in particular, which has been shown to be safe, effective, and acceptable, is of crucial importance. This study demonstrates that community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives can provide access to family planning to a large group of women that previously had little or no access. © Jacinto et al.

  15. Evaluation of Satellite Rainfall Estimates for Drought and Flood Monitoring in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien Toté

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET Rainfall Estimate (RFE v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012. This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  16. Evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates for drought and flood monitoring in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tote, Carolien; Patricio, Domingos; Boogaard, Hendrik; van der Wijngaart, Raymond; Tarnavsky, Elena; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite derived rainfall products are useful for drought and flood early warning and overcome the problem of sparse, unevenly distributed and erratic rain gauge observations, provided their accuracy is well known. Mozambique is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as major droughts and floods and thus, an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of different rainfall products is valuable. Three dekadal (10-day) gridded satellite rainfall products (TAMSAT African Rainfall Climatology And Time-series (TARCAT) v2.0, Famine Early Warning System NETwork (FEWS NET) Rainfall Estimate (RFE) v2.0, and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS)) are compared to independent gauge data (2001–2012). This is done using pairwise comparison statistics to evaluate the performance in estimating rainfall amounts and categorical statistics to assess rain-detection capabilities. The analysis was performed for different rainfall categories, over the seasonal cycle and for regions dominated by different weather systems. Overall, satellite products overestimate low and underestimate high dekadal rainfall values. The RFE and CHIRPS products perform as good, generally outperforming TARCAT on the majority of statistical measures of skill. TARCAT detects best the relative frequency of rainfall events, while RFE underestimates and CHIRPS overestimates the rainfall events frequency. Differences in products performance disappear with higher rainfall and all products achieve better results during the wet season. During the cyclone season, CHIRPS shows the best results, while RFE outperforms the other products for lower dekadal rainfall. Products blending thermal infrared and passive microwave imagery perform better than infrared only products and particularly when meteorological patterns are more complex, such as over the coastal, central and south regions of Mozambique, where precipitation is influenced by frontal systems.

  17. Have You Heard of Schistosomiasis? Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Nampula Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, Christian; Kajungu, Dan; Martin, Sandrine; Arroz, Jorge; Tallant, Jamie; Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Counihan, Helen; Newell, James N; Phillips, Anna; Whitton, Jane; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Graham, Kirstie

    2016-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention mechanisms and the rationale behind MDA.

  18. Factors associated with late antiretroviral therapy initiation among adults in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lahuerta

    Full Text Available Despite recent changes to expand the ART eligibility criteria in sub-Saharan Africa, many patients still initiate ART in the advanced stages of HIV infection, which contributes to increased early mortality rates, poor patient outcomes, and onward transmission.To evaluate individual and clinic-level factors associated with late ART initiation in Mozambique, we conducted a retrospective sex-specific analysis of data from 36,411 adult patients who started ART between January 2005 and June 2009 at 25 HIV clinics in Mozambique. Late ART initiation was defined as CD4 count45_vs.26-30 = 0.72, 95%CI [0.67-0.77], entry into care via PMTCT (AOR(entry_through_PMTCT_vs.VCT = 0.42, 95%CI [0.35-0.50], marital status (AOR(married/in union_vs.single = 0.87, 95%CI [0.83-0.92], education (AOR(secondary_or_higher_vs.primary = 0.87, 95%CI [0.83-0.93] and year of ART initiation were associated with a lower likelihood of late ART initiation. Clinic-level factors independently associated with a lower likelihood of late ART initiation included CD4 machine on-site (AOR(CD4_machine_onsite_vs.offsite = 0.83, 95%CI [0.74-0.94] and presence of PMTCT services onsite (AOR = 0.85, 95%CI [0.77-0.93].The risk of starting ART late remained persistently high. Efforts are needed to ensure identification and enrollment of patients at earlier stages of HIV disease. Individual and clinic level factors identified may provide clues for upstream structural interventions.

  19. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

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    Ferrinho Paulo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

  20. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy