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  1. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cavernous Malformations Disease InfoSearch: Cerebral Cavernous Malformation ...

  3. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ...

  4. Cerebral cavernous angioma. 16 cases. Aspects in CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J.I.; Medrano, J.; Lasierra, R.; Benito, J.L. de; Feijoo, R.; Fernandez, J.A.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The cerebral cavernous angioma (CA) is included in the group of cerebral malformations that can not be detected angiographically. We present the retrospective study of 16 patients, diagnosed as having CA, comparing the data provided by CT and MR, as well as the contribution of cerebral angiography. (Author) 25 refs

  5. Cerebral cavernous malformations. Serial magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with and without gamma knife surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Pyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Ik; Jeon Pyoung; Ryu, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Geum-Joo; Park, Sang-Joon

    1998-01-01

    To classify the cerebral cavernous malformations and to investigate the natural history of cavernous malformations according to the classification, 41 patients with 61 cavernous malformations (40 cavernous malformations from 22 patients treated with gamma knife surgery) were regularly followed up using MR imaging for a mean period of 25.5 months in treated cavernous malformations and 20.7 months in untreated cavernous malformations, respectively. Cavernous malformations were classified into four types. Follow-up MR images were analyzed to evaluate changes in size, signal intensity, rebleeding, and perilesional adverse reaction of irradiation. A total of 61 cavernous malformations including 17 in type I, 23 in type II, 10 in type III, and 11 in type IV showed usual degradation of blood product in 22 cavernous malformations, no change in shape and signal intensity in 31 cavernous malformations, and eight cavernous malformations with rebleedings in the serial MR images. In these eight cavernous malformations with rebleedings, six occurred in type II and two in type III, but none in type I or IV. Rebleedings were more frequent in type II than in other types. Adverse reaction of irradiation was observed in five of 22 patients treated with gamma knife surgery. Although most cerebral cavernous malformations showed evolution of hemorrhage or no change in size or shape on follow-up MR images, cerebral cavernous malformations represented as mixture of subacute and chronic hemorrhage with hemosiderin rim (type II) have a higher frequency to rebleed than other types of cerebral cavernous malformations. Cerebral cavernous malformations represented as hemosiderin deposition without central core (type IV) have a lower tendency to rebleed than other types and do not need any treatment. Most of the adverse reaction of irradiation after gamma knife surgery around cavernous malformations are transient findings and are considered to be perilesional edema. (K.H)

  6. Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment

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    Nikolaos Mouchtouris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatment—microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative management—depending on the lesion characteristics.

  7. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (...

  8. Simultaneous and sequential hemorrhage of multiple cerebral cavernous malformations: a case report.

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    Louis, Nundia; Marsh, Robert

    2016-02-09

    The etiology of cerebral cavernous malformation hemorrhage is not well understood. Causative physiologic parameters preceding hemorrhagic cavernous malformation events are often not reported. We present a case of an individual with sequential simultaneous hemorrhages in multiple cerebral cavernous malformations with a new onset diagnosis of hypertension. A 42-year-old white man was admitted to our facility with worsening headache, left facial and tongue numbness, dizziness, diplopia, and elevated blood pressure. His past medical history was significant for new onset diagnosis of hypertension and chronic seasonal allergies. Serial imaging over the ensuing 8 days revealed sequential hemorrhagic lesions. He underwent suboccipital craniotomy for resection of the lesions located in the fourth ventricle and right cerebellum. One month after surgery, he had near complete resolution of his symptoms with mild residual vertigo but symptomatic chronic hypertension. Many studies have focused on genetic and inflammatory mechanisms contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture, but few have reported on the potential of hemodynamic changes contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture. Systemic blood pressure changes clearly have an effect on angioma pressures. When considering the histopathological features of cerebral cavernous malformation architecture, changes in arterial pressure could cause meaningful alterations in hemorrhage propensity and patterns.

  9. Structure and vascular function of MEKK3–cerebral cavernous malformations 2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Oriana S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Deng, Hanqiang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai (China); Liu, Dou [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Ya [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Wei, Rong [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai (China); Deng, Yong [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Fan [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Louvi, Angeliki [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Turk, Benjamin E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Boggon, Titus J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Su, Bing [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-03

    Cerebral cavernous malformations 2 (CCM2) loss is associated with the familial form of CCM disease. The protein kinase MEKK3 (MAP3K3) is essential for embryonic angiogenesis in mice and interacts physically with CCM2, but how this interaction is mediated and its relevance to cerebral vasculature are unknown. Here we report that Mekk3 plays an intrinsic role in embryonic vascular development. Inducible endothelial Mekk3 knockout in neonatal mice is lethal due to multiple intracranial haemorrhages and brain blood vessels leakage. We discover direct interaction between CCM2 harmonin homology domain (HHD) and the N terminus of MEKK3, and determine a 2.35 Å cocrystal structure. We find Mekk3 deficiency impairs neurovascular integrity, which is partially dependent on Rho–ROCK signalling, and that disruption of MEKK3:CCM2 interaction leads to similar neurovascular leakage. We conclude that CCM2:MEKK3-mediated regulation of Rho signalling is required for maintenance of neurovascular integrity, unravelling a mechanism by which CCM2 loss leads to disease.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cerebral cavernous haemangioma in a dog : clinical communication

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    J.P. Schoeman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 13-month-old, neutered, male Golden retriever presented with seizures and progressive depression. Clinical and neurological assessment was consistent with severe intracranial disease. The neurological condition progressively deteriorated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of a large, contrast-enhancing, space-occupying mass in the right cerebral hemisphere. Therapy with corticosteroids, mannitol and furosemide ameliorated the signs of depression and ataxia, but the owner elected euthanasia after 1 week. Post mortem examination of the brain confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic lesion in the right olfactory lobe, the histopathological appearance of which was consistent with cerebral cavernous haemangioma. This is the 1st case describing the MRI appearance of a cavernous haemangioma of the cerebrum in the veterinary literature.

  11. Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically-occult clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels that may present clinically with seizures, focal neurological deficits and/or hemorrhage. Across natural history studies, the annual hemorrhage rate ranged from 1.6-3.1% per patient-year, decreasing to 0.08-0.2% per patient-year for incidental CMs and to 0.3-0.6% for the collective group of unruptured CMs. Prior hemorrhage is a significant risk factor for subsequent CM hemorrhage. Hemorrhage clustering, particularly within the first 2 years, is an established phenomenon that may confound results of natural history studies evaluating the rate of rehemorrhage. Indeed, rehemorrhage rates for hemorrhagic CMs range from 4.5-22.9% in the literature. Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for surgically-accessible, symptomatic CMs. Incidental CMs or minimally symptomatic, surgically inaccessible eloquent lesions may be considered for observation. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment approach of consideration only for cases of highly aggressive, surgically inaccessible CMs.

  12. Cavernous sinus syndrome due to rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis

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    Vagner Moyses Vilela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the case of a 43-year-old diabetic patient with facial pain, protruding eyes, nasal congestion and decreased right vision (involvement of the ipsilateral cranial nerves III, IV and V. Computed tomography showed diffuse sinusitis at right, cribriform plate erosion and presence of a hypodense collection in the frontal lobe with peripheral enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a cerebral abscess. Samples were collected from the lesion, confirming hyphae compatible with mucormycosis.

  13. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral cavernous malformations.

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    Hart, Blaine L; Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A; Morrison, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22-76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E-6 to 9.63E-4 min(-1), mean 3.55E-4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E-4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E-4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects.

  14. Multiple cerebral cavernous malformations in a pediatric patient with Turner syndrome

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    Nicholas T. Gamboa, B.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS; 45,X0 is a relatively common chromosomal disorder that is associated with characteristic phenotypic stigmata: short stature, webbed neck, broad (“shield” chest with widely spaced nipples, cubitus valgus, ovarian dysgenesis (“streak ovary”, primary amenorrhea, renal anomalies, lymphedema of the hands or feet, and various vascular abnormalities. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are commonly reported in patient with TS, and vascular anomalies affecting various other organ systems are also frequently reported. To date, however, few reports of intracranial vascular malformations exist. The authors report the case of a patient with TS who was found to have multiple cerebral cavernous malformations on imaging.

  15. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  16. Oxidative stress and inflammation in cerebral cavernous malformation disease pathogenesis: Two sides of the same coin.

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    Retta, Saverio Francesco; Glading, Angela J

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM) is a vascular disease of proven genetic origin, which may arise sporadically or is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance and highly variable expressivity. CCM lesions exhibit a range of different phenotypes, including wide inter-individual differences in lesion number, size, and susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Lesions may remain asymptomatic or result in pathological conditions of various type and severity at any age, with symptoms ranging from recurrent headaches to severe neurological deficits, seizures, and stroke. To date there are no direct therapeutic approaches for CCM disease besides the surgical removal of accessible lesions. Novel pharmacological strategies are particularly needed to limit disease progression and severity and prevent de novo formation of CCM lesions in susceptible individuals. Useful insights into innovative approaches for CCM disease prevention and treatment are emerging from a growing understanding of the biological functions of the three known CCM proteins, CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2 and CCM3/PDCD10. In particular, accumulating evidence indicates that these proteins play major roles in distinct signaling pathways, including those involved in cellular responses to oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis, pointing to pathophysiological mechanisms whereby the function of CCM proteins may be relevant in preventing vascular dysfunctions triggered by these events. Indeed, emerging findings demonstrate that the pleiotropic roles of CCM proteins reflect their critical capacity to modulate the fine-tuned crosstalk between redox signaling and autophagy that govern cell homeostasis and stress responses, providing a novel mechanistic scenario that reconciles both the multiple signaling pathways linked to CCM proteins and the distinct therapeutic approaches proposed so far. In addition, recent studies in CCM patient cohorts suggest that genetic susceptibility

  17. Follow-up of 13 patients with surgical treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations: effect on epilepsy and patient disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, H.; Mooij, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    We report a series of 13 patients with surgical treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation (CM). The aim of this study was to investigate postoperative patient disability and seizure control in patients with CM in order to clarify indications for neurosurgical removal. In our series we emphasize

  18. Follow-up of 13 patients with surgical treatment of cerebral cavernous malformations : effect on epilepsy and patient disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, H; Mooij, JJA

    Objective: We report a series of 13 patients with surgical treatment of cerebral cavernous malformation (CM). The aim of this study was to investigate postoperative patient disability and seizure control in patients with CM in order to clarify indications for neurosurgical removal. In our series we

  19. Unilateral facial palsy in an infant: an unusual presentation of familial multiple cerebral cavernous malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) in infants tends to have genetic predisposition. These cavernomas have a progressive course of events and associated neurological symptoms with increase in age. They most commonly present with seizure and syndrome of increased intracranial pressure comprising of headache, vomiting and focal neurological signs. We describe a case of a 7-month-old infant who presented with an acute onset of right facial paralysis with a background of familial CCM. The CT and MRI scan revealed fresh haemorrhage in the right cerebellar and pontine cavernomas with surrounding oedema and no evidence of obstructive hydrocephalus. These two cavernomas re-bled in a week duration causing episodes of incessant crying and irritability. After discussing the pros and cons of treatment, owing to stable clinical status, the patient is currently been managed conservatively.

  20. CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATION COEXISTING WITH PITUITARY ADENOMA, HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS AND MENTAL ILLNESS: FIRST CASE REPORT.

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    Sara Guido

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCMs are vascular lesions involving brain capillaries. They may occur sporadically or be inherited as autosomal dominant character. Due to incomplete penetrance, CCMs incidence is underestimated and, overall sporadic cases, are often accidentally diagnosed. Rarely CCMs are linked to other pathological conditions. Here we present the first case in literature of a young woman affected by sporadic CCM, pituitary adenoma, Hashimoto thyroiditis and mental illness of unknown etiology. Symptoms’ analysis suggests that she may suffer of Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE, a condition that in very few cases develops together with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Genetic bases of HE are still unknown and symptomatology is very heterogeneous. This paper is a preliminary report of the case and is focused on complexity of clinical manifestations that makes the diagnosis uncertain. If our hypothesis will be confirmed by further analysis, our aim will be to clarify genetic causes of HE.

  1. Development of a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm subsequent to occlusion of the contralateral internal carotid artery for giant cavernous aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.L.; Hurst, R.W.; Imbesi, S.G.; Galetta, S.L.; Sinson, G.P.; Grossman, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who developed a left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm 5 years after balloon occlusion of the right internal carotid artery for a giant cavernous aneurysm. The location of the new aneurysm was outside of the primary collateral pathways to the contralateral, proximally occluded, anterior circulation, illustrating the complexity of hemodynamic factors contributing to the development of intracranial saccular aneurysms. The appearance of an aneurysm in this setting supports the hypothesis that degenerative factors and hemodynamic stresses are important in the etiology of intracranial aneurysms. (orig.)

  2. Clinical course of untreated cerebral cavernous malformations: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Margaret A; Flemming, Kelly D; Su, I-Chang; Stapf, Christian; Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Li, Da; Maxwell, Susanne S; White, Philip; Christianson, Teresa J; Agid, Ronit; Cho, Won-Sang; Oh, Chang Wan; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Kim, Jeong Eun; Ter Brugge, Karel; Willinsky, Robert; Brown, Robert D; Murray, Gordon D; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) can cause symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), but the estimated risks are imprecise and predictors remain uncertain. We aimed to obtain precise estimates and predictors of the risk of ICH during untreated follow-up in an individual patient data meta-analysis. We invited investigators of published cohorts of people aged at least 16 years, identified by a systematic review of Ovid MEDLINE and Embase from inception to April 30, 2015, to provide individual patient data on clinical course from CCM diagnosis until first CCM treatment or last available follow-up. We used survival analysis to estimate the 5-year risk of symptomatic ICH due to CCMs (primary outcome), multivariable Cox regression to identify baseline predictors of outcome, and random-effects models to pool estimates in a meta-analysis. Among 1620 people in seven cohorts from six studies, 204 experienced ICH during 5197 person-years of follow-up (Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year risk 15·8%, 95% CI 13·7-17·9). The primary outcome of ICH within 5 years of CCM diagnosis was associated with clinical presentation with ICH or new focal neurological deficit (FND) without brain imaging evidence of recent haemorrhage versus other modes of presentation (hazard ratio 5·6, 95% CI 3·2-9·7) and with brainstem CCM location versus other locations (4·4, 2·3-8·6), but age, sex, and CCM multiplicity did not add independent prognostic information. The 5-year estimated risk of ICH during untreated follow-up was 3·8% (95% CI 2·1-5·5) for 718 people with non-brainstem CCM presenting without ICH or FND, 8·0% (0·1-15·9) for 80 people with brainstem CCM presenting without ICH or FND, 18·4% (13·3-23·5) for 327 people with non-brainstem CCM presenting with ICH or FND, and 30·8% (26·3-35·2) for 495 people with brainstem CCM presenting with ICH or FND. Mode of clinical presentation and CCM location are independently associated with ICH within 5 years of CCM diagnosis. These

  3. Surgical Management and Long-Term Seizure Outcome After Surgery for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

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    Yang, Peng-Fan; Pei, Jia-Sheng; Jia, Yan-Zeng; Lin, Qiao; Xiao, Hui; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhong, Zhong-Hui

    2018-02-01

    Operative strategies for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM)-associated temporal lobe epilepsy and timing of surgical intervention continue to be debated. This study aimed to establish an algorithm to evaluate the efficacy of surgical intervention strategies, to maximize positive surgical outcomes and minimize postsurgical neurologic deficits. 47 patients having undergone operation for CCM-associated temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed. They had received a diagnostic series for seizure localization, including long-term video electroencephalography (vEEG), high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). In patients with mesial temporal lobe CCMs, the involved structures (amygdala, hippocampus, or parahippocampal gyrus) were resected in addition to the lesions. Patients with neocortical epileptogenic CCM underwent extended lesionectomy guided by intraoperative electrocorticography; further performance of amygdalohippocampectomy depended on the extent of hippocampal epileptogenicity. The study cohort contained 28 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), 12 with chronic epilepsy (CE), and 7 with sporadic seizure (SS). Normal temporal lobe metabolism was seen in 7/7 patients of the SS group. Hypometabolism was found in all patients with chronic disease except for those with posterior inferior and middle temporal gyrus cavernous malformations (CMs). Of the 31 patients with superficial neocortical CCM, 7 had normal PET without hippocampal sclerosis, 14 had ipsilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism without hippocampal sclerosis, and 10 had obvious hippocampal sclerosis and hypometabolism. Seizure freedom in DRE, CE, and SS was 82.1%, 75%, and 100%, respectively. A significant difference was found between lesion laterality and postoperative seizure control; the rate was lower in left-sided cases because of less aggressive resection. Our study demonstrates that the data from the

  4. De novo formation of cerebral cavernous malformation in a patient with intractable epilepsy: case report and review.

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    Colpan, Mustafa Efkan; Uckardesler, Levent; Sekerci, Zeki; Slavin, Konstantin

    2010-07-01

    The exact origin and process of development of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) is currently unknown. In this article, the authors present de novo CCM formation in a patient with intractable epilepsy and discuss the pathogenesis of CCM in light of several current theories. A 34-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of intractable seizures. His neurological examination was normal, and the initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was suggestive of right mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Follow-up MRI study showed development of CCM in the right frontal region. Subsequently, invasive monitoring revealed right temporal seizure source, prompting right temporal lobectomy that resulted in abolition of epilepsy. Histological diagnosis of CCM was confirmed after the lesion was removed in a separate surgery. The patient recovered to normal lifestyle without any complications. This appears to be a first documented case of de novo CCM formation in the setting of intractable epilepsy with ipsilateral MTS. Since the possibility of lesion development cannot be ruled out based on clinical examination, updated imaging and thorough neurophysiological workup are needed for successful treatment of patients with intractable epilepsy.

  5. The Role of Hemosiderin Excision in Seizure Outcome in Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Di Ruan

    Full Text Available Whether the excision of hemosiderin surrounding cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs is necessary to achieve a seizure-free result has been the subject of debate. Here, we report a systematic review of related literature up to Jan 1, 2015 including 594 patients to assess the effect of hemosiderin excision on seizure outcome in patients with CCMs by meta-analysis.Ten studies comparing extended hemosiderin excision with only lesion resection were identified by searching the English-language literature. Meta-analyses, subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were conducted to determine the association between hemosiderin excision and seizure outcome after surgery.Seizure outcome was significantly improved in the patients who underwent an extended excision of the surrounding hemosiderin (OR, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42-0.91; P = 0.01. In subgroup analysis, studies from Asia (OR, 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25-0.71; P = 0.001, male-majority (female ratio 1 year before surgery (OR, 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22-0.84; P = 0.01, lesion diameter > 2 cm (OR, 0.41; 95% CI: 0.19-0.87; P = 0.02 and short-term (< 3 years follow-up (OR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29-0.80; P = 0.005 tended to correlate with a significantly favorable outcome.Patients who underwent extended surrounding hemosiderin excision could exhibit significantly improved seizure outcomes compared to patients without hemosiderin excision. However, further well-designed prospective multiple-center RCT studies are still needed.

  6. Variable expression of cerebral cavernous malformations in carriers of a premature termination codon in exon 17 of the Krit1 gene

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    Gamero Miguel A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM present as either sporadic or autosomal dominant conditions with incomplete penetrance of symptoms. Differences in genetic and environmental factors might be minimized among first-degree relatives. We therefore studied clinical expression in a family with several affected members. Methods We studied a three-generation family with the onset of CCM as a cerebral haemorrhage in the younger (four-year-old sibling. Identification and enumeration of CCMs were performed in T2-weighted or gradient-echo MRIs of the whole brains. Genetic analysis comprised SCCP, sequencing and restriction polymorphism of the Krit1 gene in the proband and at risk relatives. Results The phenotypes of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs in carriers of Krit1 mutations were very variable. We identified a novel frameshift mutation caused by a 1902A insertion in exon 17 of the Krit1 gene, which leads to a premature TAA triplet and predicts the truncating phenotype Y634X. A very striking finding was the absence of both clinical symptoms and CCMs in the eldest sibling harbouring the 1902insA. Conclusions Patients in this family, harbouring the same mutation, illustrate the very variable clinical and radiological expression of a Krit1 mutation. The early and critical onset in the proband contrasts with minor clinical findings in affected relatives. This consideration is important in genetic counselling.

  7. Pyogenic abscess complicating a resolving cerebral haematoma secondary to a cavernous haemangioma: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, A.D.; Naidoo, P.

    2005-01-01

    A case is discussed of a brain abscess complicating an intracerebral haemorrhage occurring in a cavernous haemangioma. A young child presented with focal seizures as a result of a large intracerebral haemorrhage, occurring in a cavernous haemangioma. The only clue to the underlying vascular malformation was the presence of an associated developmental venous anomaly. The case was complicated by the development of a brain abscess at the site of the intracranial haematoma. The CT and MRI findings are discussed Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  8. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those areas not involved with motor function, speech, vision, hearing, memory, and learning) are very likely to be candidates ... those areas not involved with motor function, speech, vision, hearing, memory, and learning) are very likely to be candidates ...

  9. The Role of Hedgehog-Interacting Protein in Maintaining Cavernous Nerve Integrity and Adult Penile Morphology

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    Angeloni, Nicholas L.; Bond, Christopher W.; Monsivais, Diana; Tang, Yi; Podlasek, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is an essential regulator of smooth muscle apoptosis in the penis that has significant clinical potential as a therapy to suppress post-prostatectomy apoptosis, an underlying cause of erectile dysfunction (ED). Thus an understanding of how SHH signaling is regulated in the adult penis is essential to move the field of ED research forward and to develop new treatment strategies. We propose that hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP), which has been shown to bind SHH protein and to play a role in SHH regulation during embryogenesis of other organs, is a critical regulator of SHH signaling, penile morphology, and apoptosis induction. Aims We have examined HIP signaling in the penis and cavernous nerve (CN) during postnatal differentiation of the penis, in CN-injured, and a diabetic model of ED. Methods HIP localization/abundance and RNA abundance were examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in Sprague-Dawley rats between the ages of 7 and 92 days old, in CN-injured Sprague-Dawley rats and in BioBreeding/Worcester diabetic rats. HIP signaling was perturbed in the pelvic ganglia and in the penis and TUNEL assay was performed in the penis. CN tie, lidocaine, and anti-kinesin experiments were performed to examine HIP signaling in the CN and penis. Results In this study we are the first to demonstrate that HIP undergoes anterograde transport to the penis via the CN, that HIP perturbation in the pelvic ganglia or the penis induces apoptosis, and that HIP plays a role in maintaining CN integrity, penile morphology, and SHH abundance. Conclusions These studies are significant because they show HIP involvement in cross-talk (signaling) between the pelvic ganglia and penis, which is integral for maintenance of penile morphology and they suggest a mechanism of how nerves may regulate target organ morphology and function. PMID:19515211

  10. Angiographic patterns of carotid-cavernous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, G.; Jekova, M.; Genov, P.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study is to present our experience in angiographic evaluation of carotid-cavernous fistulas. 8 patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (6 men and 2 women, range of age from 15 to 62) are included in the study out of all undergone cerebral angiography for a four year period (1996 - 2000). All patients underwent CT brain examination, two out of 8 - MRI. Visualization of ipsi- and contra lateral cavernous sinus and ophthalmic vein dilatation are assessed. In all cases the communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus has been assessed as direct. Near simultaneous visualization of the home internal carotid artery, the dilated ipsilateral cavernous sinus and dilated superior ophthalmic vein is found in 2 patients, simultaneous visualization of both cavernous sinuses - in two. In 1 patient the early visualization of the cavernous sinus through the fistula enabled visualization of ipsilateral main internal carotid artery from the contra lateral circulation through the communicating arteries.In 1 excessive contralateral cavernous sinus and contralateral superior ophthalmic vein dilatation is detected. In other 1 excessive flow to dilated ipsilateral cavernous sinus lead insufficient circulation in distal vessels. Digital subtraction Angiography remains the most suitable imaging method in carotid-cavernous fistula assessment regarding type of communication and level of following vessels morphology changes

  11. MR findings of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Lae; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Pyo, Hyeon Soon; Eo, Geun; Kim, Kyo Nam; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jang Min [Kwang Myung Sung Ae Hospital, Kwang Myung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Don Young [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. Eleven MR images of six patients with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis obtained over a five-year period and proven clinically or radiologically were retrospectively reviewed. The contour and enhancement pattern of the cavernous sinus, changes in the internal carotid artery, orbit, pituitary gland and sphenoid sinus, and intracranial abnormalities were analyzed and compared with the findings of follow-up studies. In all six patients, contrast study revealed asymmetrical enlargement of the ipsilateral cavernous sinus and multiple irregular filling defects within it. Narrowing of the cavernous portion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery was noted in five patients, upward displacement of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery in four, ipsilateral proptosis with engorgement of the superior ophthalmic vein in two, pituitary enlargement in five, and inflammatory change in the sphenoid sinus in six. Associated intracranial abnormalities included edema and enhancement in the meninx, temporal lobe, or pons adjacent to the cavernous sinus in four patients, hydrocephalus in one, and cerebral infarction in one. Follow-up MR imaging indicated that the extent of asymmetrical enlargement of the cavernous sinus, filling defects within it, as seen on contrast study, and enlarged pituitary glands had all decreased, without significant interval change. MR imaging is useful in the diagnosis of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. Asymmetrical enlargement of the cavernous sinus, multiple irregular filling defect within it, as seen on contrast study, and changes in the internal carotid artery are characteristic findings. (author)

  12. Longitudinal changes in seizure outcomes after resection of cerebral cavernous malformations in patients presenting with seizures: a long-term follow-up of 46 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiha; Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-08-01

    Seizure is the most common presentation in patients with cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). Although many articles have documented seizure outcomes after resection of CCM, few have conducted long-term follow-ups; thus, the fluctuating seizure outcomes have been neglected. The purpose of this study is to describe long-term postoperative seizure outcomes in patients with CCM and to compare seizure outcomes between patients with sporadic seizures and those with chronic seizures. Forty-six patients with CCM presenting with seizures underwent surgery. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1, and the average age at initial seizure onset was 27.6 years. The mean preoperative seizure duration was 42.7 months. Patients were divided into two groups: a chronic group (N = 20) and a sporadic group (N = 26) according to seizure frequency and duration. The mean postoperative follow-up duration was 96.3 months, and the postoperative seizure outcomes were checked annually based upon Engel's classification. After the first year of follow-up, 80.8 % of the sporadic group and 75.0 % of the chronic group were evaluated as Engel class I. These rates increased to 100.0 % and 90.0 %, respectively, at the eighth year of follow-up. Overall, 29 (63.0 %) of the 46 patients experienced changes in seizure outcomes over the follow-up period. Despite their delayed improvements, the chronic group showed less favorable outcomes throughout follow-up (p = 0.025). Long-term follow-up is indispensable for accurately assessing postoperative seizure outcomes because these outcomes change continuously. We recommend earlier surgery to achieve seizure-free status in patients with CCM. However, even in the chronic group, surgery is recommended, considering the overall delayed improvement.

  13. Identification of proteins regulated by curcumin in cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Fawad-Ali; Gim, Sang-Ah; Sung, Jin-Hee; Jeon, Seong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin is known to have a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to identify various proteins that are differentially expressed by curcumin treatment in focal cerebral ischemia using a proteomic approach. Adult male rats were treated with vehicle or curcumin 1 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Brain tissues were collected 24 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion, and cerebral cortices proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We detected several proteins with altered expression levels between vehicle- and curcumin-treated animals. Among these proteins, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, isocitrate dehydrogenase, adenosylhomocysteinase, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A were decreased in the vehicle-treated animal, and curcumin treatment attenuated the injury-induced decreases of these proteins. Conversely, pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase was increased in the vehicle-treated animal, and curcumin treatment prevented decreases in this protein. The identified altered proteins are associated with cellular metabolism and differentiation. The results of this study suggest that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating the expression of various proteins in focal cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hereditary protein S deficiency presenting with cerebral sinus thrombosis in an adolescent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelman, J. H.; Bakker, C. M.; Plandsoen, W. C.; Peeters, F. L.; Barth, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl, on oral contraceptives for 3 months, presented with cerebral sinus thrombosis. Investigation revealed underlying hereditary protein S deficiency. This uncommon cause of cerebral sinus thrombosis and the possible association with oral contraceptives are discussed

  15. CMS cavern inspection robot

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Robots which are immune to the CMS cavern environment, wirelessly controlled: -One actuated by smart materials (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites and Macro Fiber Composites) -One regular brushed DC rover -One servo-driven rover -Stair-climbing robot

  16. Intracranial cavernous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhi, Fumiaki; Gondou, Masazumi; Sasahira, Masahiro; Ichitsubo, Hidenori; Asakura, Tetsuhiko.

    1986-01-01

    The present authors have experienced 2 cases of intracranial cavernous angioma. Of these cases, one was admitted because of generalized convulsions, while the other was admitted because of headache. In both cases, neither plain X-ray films nor carotid angiography showed any abnormality, but computerized tomography (CT) revealed a slightly high-density area which was not enhanced with contrast media. Histologically, the tumors had many vascular cavities with walls lined with a single layer of endothelial cells and had no neural tissue between the vascular cavities; therefore, they were diagnosed as cases of cavernous angioma. The authors discussed the radiological findings of the intracranial cavernous angioma with a review of the literature and stressed the role of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. (author)

  17. Study of mined storage caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure petroleum products, other chemical products, aid industrial or nuclear waste

  18. Surveying the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The cathedral-like cavern into which the ATLAS experiment will be lowered and installed forms a vital part of the engineering work at CERN in preparation for the new LHC accelerator. This cavern, being measured by surveyors in these images, will have one of the largest spans of any man-made underground structure. The massive 46X25X25 cubic metre detector will be the largest of its type in the world when it is completed for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  19. Penile cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body in newborns or in young patients, they are typically capillary or cavernous. Cavernous hemangioma of the penis is extremely rare; and its etiology is not completely understood. Treatment options (surgical excision, laser therapy or sclerotherapy… are controversial and are required if pain, cosmetic defect and/or bleeding during intercourse.                                                  We report a case of a 26 years old man presented with a five years history of a painless lesion on his penis. Physical examination showed an ovoid, solid, 1 x 2 mm in size on the dorsum of penis (Panel A and two elevated irregular lesions on the ventral side (Panel B. The lesions were compressive, nonpulsatile and bluish-red in color with strawberry like appearance. Biopsy and histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a gaping and communicating vessels proliferated in the superficial and medium dermis which is pathognomonic for cavernous hemangioma (Panel C and D. Given the small size, the large number of the lesions, the young age, and the ulceration risk during intercourse if skin graft after excision, Neodymium: YAG laser coagulation was recommended to get a good cosmetic results and sexual function satisfaction.

  20. Protein metabolism in the rat cerebral cortex in vivo and in vitro as affected by the acquisition enhancing drug piracetam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickolson, V.J.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Piracetam on rat cerebral protein metabolism in vivo and in vitro was studied. It was found that the drug stimulates the uptake of labelled leucine by cerebral cortex slices, has no effect on the incorporation of leucine into cerebral protein, neither in slices nor in vivo, but

  1. "Tepid" Geysers above salt caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît; Zakharov, Vassily

    2018-06-01

    The formation of a brine geyser erupting from the wellhead of a large underground salt cavern is described. In most cases, the brine outflow from an opened cavern is slow; it results from the cavern creep closure and the thermal expansion of the cavern brine. These two processes are smooth; however, the brine outflow often is bumpy, as it is modulated by atmospheric pressure variations that generate an elastic increase (or decrease) of both cavern and brine volumes. In addition, when the flow is fast enough, the brine thermodynamic behavior in the wellbore is adiabatic. The cold brine expelled from the cavern wellhead is substituted with warm brine entering the borehole bottom, resulting in a lighter brine column. The brine outflow increases. In some cases, the flow becomes so fast that inertia terms must be taken into account. A geyser forms, coming to an end when the pressure in the cavern has dropped sufficiently. A better picture is obtained when head losses are considered. A closed-form solution can be reached. This proves that two cases must be distinguished, depending on whether the cold brine initially contained in the wellbore is expelled fully or not. It can also be shown that geyser formation is a rare event, as it requires both that the wellbore be narrow and that the cavern be very compressible. This study stemmed from an actual example in which a geyser was observed. However, scarce information is available, making any definite interpretation difficult. xml:lang="fr"

  2. Investigation of underground caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.; Lichter, D.

    1979-01-01

    By means of a probe the condition of the boundary surfaces, other parameters, or the contents of the caverns, e.g. in salt rock may be investigated for ultimate storage of radioactive waste. The probe is hanging on a measuring cable designed as a suspending wire leading to a driving and remote-control mechanism and to evaluation units standing on the surface. At the lower end of the probe an extensionarm is hinged as supporting arm for the testing equipment. The supporting arm can be rotated about the probe axis. As testing equipment e.g. ultrasonic probes, lasers, temperature and moisture sensors may be used. (RW) [de

  3. Brain stem cavernous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcarpio-O'Donovan, R.; Melanson, D.; Tampieri, D.; Ethier, R.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of cavernous angioma of the brain stem were definitely diagnosed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In many cases, the diagnosis had remained elusive for several years. Clinically, some cases behaved like multiple sclerosis or brain stem tumor. Others, usually associated with bleeding, caused increased intracranial pressure or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The diagnostic limitations of computed tomography in the posterior fossa are well known. Angiography fails to reveal abnormalities, since this malformation has neither a feeding artery nor a draining vein. Diagnosticians' familiarity with the MR appearance of this lesion may save patients from invasive diagnostic studies and potentially risky treatment

  4. Correlation between synaptic plasticity, associated proteins, and rehabilitation training in a rat model of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Yang; Qian Yu

    2008-01-01

    All motions provide sensory, motoric, and reflexive input to the central nervous system, as well as playing an important role in cerebral functional plasticity and compensation. Cerebral plasticity has become the theoretical basis of neurorehabilitation. Studies of cerebrovascular disease, in particular, demonstrate that regeneration is accompanied by multiple forms of plasticity, such as functional and structural, in different phases of stroke rehabilitation. This study was designed to measure synaptic plasticity and expression of associated proteins to analyze the effect of rehabilitation training on learning and memory in a rat model of cerebral infarction. Results suggest that rehabilitation training increases expression of nerve growth factor associated protein 43, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neural cell adhesion molecules, and also promotes cerebral functional plasticity.

  5. Caverns for neutrino physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, P.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than 20 years, particle physicists are using underground facilities to catch cosmic neutrinos and to get rid of other parasitic cosmic radiations. The observation of significant numbers of neutrinos requires the use of large volume caverns at important depths. This article presents such existing facilities in the US, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Japan (Kamioka), Russia and India and the different projects in competition for the setting up of a mega-ton detector with a volume of 1 million m 3 of water (DUSEL project in the US, MEMPHYS project in France, Hyperkamiokande in Japan). Several suitable underground spaces are available in these countries (abandoned mines, tunnels) but each has its advantages and drawbacks in terms of rock mechanics, access and seismicity. (J.S.)

  6. Direct carotid cavernous fistula after submucous resection of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizri, A R; al-Ajam, M; Zaytoun, G; al-Kutoubi, A

    2000-01-01

    A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous anastomosis between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Etiologies of this condition reported in the literature so far include facial trauma, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm of the carotid artery, Ehler-Danlos syndrome and fibromuscular dysplasia of the cerebral arteries. Such fistulae were reported as complications of rhinoplasty, transsphenoidal surgery, embolization of cavernous sinus meningioma, and rhinocerebral mucormycosis. CCF may also occur spontaneously in children or as a congenital malformation. However, to our knowledge, submucous resection of the nasal septum has not been reported before to cause direct carotid-cavernous fistula. CT and angiographic findings are presented and a review of the literature for reported causes of CCF is made as well as a brief discussion of the possible pathophysiology.

  7. Cerebral venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Hildebrandt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and radiological signs in 15 patients with cerebral venous malformations are presented and the diagnostic problems discussed. The circulation time in combination with cerebral malformations and angiomas of the scalp are described. CT findings in cases of venous malformations of the brain stem are evaluated. Spot-like enhancement, as well as sharply demarcated round shaped enhancement are characteristic for venous angiomas. Cavernous angiomas usually present as homogenous or inhomogenous round shaped enhanced areas. (Author)

  8. Clinical features and management of cavernous and venous angiomas in the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Koji; Date, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous angiomas consist of well-circumscribed collections of thin-walled sinusoidal vascular channels lacking the intervening brain tissue. They are present in 0.4-0.8% of the population, and can occur in a sporadic or familial form. Most common symptoms are seizures, hemorrhage, and focal neurological deficits. The annual bleeding rate of the patient is reported to be 0.25%-20%. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful diagnostic tool with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Microsurgical excision of the lesion is a good treatment choice for cavernous angiomas in the brain, even in the brainstem. Although stereotactic radiosurgery may reduce the incidence of rebleeding and the frequency of seizures, its indication should be carefully investigated because of the relatively high rate of radiation-induced side effects. Less frequently, cavernous angiomas can be located at the extra-axial regions of the head, which include the cavernous sinus, the orbit, and the cranial nerves. Cavernous angiomas in the cavernous sinus pose a neurosurgical challenge due to the high vascularity and involvement of the neurovascular structures, and stereotactic radiosurgery is considered as an additional option. Surgical resection is recommended for symptomatic cavernous angiomas in the orbit; however, the rate of complications after resection is not necessarily low for cavernous angiomas within the apex. Venous angiomas are anomalies of normal venous drainage, which show characteristic appearance of the drainage system in the late phase of angiography (caput medusae). They are found either alone or in combination with other vascular malformations. Conservative treatment is recommended except for patients with a large hematoma or with a coexisting cavernous angioma. (author)

  9. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  10. Fat in the normal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Kera, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    The cavernous sinuses of 17 patients examined by metrizamide CT cisternography with 1.5 mm-thick silces were reviewed. Most of the cavernous sinuses contained fatty components. Anterior lateral end and posterior end of the cavernous sinus are the comon sites where the fat is visible. (orig.)

  11. Metastases in the cavernous synus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez Patino, E.; Pereiro Zabala, I.; Lopez Vazquez, M.D.; Cascallar Caneda, L.; Porto Vazquez, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    We report four cases of metastases in the cavernous synus in patients with primary tumors of parotid gland, lymphatic system, breast and colon. In spite of the similarity in the presentation clinic, the diagnosis wasn't carried out in all the cases with the required celerity, specially in the case of the first presentation of metastasis disease. Three of them response. We analyze the clinic and radiologic data characteristical in cavernous synus metastases, highliting the importance of diagnostic techniques, facilitating as soon as possible the suitable treatment. (Author)

  12. Induction of complement proteins in a mouse model for cerebral microvascular Aβ deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeFilippis Kelly

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ in cerebral vasculature, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA, is a common pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In familial forms of CAA single mutations in the Aβ peptide have been linked to the increase of vascular Aβ deposits accompanied by a strong localized activation of glial cells and elevated expression of neuroinflammatory mediators including complement proteins. We have developed human amyloid-β precursor protein transgenic mice harboring two CAA Aβ mutations (Dutch E693Q and Iowa D694N that mimic the prevalent cerebral microvascular Aβ deposition observed in those patients, and the Swedish mutations (K670N/M671L to increase Aβ production. In these Tg-SwDI mice, we have reported predominant fibrillar Aβ along microvessels in the thalamic region and diffuse plaques in cortical region. Concurrently, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes have been detected primarily in association with fibrillar cerebral microvascular Aβ in this model. Here we show that three native complement components in classical and alternative complement pathways, C1q, C3, and C4, are elevated in Tg-SwDI mice in regions rich in fibrillar microvascular Aβ. Immunohistochemical staining of all three proteins was increased in thalamus, hippocampus, and subiculum, but not frontal cortex. Western blot analysis showed significant increases of all three proteins in the thalamic region (with hippocampus as well as the cortical region, except C3 that was below detection level in cortex. Also, in the thalamic region (with hippocampus, C1q and C3 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated. These complement proteins appeared to be expressed largely by activated microglial cells associated with the fibrillar microvascular Aβ deposits. Our findings demonstrate that Tg-SwDI mice exhibit elevated complement protein expression in response to fibrillar vascular Aβ deposition that is

  13. Levetiracetam Affects Differentially Presynaptic Proteins in Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marcotulli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic proteins are potential therapeutic targets for epilepsy and other neurological diseases. We tested the hypothesis that chronic treatment with the SV2A ligand levetiracetam affects the expression of other presynaptic proteins. Results showed that in rat neocortex no significant difference was detected in SV2A protein levels in levetiracetam treated animals compared to controls, whereas levetiracetam post-transcriptionally decreased several vesicular proteins and increased LRRK2, without any change in mRNA levels. Analysis of SV2A interactome indicates that the presynaptic proteins regulation induced by levetiracetam reported here is mediated by this interactome, and suggests that LRRK2 plays a role in forging the pattern of effects.

  14. Suppressing Receptor-Interacting Protein 140: a New Sight for Salidroside to Treat Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Ma, Zhanqiang; Zhu, Lingpeng; Jiang, Wenjiao; Wei, Tingting; Zhou, Rui; Luo, Fen; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Chunhua; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to detect the effect of salidroside (Sal) on cerebral ischemia and explore its potential mechanism. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to investigate the effects of Sal on cerebral ischemia. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, vehicle group, clopidogrel (7.5 mg/kg) group, Sal (20 mg/kg) group, and Sal (40 mg/kg) group. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to verify the protective effect of Sal in vitro. We also built the stable receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140)-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that Sal significantly reduces brain infarct size and cerebral edema. Sal could effectively decrease the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum of the MCAO rats and supernatant of I/R-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Immunohistochemical and Western blot results demonstrated that Sal inhibited RIP140-mediated inflammation and apoptosis in the MCAO rats and SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we further confirmed that RIP140/NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role by evaluating the protein expression in RIP140-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggested that Sal could be used as an effective neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemia due to its significant effect on preventing neuronal cell injury after cerebral ischemia both in vivo and in vitro by the inhibitions of RIP140-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

  15. [Cavernous haemangiomas: hearing and vestibular inaugural symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Schmerber, S

    2004-11-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas (cavernomas)(CH) are relatively rare (2% of cranial tumoral pathology) vascular malformations mostly observed in the central nervous system. Their most common topographical site in brain stem is midline in the pons, for which clinical course may mimic symptoms of peripheral origin (sudden deafness, fluctuating hearing loss, Meniere-like vertigo). To establish the correlation between the clinical manifestations of hearing and balance disturbance and the anatomical site within the pons of cavernous haemangiomas, and to describe their clinical features, and the findings on auditory brainstem response (ABR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To propose a literature review about CH and its implications. We made a retrospective review of the histories of three patients aged 24, 44 and 45 years, diagnosed as having cavernomas of the brainstem in which audiometric evaluation, videonystagmography (VNG), ABR and imaging techniques lead to the diagnosis of intracranial cavernoma. The clinical and radiological files were reviewed and a direct relationship between symptoms and localization was found in all 3 patients, especially in relation to our understanding of the auditory and vestibular pathways within the brainstem. The literature regarding cavernomas of the pons is reviewed and the clinical, neuroimage, pathological, natural course and management aspects of the disease are discussed. We recommend the use of cerebral MRI for initial diagnosis which shows a typical rosette-like appearance with a heterogeneous signal on T2-weighted images, along with follow-up and investigation into similar profiles among family members. At present there is no consensus about the treatment to follow when cavernomas are located in the brain stem. There is no specific medical treatment for this condition, and surgery is indicated only exceptionally. Anticoagulant therapy, platelet-dispersing medication and violent sports activities are contraindicated.

  16. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  17. Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Artur T; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Kiseleva, Olga I; Teryaeva, Nadezhda B; Potapov, Alexander A; Izotov, Alexander А; Morozov, Sergei G; Kudryavtseva, Valeria Yu; Archakov, Alexander I

    2018-03-01

    A comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the control samples, we have found a small group of 44 proteins characteristic of the blood plasma samples from patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. These proteins contribute to the processes of homeostasis maintenance, including innate immune response unfolding, the response of a body to stress, and contribution to the blood clotting cascade.

  18. Numerical estimation of structural integrity of salt cavern wells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Schreppers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analyses were performed to estimate axial deformation of cavern wells due to gas storage operations in solution-mined salt caverns. Caverns shrink over time due to salt creep and the cavern roof subsides potentially threatening well integrity. Cavern deformation, deformation of salt

  19. Proteomic identification of altered cerebral proteins in the complex regional pain syndrome animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kim, Yong Chul; Lee, Pyung Bok

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  20. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sahngun Nahm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

  1. No effect of ablation of surfactant protein-D on acute cerebral infarction in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Østergaard, Kamilla; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2014-01-01

    known to be involved in extrapulmonary modulation of inflammation in mice. We investigated whether SP-D affected cerebral ischemic infarction and ischemia-induced inflammatory responses in mice. METHODS: The effect of SP-D was studied by comparing the size of ischemic infarction and the inflammatory...... and astroglial responses in SP-D knock out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. SP-D mRNA production was assessed in isolated cerebral arteries and in the whole brain by PCR, and SP-D protein in normal appearing and ischemic human brain by immunohistochemistry......-induced increase in TNF mRNA production one day after induction of ischemia; however the TNF response to the ischemic insult was affected at five days. SP-D mRNA was not detected in parenchymal brain cells in either naïve mice or in mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. However, SP-D mRNA was detected...

  2. Reinforcement of the concrete base slab of the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 05: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 07: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 09: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 10: UX15 cavern, view into PX14 shaft above. Photo 12: UX15 cavern, temporary access platform of RB16 tunnel. Photo 15: UJ17 chamber, invert excavation.

  3. Identification of proteins regulated by ferulic acid in a middle cerebral artery occlusion animal model-a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Hee; Cho, Eun-Hae; Cho, Jae-Hyeon; Won, Chung-Kil; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid plays a neuroprotective role in cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins that are differentially expressed following ferulic acid treatment during ischemic brain injury using a proteomics technique. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce a focal cerebral ischemic injury in adult male rats, and ferulic acid (100 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered immediately after MCAO. Brain tissues were collected 24 hr after MCAO. The proteins in the cerebral cortex were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and were identified by mass spectrometry. We detected differentially expressed proteins between vehicle- and ferulic acid-treated animals. Adenosylhomocysteinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were decreased in the vehicle-treated group, and ferulic acid prevented the injury-induced decreases in these proteins. However, pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase and heat shock protein 60 were increased in the vehicle-treated group, while ferulic acid prevented the injury-induced increase in these proteins. It is accepted that these enzymes are involved in cellular metabolism and differentiation. Thus, these findings suggest evidence that ferulic acid plays a neuroprotective role against focal cerebral ischemia through the up- and down-modulation of specific enzymes.

  4. Occipital lobe infarction: a rare presentation of bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikieti, Kavin; Poonyathalang, Anuchit; Jindahra, Panitha; Cheecharoen, Piyaphon; Chokthaweesak, Wimonwan

    2018-02-02

    Cavernous carotid aneurysm (CCA) represents 2-9% of all intracranial aneurysms and 15% of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms; additionally, giant aneurysms are those aneurysms that are > 25 mm in size. Bilateral CCAs account for 11-29% of patients and are commonly associated with structural weaknesses in the ICA wall, secondary to systemic hypertension. CCAs are considered benign lesions, given the low risk for developing major neurologic morbidities (i.e., subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, or carotid cavernous fistula). Moreover, concurrent presentation with posterior circulation cerebral infarction is even rarer, given different circulation territory from CCA. Here, we report on a patient with bilateral giant CCAs who presented with both typical and atypical symptoms. An 88-year-old hypertensive woman presented with acute vertical oblique binocular diplopia, followed by complete ptosis of the right eye. Ophthalmic examination showed dysfunction of the right third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. Further examination revealed hypesthesia of the areas supplied by the ophthalmic (V1) and maxillary (V2) branches of the right trigeminal nerve. Bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms, with a concurrent subacute right occipital lobe infarction, were discovered on brain imaging and angiogram. Additionally, a prominent right posterior communicating artery (PCOM) was revealed. Seven months later, clinical improvement with stable radiographic findings was documented without any intervention. Dysfunction of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves, and the ophthalmic (V 1 ) and maxillary (V 2 ) branches of the trigeminal nerves, should necessitate brain imaging, with special attention given to the cavernous sinus. Despite unilateral symptomatic presentation, bilateral lesions cannot be excluded solely on the basis of clinical findings. CCA should be included in the differential diagnosis of cavernous sinus lesions. Although rare, ipsilateral

  5. Affinity proteomics reveals elevated muscle proteins in plasma of children with cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bachmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes are central processes in the pathophysiology of severe Plasmodium falciparum childhood malaria. However, it is still not understood why some children are more at risks to develop malaria complications than others. To identify human proteins in plasma related to childhood malaria syndromes, multiplex antibody suspension bead arrays were employed. Out of the 1,015 proteins analyzed in plasma from more than 700 children, 41 differed between malaria infected children and community controls, whereas 13 discriminated uncomplicated malaria from severe malaria syndromes. Markers of oxidative stress were found related to severe malaria anemia while markers of endothelial activation, platelet adhesion and muscular damage were identified in relation to children with cerebral malaria. These findings suggest the presence of generalized vascular inflammation, vascular wall modulations, activation of endothelium and unbalanced glucose metabolism in severe malaria. The increased levels of specific muscle proteins in plasma implicate potential muscle damage and microvasculature lesions during the course of cerebral malaria.

  6. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Gui; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah

    2002-01-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impaired eyeball movement and diplopia

  7. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Giu; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah

    2002-01-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impeder eyeball movement and diplopia

  8. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Giu; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah [The Catholic University of Kore College of Medicine, Puchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impeder eyeball movement and diplopia.

  9. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  10. S100B protein in serum is elevated after global cerebral ischemic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-di Sun; Hong-mei Liu; Shi-nan Nie

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:S100B protein in patients with cardiac arrest,hemorrhagic shock and other causes of global cerebral ischemic injury will be dramatically increased.Ischemic brain injury may elevate the level of serum S100 B protein and the severity of brain damage.METHODS:This article is a critical and descriptive review on S100 B protein in serum after ischemic brain injury.We searched Pubmed database with key words or terms such as 'S100B protein', 'cardiac arrest', 'hemorrhagic shock' and 'ischemia reperfusion injury' appeared in the last five years.RESULTS:S100B protein in patients with cardiac arrest,hemorrhagic shock and other causes of ischemic brain injury will be dramatically increased.Ischemic brain injury elevated the level of serum S100 B protein,and the severity of brain damage.CONCLUSION:The level of S100 B protein in serum is elevated after ischemic brain injury,but its mechanism is unclear.

  11. Pretreatment with Sodium Phenylbutyrate Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB, against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro. SPB also improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function and alleviated neuronal apoptosis both in cell and animal models; these effects of SPB were abolished by DJ-1 knockdown with siRNA. Furthermore, SPB improved the survival rate about 20% and neurological functions, as well as reduced about 50% of the infarct volume and brain edema, of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice 23 h after reperfusion. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that preconditioning of SPB possesses a neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function dependent on the DJ-1 upregulation, suggesting that DJ-1 is a potential therapeutic target for clinical ischemic stroke.

  12. Pretreatment with Sodium Phenylbutyrate Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Xin; Lei, Jie; Wang, Bo-Dong; Feng, Da-Yun; Huang, Lu; Li, Yu-Qian; Li, Tao; Zhu, Gang; Li, Chen; Lu, Fang-Fang; Nie, Tie-Jian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Gao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro . SPB also improved cellular viability and mitochondrial function and alleviated neuronal apoptosis both in cell and animal models; these effects of SPB were abolished by DJ-1 knockdown with siRNA. Furthermore, SPB improved the survival rate about 20% and neurological functions, as well as reduced about 50% of the infarct volume and brain edema, of middle cerebral artery occlusion mice 23 h after reperfusion. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that preconditioning of SPB possesses a neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function dependent on the DJ-1 upregulation, suggesting that DJ-1 is a potential therapeutic target for clinical ischemic stroke.

  13. Measurement of local cerebral protein synthesis in vivo: influence of recycling of amino acids derived from protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.; Deibler, G.E.; Eng, N.; Schmidt, K.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative autoradiographic method for the determination of local rates of protein synthesis in brain in vivo is being developed. The method employs L-[1- 14 C]leucine as the radiolabeled tracer. A comprehensive model has been designed that takes into account intracellular and extracellular spaces, intracellular compartmentation of leucine, and the possibility of recycling of unlabeled leucine derived from steady-state degradation of protein into the precursor pool for protein synthesis. We have evaluated the degree of recycling by measuring the ratio of the steady-state precursor pool distribution space for labeled leucine to that of unlabeled leucine. The values obtained were 0.58 in whole brain and 0.47 in liver. These results indicate that there is significant recycling of unlabeled amino acids derived from steady-state protein degradation in both tissues. Any method for the determination of rates of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo with labeled tracers that depends on estimation of precursor pool specific activity in tissue from measurements in plasma must take this recycling into account

  14. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  15. ATLAS cavern magnetic field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorojtsov, S.B.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Butin, F.; Price, M.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach has been adopted in an attempt to produce a complete ATLAS cavern B-field map using a more precise methodological approach (variable magnetisation, depending on the external field) and the latest design taking into account of the structural elements. The basic idea was to produce a dedicated basic TOSCA model and then to insert a series of ferromagnetic structure elements to monitor the perturbative effect on the basic field map. Eventually, it was found: the bedplate field perturbation is an order of magnitude above the permissible level; manufacturing of the bedplates from nonmagnetic material or careful evaluation of their field contribution in the event reconstruction codes is required; the field value at the rack positions is higher than the permissible one; the final position of racks should be chosen taking into account the detailed magnetic field distribution

  16. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  17. Civil Engineering in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ghostly figures can be seen wandering the cavern that will eventually house the ATLAS experiment, part of the LHC at CERN. Quite fitting since the detector will hunt the illusive 'ghostly' particles, such as the Higgs boson and dark matter. These engineers are excavating the huge cavern that has to be anchored from above as the detector will fill so much space that there is no room for support pillars.

  18. Digging a cavern for a titan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Civil engineers work 100 m underground near the France-Swiss border on the cavern that will soon house ATLAS, one of the experiments on CERN's new LHC accelerator. All personnel and equipment must be lowered by crane down the access shaft. When completed this cavern will have one of the largest spans constructed at 35 m, which required the roof to be supported by large steel anchors buried in concrete.

  19. Cerebral microdialysis for protein biomarker monitoring in the neurointensive care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tomas Hillered

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral microdialysis (MD was introduced as a neurochemical monitoring tool in the early 1990s and is currently well established for the sampling of low molecular weight biomarkers of energy metabolic perturbation and cellular distress in the neurointensive care (NIC setting. There is now a growing interest in MD for intracerebral sampling of protein biomarkers of secondary injury mechanisms in acute traumatic and neurovascular brain injury in the NIC community. The initial enthusiasm over the opportunity to sample protein biomarkers with high molecular weight cut-off (MWCO MD catheters has dampened somewhat with the emerging realization of inherent problems with this methodology including protein adhesion, protein-protein interaction and biofouling, leading to unstable MD catheter performance (i.e. fluid recovery and extraction efficiency. This review will focus on the results of a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, within the Uppsala Berzelii Centre for Neurodiagnostics during the past several years, to study the features of the complex process of high MWCO MD for protein biomarkers. This research has led to new methodology showing robust in vivo performance with optimized fluid recovery and improved extraction efficiency, allowing for more accurate biomarker monitoring. In combination with evolving analytical methodology allowing for multiplex biomarker analysis in ultra-small MD samples a new opportunity opens up for high-resolution temporal mapping of secondary injury cascades, such as neuroinflammation and other cell injury reactions directly in the injured human brain. Such data may provide an important basis for improved characterization of complex injuries, e.g. traumatic and neurovascular brain injury, and help in defining targets and treatment windows for neuroprotective drug development

  20. Deep Sequencing Reveals Uncharted Isoform Heterogeneity of the Protein-Coding Transcriptome in Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sunil; Aly, Ahmed; Garcia, Kristy; Ruiz, Diandra; Pontarelli, Fabrizio; Dharap, Ashutosh

    2018-06-03

    Gene expression in cerebral ischemia has been a subject of intense investigations for several years. Studies utilizing probe-based high-throughput methodologies such as microarrays have contributed significantly to our existing knowledge but lacked the capacity to dissect the transcriptome in detail. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) enables comprehensive examinations of transcriptomes for attributes such as strandedness, alternative splicing, alternative transcription start/stop sites, and sequence composition, thus providing a very detailed account of gene expression. Leveraging this capability, we conducted an in-depth, genome-wide evaluation of the protein-coding transcriptome of the adult mouse cortex after transient focal ischemia at 6, 12, or 24 h of reperfusion using RNA-seq. We identified a total of 1007 transcripts at 6 h, 1878 transcripts at 12 h, and 1618 transcripts at 24 h of reperfusion that were significantly altered as compared to sham controls. With isoform-level resolution, we identified 23 splice variants arising from 23 genes that were novel mRNA isoforms. For a subset of genes, we detected reperfusion time-point-dependent splice isoform switching, indicating an expression and/or functional switch for these genes. Finally, for 286 genes across all three reperfusion time-points, we discovered multiple, distinct, simultaneously expressed and differentially altered isoforms per gene that were generated via alternative transcription start/stop sites. Of these, 165 isoforms derived from 109 genes were novel mRNAs. Together, our data unravel the protein-coding transcriptome of the cerebral cortex at an unprecedented depth to provide several new insights into the flexibility and complexity of stroke-related gene transcription and transcript organization.

  1. Characteristics and treatment of cavernous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kenji; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Cavernous malformations are clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels with thin walls devoid of elastin and smooth muscle. They have no intervening brain tissue. They occur both in sporadic and familial forms. The genes responsible for cavernous malformations have been identified. Recent reports show that mutations of these responsible genes are involved not only in familial but also in sporadic forms. Germline and somatic mutations may occur before cavernous malformations develop (two-hit mechanism). Two patterns, with mulberry-like and hematoma-like appearances, are seen intraoperatively, and from histological findings, mulberry-like appearance may change into hematoma-like one by intralesional hemorrhage. Cavernous malformation treatments include open surgery and radiosurgery. Open surgery is usually chosen for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhagic cavernous malformations because post-radiosurgical annual bleeding risks at the early phase seem to be higher than those of open surgery. If open surgery has a high risk because of lesion location, radiosurgery becomes an effective alternative treatment. Brainstem cavernous malformations have high annual bleeding and re-bleeding incidence, so if the lesion is accessible with low risk, open surgery is recommended. (author)

  2. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  3. Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  4. Acupuncture inhibits Notch1 and Hes1 protein expression in the basal ganglia of rats with cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch pathway activation maintains neural stem cells in a proliferating state and increases nerve repair capacity. To date, studies have rarely focused on changes or damage to signal transduction pathways during cerebral hemorrhage. Here, we examined the effect of acupuncture in a rat model of cerebral hemorrhage. We examined four groups: in the control group, rats received no treatment. In the model group, cerebral hemorrhage models were established by infusing non-heparinized blood into the brain. In the acupuncture group, modeled rats had Baihui (DU20 and Qubin (GB7 acupoints treated once a day for 30 minutes. In the DAPT group, modeled rats had 0.15 μg/mL DAPT solution (10 mL infused into the brain. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that acupuncture effectively inhibits Notch1 and Hes1 protein expression in rat basal ganglia. These inhibitory effects were identical to DAPT, a Notch signaling pathway inhibitor. Our results suggest that acupuncture has a neuroprotective effect on cerebral hemorrhage by inhibiting Notch-Hes signaling pathway transduction in rat basal ganglia after cerebral hemorrhage.

  5. DURAL CAROTID-CAVERNOUS FISTULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF are communications fed by meningeal branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ACI or/and external carotid artery (ACE. In contrast to typical CCF, the arteriovenous shunting of blood is usually low flow and low pressure. Spontaneous dural CCF are more common in postmenopausal women. Aetiology is unknown, but congenital malformation or rupture of thin-walled dural arteries within venous sinuses is believed to be the cause.Case reports. 3 cases lacking the typical clinical signs of CCF who had been treated as chronic conjunctivitis, myositis of the extraocular muscle and orbital pseudotumour are presented. Clinical presentation depends on the direction and magnitude of fistular flow and on the anatomy of the collateral branches. If increased blood flow is directed anteriorly in ophthalmic veins the signs of orbito-ocular congestion are present (»redeyed shunt syndrome«. Drainage primarly in the inferior petrosal sinus may cause painful oculomotor and abducens palsies without signs of ocular congestion (»white-eyed shunt syndrome«. Also different therapeutic approaches as well as possible complications are described.Conclusions. For definite diagnosis angiography is obligatory and is also therapeutic as one third to one half of dural CCF close spontaneously. Because of potential severe eye and systemic complications, surgical intervention is indicated only in cases with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and hypoxic retinopathy.

  6. Localization techniques in resection of deep seated cavernous angiomas - review and reevaluation of frame based stereotactic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotty, P J; Ewelt, C; Sarikaya-Seiwert, S; Steiger, H-J; Vesper, J; Hänggi, D

    2013-04-01

    Providing high accuracy is crucial in neurosurgery especially for resection of deep seated small cerebral pathologies such as cavernous angiomas. The goal of the present series was to reevaluate the feasibility, accuracy, efficacy and safety of frame-based, stereotactically guided resection for patients suffering from small deep-seated cavernous angiomas. Additionally a review of the literature on navigational tools in cavernoma surgery is provided comparing different navigation strategies. Ten patients with deep-seated, small intracranial, cavernous angiomas being subject to frame-based, stereotactically aided resection are included in this survey. Based on the stereotactic-fused image, set entry and target point aimed at the rim of the cavernoma were calculated. A minicraniotomy (Assets and drawbacks of the stereotactic-aided approach were evaluated, patients were analyzed for surgery-related neurological deficits and completeness of resection. Complete resection was achieved in all ten patients verified by post-surgery MRI imaging. The surgical procedure itself was only slightly aggravated by the stereotactic equipment. No adverse events such as bleedings or infections were observed in our series. Stereotactically guided, minimally invasive resection of deep seated and small cavernous angiomas is accurate and effective. The frame-based stereotactic guidance requires some additional time and effort which seems justified only for deep seated and small cavernous angiomas. Frameless neuronavigation is a common tool in cavernoma surgery and its spatial resolution is sufficient for the majority of cases.

  7. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  8. Indirect carotid- cavernous fistula — embolisation using the superior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    MD, FRCS (C). Division of Neurosurgery. Royal University Hospital. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. Canada. Fig .1a. Left common carotid angiogram, AP view, showing the carotid-cavernous fistula. Note opaci- fication of the left cavernous sinus (arrow) and fill- ing of the right cavernous sinus (double arrows).

  9. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehotska, V.; Dostalova, K.; Durkovsky, A.; Samal, V.

    1995-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors give an account of a rare case of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein that may have originated secondarily in a proliferative hematogenous disease with a polyglobulia and thrombosis in the periferal blood count as well as development of portal hypertension of a prehepatal type. The state of hyper-coagulation in a myeloproliferative disease may have lead to a chronic thrombosis of the portal vein with a subsequent malformation of the portal vein in terms of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The case is an interesting one because of the discrepancy between the gravity of the thrombotic complication and slightness of the symptoms in the clinical picture. The authors point out the importance of ultrasonography and computed tomography examination following the intravenous application of a water solution of a contrast medium in a morphologic diagnosing of a rare complication of a chronic thrombotic clot of the portal vein - the cavernous transformation. (authors)

  10. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  11. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  12. Expression of S100 protein and protective effect of arundic acid on the rat brain in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Ryo; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Wakita, Hideaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakaji, Kayoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2007-03-02

    S100 protein is expressed primarily by astroglia in the brain, and accumulates in and around the ischemic lesions. Arundic acid, a novel astroglia-modulating agent, is neuroprotective in acute cerebral infarction, whereas the protective effects remain unknown during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Rats undergoing chronic cerebral hypoperfusion were subjected to a bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries, and were allowed to survive for 3, 7 and 14 days. The animals received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid, or vehicle, for 14 days. Alternatively, other groups of rats received a delayed intraperitoneal injection of 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid or vehicle, which started from 1, 3 or 7 days after ligation and continued to 14 days. The degree of white matter (WM) lesions and the numerical density of S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia were estimated. In the WM of rats with vehicle injections, the number of S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia increased significantly after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion as compared to the sham-operation. A dosage of 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg of arundic acid suppressed the numerical increase in S100 protein-immunoreactive astroglia and the WM lesions. These pathological changes were suppressed with delayed treatment up to 7 days in terms of astroglial activation, and up to 3 days in terms of the WM lesions. The protective effects of arundic acid against WM lesions were demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner, and even after postischemic treatments. These results suggest the potential usefulness of arundic acid in the treatment of cerebrovascular WM lesions.

  13. Cavernous haemangioma mimicking as clitoral hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemangioma is the most common benign neoplasm of infantile age. It is most commonly located in head and neck region, trunk and extremities but very rarely it can be located at clitoris. However, it is very important to differentiate clitoral haemangioma from enlargement of the clitoris secondary to androgen excess. Only four cases of clitoromegaly caused by cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature so far. Herein, we report our experience with a 10-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly and normal hormonal assay that turned out to be clitoral cavernous haemangioma after histopathological examination of the clitoral mass.

  14. Nepeta Dschuparensis Bornm Extract Moderates COX-2 and IL-1β Proteins in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mousavi Nia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nepeta dschuparensis Bornm (NP is used as a medicinal herb in Iran. In traditional medicine, this herb is extensively employed for curing ailments such as cardiovascular diseases. NP has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This project examined the effects of the NP extract on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β protein levels and its efficacy in neuroprotection in a cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model. Methods: Twenty-six male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 sham (n=6: no middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO procedure, 2 control (n=10: MCAO procedure and treatment with normal saline, and 3 NP extract (n=10: MCAO procedure and treatment with the NP extract (20 mg/kg, i.p. at the beginning of reperfusion. To examine the injury caused by cerebral ischemia, we measured motor coordination and the infarct area using the rotarod test and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. IL-1β and COX-2 protein levels, as inflammatory markers, were measured by immunoblotting assay. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16, and the data are expressed as means±SEMs. Statistical difference was evaluated using the one-way ANOVA, followed by the post hoc LSD test (P<0.01. Results: Treatment with the NP extract significantly diminished the infarct volume and alleviated the motor coordination disorder induced by cerebral ischemia. The NP extract administration significantly attenuated the increase in IL-1β and COX-2 protein levels too (P<0.01. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of the NP extract are related to its ability to decrease the levels of IL-1β and COX-2.

  15. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela dos; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante, E-mail: danisantos2404@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. (author)

  16. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  17. Subdural hematoma from a cavernous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne J; Mitha, Alim P; Germain, Rasha; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    To present a case of a cavernous malformation presenting with a subdural hematoma. A 27-year-old woman was admitted with progressively worsening headache, vomiting, weakness, and word-finding difficulties 1 week after she was discharged from an outside hospital, where she was managed conservatively for a presumed traumatic subdural hematoma. Computed tomography revealed an enlarging subacute left hemispheric subdural hematoma for which she underwent drill craniostomy. Postprocedural magnetic resonance imaging showed a posterior left temporal lobe mass consistent with a cavernous malformation juxtaposed with the subdural hematoma. Craniotomy for resection of the lesion was performed. She had an uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced a good recovery. The signs and symptoms, diagnostic imaging, and intraoperative findings suggest that the subdural hematoma was caused by extralesional hemorrhage of the cavernous malformation, which is a rare finding associated with these malformations. The clinical course, radiologic, and intraoperative findings suggest that the subdural hemorrhage was caused by extralesional hemorrhage of the cavernous malformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong; Wasiolek, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate

  19. The ATLAS cavern in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    On Wednesday, 4th June, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, inaugurated the world's largest experimental cavern, which is to house the ATLAS detector in 2007, and announced Switzerland's gift to CERN of the "Palais de l'Equilibre".

  20. Special people visit the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Muriel

    ATLAS has been host to many important visitors lately. Here are a selected few: Professor Stephen Hawking visits the ATLAS cavern On Tuesday 26 September 2006 the ATLAS Collaboration was honoured by a very special visit to the detector in the underground cavern. We were pleased to guide Professor Stephen Hawking, the famous cosmologist holding the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University (position held by Isaac Newton in the 17th century), on a tour of the ATLAS pit and the LHC tunnel. The visit was accompanied by a few colleagues from the CERN Theory group, and was only possible thanks to the professional assistance of Olga Beltramello and Bernard Lebegue, who had also taken care of all the necessary preparatory work in the cavern. Professor Hawking was very keen to check for himself the status of the detector installation, and he admired, in particular, the spectacular TGC big wheel on side C. (left) Stephen Hawking in the ATLAS cavern side-C (right) and in the LHC tunnel...

  1. Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T

    1999-01-01

    A double-tracer autoradiographic method for simultaneous measurement of regional glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and regional protein synthesis (PS) in consecutive brain sections is described and applied to study the metabolism of the ischemic penumbra 2 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral...... artery (MCAO) in rats. In halothane anesthesia, the left middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded. Two hours after MCAO an i.v. bolus injection of 14C-deoxyglucose and 3H-leucine was given and circulated for 45 min. Two sets of brain sections were processed for quantitative autoradiography....... Neighboring brain sections exposed an X-ray film (3H-insensitive), and a 3H-sensitive for determination of rCMRglc and PS, respectively. Sections for PS determination were washed in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) prior to film exposure in order to remove 14C-deoxyglucose and unincorporated 3H-leucine. Regional...

  2. The benign course of carotid-cavernous fistula in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurul, Semra E-mail: skurul@hotmail.com; Cakmakci, Handan; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Dirik, Eray

    2001-08-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are reported very rarely in childhood and their clinical course and prognosis are uncertain. We report a 9-year-old boy presented with left eye swelling, neck pain and headache. The MRI findings suggested a CCF with enlarged left superior ophthalmic vein. Ocular Doppler ultrasonography revealed enlarged left superior ophthalmic vein, and arterialization of Doppler wave form. The cerebral angiogram showed normal anatomy. Control Doppler examination findings supported the diagnosis of closure of fistula. The clinical and radiological findings of this unusual presentation are discussed.

  3. The benign course of carotid-cavernous fistula in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurul, Semra; Cakmakci, Handan; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Dirik, Eray

    2001-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are reported very rarely in childhood and their clinical course and prognosis are uncertain. We report a 9-year-old boy presented with left eye swelling, neck pain and headache. The MRI findings suggested a CCF with enlarged left superior ophthalmic vein. Ocular Doppler ultrasonography revealed enlarged left superior ophthalmic vein, and arterialization of Doppler wave form. The cerebral angiogram showed normal anatomy. Control Doppler examination findings supported the diagnosis of closure of fistula. The clinical and radiological findings of this unusual presentation are discussed

  4. Congenital pial arteriovenous fistula in the temporal region draining into cavernous sinus: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziyin; Wang, Chaohua; Zhang, Changwei; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Kun; Tang, Jianjian

    2013-01-01

    This report concerns a 4-month-old infant with progressive prominent and redness of his left eye since birth. This report concerns a 4-month-old infant with progressive prominent redness of his left eye since birth. Angiography revealed a congenital pial arteriovenous fistula between the temporal branch of the left posterior cerebral artery and left cavernous sinus through the sphenoparietal sinus, a condition not reported in the literature. The fistula was successfully occluded with two micro-coils by vertebrobasilar approach.

  5. Helical CT finding of carotid-cavernous fistula: a sign of early enhancing superior ophthalmic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik; Ryoo, Jae Wook

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of a sign of early enhancing superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), as seen on helical CT images in patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). This study involved 16 patients with CCF and 28 control patients. Axial CT images with scanning delays of 30 seconds following bolus injection of contrast material (90 mL, 3 mL/sec) were obtained, and this procedure was followed by coronal CT imaging. To determine the presence or absence of early enhancement or, dilatation of the SOV, bulging of the cavernous sinus, and enlargement of extraocular muscle, CT images were analysed by three observers in a blinded, random manner. Early enhancement of SOV was determined to be present where enhancement of the SOV was similar to or stronger than that of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery. A sign of early enhancing SOV was seen in 14 of the 16 patients with CCF but in no control patients (88% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The respective sensitivity and specificity of other CT features were 71% and 100% (dilatation of the SOV, as seen on axial images), 60% and 83% (dilatation of the SOV, as seen on coronal images), 71% and 89% (dilatation of the cavernous sinus), and 65% and 98% (enlargement of extraocular muscle). A sign of early enhancing SOV is a characteristic and specific CT finding of CCF, and is useful for the diagnosis of CCF. (author)

  6. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.

  7. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ozlem; Buyuktas, Deram; Islak, Civan; Sarici, A Murat; Gundogdu, A Sadi

    2013-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature. PMID:23571267

  8. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okujava, M.; Ebner, A.; Schmitt, J.; Woermann, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  9. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okujava, M [Institute of Radiology and Interventional Diagnostics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ebner, A; Schmitt, J; Woermann, F G [Bethel Epilepsy Centre, Mara Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  10. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed with SPECT, PET, functional MRI and/or invasive monitoring as needed. Radiosurgery shows variable rates of seizure freedom and a high incidence of complications, thus microsurgical resection remains the optimal treatment for CM coursing with drug-resistant epilepsy.Two thirds of patients reach Engel I class at three-year follow-up, regardless of lobar location. Those with secondarily generalized seizures, a higher seizure frequency, and generalized abnormalities on preoperative or postoperative EEG, show poorer outcomes, while factors such as gender, duration of epilepsy, lesion size, age, bleeding at the time of surgery, do not correlate consistently with seizure outcome. Electrocorticography and a meticulous removal of all cortical hemosiderin –beyond pure lesionectomy– reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrences.

  11. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Nose Complicated with Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Swaminath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive life threatening bacterial infection of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, and the fascia. We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis involving the nose complicated by cavernous sinus thrombosis. Few cases of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis have been reported to be caused by cellulitis of the face but necrotizing fasciitis of the nose is rare. It is very important to recognize the early signs of cavernous thrombosis. Treatment for septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is controversial but early use of empirical antibiotics is imperative.

  12. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  13. MRI findings of intracranial cavernous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Hee; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Yong Kuk

    1995-01-01

    To analyze the variable MRI features and clinical significance of intracranial cavernous malformations. Forty patients(mean age 35.4) with cavernous malformation were evaluated by MRI. Eleven patients were surgically confirmed. Cavernous malformations were divided into four categories on the basis of the MR imaging characteristics, especially on T2-weighted image. Type I lesion was defined as an extralesional subacute hemorrhage outside the low signal rim, type II as an intralesional hemorrhage surrounded by low signal rim, type III lesion as an intralesional thrombosis with variegated central core surrounded by low signal rim, and type IV lesion as a focal old hemorrhagic core with small low signal intensity. Type IV was further divided into IVa and IVb, whether the lesion has small iso-or hypersignal central core (IVa) or not (IVb). Follow-up MRI was evaluated in 12 patients who were managed conservatively. Follow-up intervals ranged from 2 weeks to 29 months (mean 6 months). Total 80 lesions were detected in 40 patients. Multiple lesions were noted in 10 patients. The topography of the cavernous malformations was supratentorial in 75% and infratentorial in 23%. There were 10 lesions in type I, 15 in type II, 21 in type III, 14 in type IVa, and 20 in type IVb. Type I lesions mainly showed mass effect and edema. Type III lesions showed minimal contrast enhancements in 7 lesions on delayed images. Type II lesions showed the characteristics of both type I and type III lesions. On follow up images, decrease in size in 5, change of type in 7, rebleeding in 2 and no change in 12 lesions were demonstrated. Hemorrhage, edema and mass effect were combined in the cases of rebleeding. On follow-up study, the estimated risk of bleeding was 32.3%/person-year and 13.7%/lesion-year. Cavernous malformations show as variable appearance, on MR imaging suggesting variable stages of evolution. The MR morphologic classification and evaluation of secondary findings are helpful to

  14. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianli, Lv; Chuhan, Jiang; Youxiang, Li; Xinjian, Yang [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  15. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian; Wu Zhongxue

    2010-01-01

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  16. Cerebral amyloid-beta protein accumulation with aging in cotton-top tamarins: a model of early Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemere, Cynthia A; Oh, Jiwon; Stanish, Heather A; Peng, Ying; Pepivani, Imelda; Fagan, Anne M; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Westmoreland, Susan V; Mansfield, Keith G

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of dementia in the elderly. Two major neuropathological hallmarks of AD include cerebral deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) into plaques and blood vessels, and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. In addition, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes are often associated with plaques and tangles. Numerous other proteins are associated with plaques in human AD brain, including Apo E and ubiquitin. The amyloid precursor protein and its shorter fragment, Abeta, are homologous between humans and non-human primates. Cerebral Abeta deposition has been reported previously for rhesus monkeys, vervets, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, lemurs, cynomologous monkeys, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Here we report, for the first time, age-related neuropathological changes in cotton-top tamarins (CTT, Saguinus oedipus), an endangered non-human primate native to the rainforests of Colombia and Costa Rica. Typical lifespan is 13-14 years of age in the wild and 15-20+ years in captivity. We performed detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Abeta deposition and associated pathogenesis in archived brain sections from 36 tamarins ranging in age from 6-21 years. Abeta plaque deposition was observed in 16 of the 20 oldest tamarins (>12 years). Plaques contained mainly Abeta42, and in the oldest animals, were associated with reactive astrocytes, activated microglia, Apo E, and ubiquitin-positive dystrophic neurites, similar to human plaques. Vascular Abeta was detected in 14 of the 20 aged tamarins; Abeta42 preceded Abeta40 deposition. Phospho-tau labeled dystrophic neurites and tangles, typically present in human AD, were absent in the tamarins. In conclusion, tamarins may represent a model of early AD pathology.

  17. Benign mass in tonsil- cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sumitha; Prakash, M; Mohammed, Hafida K; Govar, Aberna

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is also called as 'ANGIOMA CAVERNOSUM' or 'CAVERNOMA' as benign lesion of blood vessels. They are similar to strawberry hemangioma but deeply situated. Although most often associated with skin it is also sometimes found in mucous membrane, brain and the viscera. The diagnosis of hemangiomas is mainly based on clinical evaluation . Isolated hemangiomas in the tonsillar tissue is a rare occurance. In this we report had a case of adult tonsillar hemangioma of left side associated with recurrent tonsillitis . He was effectively managed surgically without any complications.

  18. Cavernous hemangioma of the knee - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Marcin; Dolata, Tomasz; Weiss, Waldemar; Maksymiak, Martyna; Kałużny, Krystian; Kałużna, Anna; Zukow, Walery; Hagner Derengowska, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Weiss Marcin, Dolata Tomasz, Weiss Waldemar, Maksymiak Martyna, Kałużny Krystian, Kałużna Anna, Zukow Walery, Hagner‑Derengowska Magdalena. Cavernous hemangioma of the knee - case report. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2018;8(4):318-325. eISNN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1226645 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5438 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evalu...

  19. A microarray study of gene and protein regulation in human and rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsios, Nick; Saka, Mohamad; Krupinski, Jerzy; Pennucci, Roberta; Sanfeliu, Coral; Wang, Qiuyu; Rubio, Francisco; Gaffney, John; Kumar, Pat; Kumar, Shant; Sullivan, Matthew; Slevin, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Background Altered gene expression is an important feature of ischemic cerebral injury and affects proteins of many functional classes. We have used microarrays to investigate the changes in gene expression at various times after middle cerebral artery occlusion in human and rat brain. Results Our results demonstrated a significant difference in the number of genes affected and the time-course of expression between the two cases. The total number of deregulated genes in the rat was 335 versus 126 in the human, while, of 393 overlapping genes between the two array sets, 184 were changed only in the rat and 36 in the human with a total of 41 genes deregulated in both cases. Interestingly, the mean fold changes were much higher in the human. The expression of novel genes, including p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) and integrase interactor 1, was further analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Strong neuronal staining was seen for PAK1 and MMP11. Conclusion Our findings confirmed previous studies reporting that gene expression screening can detect known and unknown transcriptional features of stroke and highlight the importance of research using human brain tissue in the search for novel therapeutic agents. PMID:17997827

  20. Organoselenium compounds prevent hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins induced by the neurotoxic agent diphenyl ditelluride in cerebral cortex of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, M.B.; Funchal, C.; Zeni, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.; Pessoa-Pureur, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigated the protective ability of the selenium compounds ebselen and diphenyl diselenide against the effect of diphenyl ditelluride on the in vitro incorporation of 32 P into intermediate filament (IF) proteins from slices of cerebral cortex of 17-day-old rats. We observed that ditelluride in the concentrations of 1, 15 and 50 μM induced hyperphosphorylation of the high-salt Triton insoluble neurofilament subunits (NF-M and NF-L), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, without altering the immunocontent of these proteins. Concerning the selenium compounds, diselenide (1, 15 and 50 μM) did not induce alteration of the in vitro phosphorylation of the IF proteins. Otherwise, ebselen induced an altered in vitro phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins in a dose-dependent manner. At intermediate concentrations (15 and 30 μM) it increased the in vitro phosphorylation even though, at low (5 μM) or high (50 and 100 μM) concentrations this compound was ineffective in altering the activity of the cytoskeletal-associated phosphorylating system. In addition, 15 μM diselenide and 5 μM ebselen, presented a protective effect against the action of ditelluride, on the phosphorylation of the proteins studied. Considering that hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins is associated with neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration, it is probable that the effects of ditelluride could be related to the remarkable neurotoxicity of this organic form of tellurium. Furthermore the neuroprotective action of selenium compounds against tellurium effects could be a promising route to be exploited for a possible treatment of organic tellurium poisoning

  1. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  2. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  3. Neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjun Zhu

    Full Text Available Stroke is the major cause of death and disability worldwide, and the thrombolytic therapy currently available was unsatisfactory. 14-3-3ε is a well characterized member of 14-3-3 family, and has been reported to protect neurons against apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. However, it cannot transverse blood brain barrier (BBB due to its large size. A protein transduction domain (PTD of HIV TAT protein, is capable of delivering a large variety of proteins into the brain. In this study, we generated a fusion protein TAT-14-3-3ε, and evaluated its potential neuroprotective effect in rat focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R model. Western blot analysis validated the efficient transduction of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein into brain via a route of intravenous injection. TAT-14-3-3ε pre-treatment 2 h before ischemia significantly reduced cerebral infarction volume and improved neurologic score, while post-treatment 2 h after ischemia was less effective. Importantly, pre- or post-ischemic treatment with TAT-14-3-3ε significantly increased the number of surviving neurons as determined by Nissl staining, and attenuated I/R-induced neuronal apoptosis as showed by the decrease in apoptotic cell numbers and the inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Moreover, the introduction of 14-3-3ε into brain by TAT-mediated delivering reduced the formation of autophagosome, attenuated LC3B-II upregulation and reversed p62 downregulation induced by ischemic injury. Such inhibition of autophagy was reversed by treatment with an autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP, which also attenuated the neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε. Conversely, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA inhibited I/R-induced the increase in autophagic activity, and attenuated I/R-induced brain infarct. These results suggest that TAT-14-3-3ε can be efficiently transduced into brain and exert significantly protective effect against brain ischemic injury through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and autophagic

  4. The effects of electromagnetic pulse on the protein levels of tight junction associated-proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, LianBo; Chen, Chen; Ding, GuiRong; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, MengYao

    2011-08-01

    To investigate changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, heart, lung, and testes of rats after exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham and exposure groups. The exposure groups received EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The expression of TJ proteins (ZO-1, occludin, actin) in the several organs was examined by western blotting. ZO-1 levels in the cerebral cortex decreased 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed for occludin and actin. ZO-1 levels in the hippocampus increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and occludin decreased after 3 h (P<0.05); however, actin was unaffected. ZO-1 levels in the heart increased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), occludin decreased 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), and actin increased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05). ZO-1, occludin and actin levels in the lung decreased compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). ZO-1 and occludin levels in the testes decreased 1 h and 3 h post-exposure (P<0.05), but actin showed no significant change. Exposure to EMP altered the expression levels of TJ proteins, particularly ZO-1, in the organs of adult male rats, which may induce changes in barrier structure and function. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland metastasis to left cavernous sinus: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiao-yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological features of parotid gland papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Methods The clinical manifestations, pathological features and differential diagnosis were studied in one case of parotid papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Related literatures were also reviewed. Results The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented paroxysmal dizziness for 5 months and blurred vision in her left eye for 10 months. The MRI examination showed left parasellar space-occupying mass in the cavernous sinus. In operation, the tumor was located in the superior wall of left cavernous sinus, soft and red-grey in color, with abundant blood supply. The histomorphological examination revealed the tumor cells were arranged in solid, acinar or papillary pattern. The tumor cells were large, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining found that the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin (Vim and S-100 protein (S-100, and showed weak positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and focal positive expression of P53 protein. Ki-67 labeling index was about 5%-10% . The tumor cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormone protein markers. This case was difficult to differentiate from other primary intracalvarium tumors, including papillary meningioma, papillary tumor of choroid plexus, papillary ependymoma, papillary glioneuronal tumors as well as chordoma. According to the medical history and the comparison of histomorphology and immunophenotyping between parotid gland tumor cells and left cavernous sinus tumor cells, the final diagnosis was metastatic papillary parotid acinar cell carcinoma of the left cavernous sinus. The patient was followed for 21 months and no recurrence was seen. Conclusion It is very rare and

  6. Single-Session Hematoma Removal and Transcranial Coil Embolization for a Cavernous Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: A Technical Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Sato, Kenichi; Endo, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CS dAVFs) with cortical venous varix are indicated for aggressive treatment because of the associated risk for intracranial hemorrhage. We present a case of surgical transvenous embolization in an 84-year-old woman with CS dAVF who presented with massive intracerebral hematoma. Cerebral angiograms revealed the dural AVF drained only into the superficial middle cerebral vein. Because an emergent mass reduction and prevention of rebleeding were necessary, single-session hematoma removal and transcranial embolization of a CS dAVF were performed in the neurosurgical operating room, using a mobile C-arm fluoroscopy. After the right frontotemporal craniotomy, intracerebral hematoma was removed and coil packing of the affected cavernous sinus was successfully performed via the dilated superficial middle cerebral vein. The transcortical vein approach enables occlusion of CS dAVF with isolated cortical venous drainage and may be a valuable alternative approach for some cases needed emergency craniotomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  8. Cavernous hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.M.; Lin, J.C.T.; Morris, J.H.; Fischer, E.G.; Petersen, R.

    1988-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with a four-year history of progressive right-lower-extremity weakness and atrophy and a left hemisensory deficit was found. Metrizamide-enhanced spinal CT scan showed an intramedullary lesion at the level of T1-T2; this had expanded the cord in fusiform fashion but showed no evidence of a cystic component. Surgical resection was performed and the pathological diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. Two and one-half years later, her left hemisensory deficit was worsening and a spinal MRI showed high signal intensity mass in the region of the previous surgery consistent with chronic hematoma which was re-evacuated with some improvement in the patient's neurological condition. (orig.)

  9. Neuronavigation for the resection of cavernous angiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Zhou, L

    1999-08-01

    To introduce the use of the StealthStation neuronavigator combined with preoperative computerized tomography (CT) in resection of intracranial cavernous angiomas (CAs). The StealthStation neuronavigator was used to provide a realtime correlation of the operating field and the computerized images in 6 patients with CAs. All patients suffered from epileptic seizures. Four patients underwent keyhole surgery and 2 underwent small skin-flap craniotomy. The mean follow-up was 4.5 months. With the guidance of neuronavigator, lesionectomy associated with removal of hemosiderin deposition, gliosis and calcification was performed precisely. The mean fiducial error was from 1.65 mm to 4.53 mm, the predicted accuracy at 10 cm was between 1.82 mm and 3.28 mm, and the sustained accuracy ranged from 0.50 mm to 3.45 mm. The StealthStation neuronavigator is reliable and accurate in the resection of CAs.

  10. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  11. Therapeutic surprise! Photodynamic therapy for cavernous haemangioma of the disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the response of cavernous haemangioma of the disc to PDT. Methods and Patients: A 32 years old lady presented to us with complaints of sudden onset of blurry vision in her right eye. What seemed initially as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy turned out as cavernous haemangioma of the disc after pneumatic displacement of the sub-retinal haeme. She was treated with PDT as she was prone to recurrent haemorrhage from the lesion due to her low platelet count. Results: Complete regression of the cavernous haemangioma was noted as early as the second week itself and remained regressed for 4 months. Conclusion: PDT can be safe option for patients presenting with symptomatic cavernous haemangioma of the disc or retina.

  12. Intracranial cavernous hemangiomas: a case report and bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiguihara, L.C.M.; Granero, P.C.; Gianotti, I.A.; Lederman, H.M.; Seixas, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This is a case report of intracranial cavernous hemangioma that presented with macrocrania. A large, spontaneously hyperdense area with mass effect on CT was seen. This is a rare vascular malformation evolving the CNS in pediatrics. (author)

  13. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.

  14. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure. PMID:24653803

  15. Limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for cavernous sinus biopsy: illustration of 3 cases and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graillon, T; Fuentes, S; Metellus, P; Adetchessi, T; Gras, R; Dufour, H

    2014-01-01

    Advances in transsphenoidal surgery and endoscopic techniques have opened new perspectives for cavernous sinus (CS) approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, as performed in pituitary adenoma surgery, for CS tumor biopsy illustrated with three clinical cases. The first case was a 46-year-old woman with a prior medical history of parotid adenocarcinoma successfully treated 10 years previously. The cavernous sinus tumor was revealed by right third and sixth nerve palsy and increased over the past three years. A tumor biopsy using a limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach revealed an adenocarcinoma metastasis. Complementary radiosurgery was performed. The second case was a 36-year-old woman who consulted for diplopia with right sixth nerve palsy and amenorrhea with hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonist treatment was used to restore the patient's menstrual cycle. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right sided CS tumor. CS biopsy, via a limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, confirmed a meningothelial grade 1 meningioma. Complementary radiosurgery was performed. The third case was a 63-year-old woman with progressive installation of left third nerve palsy and visual acuity loss, revealing a left cavernous sinus tumor invading the optic canal. Surgical biopsy was performed using an enlarged endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to the decompress optic nerve. Biopsy results revealed a meningothelial grade 1 meningioma. Complementary radiotherapy was performed. In these three cases, no complications were observed. Mean hospitalization duration was 4 days. Reported anatomical studies and clinical series have shown the feasibility of reaching the cavernous sinus using an endoscopic endonasal approach. Trans-foramen ovale CS percutaneous biopsy is an interesting procedure but only provides cell analysis results, and not tissue analysis. However, radiotherapy and

  16. The role of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging and three-dimensional arterial spin labelling perfusion imaging in the differentiation of parasellar meningioma and cavernous haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Feng; Lou, Xin; Liu, Meng-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Yan; Chen, Zhi-Ye; Shi, Kai-Ning; Ma, Lin

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and three-dimensional arterial spin labelling perfusion imaging (3D-ASL) in distinguishing cavernous haemangioma from parasellar meningioma, using histological data as a reference standard. Patients with parasellar meningioma or parasellar cavernous haemangioma underwent conventional T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by DWI and 3D-ASL using a 3.0 Tesla MRI. The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (minADC) from DWI and the maximal normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) from 3D-ASL were measured in each tumour. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology. MinADC was significantly lower and nCBF significantly higher in meningioma (n = 19) than cavernous haemangioma (n = 15). There was a significant negative correlation between minADC and nCBF (r = -0.605). DWI and 3D-ASL are useful in differentiating cavernous haemangiomas from parasellar meningiomas, particularly in situations when the appearance on conventional MRI sequences is otherwise ambiguous. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. G-protein activity in Percoll-purified plasma membranes, bulk plasma membranes, and low-density plasma membranes isolated from rat cerebral cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřová, Lenka; Stöhr, Jiří; Lisý, Václav; Rudajev, Vladimír; Novotný, Jiří; Svoboda, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2009), BR111-BR122 ISSN 1234-1010 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/0121; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat cerebral cortex * plasma membrane * G-protein activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.543, year: 2009

  18. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2007-07-01

    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  19. High dose infusion of activated protein C (rhAPC) fails to improve neuronal damage and cognitive deficit after global cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Melanie; Lasarzik, Irina; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Peetz, Dirk; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2013-09-13

    Recent studies demonstrated anticoagulatory, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective properties of activated protein C (APC) in rodent models of acute neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting APC as promising broad acting therapeutic agent. Unfortunately, continuous infusion of recombinant human APC (rhAPC) failed to improve brain damage following cardiac arrest in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect after global cerebral ischemia (GI) with an optimized infusion protocol. Rats were subjected to bilateral clip occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCAO) and controlled hemorrhagic hypotension to 40 mm Hg for 14 min and a subsequent 5h-infusion of rhAPC (2mg/kg bolus+6 mg/kg/h continuous IV) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl). The dosage was calculated to maintain plasma hAPC activity at 150%. Cerebral inflammation, apoptosis and neuronal survival was determined at day 10. rhAPC infusion did not influence cortical cerebral perfusion during reperfusion and failed to reduce neuronal cell loss, microglia activation, and caspase 3 activity. Even an optimized rhAPC infusion protocol designed to maintain a high level of APC plasma activity failed to improve the sequels following GI. Despite positive reports about protective effects of APC following, e.g., ischemic stroke, the present study supports the notion that infusion of APC during the early reperfusion phase does not result in sustained neuroprotection and fails to improve outcome after global cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Clinical value of detection on ser um monocyte chemotactant protein-1 and vascular endothelial cadher in levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum monocyte chemotactant protein-1 (MCP-1 and vascular endothelia cadherin (VE-cadherin levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and nerve injury molecules, interleukins and matrix metalloproteinases. Methods: A total of 86 patients with acute cerebral infarction treated in our hospital from April 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the observation group and 50 healthy subjects in the same period treated in our hospital were selected as the control group. The serums were collected and the contents of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP, S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, interleukin-lb (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were measured. Results: The serum contents of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, H-FABP, S100B, NSE, IL-1b, IL- 6, IL-17, IL-18, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 in observation group were significantly higher than those of control group. Carotid artery plaque formation and unstable plaque properties will increase the serum contents of MCP-1, VE-cadherin, H-FABP, S100B, NSE, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 in patients with cerebral infarction. The serum levels of MCP-1, VE-cadherin and the contents of H-FABP, S100B, NSE, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, IL-18, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were positively correlated. Conclusions: The serum levels of VE-cadherin and MCP-1 were significantly increased in patients with acute cerebral infarction. MCP-1 and VE-cadherin can increase the secretion of interleukins and matrix metalloproteinases, which can result in the carotid artery plaque formation, unstable plaque properties and the injury of nerve function.

  2. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity

  3. SOcK, MiSTs, MASK and STicKs: the GCKIII (germinal centre kinase III) kinases and their heterologous protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Peter H; McGuffin, Liam J; Clerk, Angela

    2013-08-15

    The GCKIII (germinal centre kinase III) subfamily of the mammalian Ste20 (sterile 20)-like group of serine/threonine protein kinases comprises SOK1 (Ste20-like/oxidant-stress-response kinase 1), MST3 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 3) and MST4. Initially, GCKIIIs were considered in the contexts of the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and apoptosis. More recently, their participation in multiprotein heterocomplexes has become apparent. In the present review, we discuss the structure and phosphorylation of GCKIIIs and then focus on their interactions with other proteins. GCKIIIs possess a highly-conserved, structured catalytic domain at the N-terminus and a less-well conserved C-terminal regulatory domain. GCKIIIs are activated by tonic autophosphorylation of a T-loop threonine residue and their phosphorylation is regulated primarily through protein serine/threonine phosphatases [especially PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A)]. The GCKIII regulatory domains are highly disorganized, but can interact with more structured proteins, particularly the CCM3 (cerebral cavernous malformation 3)/PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10) protein. We explore the role(s) of GCKIIIs (and CCM3/PDCD10) in STRIPAK (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complexes and their association with the cis-Golgi protein GOLGA2 (golgin A2; GM130). Recently, an interaction of GCKIIIs with MO25 has been identified. This exhibits similarities to the STRADα (STE20-related kinase adaptor α)-MO25 interaction (as in the LKB1-STRADα-MO25 heterotrimer) and, at least for MST3, the interaction may be enhanced by cis-autophosphorylation of its regulatory domain. In these various heterocomplexes, GCKIIIs associate with the Golgi apparatus, the centrosome and the nucleus, as well as with focal adhesions and cell junctions, and are probably involved in cell migration, polarity and proliferation. Finally, we consider the association of GCKIIIs with a number of human diseases, particularly

  4. Neurotherapeutic activity of the recombinant heat shock protein Hsp70 in a model of focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsov MA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maxim A Shevtsov,1,2 Boris P Nikolaev,3 Ludmila Y Yakovleva,3 Anatolii V Dobrodumov,4 Anastasiy S Dayneko,5 Alexey A Shmonin,5,6 Timur D Vlasov,5 Elena V Melnikova,5 Alexander D Vilisov,4,5 Irina V Guzhova,1 Alexander M Ischenko,3 Anastasiya L Mikhrina,7 Oleg V Galibin,5 Igor V Yakovenko,2 Boris A Margulis1 1Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, St Petersburg, Russia; 2AL Polenov Russian Research Scientific Institute of Neurosurgery, St Petersburg, Russia; 3Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, St Petersburg, Russia; 4Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, St Petersburg, Russia; 5First St Petersburg IP Pavlov State Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia; 6Federal Almazov Medical Research Centre, St Petersburg, Russia; 7IM Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, St Petersburg, Russia Abstract: Recombinant 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70 is an antiapoptotic protein that has a cell protective activity in stress stimuli and thus could be a useful therapeutic agent in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic activity of recombinant Hsp70 was explored in a model of experimental stroke in rats. Ischemia was produced by the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 45 minutes. To assess its neuroprotective capacity, Hsp70, at various concentrations, was intravenously injected 20 minutes prior to ischemia. Forty-eight hours after ischemia, rats were sacrificed and brain tissue sections were stained with 2% triphenyl tetrazolium chloride. Preliminary treatment with Hsp70 significantly reduced the ischemic zone (optimal response at 2.5 mg/kg. To assess Hsp70’s neurotherapeutic activity, we intravenously administered Hsp70 via the tail vein 2 hours after reperfusion (2 hours and 45 minutes after ischemia. Rats were then kept alive for 72 hours. The

  5. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after resection of cavernous angiomas by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinotti, L.; Gogoleva, S.M.; Sindou, M.; Fischer, G.; Jouved, A.; Saint Pierre, G.; Ryvlyn, P.; Froment, J.C.; Veyrel, L.; Mauguiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Cavernous angiomas (CA) are easily diagnosed by MRI. Its epileptogenic and hemorrhagic potential leads towards surgery without letting definitive conclusion to be drawn concerning the evolution of the neighbouring tissues. An epileptogenic focus may entail a reduction in the regional metabolism, so we used the FDG: 1. to establish the presence and extension of peri-lesion metabolic modifications; 2. to study whether the CA resection could modify, on site or at a distance, the cerebral metabolism. We have selected 15 patients with epileptogenic CAs observed by MRI. Under EEG surveillance we have measured in the inter-ictal period the regional cerebral carbohydrate metabolism (MCRGlu) before and after a limited resection of a CA. The histology confirmed the diagnosis and studied the cerebral tissue adherent to the lesion. The global MCRGlu of brain has not varied after surgery (8.33 ± 1.15 vs 8.33 ± 1.70 ml/min/100 g). The CA containing hemisphere had a diminished MCRGlu (2 factor ANOVA, p < 0.02). The regions close to the lesion in the afflicted hemisphere itself, were less metabolic than those more distant (3 factor ANOVA, p < 0.04). This aspects has been not modified by the surgery. A table is given showing the values of MCRGlu before and after intervention. The metabolic gradient in the neighbourhood of lesion is insufficient in helping to determine the limits of surgery. The modifications undergone by the potentially epileptogenic tissue are not any more notable. The absence of post surgery variations indicates that the metabolic consequences of the lesion are replaced by those of restructuring. Hence, the cerebral surgery does not cause metabolic variations which could perturb further evolution following a limited intervention and for a long enough time interval after the intervention

  6. rLj-RGD3, a Novel Recombinant Toxin Protein from Lampetra japonica, Protects against Cerebral Reperfusion Injury Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Involving the Integrin-PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    Full Text Available The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3 and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in a rat stroke model. We also explored the mechanism by which rLj-RGD3 acts by measuring protein and mRNA expression levels, with an emphasis on the FAK and integrin-PI3K/Akt anti-apoptosis pathways.rLj-RGD3 was obtained from the buccal secretions of Lampetra japonica using gene recombination technology. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into the following seven groups: a sham group; a vehicle-treated (VT group; 100.0 μg·kg-1, 50.0 μg·kg-1 and 25.0 μg·kg-1 dose rLj-RGD3 groups; and two positive controls, including 1.5 mg·kg-1 Edaravone (ED and 100.0 μg·kg-1 Eptifibatide (EP. MCAO was induced using a model consisting of 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Behavioral changes were observed in the normal and operation groups after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was applied. In addition, behavioral scores were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Brain infarct volumes were determined based on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. Pathological changes in brain tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL assays. We determined the expression levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K, protein kinase B

  7. Radiological features of childhood giant cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, Burce; Senocak, Efsun; Oguz, Kader K. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Soylemezoglu, Figen [Hacettepe University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Akalan, Nejat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Giant cavernous malformations (GCM) are very large, low-flow vascular malformations, which usually have atypical imaging features and are commonly misdiagnosed preoperatively as neoplasms or vascular malformations. These lesions have mostly been reported in children. As cavernomas show different features in children compared to adults, we evaluated the imaging features of pediatric GCMs in order to help in the preoperative diagnosis of these malformations. Brain MR studies of nine children (mean age of 4 years; 8 months-9 years) with biopsy-proven GCM were retrospectively evaluated. We defined GCMs as cavernomas of {>=}4 cm. Lesions were evaluated regarding their size, location, signal characteristics, general appearance (uni/multilocular) as well as regarding the presence of mass effect, edema, and fluid-fluid levels and were classified according to the Mottolese classification of pediatric cavernomas. Lesion locations were parietal (n = 5), frontal (n = 2), temporal, and intraventricular. Seven lesions were in the periventricular region (with five in the periatrial region). Six patients had T1 hyperintense multilobulated lesions with ''bubbles of blood'' appearance and three patients had heterogeneous lesions with reticular core. All lesions had mass effect, edema (marked in four cases), and peripheral hemosiderin rim. Fluid-fluid levels were also common (n = 7). Most of our lesions (six of nine) were classified as type IIIA, two as type IIIC, and one as type IA. In children, a GCM should be considered in case of very large hemorrhagic intra-axial mass with ''bubbles of blood'' multicystic appearance, surrounding hemosiderin ring, fluid-fluid levels, and accompanying edema-mass effect, especially in the periatrial location. (orig.)

  8. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  9. Lined rock caverns for the storage of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semprich, S.; Speidel, S.R.; Schneider, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For reasons of environmental protection the storage of hazardous waste in unlined rock caverns is possible to a very limited extent only. Therefore, the authors have recently developed technologies for the lining and sealing of rock caverns. In the process, sealing systems of synthetic materials or metals have proved suitable. Synthetic materials can be used in the form of either sheets or coatings with various materials such as epoxy resins, polyethylenes etc. being used. Metal sealings consist of thin sheets or foils which are either welded or bonded. In either case, the structural design must provide for a leakage control possibility. The article describes the design principles, the structural and operational aspects as well as the control measures with regard to the planning and execution of lined rock caverns for the storage of hazardous waste

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Luisa; Marchese, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Marco; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Retinal cavernous hemangioma is a rare, benign, retinal tumor characterized by angiomatous proliferation of vessels within the inner retina or the optic disc.1 Here we report a case of retinal cavernous hemangioma on the margin of the optic disc in the right eye of a 61-year-old asymptomatic female. The lesion was studied with multimodal imaging which included structural optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, blue fundus auto-fluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and visual field examination. Blood circulation inside retinal cavernous hemangioma lesion is typically low-stagnant.2 However, OCTA demonstrated blood flow inside the lesion, illustrating its vascular circulation.3 Visual field was within the normal limits, except from a slight enlargement of the blind spot. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:684-685.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M.; Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Neuroradiological diagnosis and interventional therapy of carotid cavernous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Engelhorn, T.; Doelken, M.; Doerfler, A.; Holbach, L.

    2008-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas are pathologic connections between the internal and/or external carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. According to Barrow one can distinguish between direct (high flow) and indirect (low flow) fistulas, whereby direct fistulas are often traumatic while indirect fistulas more frequently occur spontaneously in postmenopausal women. Diagnosis can easily be established using MRI and angiography, which allow exact visualization of the anatomy of fistulas to plan the interventional neurological therapy that in recent years has replaced surgical therapy. This article provides an overview on imaging findings, diagnosis using MRI and angiography as well as interventional treatment strategies. (orig.) [de

  13. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  14. A new shape design method of salt cavern used as underground gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongtao; Yan, Xiangzhen; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Xiujuan; Jiang, Tingting; Zhao, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Safety factor contours of four salt cavern gas storages after running 10 years. Highlights: ► We propose a new model to design the shape of salt cavern gas storage. ► The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design. ► The max. gas pressure determines the shapes and dimensions of cavern lower structure. ► The min. gas pressure decides the shapes and dimensions of cavern upper structure. - Abstract: A new model used to design the shape and dimension of salt cavern gas storage is proposed in the paper. In the new model, the cavern is divided into two parts, namely the lower and upper structures, to design. The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design of the lower and upper structures respectively. Calculating models are established according to the concepts. Field salt cavern gas storage in China is simulated as examples, and its shape and dimension are proposed. The effects of gas pressure, friction angle and cohesion of rock salt on the cavern stability are discussed. Moreover, the volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain are compared with that of three other existing shapes salt caverns to validate the performance of newly proposed cavern. The results show that the max. gas pressure determines the shape and dimension of cavern lower structure, while the min. gas pressure decides that of cavern upper structure. With the increase of friction angle and cohesion of rock salt, the stability of salt cavern is increased. The newly proposed salt cavern gas storage has more notable advantages than the existing shapes of salt cavern in volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain under the same conditions

  15. Upregulation of neuronal zinc finger protein A20 expression is required for electroacupuncture to attenuate the cerebral inflammatory injury mediated by the nuclear factor-kB signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jian; Qin, Wenyi; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jing; Ma, Hongmei; Li, Qiongli; Luo, Yong

    2016-10-03

    Zinc finger protein A20 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3) functions as a potent negative feedback inhibitor of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) signaling. It exerts these effects by interrupting the activation of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ), the most critical kinase in upstream of NF-kB, and thereby controlling inflammatory homeostasis. We reported previously that electroacupuncture (EA) could effectively suppress IKKβ activation. However, the mechanism underlying these effects was unclear. Therefore, the current study further explored the effects of EA on A20 expression in rat brain and investigated the possible mechanism of A20 in anti-neuroinflammation mediated by EA using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Rats were treated with EA at the "Baihui (GV20)," "Hegu (L14)," and "Taichong (Liv3)" acupoints once a day starting 2 h after focal cerebral ischemia. The spatiotemporal expression of A20, neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, cytokine levels, glial cell activation, and the NF-kB signaling were assessed at the indicated time points. A20 gene interference (overexpression and silencing) was used to investigate the role of A20 in mediating the neuroprotective effects of EA and in regulating the interaction between neuronal and glial cells by suppressing neuronal NF-kB signaling during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuroinflammation. EA treatment increased A20 expression with an earlier peak and longer lasting upregulation. The upregulated A20 protein was predominantly located in neurons in the cortical zone of the ischemia/reperfusion. Furthermore, neuronal A20 cell counts were positively correlated with neurobehavioral scores but negatively correlated with infarct volume, the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and glial cell activation. Moreover, the effects of EA on improving the neurological outcome and suppressing neuroinflammation in the brain were reversed by A20 silencing. Finally, A20 silencing also

  16. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  17. Cerebral microangiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  18. Protein kinase C inhibition prevents upregulation of vascular ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptors and reverses cerebral blood flow reduction after subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beg, Saema S; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob A; Vikman, Petter J

    2007-01-01

    with Western blot; only PKCdelta and PKCalpha subtypes were increased after SAH RO-31-7549 treatment abolished this. At 2 days after the SAH basilar and middle cerebral arteries were harvested and the contractile response to endothelin-1 (ET-1; ET(A) and ET(B) receptor agonist) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5......-CT; 5-HT(1) receptor agonist) were investigated with a myograph. The contractile responses to ET-1 and 5-CT were increased (Poperated rats. In parallel, the ET(B) and 5-HT(1B) receptor mRNA and protein expression were significantly elevated after SAH, as analysed...

  19. Carotid-cavernous fistula after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun

    2009-03-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  20. NA62 cavern and sub-detectors 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham, Connor

    2017-01-01

    The NA62 cavern, with the completed detector, during breaks in data taking in July 2017. Pictures from 05-07-17 by Dan Protopopescu and pictures from 08-07-17 by Connor Graham (Both Glasgow-affiliated). Includes pictures of the whole experiment, safety systems and sub-detector elements.

  1. Value of gamma knife radiosurgery for tumors invading cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokura, Hidefumi; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of radiosurgery for cavernous sinus tumors was evaluated based on our experience and recent published reports from other institutes. Twenty-six meningiomas involving the cavernous sinus were treated by radiosurgery. The length of follow-up average 3 years. Tumors regressed in 40% and remained stable in 56% of cases. A total of 96% of the tumors were controlled with only a few minor complications. We believe surgical resection to reduce the volume of the tumor without causing new neurological deficits, followed by radiosurgery on the tumor located in the cavernous sinus is the best choice in many cases. Twenty-five pituitary adenomas with cavernous sinus invasion were treated by a combination of transsphenoidal removal and radiosurgery. All the tumors are controlled in terms of volume during the follow-up (average of 34 months). There were no new neurological deficits, including visual disturbance. Hormone elevation was able to be corrected at an early stage without pituitary insufficiency more by radiosurgery than by fractionated radiation. However, to obtain good results by radiosurgery, it must be preceded by complete surgical decompression of optic nerves and chiasma from the tumor. (author)

  2. Estimating the distribution of salt cavern squeeze using subsidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Visser, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a field study on solution mining of magnesium chloride from bischofite layers in the Netherlands at depths between 1500 and 1850 m. Subsidence that was observed in the area is due to part of the brine production being realized by cavern squeeze; some of which were connccted. Wc used an

  3. Simulation of Cavern Formation and Karst Development Using Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Douglas C.; Ross, Alex R.

    1975-01-01

    A salt model was developed as a teaching tool to demonstrate the development of caverns and karst topography. Salt slabs are placed in a watertight box to represent fractured limestone. Erosion resulting from water flow can be photographed in time-lapse sequence or demonstrated in the laboratory. (Author/CP)

  4. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly

  5. Valuation of gas stored in salt cavern facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Michael A. [St. Mary' s University, TX (United States); Grant, Floyd H. [Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Since natural gas production is relatively inelastic towards demand in the short term, underground storage is used as a buffer against periods of high demand. Of the three most common storage facility types, depleted reservoirs, aquifers and manmade salt caverns, the latter is the most costly to develop. The challenge then is to maximize profits through efficient operation, well-timed injection and withdrawal of gas. The valuation of a commodity in storage is a challenging problem and has been the subject of study for decades. We investigate selected existing valuation approaches and look for ways to leverage salt-cavern-specific physical characteristics for financial advantage. The basis for our valuation is the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Then, applying Monte-Carlo methods and simulation, we model combinations of characteristics in multi-cavern facilities and their impact on profitability. We describe the theory behind our work and our analytical framework and provide numerical results of our analysis. Our approach offers increased efficiency in salt-cavern gas storage facility operations. (author)

  6. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  7. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-09-01

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  8. A Case of Brainstem Cavernous Angioma Presenting with Persistent Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Arami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nIntractable hiccup most be considered as a symptom of underlying serious pathologies. We report a case of medulla oblongata cavernous angima presented with persistant hiccup and without any improvement during routine nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment regimns. The patient is under our follow up visits and surgery is very high risk for this young girl.

  9. Novel Technique for the UX15 Cavern Vault Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    2000-01-01

    The overall LHC project schedule requires the civil engineering work to begin before the final LEP shutdown. The new caverns for the ATLAS experiment will be built in and around the existing underground structures at point 1. In order to make the best possible use of the time available for the LHC civil engineering before the shutdown of LEP, a particular arrangement for the construction of the UX15 cavern vault has been developed. The basic concept of this arrangement consists of the excavation of the cavern top heading and the installation of the concrete vault immediately afterwards, prior to the subsequent bench excavation after LEP shutdown. A temporary support of the dead weight of the concrete roof will be achieved by the suspension of the roof by 38 no. pre-stressed ground anchors of 225 tons capacity each. This support system will work up to the construction of the cavern base slab and walls and the completion of the permanent concrete lining.

  10. Primary extradural leiomyosarcoma involving cavernous sinus in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni V Gulwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial leiomyosarcoma (LMS are uncommon malignancies and usually encountered after systemic metastases. Limited cases of primary intracranial LMSs have been reported in the literature. It mostly affects immunocompromised individuals in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection. This is the unusual first case being reported of primary LMS in immunocompetent patient with involvement of cavernous sinus.

  11. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  12. Nrdp1 Increases Ischemia Induced Primary Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons and Pheochromocytoma Cells Apoptosis Via Downregulation of HIF-1α Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation and regulates cell growth, apoptosis and oxidative stress in various cell types. We have previously shown that Nrdp1 is implicated in ischemic cardiomyocyte death. In this study, we investigated the change of Nrdp1 expression in ischemic neurons and its role in ischemic neuronal injury. Primary rat cerebral cortical neurons and pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells were infected with adenoviral constructs expressing Nrdp1 gene or its siRNA before exposing to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD treatment. Our data showed that Nrdp1 was upregulated in ischemic brain tissue 3 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and in OGD-treated neurons. Of note, Nrdp1 overexpression by Ad-Nrdp1 enhanced OGD-induced neuron apoptosis, while knockdown of Nrdp1 with siRNA attenuated this effect, implicating a role of Nrdp1 in ischemic neuron injury. Moreover, Nrdp1 upregulation is accompanied by increased protein ubiquitylation and decreased protein levels of ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8 in OGD-treated neurons, which led to a suppressed interaction between USP8 and HIF-1α and subsequently a reduction in HIF-1α protein accumulation in neurons under OGD conditions. In conclusion, our data support an important role of Nrdp1 upregulation in ischemic neuronal death, and suppressing the interaction between USP8 and HIF-1α and consequently the hypoxic adaptive response of neurons may account for this detrimental effect.

  13. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  14. Instability risk analysis and risk assessment system establishment of underground storage caverns in bedded salt rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wenjun; Zhao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Stability is an important part of geotechnical engineering research. The operating experiences of underground storage caverns in salt rock all around the world show that the stability of the caverns is the key problem of safe operation. Currently, the combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are the mainly adopts method of reserve stability analysis. This paper introduces the concept of risk into the stability analysis of underground geotechnical structure, and studies the instability of underground storage cavern in salt rock from the perspective of risk analysis. Firstly, the definition and classification of cavern instability risk is proposed, and the damage mechanism is analyzed from the mechanical angle. Then the main stability evaluating indicators of cavern instability risk are proposed, and an evaluation method of cavern instability risk is put forward. Finally, the established cavern instability risk assessment system is applied to the analysis and prediction of cavern instability risk after 30 years of operation in a proposed storage cavern group in the Huai’an salt mine. This research can provide a useful theoretical base for the safe operation and management of underground storage caverns in salt rock.

  15. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  16. Pilot abandonment test of a very deep gas storage salt cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durup, J.G.; Vidal, F.; Rolin, C.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of knowledge gained initially from a series of succinct sealed well and cavern field tests performed in the late 1980's and early 1990's by Gaz de France (EZ58; EZ53), issues related to the long term abandonment of salt caverns became more focused. The tests were performed in cooperation with Ecole Polytechnique (France) and were partially funded by the Solution Mining Research Institute (USA). The long-term abandonment (sealing or plugging) of a solution-mined cavern in a salt formation that has been used for mineral production, hydrocarbon storage, or waste disposal has been a contemporary topic for many years. Sealing and abandonment of caverns in salt formations differs from sealing of an oil and gas well principally for two reasons: - cavern wells are generally completed with much larger casings than oil and gas exploration and production wells; - the cavern fluid pressure rises after sealing. The first difference is not a significant deterrent to effective cavern sealing and abandonment. Essentially all of the uncertainties and complexities associated with cavern sealing and abandonment are a direct result of the second difference - the fact that the cavern fluid pressure rises through time. After a short introduction to solution mining of salt caverns and their use as underground gas storages, the paper will first discuss the factors affecting cavern fluid pressure increase after sealing. The second part of the paper will highlight the practical impacts of these factors on a deep salt cavern abandonment experiment (Cavern TE02; 1500 meters deep), currently being performed on the natural gas storage of Tersanne operated for over 35 years by Gaz de France. (authors)

  17. Cataract surgery in a case of carotid cavernous fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Praveen, Smita Vittal; Noronha, Veena Olma

    2014-01-01

    A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The ocular manifestations include conjunctival chemosis, proptosis, globe displacement, raised intraocular pressure and optic neuropathy. Although management of CCF in these patients is necessary, the ophthalmologist may also have to treat other ocular morbidities such as cataract. Cataract surgery in patients with CCF may be associated with many possible complications, including suprachoroidal hemorrhage. We describe cataract extraction surgery in 60-year-old female with bilateral spontaneous low-flow CCF. She underwent phacoemulsification via a clear corneal route under topical anesthesia and had an uneventful postoperative phase and recovered successfully. Given the various possible ocular changes in CCF, one must proceed with an intraocular surgery with caution. In this communication, we wish to describe the surgical precautions and the possible pitfalls in cataract surgery in patients with CCF. PMID:25370401

  18. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  19. Cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  20. Long term storage of finished gasolines in large salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.W.J. [German Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Strategic oil stocking requires large low cost storage facilities. Crude oil has been held in very large salt mines and/or artificially made salt caverns for many years, notably in Europe and the USA. Following crude oil, gasoils and refinery light feed stocks have been tried also. Military organisations tried jet fuel and early cases of underground aviation gasoline storage in steel tanks have been reported.

  1. Endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME BRASILEIRO DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the endovascular treatment of vascular lesions of the cavernous segment of the internal carotidartery (ICA performed at our institution. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, retrospective and prospective study of patients with aneurysms of the cavernous portion of the ICA or with direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (dCCF undergoing endovascular treatment. Results: we included 26 patients with intracavernous aneurysms and ten with dCCF. All aneurysms were treated with ICA occlusion. Those with dCCF were treated with occlusion in seven cases and with selective fistula occlusion in the remaining three. There was improvement of pain and ocular proptosis in all patients with dCCF. In patients with intracavernous aneurysms, the incidence of retro-orbital pain fell from 84.6% to 30.8% after treatment. The endovascular treatment decreased the dysfunction of affected cranial nerves in both groups, especially the oculomotor one. Conclusion: the endovascular treatment significantly improved the symptoms in the patients studied, especially those related to pain and oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  2. [A case of multiple cavernous angioma with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, S; Kawahara, M; Suzumura, A

    2000-10-01

    We reported a 65-year-old man who developed dementia since 50 years of age. His consciousness was clear but he was indifferent to his illness. Also, the luck of attention was recognized when we underwent examinations and the result of intellectual test varied every time we performed. His memory function was almost normal on the examination which was performed when he was cooperative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed multiple tiny lesions (more than 130 in all) in cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. These lesions were compatible with multiple cavernous angioma. Most of lesions manifested high-density area on cranial CT. Though the multiplicity of foci indicated the possibility of familial occurrence, he was considered to be a sporadic case on his lineage investigation and the brain MRI of his only son. In this case, neither headache nor seizures which were known as the major clinical features of intracerebral cavernous angioma was observed. He was diagnosed as having white matter dementia characterized by attentional dysfunction, decrement of volition and less memory disturbance. We speculated that he developed symptomatic dementia by the sum of multiple minor degeneration, especially in frontal lobe white matter, caused by repeated minor bleeding from cavernous angiomas.

  3. Gas hydrates in gas storage caverns; Gashydrate bei der Gaskavernenspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenefeld, P. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Given appropriate pressure and temperature conditions the storage of natural gas in salt caverns can lead to the formation of gas hydrates in the producing well or aboveground operating facilities. This is attributable to the stored gas becoming more or less saturated with water vapour. The present contribution describes the humidity, pressure, and temperature conditions conducive to gas hydrate formation. It also deals with the reduction of the gas removal capacity resulting from gas hydrate formation, and possible measures for preventing hydrate formation such as injection of glycol, the reduction of water vapour absorption from the cavern sump, and dewatering of the cavern sump. (MSK) [Deutsch] Bei der Speicherung von Erdgas in Salzkavernen kann es unter entsprechenden Druck- und Temperaturverhaeltnissen zur Gashydratbildung in den Foerdersonden oder obertaegigen Betriebseinrichtungen kommen, weil sich das eingelagerte Gas mehr oder weniger mit Wasserdampf aufsaettigt. Im Folgenden werden die Feuchtigkeits-, Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen, die zur Hydratbildung fuehren erlaeutert. Ebenso werden die Verringerung der Auslagerungskapazitaet durch die Hydratbildung, Massnahmen zur Verhinderung der Hydratbildung wie die Injektion von Glykol, die Verringerung der Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Kavernensumpf und die Entwaesserung der Kavernensumpfs selbst beschrieben.

  4. Histopathological findings in a surgically resected thalamic cavernous hemangioma 1 year after 40-Gy irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyáry, István; Major, Otto; Hanzély, Zoltán; Szeifert, György T

    2005-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment modality in the management of cerebral cavernous hemangiomas (CHs), and results vary from center to center. Even the interpretation of treatment failure is controversial. It is suggested that the systematic pathological investigation of irradiated specimens could help to resolve the controversy. A hemorrhagic lesion in the posterior part of the thalamus had been diagnosed as a tumor and was treated with 40-Gy fractionated radiotherapy. One year after this treatment the case was reconsidered based on new imaging evidence, and the lesion was removed by conventional craniotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a CH with postirradiation changes. Compared with nonirradiated control CH tissue samples, there was endothelial cell destruction and marked fibrosis with scar tissue formation in the stroma of the treated lesion. The histopathological findings in this specimen were similar to those described in arteriovenous malformations after gamma knife surgery. The results of light microscopic investigations suggest that the ionizing effect of radiation energy evokes vascular and connective tissue stroma changes in CHs as well.

  5. Histopathological findings in a surgically resected thalamic cavernous hemangioma 1 year after 40-Gy irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyáry, István; Major, Otto; Hanzély, Zoltán; Szeifert, György T

    2005-01-01

    ✓ Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment modality in the management of cerebral cavernous hemangiomas (CHs), and results vary from center to center. Even the interpretation of treatment failure is controversial. It is suggested that the systematic pathological investigation of irradiated specimens could help to resolve the controversy. A hemorrhagic lesion in the posterior part of the thalamus had been diagnosed as a tumor and was treated with 40-Gy fractionated radiotherapy. One year after this treatment the case was reconsidered based on new imaging evidence, and the lesion was removed by conventional craniotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a CH with postirradiation changes. Compared with nonirradiated control CH tissue samples, there was endothelial cell destruction and marked fibrosis with scar tissue formation in the stroma of the treated lesion. The histopathological findings in this specimen were similar to those described in arteriovenous malformations after gamma knife surgery. The results of light microscopic investigations suggest that the ionizing effect of radiation energy evokes vascular and connective tissue stroma changes in CHs as well.

  6. Preliminary long-term stability criteria for compressed air energy storage caverns in salt domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, R.L.; Martinez, J.D.

    1978-08-01

    Air storage caverns, which are an essential and integral component of a CAES plant, should be designed and operated so as to perform satisfactorily over the intended life of the overall facility. It follows that the long-term ''stability'' of air storage caverns must be considered as a primary concern in projecting the satisfactory operation of CAES facilities. As used in the report, ''stability'' of a storage cavern implies the extent to which an acceptable amount of cavern storage volume can be utilized with routine maintenance for a specified time interval, e.g., 35 years. In this context, cavern stability is relative to both planned utilization and time interval of operation. The objective of the study was to review the existing literature and consult knowledgeable workers in the storage industry, and then report state-of-the-art findings relative to long-term stability of compressed air energy storage caverns in salt domes. Further, preliminary cavern stability criteria were to be presented in a form consistent with the amount of information available on cavern performance in salt domes. Another objective of the study was to outline a methodology for determining the long-term stability of site-specific CAES cavern systems in salt domes.

  7. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  8. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  9. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  10. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  11. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restores erectile function after cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Florian; Buchner, Alexander; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Arndt, Christian; Stief, Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the time-course of functional recovery after cavernous nerve injury using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes. Sections of the cavernous nerves were excised bilaterally (5 mm), followed by immediate bilateral surgical repair. A total of 20 study nerves per group were reconstructed by interposition of empty silicon tubes and silicon tubes seeded with either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein-expressing Schwann cells. Control groups were either sham-operated or received bilateral nerve transection without nerve reconstruction. Erectile function was evaluated by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The animals underwent re-exploration only once, and were killed afterwards. The nerve grafts were investigated for the maturation state of regenerating nerve fibers and the fascular composition. Recovery of erectile function took at least 4 weeks in the current model. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than green fluorescent protein-transduced controls and unseeded conduits. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts promoted an intact erectile response (4/4) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks that was overall significantly superior to negative controls (P cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts compared with negative controls (P = 0.018) and unseeded tubes (P = 0.034). Return of function was associated with the electron microscopic evidence of preganglionic myelinated nerve fibers and postganglionic unmyelinated axons. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor presents a viable approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. Review of applicable technology: solution mining of caverns in salt domes to serve as repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    There is an abundance of salt domes in the Gulf Coastal region. Advances in leaching technology and cavern shape control make it possible to build large caverns with configurations approaching teardrops, cylinders, and spheres. Fenix and Scisson has designed and constructed several dozen caverns in sizes up to three million barrels (16.8 million cubic feet). It is now within current technological bounds to evacuate the brine left in the cavern following construction, dehumidify the cavern atmosphere and supply conditioned cavern ventilation. The state-of-the-art in drilling large diameter holes has advanced to the point that it is now possible to drill 120-in. holes as deep as 6,000 ft and 144-in. holes to lesser depths. Additional research is needed in the area of cavern stability. Cavern shrinkage rates are known to increase with depth because of lower salt strengths at higher pressures and temperatures

  13. Cirurgia estereotáxica guiada para angiomas cavernosos Stereotactic-guided surgery for cavernous angioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURILO S. MENESES

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os angiomas cavernosos intracerebrais são lesões que podem causar hemorragias, crises convulsivas e déficits neurológicos. Essa patologia passou a ter diagnóstico mais precoce com o advento da ressonância magnética. A remoção radical por cirurgia é o melhor método de tratamento. Devido a frequente localização subcortical ou profunda, a utilização de métodos de localização por imagem como a estereotaxia apresentam várias vantagens como: menor incisão de pele, craniotomia e manipulação do tecido cerebral, consequentemente com menor morbidade. Apresentamos uma série de nove angiomas cavernosos tratados por ressecção cirúrgica radical guiada por estereotaxia. Em todos os casos o diagnóstico foi realizado por ressonância magnética e houve confirmação anátomo-patológica. A média de idade dos pacientes foi 30 anos, variando entre 20 e 54 anos. Como morbidade transitória, um paciente teve uma crise convulsiva no 3° dia pós-operatório e uma paciente apresentou disfasia e hemiparesia no 2° dia pós-operatório, com recuperação total na evolução. No total, a remoção foi radical em todos os casos e os pacientes permanecem sem nenhum déficit neurológico relacionado à cirurgia.Intracerebral cavernous angiomas may cause hemorrhage, epileptic seizures and neurological deficits. The diagnosis of these lesions became easier with the advent of the magnetic resonance image (MRI. Radical resection is the treatment of choice. Due to frequent subcortical or deep location, image-guided techniques, such as stereotactic-guided surgery, offer many advantages as smaller skin incision and craniotomy, less brain manipulation with consequently lower morbidity. We present a series of nine cavernous angiomas treated by stereotactic-guided radical surgical resection. The diagnosis was done by MRI and confirmed by pathologic studies in all cases. Mean age of patients was 30 years old (range 20-54 years. Postoperative morbidity

  14. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  15. Pregnancy-related spinal epidural capillary-cavernous haemangioma: magnetic resonance imaging and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakan, T.; Berkman, M.Z.; Demir, M.K.; Aker, F.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Epidural haemangiomas are very rare tumours of the spine. Only a few case reports have been published and most of them were cavernous or capillary. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of a histologically confirmed epidural capillary-cavernous haemangioma of the thoracic spine presented in the MRI

  16. Electrical properties of air in the Carlsbad Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, M.; Romero, V.

    1980-01-01

    Radon 222 and its daughter product concentrations in the Carlsbad Caverns are higher than in outdoor air by a factor of several hundred. The effects of the radiation from these substances on the electrical properties of air in the cave have been studied. The rate of ion-pair production, the ion density, and the electrical conductivity are much higher in the Cave than in outdoor air. The mobility of the ions is less than outdoors due to the high humidity and low condensation nuclei concentration. A small net space charge produces a barely detectable electric field of the order of one percent of the earth's fair weather field

  17. Adrenal cavernous hemangioma: MRI, CT, and US appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotti, M.; Sucic, Z.; Krolo, I.; Dimanovski, J.; Klaric, R.; Ferencic, Z.; Karapanda, N.; Babic, N.; Pavlekovic, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two cases of rare adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are reported, one imaged with conventional X-ray techniques, US, CT, and MRI, and the other with US and CT. The CT technique clearly demonstrated calcifications and the internal structure of the lesions in both cases and peripheral rim enhancement on the postcontrast scan in one patient. Although MRI demonstrated accurately the complex nature of the lesion, the inability to visualize the calcified areas do not allow to make a specific histologic diagnosis. (orig.). With 8 figs

  18. An interesting case of angiogenesis in cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is the most common orbital tumor in adult. There is lot of literatures for clinicopathological features of this tumor. These tumors had been studied for the model of angiogenesis in many of the experimental setups. We present a case of 34-year-old male with this tumor in the left eye with computerized tomography evidence. Postsurgical laboratory findings gave interesting evidence of tumor angiogenesis with tumor endothelial cells and sprouting of the small vessels endothelial cells. Podosome rosette could be conceptualized from the characteristic patterns seen in the tumor.

  19. [Pontine cavernous angioma (cavernoma) with initial ENT manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Marqués Rebollo, L; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 22 years old female who consulted us for facial parestesias, hearing loss in right ear and sudden tinnitus. Her audiometry showed an unilateral discreet sensorineural hipoacusia and the cranial IRM, a mass of 20 mm diameter in right pontine region and bulbus informed as cavernous angioma with signs of recent bleeding. The patient was sent to Neurosurgery but she refused the intervention. The risk of hemorrhage in the cavernomas is estimated at 0.25% to 1.6% per year and represents the main reason to advise a surgical treatment.

  20. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  1. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  2. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger

    2008-01-01

    , and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PBDE-99 in primary cultures of fetal rat cortical cells. We used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze protein samples isolated from the cortex of NMRI mice 24h after exposure to a single oral dose of 12 mg/kg PBDE-99 on post-natal day 10....... Protein resolution was enhanced by sample pre-fractionation. In the cell model, we determined cell viability using the trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis using immunocytochemical detection of cleaved caspase-3. We determined the identity of 111 differentially expressed proteins, 32 (29%) of which...... are known to be cytoskeleton-related. Similar to previous findings in the striatum, we found elevated levels of the neuron growth-associated protein Gap43 in the cortex. In cultured cortical cells, a high concentration of PBDE-99 (30 microM) induced cell death without any apparent increase in caspase-3...

  3. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression...... kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine...... was kept at plasma level of snus users (25ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist...

  4. Distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid β protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid β proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-β-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid β protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein

  5. Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L = 10^28 cm^2s^1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=10^28 cm^2s^1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

  7. Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L=1028 cm-2s-1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=3.5x1033 cm-2s-1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

  8. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  9. Localization of macrophage inflammatory protein : Macrophage inflammatory PROTEIN-1 expression in rat brain after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide and focal cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourmala, NG; Limonta, S; Bochelen, D; Sauter, A; Boddeke, HWGM

    Macrophage inflammatory protein is a member of the C-C subfamily of chemokines, which exhibits, in addition to proinflammatory activities, a potent endogenous pyrogen activity. In this study, we analysed the time-course of expression and cellular source of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and

  10. [Cerebral protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  11. Preventive Effects of Resveratrol on Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Protein Modifications in Rat Cerebral Cortex Challenged by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranca Carta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R and to investigate RVT’s ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle, while the second half received the vehicle alone. In the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevented the BCCAO/R-induced increase of lipoperoxides, augmented concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide and docosahexaenoic acid, increased relative levels of the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and 2 (CB2, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor (PPAR-α proteins. Increased expression of CB1/CB2 receptors mirrored that of synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 protein. No BCCAO/R-induced changes occurred in the temporal-occipital cortex. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevents the BCCAO/R-induced oxidative stress and modulates the endocannabinoid and PPAR-α systems. The increased expression of synaptic structural proteins further suggests the possible efficacy of RVT as a dietary supplement to preserve the nervous tissue metabolism and control the physiological response to the hypoperfusion/reperfusion challenge.

  12. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Karen A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  13. Assessment of the Available Drawdowns for Oil Storage Caverns at the West Hackberry SPR Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy, in response to requests from the U.S. Congress, wishes to maintain an up-to-date table documenting the number of available full drawdowns of each of the caverns owned by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This information is important for assessing the SPR’s ability to deliver oil to domestic oil companies expeditiously if national or world events dictate a rapid sale and deployment of the oil reserves. What factors go into assessing available drawdowns? The evaluation of drawdown risks require the consideration of several factors regarding cavern and wellbore integrity and stability, including stress states caused by cavern geometry and operations, salt damage caused by dilatant and tensile stresses, the effect on enhanced creep on wellbore integrity, the sympathetic stress effect of operations on neighboring caverns. Based on the work over the past several months, a consensus has been built regarding the assessment of drawdown capabilities and risks for the SPR caverns. This paper draws upon the recently West Hackberry model upgrade and analyses to reevaluate and update the available drawdowns for each of those caverns. Similar papers for the Bryan Mound, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw papers will be developed as the upgrades to those analyses are completed. The rationale and documentation of the methodology is described in the remainder of this report, as are the updated estimates of available drawdowns for the West Hackberry caverns.

  14. Acute presentation of solitary spinal epidural cavernous angioma in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatbari, M.R.; Moharamzad, Y.; Hamidi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are rare lesions, especially in paediatric age group. They are infrequently considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural masses in children. We report a case of solitary epidural cavernous angioma of the thoracic spine in a child presenting with acute onset of back pain and myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated a posterior epidural mass at T6-T8 levels with compression of the spinal cord. Using microsurgical technique and bipolar coagulation, total excision of the lesion was achieved. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. At the five-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the tumour. (author)

  15. Research progress in hepatic cavernous hemangiomas: a comprehensive review with graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yong; Zhang Xuejun; Ouyang Xuehui; Chao Lumeng

    2012-01-01

    The common benign tumor of the liver, cavernous hemangioma, has already been confirmed, both embryologically and pathologically, to be not a neoplasm, but a congenital vascular malformation of the liver which is resulted from the arrested development of hepatic sinusoids at embryologic stage. This paper aims to make a comprehensive description of the cavernous hemangiomas of the liver, including the lesion's blood supply, the hemodynamics, the imaging features, the classification and its interventional therapy. The relevant example illustrations, figures and graphics are accompanied with the text in order to provide the readers with an complete and up-to-date understanding of the hepatic cavernous hemangiomas. (authors)

  16. Quantitative analyses of postmortem heat shock protein mRNA profiles in the occipital lobes of human cerebral cortices: implications in cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ukhee; Seo, Joong-Seok; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Son, Gi Hoon; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative RNA analyses of autopsy materials to diagnose the cause and mechanism of death are challenging tasks in the field of forensic molecular pathology. Alterations in mRNA profiles can be induced by cellular stress responses during supravital reactions as well as by lethal insults at the time of death. Here, we demonstrate that several gene transcripts encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), a gene family primarily responsible for cellular stress responses, can be differentially expressed in the occipital region of postmortem human cerebral cortices with regard to the cause of death. HSPA2 mRNA levels were higher in subjects who died due to mechanical asphyxiation (ASP), compared with those who died by traumatic injury (TI). By contrast, HSPA7 and A13 gene transcripts were much higher in the TI group than in the ASP and sudden cardiac death (SCD) groups. More importantly, relative abundances between such HSP mRNA species exhibit a stronger correlation to, and thus provide more discriminative information on, the death process than does routine normalization to a housekeeping gene. Therefore, the present study proposes alterations in HSP mRNA composition in the occipital lobe as potential forensic biological markers, which may implicate the cause and process of death.

  17. Mild prenatal protein malnutrition increases alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the rat cerebral cortex during postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, Walter; Hernández, Alejandro; Valladares, Luis; Pérez, Hernán; Mondaca, Mauricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén

    2006-05-15

    Mild reduction in the protein content in the diet of pregnant rats from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but results in significant changes of the concentration and release of cortical noradrenaline during postnatal life, together with impaired long-term potentiation and memory formation. Since some central noradrenergic receptors are critically involved in neuroplasticity, the present study evaluated, by utilizing immunohistochemical methods, the effect of mild prenatal protein malnutrition on the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the frontal and occipital cortices of 8- and 60-day-old rats. At day 8 of postnatal age, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a three-fold increase of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in both the frontal and the occipital cortices, as compared to well-nourished controls. At 60 days of age, prenatally malnourished rats showed normal expression levels scores of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor in the neocortex. Results suggest that overexpression of neocortical alpha 2C-adrenoceptors during early postnatal life, subsequent to mild prenatal protein malnutrition, could in part be responsible for neural and behavioral disturbances showing prenatally malnourished animals during the postnatal life.

  18. Cerebral venous thrombosis in Saudi Arabia. Clinical variables, response to treatment, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajtazi, Naim I; Arulneyam, Jayanthi C; AlSenani, Fahmi M; Zimmerman, Valerie A; AlShami, Sadiq Y

    2009-01-01

    To investigate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVTR) clinical presentations, risk factors, and response to treatment in Saudi Arabia. Retrospective analysis of the King Farad Medical City, Riyadh, acute stroke database from April 2005 through February 2008 revealed 22 patients with CVTR. Hyper coagulable work-up and neuroimaging were performed. Sixteen patients were female (72.7%), and the median age was 35 years. Clinical presentations included: headache (77.3%), seizures (54.5%), focal neurological signs (54.5%), and decreased level of consciousness (50%). Over two-thirds (n=11; 69%) of female patients had a history of oral contraceptive use, which was the most common risk factor. Protein S deficiency (n=3), anti phospholipid antibody syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=1), rhinocerebral mucormycosis (n=1), leukemia (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1), sepsis (n=1), and unknown (n=6) were causes. Affected areas included superior sagittal (n=13), transverse (n=16), sigmoid (n=14), straight (n=6), and cavernous sinus (n=1); internal cerebral vein (n=2); vein of Galen (n=3); cortical veins (n=10); and internal jugular vein (n=12). Two patients had quadriparesis, and 2 patients died. The remainder (n=18, 81.8%) improved. Bilateral hemorrhagic presentation or venous infarction, deep venous system thrombosis, and underlying malignancy had less favorable results. Presentations in our series were similar to those in other reports, although altered consciousness and seizures were more common. Cortical vein involvement was also higher than commonly reported. Oral contraceptive use was a primary risk factor in female patients. Outcomes were favorable in 81.8% of patients. (author)

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma with cavernous transformation of the protal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Heung Suk; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Twenty cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by selective celiac and superior mesenteric arteriography. Obstruction of the main portal vein due to tumor thrombus was revealed in 7 cases and 3 of these cases had cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV). The authors intended in this study to evaluate CTPV group and non-CTPV group clinically and radiologically. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The duration of illness was shorter in CTPV group than non- CTPV group. 2. There was no significant difference in tumor size between two groups ,and main portion of tumor was located in the right lobe in both groups. 3. Arterio portal shunt was present in 2 of 4 cases in non-CTPV group, but was no present at all in CRPV groups. 5. There wa no significant difference in blood chemistry between two groups. 6. CTPV may play an important role maintain the hepatic blood flow.

  20. Intramedullary cavernous hemangiomas, magnetic resonance studies in four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, M.R.; Guelbenzu, S.; Garcia, S.; Bertrol, V.

    1998-01-01

    Intramedullary cavernous hemangiomas are vascular malformations that can be located throughout the entire central nervous system. They are more frequently found in brain than in spinal cord, where it is only possible to diagnose them by magnetic resonance (RM): We present four cases of intramedullary spinal cord cavernoma, three of which were located in the thoracic spine and one in cervical spine. Computed tomography was ineffective in their diagnosis. However, MR disclosed there presence of well-defined tumors producing a thickening of the spinal cord. The signal was heterogeneous in both T1 and T2-weighted images. There were low signal areas due to the presence of calcium and hemosiderin and high intensity signals provoked by methemoglobin within the lesions, which were scarcely enhanced by intravenous gadolinium administration. One of the lesions presented in the form of a large intramedullary hematoma. (Author) 8 refs

  1. [Neuronavigation for the resection of intracranial cavernous angiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Zhou, L

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the use of the Stealth Station neuronavigator in conjunction with preoperative computerized tomography (CT) in the resection of intracranial cavernous angiomas (CAs). The Stealth Station neuronavigator was used to provide real-time correlation of the operating field and computerized images in 6 patients with CAs. All of them suffered from epileptic seizures. Neuronavigation-guided lesionectomy with removal of hemosiderin deposition, gliosis and calcification in all cases was performed precisely. Mean fiducial error, predicted accuracy at 10 cm, and sustained accuracy ranged from 1.65 to 4.53 mm, 1.82 to 3.28 mm, and 0.50 to 3.45 mm, respectively. The Stealth Station neuronavigator is reliable and accurate in the resection of CAs.

  2. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is

  3. Emergency treatment by intravascular embolization in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Sun Zengtao; Liu Zuoqin; Liu Yanjun; Li Fengxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method of intervenfional intravascular treatment in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) and the significance of clinical application in emergency. Methods: In 297 eases of TCCF, 36 cases were treated by interventional intravascular embolization by detachable balloon, embolization orificium or occlusion in one side of carotid artery. In the 36 cases, serious epistaxis occurred in 22 eases, cortical vein inflow in 9 cases, intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases, aggravation of eyesight in 3 cases, and limb dysfunction in 2 cases. Results: Fistula was successfully embolized and internal carotid artery remained patent in 19 cases. Complete embolization of orificium or internal carotid artery was achieved in 17 eases. The serious epistaxias in 22 cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases stopped. Eyesight recovered in 2 eases and improved in 1 case. Limb dysfunction improved evidently in 2 cases. Conclusion: Intravascular embolization treatment is the first therapeutic choice for TCCF, especially in emergency. It is necessary, safe and effective. (authors)

  4. Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations involving medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Lin, Sen; Hui, Xuhui; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations (CMs) involving medulla oblongata is more difficult than the CMs in other sites because of the surrounding vital structures. However, the distinctive features and treatment strategies have not been well illustrated. Therefore, we enrolled a total of 19 patients underwent surgical treatment of CMs involving medulla oblongata in our hospital from August 2008 to August 2014. The clinical features, surgical management and clinical outcome of these patients were retrospectively analyzed, while our institutional surgical indications, approaches and microsurgical techniques were discussed. In our study, gross total resection was achieved in 17 patients and subtotal resection in 2. Two patients underwent emergency surgeries due to severe and progressive neurological deficits. The postoperative new-onset or worsened neurological deficits occurred in 6 patients. After a mean follow-up of 45.8±22.2months, the neurological status was improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 7. The mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was 2.58±1.26 preoperatively, 3.11±0.99 postoperatively and 1.84±1.42 at the recent follow-up, respectively. During the follow-up period, no rehemorrhage and recurrence occurred, and the residual lesions remained stable. We recommended surgical resection of symptomatic CMs involving medulla oblongata via optimal approaches, feasible entry zones and meticulous microsurgical techniques in attempting to achieve safe resection and favorable outcome. The clinical features, surgical indications, timing and microsurgical techniques of this special entity should be distinctive from the brainstem cavernous malformations in other sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sonographic Findings of Cavernous Hemangioma in Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung; Kim, Ki Whang; Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Myung Jin; Ji, Hoon

    1995-01-01

    Typical cavernous hemangioma presents no diagnostic difficulty at sonography. However, in cases of atypical hemangioma, further evaluation is needed to differentiate it from malignancy. On the other hand, thcechogenicity of the lesion may be iso echo or hypoecho when it occurs in association with fatty liver. We analyzed the sonographic features of hemangioma in fatty liver. We reviewed the sonograms of 22 lesions from 19 patients. We divided the lesions into two groups; the lesion measuring less than 3cm in diameter (group I) and the lesions measuring same or greater than 3cm (group II). The lesions of each group were analyzed in terms of location, shape, distinction of margin, internal echogenicity, posterior enhancement, lateral shadowing, and peritumoral hypoechoic halo. The lesions were located in subcapsular or perivascular areain 86%. They strowed round or lobulated shape with well defined margin in 82%. Internal echo of the lesions was hypoechoic in 82% and homogeneous in 64%. Posterior enhancement was seen in 77%. The posterior wall of the lesion was distinct in 68%. There was no statistical difference in incidence of each finding described above between the two groups except the internal echogenicity(p<0.05). All of the four hyperechoic lesions measured greater than 3cmin diameter, and three of them showed uneven thickness of echogenic rind. Definitive diagnosis of hemangioma could be obtained in 82%. In remaining 18% of hemangioma, the lesions showed peripheral hypoechoic halo and lateral shadowing that made the diagnosis of hemangioma difficult. However, the possibility of hemangioma could be suggested because they showed haemangiomas internal eye-catching and posterior enhancement. Hepatic cavernous hemangioma presents with variable eye-catching as compared to the surrounding tissue when it is associated with fatty liver disease, Thus, in differentiating hemangiomas from other localized hepatic mass, other characteristics such as homogeneity of the

  6. Gene expression of fatty acid transport and binding proteins in the blood-brain barrier and the cerebral cortex of the rat: differences across development and with different DHA brain status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélerin, Hélène; Jouin, Mélanie; Lallemand, Marie-Sylvie; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Cunnane, Stephen C; Langelier, Bénédicte; Guesnet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Specific mechanisms for maintaining docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in brain cells but also transporting DHA from the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are not agreed upon. Our main objective was therefore to evaluate the level of gene expression of fatty acid transport and fatty acid binding proteins in the cerebral cortex and at the BBB level during the perinatal period of active brain DHA accretion, at weaning, and until the adult age. We measured by real time RT-PCR the mRNA expression of different isoforms of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs), fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) and the fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36 in cerebral cortex and isolated microvessels at embryonic day 18 (E18) and postnatal days 14, 21 and 60 (P14, P21 and P60, respectively) in rats receiving different n-3 PUFA dietary supplies (control, totally deficient or DHA-supplemented). In control rats, all the genes were expressed at the BBB level (P14 to P60), the mRNA levels of FABP5 and ACSL3 having the highest values. Age-dependent differences included a systematic decrease in the mRNA expressions between P14-P21 and P60 (2 to 3-fold), with FABP7 mRNA abundance being the most affected (10-fold). In the cerebral cortex, mRNA levels varied differently since FATP4, ACSL3 and ACSL6 and the three FABPs genes were highly expressed. There were no significant differences in the expression of the 10 genes studied in n-3 deficient or DHA-supplemented rats despite significant differences in their brain DHA content, suggesting that brain DHA uptake from the blood does not necessarily require specific transporters within cerebral endothelial cells and could, under these experimental conditions, be a simple passive diffusion process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The clinical significance of cerebral microbleed and its diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral microbleed (CMB) on gradient-echo T 2 * -weighted MR imaging (T 2 * -w MR imaging) is associated with microangiopathy. Number of CMBs and new appeared CMBs are markers for stroke recurrence and the performance state. After CMB was reviewed in this manuscript, criterion for CMB is proposed as below. Only microbleed associated with microangiopathies related to primary intracerebral hemorrhage or lacunar infarction is diagnosed as CMB. A low intensity (round or oval shape, 2 * -w MR imaging defined as a CMB. Exception: Micro-bleedings associated with trauma (cerebral concussion), brain tumor, cavernous angioma, or moyamoya disease are excluded. Calcifications or vascular flow voids were excluded by CT or other MR imagings. Reference: CMB is rarely correlated to a focal neurological sign. CMB is associated with risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or high age. CMB is very rare in patients less than 40 years old. (author)

  8. Selective occlusion of a carotid sinus cavernous fistula after transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, E.; Dietrich, U.; Wappenschmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    A case of carotid cavernous sinus fistula following transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is reported. A selective occlusion of the fistula with patency of the carotid artery was achieved by means of a detachable balloon catheter. (orig.) [de

  9. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veil, John

    1996-01-01

    .... These caverns are either created incidentally as a result of salt recovery or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air...

  10. VACUUM THERAPY – PREVENTION OF HYPOXIA OF CAVERNOUS TISSUE PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Osadchinskii

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, after radical prostatectomy with the use of nerve-sparing techniques, without carrying out penile rehabilitation, are at risk of forming cavernous fibrosis with the emergence of subsequent persistent erectile dysfunction. In order to minimize damage to cavernous tissue and early restoration of erectile function during the period of neuropraxia, it is necessary to ensure a sufficient level of oxygenation. The role of applying vacuum in penile rehabilitation for the prevention of hypoxia of cavernous tissue is not fully understood, due to the lack of data on the gaseous composition of the blood at the time of reaching the vacuum of erection. The purpose of this work was to review the scientific studies devoted to the study of vacuum induced penile erection in animals or humans, which indicates high results due to increased oxygenation of cavernous tissue.

  11. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns; Comportement transitoire des cavites salines profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Jafari, M

    2007-11-15

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  12. Dural carotid cavernous sinus fistula presenting as isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Arıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (dural carotid cavernous fistula is formed by the connection between meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinüs, and low flow circulation with low pressure is occured. Proptosis, ophtalmoplegia, headache, scleral and conjuctival hyperemia expanding around the eyeball can be observed. A forty-eight year old female patient with a background of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was admitted with complaints of double vision. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy was found in neurological examination and an indirect carotid cavernous fistula was revealed by digital subtraction angiography. Our case with carotid cavernous fistula as a rare cause of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is worth to be reported.

  13. Induction profile of MANF/ARMET by cerebral ischemia and its implication for neuron protection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Lian-Cheng; Wang, Fa-Cai; Liang, Yan; Cha, Da-Qin; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Shen, Yu-Jun; Wang, Hai-Ping; Fang, Shengyun; Shen, Yu-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia-induced accumulation of unfolded proteins in vulnerable neurons triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Arginine-rich, mutated in early stage tumors (ARMET) is an ER stress-inducible protein and upregulated in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. The purposes of this study were to investigate the characteristics and implications of ARMET expression induced by focal cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion w...

  14. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum GM-CSF and platelet granular membrance protein (PGMP) contents after treatment in patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Zhizhong; Pan Shengying; Tang Yong; Wang Jun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum GM-CSF and PGMP levels after treatment in patients with cerebral infarction. Methods: Serum GM-CSF and PGMP contents were measured with RIA in 36 patients with cerebral infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum GM-CSF and PGMP levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). After 6 months' treatment, the levels (though dropped markedly), remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum GM-CSF and PGMP levels might be of prognostic value in patients with cerebral infarction. (authors)

  16. Flow diversion in the treatment of carotid injury and carotid-cavernous fistula after transsphenoidal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cheemum; Ahmed, Muhammad E; Glikstein, Rafael; dos Santos, Marlise P; Lesiuk, Howard; Labib, Mohamed; Kassam, Amin B

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of iatrogenic carotid injury with secondary carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) treated with a silk flow diverter stent placed within the injured internal carotid artery and coils placed within the cavernous sinus. Flow diverters may offer a simple and potentially safe vessel-sparing option in this rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery. The management options are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:26015526

  17. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

  18. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10?days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at t...

  19. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  20. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  1. Hazard assessment of the stability of a cavern roof along the coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, A.; Lollino, P.

    2009-04-01

    This work concerns the hazard assessment about the stability of a large shallow depth cavern, located along the coastline rocky sector of Polignano town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which lies at the sea level, has been created by a prolonged process of sea erosion within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper Gravina Calcarenite mass. The thickness of the cavern roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre. Important buildings, as hotels and private houses, are located just above the top of the roof. Erosion processes have been observed to be still active along the whole cavern due to climate factors and, in particular, to sea salt weathering and sea spray effects. In 2007 a large calcarenite block, 3 m large, fell down from the cavern roof and consequently a field investigation campaign was carried out for a rational stabilization plan in order to understand the current stability conditions of the roof and the potential failure mechanism. Therefore, a thorough geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for measuring the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock and of the corresponding joints. A monitoring system has also been planned and installed in order to measure the erosional rate and the block displacements in the cavern.

  2. Mathematical model of salt cavern leaching for gas storage in high-insoluble salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Xilin; Yang, Chunhe; Li, Yinping; Wang, Tongtao; Ma, Hongling

    2018-01-10

    A mathematical model is established to predict the salt cavern development during leaching in high-insoluble salt formations. The salt-brine mass transfer rate is introduced, and the effects of the insoluble sediments on the development of the cavern are included. Considering the salt mass conservation in the cavern, the couple equations of the cavern shape, brine concentration and brine velocity are derived. According to the falling and accumulating rules of the insoluble particles, the governing equations of the insoluble sediments are deduced. A computer program using VC++ language is developed to obtain the numerical solution of these equations. To verify the proposed model, the leaching processes of two salt caverns of Jintan underground gas storage are simulated by the program, using the actual geological and technological parameters. The same simulation is performed by the current mainstream leaching software in China. The simulation results of the two programs are compared with the available field data. It shows that the proposed software is more accurate on the shape prediction of the cavern bottom and roof, which demonstrates the reliability and applicability of the model.

  3. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  4. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  5. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  6. Japan's exploration of vertical holes and subsurface caverns on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Kubota, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Kato, H.; Otsuki, M.; Watanabe, K.; Nishibori, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Iwata, T.; Ishigami, G.; Yamada, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, gigantic vertical holes exceeding several tens of meters in diameter and depth were discovered on the Moon and Mars. Based on high-resolution image data, lunar holes and some Martian pits (called 'holes' hereafter) are probably skylights of subsurface caverns such as lava tubes or magma chambers. We are starting preparations for exploring the caverns through the vertical holes. The holes and subsurface caverns have high potential as resources for scientific studies. Various important geological and mineralogical processes could be uniquely and effectively observed inside these holes and subsurface caverns. The exposed fresh lava layers on the vertical walls of the lunar and Martian holes would provide information on volcanic eruption histories. The lava layers may also provide information on past magnetic fields of the celestial bodies. The regolith layers may be sandwiched between lava layers and may preserve volatile elements including solar wind protons that could be a clue to understanding past solar activities. Water molecules from solar winds or cometary/meteorite impacts may be stored inside the caverns because of mild temperatures there. The fresh lava materials forming the walls and floors of caverns might trap endogenic volatiles from magma eruptions that will be key materials for revealing the formation and early evolution of the Moon and Mars. Furthermore, the Martian subsurface caverns are highly expected to be life cradles where the temperatures are probably stable and that are free from ultra-violet and other cosmic rays that break chemical bonds, thus avoiding polymerization of molecules. Discovering extraterrestrial life and its varieties is one of our ultimate scientific purposes for exploring the lunar and Martian subsurface caverns. In addition to scientific interests, lunar and Martian subsurface caverns are excellent candidates for future lunar bases. We expect such caverns to have high potential due to stable temperatures; absence

  7. Transvenous embolization of indirect carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic/facial vein - Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penkov, M.; Sirakov, A.; Kamenov, B.; Todorov, Y.; Ninov, K.; Bachvarov, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect carotid-cavernous fistula or dural arterio-venous fistula of cavernous sinus is relatively rare pathologic finding. Different classifications of carotid-cavernous fistulae are proposed. Now days more and more they are treated by endovascular approach. A case of authors' practice of transvenous embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic vein in 52 year old female is presented with review of the literature. A week later ocular symptoms of the patient regressed. Control angiography at the third month follow up does not visualize fistula. The transvenous approach in management of carotid cavernous fistulae is safe and effective in cases direct arterial approach is absent or technically impossible. Key words: Indirect Carotid-Cavernous Fistula. Embolization. Transvenous Approach

  8. Is there a dural wall between the cavernous sinus and the pituitary fossa? Anatomical and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Vinclair, L.; Maillot, C.

    1998-01-01

    We compared MRI studies of the sellar area and embryological and adult histological studies of the cavernous sinuses and pituitary fossa. MRI studies were performed in 50 normal subjects with coronal sections using a fast inversion-recovery sequence to demonstrate the dural walls of the cavernous sinus and pituitary fossa. With this sequence, dura mater appears as a high-signal linear structure. The lateral and superior walls of the cavernous sinus was easily identified on all studies, but demonstration of a dural wall separating the cavernous sinus from the pituitary fossa was not possible. These results correlated well with embryological and adult histological studies obtained from 14 specimens. The absence of a strong separation between the pituitary fossa and the cavernous sinus explains the high incidence of extension of pituitary tumours to the cavernous sinuses and vice versa. (orig.) (orig.)

  9. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truwit, C.L.; Barkovich, A.J.; Koch, T.; Ferreiro, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  10. Ethanol activation of protein kinase A regulates GABA-A receptor subunit expression in the cerebral cortex and contributes to ethanol-induced hypnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases are implicated in neuronal cell functions such as modulation of ion channel function, trafficking and synaptic excitability. Both protein kinase C (PKC and A (PKA are involved in regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A receptors through phosphorylation. However, the role of PKA in regulating GABA-A receptors following acute ethanol exposure is not known. The present study investigated the role of PKA in ethanol effects on GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression in the P2 synaptosomal fraction of the rat cerebral cortex. Additionally, GABA-related behaviors were also examined. Rats were administered ethanol (2.0 – 3.5 g/kg or saline and PKC, PKA and GABA-A receptor α1 subunit levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Ethanol (3.5 g/kg transiently increased GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression and PKA RIIβ subunit expression at similar time points whereas PKA RIIα was increased at later time points. In contrast, PKC isoform expression remained unchanged. Notably, the moderate ethanol dose (2.0g/kg had no effect on GABA-A α1 subunit levels although PKA RIIα and RIIβ were increased at 10 and 60 minutes, when PKC isozymes are also known to be elevated. To determine if PKA activation was responsible for the ethanol-induced elevation of GABA-A α1 subunits, the PKA antagonist H89 was administered to rats prior to ethanol exposure. H89 administration prevented ethanol-induced increases in GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression. Moreover, increasing PKA activity intracerebroventricularly with Sp-cAMP prior to a hypnotic dose of ethanol increased ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex duration. This effect appears to be mediated in part by GABA-A receptors as increasing PKA activity also increased the duration of muscimol-induced loss of righting reflex. Overall these data suggest that PKA mediates ethanol-induced GABA-A receptor expression and contributes to ethanol behavioral effects involving GABA-A receptors.

  11. Thermo-mechanical modelling of salt caverns due to fluctuating loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.

    2015-12-01

    This work summarizes the development and application of a numerical model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. Artificial salt caverns are used for short term energy storage, such as power-to-gas or compressed air energy storage. Those applications are characterized by highly fluctuating operation pressures due to the unsteady power levels of power plants based on renewable energy. Compression and expansion of the storage gases during loading and unloading stages lead to rapidly changing temperatures in the host rock of the caverns. This affects the material behaviour of the host rock within a zone that extends several meters into the rock mass adjacent to the cavern wall, and induces thermo-mechanical stresses and alters the creep response.The proposed model features the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage medium, conductive heat transport in the host rock, as well as temperature dependent material properties of rock salt using different thermo-viscoplastic material models. The utilized constitutive models are well known and state-of-the-art in various salt mechanics applications. The model has been implemented into the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, coupled via a staggered coupling scheme. The simulation results allow the conclusion, that the cavern convergence rate (and thus the efficiency of the cavern) is highly influenced by the loading cycle frequency and the resulting gas temperatures. The model therefore allows to analyse the influence of operation modes on the cavern host rock or on neighbouring facilities.

  12. Second Barrel Toroid Coil Installed in ATLAS Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Tappern, G.

    The second barrel toroid coil was lowered into the ATLAS Cavern on Friday, 26 November. The operation takes approximately five hours of precision crane and winch operations. Before lowering, several checks are made to ensure that no loose items have been left on the coil which would fall during the lowering down the shaft. This is a very difficult, but very important check, with the first coil in position, and partly below the shaft. After changing the winch tooling on Wednesday December 1st, the coil was lifted, rotated and placed into the feet. The girders which support the coil and the Z direction stops had all been pre-set before putting the coil in the feet. The angle is controlled by an inclinometer. When the final adjustments of position have been made, which will locate the coils at the plus/minus two mm level, the connection beams (voussoirs and struts) will be put in place; this requires a complex shimming procedure. This will lock together the two coils into the feet and forms the foundation for th...

  13. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from the arterial side of the circulation, as there are more small arteries in the intraconal space lateral to the optic nerve than in other locations. A predilection for the left orbit remains unexplained.

  14. Management of supratentorial cavernous malformations: craniotomy versus gammaknife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yang-Hsin; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2005-02-01

    Although craniotomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic solitary supratentorial cavernous malformation (CM), radiosurgery is also an option. Our aim was to see which of these strategies was the most effective and under what circumstances. Of the 46 patients with solitary supratentorial CM that we retrospectively studied, 24 presented with seizures, 16 with focal neurological deficits due to intracerebral hemorrhage, and 6 with both seizures and bleeding. Sixteen were treated with craniotomy and 30 with gammaknife radiosurgery (GKRS). The main outcome measures for comparing craniotomy with GKRS were the proportion of postoperative seizure-free patients and the proportion of patients in whom no rebleeding occurred. Of patients presenting with seizures with/without bleeding, a significantly higher proportion of the craniotomy group than the GKRS group became and remained seizure-free (11/14 [79%] versus 4/16 [25%]; P < 0.002), and of those presenting with bleeding with/without seizures, a somewhat (though nonsignificantly) higher proportion did not rebleed (4/4 [100%] versus 12/18 [67%]) after surgery. The remaining 2 of the 16 craniotomy patients did not rebleed and had no residual tumor at follow up. Twelve of the 30 GKRS patients had evidence of tumor regression at follow up. In the clinical management of solitary supratentorial CM, craniotomy for lesionectomy resulted in better seizure control and rebleeding avoidance than GKRS.

  15. Treatment Outcome Of Seizures Associated With Intracranial Cavernous Angiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievera Conrad C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are among the typical presentations of intracranial cavernous angiomas (ICA. Twenty-one patients (age range: 2 to 53 years treated for seizures associated with ICA between 1983 and 1997 were restrospectively studied to evaluate their outcome following medical or surgical intervention. The mean interval between seizure onset and initial presentation at our institution was 7.6 years. Seizures were simple partial in 3 patients, complex partial in 15 and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 13. The commonest site of the lesion was the temporal lobe (52%. Multiple angiomas were observed in 5 (24% patients. Seven (32% patients were medically-managed with antiepileptic therapy and 14 (68% underwent either lesionectomy with resection of the epileptogenic zone (9 patients or temporal lobectomy (5 patients. Mean follow-up time was 4 years (range: 3 months to 14 years. Of the medically-managed patients, 3 (43% remained seizure-free whereas 4 (57% continued to have seizures with an average frequency of one per day. Of the surgically-managed patients, 12 (86% became seizure-free and 2 (14% had no more than two seizures per year. Surgery appears to be extremely effective in the management of seizures associated with ICA and should receive a strong and early consideration in patients who fail medical therapy.

  16. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  17. Effect of salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine hydrochloride injection combined with hydroxyethyl starch injection on serum BNP, Hcy, MMP-2, S100B protein and hemorheology in patients with acute cerebral watershed infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine hydrochloride injection combined with hydroxyethyl starch injection on serum BNP, Hcy, MMP-2, S100B protein and hemorheology in patients with acute cerebral watershed infarction. Methods: A total of 90 patientswith acute cerebral watershed infarction in our hospital from August 2014 to December 2016 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=45 and the treatment group (n=45 randomly. The control group was treated with hydroxyethyl starch injection, the treatment group was treated withsalvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine hydrochloride injection combined with hydroxyethyl starch injection, and both the two groups were treated for 2 weeks. The serum BNP, Hcy, MMP-2, S100B protein and hemorheology of the two groups before and after treatments were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum BNP, Hcy, MMP-2, S100B protein and hemorheology of the two groups before treatment. The serum BNP, Hcy, MMP-2, S100B proteinlevels of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group. The PV, Lr, Mr, Hr and RE of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Salvia miltiorrhiza and ligustrazine hydrochloride injection combined with hydroxyethyl starch injectioncan significantlyimprovetheneurological function and hemorheology, reduce inflammation of the patients with acute cerebral watershed infarction, and it was worthy clinical application.

  18. Andrographolide stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase 1 signaling in primary cerebral endothelial cells for definite protection against ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Chen, Ray-Jade; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Stroke pathogenesis involves complex oxidative stress-related pathways. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathways have been considered molecular targets in pharmacologic intervention for ischemic diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, has received increasing attention in recent years because of its various pharmacologic activities. We determined that andrographolide modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling cascade in primary cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) to provide positive protection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in rats. In the present study, andrographolide (10 μM) increased HO-1 protein and messenger RNA expressions, Nrf2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in CECs, and these activities were disrupted by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. Similar results were observed in confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, andrographolide-induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were significantly inhibited by Nrf2 small interfering RNA. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown attenuated the protective effect of andrographolide against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced CEC death. Andrographolide (0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed free radical formation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain infarction in MCAO-insulted rats, and these effects were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX. The mechanism is attributable to HO-1 activation, as directly evidenced by andrographolide-induced pronounced HO-1 expression in brain tissues, which was highly localized in the cerebral capillary. In conclusion, andrographolide increased Nrf2-HO-1 expression through p38 MAPK regulation, confirming that it provides protection against MCAO-induced brain injury. These findings provide strong evidence that andrographolide could

  19. In vitro glutathione peroxidase mimicry of ebselen is linked to its oxidation of critical thiols on key cerebral suphydryl proteins - A novel component of its GPx-mimic antioxidant mechanism emerging from its thiol-modulated toxicology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kade, I J; Balogun, B D; Rocha, J B T

    2013-10-25

    The antioxidant mechanism of ebselen in rats brain is largely linked with its glutathione peroxidase (GPx) rather than its peroxiredoxin mimicry ability. However, the precise molecular dynamics between the GPx-mimicry of ebselen and thiol utilization is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein, we investigated the influence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on the antioxidant action of ebselen against oxidant-induced cerebral lipid peroxidation and deoxyribose degradation. Furthermore, the critical inhibitory concentrations of ebselen on the activities of sulphydryl enzymes such as cerebral sodium pump, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also investigated. We observe that ebselen (at ≥42 μM) markedly inhibited lipid peroxidation in the presence and absence of DTT, whereas it inhibited deoxyribose degradation only in the presence of DTT. Furthermore, under in vitro conditions, ebselen inhibited the thiol containing enzymes; cerebral sodium pump (at ≥40 μM), δ-ALAD (≥10 μM) and LDH (≥1 μM) which were either prevented or reversed by DTT. However, the inhibition of the activities of these sulphydryl proteins in diabetic animals was prevented by ebselen. Summarily, it is apparent that the effective in vitro inhibitory doses of ebselen on the activity of the sulphydryl proteins are far less than its antioxidant doses. In addition, the presence of DTT is evidently a critical requirement for ebselen to effect its antioxidant action against deoxyribose degeradation and not lipid peroxidation. Consequently, we conclude that ebselen possibly utilizes available thiols on sulphydryl proteins to effect its GPx mimicry antioxidant action against lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability of interbed for salt cavern gas storage in solution mining considering cusp displacement catastrophe theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cusp displacement catastrophe theory can be introduced to propose a new method about instability failure of the interbed for gas storage cavern in bedded salt in solution mining. We can calculate initial fracture drawing pace of this interbed to obtain 2D and 3D gas storage shapes at this time. Moreover, Stability evaluation of strength reduction finite element method (FEM based on this catastrophe theory can used to evaluate this interbed stability after initial fracture. A specific example is simulated to obtain the influence of the interbed depth, cavern internal pressure, and cavern building time on stability safety factor (SSF. The results indicate: the value of SSF will be lower with the increase of cavern building time in solution mining and the increase of interbed depth and also this value remains a rise with the increase of cavern internal pressure Especially, we can conclude that the second-fracture of the interbed may take place when this pressure is lower than 6 MPa or after 6 days later of the interbed after initial fracture. According to above analysis, some effective measures, namely elevating the tube up to the top of the interbed, or changing the circulation of in-and-out lines, can be introduced to avoid the negative effects when the second-fracture of the interbed may occur.

  1. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10 days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the foramen of Monro, and obstructive hydrocephalus of both lateral ventricles. The patient was then referred to our hospital. Neurological examination on admission to our hospital showed memory disturbance (Mini-Mental State Examination 20/30) and wide-based gait. A cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro was diagnosed based on the typical popcorn-like appearance of the lesion on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by neuroendoscope-assisted transcortical surgery with the Viewsite Brain Access System (Vycor Medical Inc., Boca Raton, FL), leading to a reduction in the size of the ventricles. The resected mass was histologically confirmed to be cavernous angioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately and there were no postoperative complications. Minimally invasive neuroendoscope-assisted surgery was used to successfully treat a cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro.

  2. A structural behavior study of rock caverns considering the effects of discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kim, Sun Hoon; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, Kyu Seop; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, In Gil; Lee, Dong Yong

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the effects of discontinuities within rock masses on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal, and then develop a computer program for the structural analysis of rock caverns considering these effect of discontinuities. The behavior of rock masses, such as strength, deformation modes, ect., is very difficult to predict because discontinuities in the form of microcracks or joints are randomly distributed within rock masses. Discontinuties existing around the rock cavern for underground radioactive waste disposal may become the main transport pathways of radionuclides, and reduce the strength of rock masses eventually causing the rock cavern structure unstable. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties and behavior of discontinuous rock masses and an improvement of structural analysis methods are essential in order to understand the behavior of underground rock cavern structures properly in order to design safe and economic understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. Therfore, this study includes literature review on mechanical properties of and computational models for discontinuous rock masses, and on structures. Then, bases on the engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made before developing the structural analysis computer program for underground radioactive waste disposal structures. (author)

  3. Multiple cavernous malformations presenting in a patient with Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Salles Antonio AF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Poland syndrome is a congenital disorder related to chest and hand anomalies on one side of the body. Its etiology remains unclear, with an ipsilateral vascular alteration (of unknown origin to the subclavian artery in early embryogenesis being the currently accepted theory. Cavernous malformations are vascular hamartomas, which have been linked to a genetic etiology, particularly in familial cases, which commonly present with multiple lesions. Our case report is the first to describe multiple cavernous malformations associated with Poland syndrome, further supporting the vascular etiology theory, but pointing to a genetic rather than a mechanistic factor disrupting blood flow in the corresponding vessels. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian man with Poland syndrome on the right side of his body presented to our hospital with a secondary generalized seizure and was found to have multiple cavernous malformations distributed in his brain, cerebellum, and brain stem, with a predominance of lesions in the left hemisphere. Conclusion The distribution of cavernous malformations in the left hemisphere and the right-sided Poland syndrome in our patient could not be explained by a mechanistic disruption of one of the subclavian arteries. A genetic alteration, as in familial cavernous malformations, would be a more appropriate etiologic diagnosis of Poland syndrome in our patient. Further genetic and pathological studies of the involved blood vessels in patients with Poland syndrome could lead to a better understanding of the disease.

  4. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for hemangioma of the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P; Kano, Hideyuki; Akpinar, Berkcan; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martinez-Moreno, Nuria; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Lunsford, L Dade; Liu, Kang-Du

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare vascular tumors. A direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage and incomplete tumor resection. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to microsurgery, outcome studies are few. Authors of the present study evaluated the role of SRS for CSH. METHODS An international multicenter study was conducted to review outcome data in 31 patients with CSH. Eleven patients had initial microsurgery before SRS, and the other 20 patients (64.5%) underwent Gamma Knife SRS as the primary management for their CSH. Median age at the time of radiosurgery was 47 years, and 77.4% of patients had cranial nerve dysfunction before SRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12.6 Gy (range 12-19 Gy) at a median isodose of 55%. RESULTS Tumor regression was confirmed by imaging in all 31 patients, and all patients had greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume at 6 months post-SRS. No patient had delayed tumor growth, new cranial neuropathy, visual function deterioration, adverse radiation effects, or hypopituitarism after SRS. Twenty-four patients had presented with cranial nerve disorders before SRS, and 6 (25%) of them had gradual improvement. Four (66.7%) of the 6 patients with orbital symptoms had symptomatic relief at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Stereotactic radiosurgery was effective in reducing the volume of CSH and attaining long-term tumor control in all patients at a median of 40 months. The authors' experience suggests that SRS is a reasonable primary and adjuvant treatment modality for patients in whom a CSH is diagnosed.

  5. Stent-assisted coil embolization for cavernous carotid artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kenichi; Shintani, Aki; Okada, Hideo; Tanaka, Yuko; Terada, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion with or without a bypass surgery is the traditional treatment for cavernous sinus (CS) aneurysms with cranial nerve (CN) dysfunction. Coil embolization without stents frequently requires retreatment because of the large size of CS aneurysms. We report the mid-term results of six unruptured CS aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE). The mean age of the patients was 72 years. The mean size of the aneurysms was 19.8 mm (range: 13-26 mm). Before treatment, four patients presented with CN dysfunction and two patients had no symptoms. SACE was performed under local or general anesthesia in three patients each. Mean packing density was 29.1% and tight packing was achieved. There were no neurological complications. CN dysfunction was cured in three patients (75%) and partly resolved in one patient (25%). Transient new CN dysfunction was observed in two patients (33%). Clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 6 to 26 months (median: 16 months). Recanalization was observed in three patients (50%; neck remnant in two patients and dome filling in one patient), but no retreatment has yet been required. No recurrence of CN dysfunction has occurred yet. In summary, SACE increases packing density and may reduce requirement of retreatment with an acceptable cure rate of CN dysfunction. SACE may be a superior treatment for coiling without stents and be an alternative treatment of ICA occlusion for selected patients, such as older patients and those who require a high-flow bypass surgery or cannot receive general anesthesia.

  6. Radiotracer studies in cavernous marble at Kamathikhairy Dam site, Pench Project (Maharashtra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Ravendra; Mahajan, N.M.; Vaidya, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer studies with tritiated water at Pench Project site conclusively proved that the cavernous marble upstream of the saddle dam is continuous with the marble occuring near the spillway portion of the main dam and that there is fast subterranean flow of water through the cavernous marble here. It is also established that this marble band upstream of the dam is interconnected with the marble band occuring in the vicinity of Pali village about 3 km downstream of the dam. Though big unclogged subterranean channels do not seem to exist in this region, which might have resulted in heavy leakage from the impounded reservoir, yet the possibility of some leakage of the water through the cavernous marble cannot be ruled out, due to the interconnection of the marble occuring upstream of the dam with the downstream marble band. (author)

  7. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in preoperative planning for the treatment of motor area cavernous angiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of microscopic techniques, radical surgery for cavernous angiomas has become a recommended treatment option. However, the treatment of motor area cavernous angioma represents a great challenge for the surgical team. Here, we describe an approach guided by frameless neuronavigation and preoperative functional mapping with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), for surgical planning. We used TMS to map the motor cortex and its relationship with the angioma. We achieved complete resection of the lesions in the surgeries, while avoiding areas of motor response identified during the preoperative mapping. We verified the complete control of seizures (Engel class 1A) in the patients with previous refractory epilepsy. Postsurgery, one patient was seizure-free without medication, and two patients required only one medication for seizure control. Thus, navigated TMS appears to be a useful tool, in preoperative planning for cavernous angiomas of the motor area. PMID:24353424

  8. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  9. Gd-DTPA in the evaluation of the normal and adnormal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, M.P.; Thrush, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on Gd-DTPA used in the evaluation of normal and abnormal cavernous sinus anatomy. Twenty-five normal subjects and 11 patients with cavernous sinus invasion were studied before Gd-DTPA enhancement. Normal studies were assessed for the conspicuity of the dural margins, the trigeminal cistern, and intracavernous and exiting cranial nerves. Contrast medium enhancement improved deductibility of the medical cavernous sinus margin (68% vs 38% on precontrast images) and intracavernous cranial nerves. Cranial nerves were inconsistently seen even on postcontrast images (cranial nerve III, 88%; v 1 , 36%, V 2 , 38%). On the abnormal images, contrast enhancement was beneficial in defining the relationship of tumor to parasellar structures, egress of tumor through bony foramina, and compression of the trigeminal cistern

  10. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  11. Tightness and suitability evaluation of abandoned salt caverns served as hydrocarbon energies storage under adverse geological conditions (AGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Liu; Jie, Chen; Deyi, Jiang; Xilin, Shi; Yinping, Li; Daemen, J.J.K.; Chunhe, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tightness conditions are set to assess use of old caverns for hydrocarbons storage. • Gas seepage and tightness around caverns are numerically simulated under AGC. • κ of interlayers act as a key factor to affect the tightness and use of salt cavern. • The threshold upper permeability of interlayers is proposed for storing oil and gas. • Three types of real application are introduced by using the tightness conditions. - Abstract: In China, the storage of hydrocarbon energies is extremely insufficient partially due to the lack of storage space, but on the other side the existence of a large number of abandoned salt caverns poses a serious threat to safety and geological environments. Some of these caverns, defined as abandoned caverns under adverse geological conditions (AGC), are expected to store hydrocarbon energies (natural gas or crude oil) to reduce the risk of potential disasters and simultaneously support the national strategic energy reserve of China. Herein, a series of investigations primarily related to the tightness and suitability of the caverns under AGC is performed. Laboratory measurements to determine the physical and mechanical properties as well as porosity and permeability of bedded salt cores from a near target cavern are implemented to determine the petro-mechanical properties and basic parameters for further study. The results show that the mechanical properties of the bedded rock salts are satisfactory for the stability of caverns. The interface between the salt and interlayers exhibits mechanical properties that are between those of rock salt and interlayers and in particular is not a weak zone. The silty mudstone interlayers have relatively high porosity and permeability, likely due to their low content of clay minerals and the presence of halite-filled cracks. The conditions for evaluating the tightness and suitability of a cavern for storing hydrocarbons are proposed, including “No tensile stress,”

  12. Ultimate storage in salt caverns / status report; Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen / Stand der Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Schmidt, U. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The contribution reviews the state of knowledge on final storage in salt caverns. The long-term effects of a hermetically sealed, brine-filled cavern are discussed. So far, there are no valid predictions. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Beitrag wird der derzeitige Kenntnis- und Diskussionsstand zur Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen zusammengefasst. Aufbauend auf den bisher vorliegenden Vorstellungen zur Soleimpraegnation bei einem Innendruck, der nahezu dem Ueberlagerungsdruck entspricht, werden die denkbaren langfristigen Auswirkungen einer vollstaendig abgeschlossenen solegefuellten Kaverne skizziert; belastbare Prognosen sind derzeit noch nicht moeglich. (orig.)

  13. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  14. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  15. [Clinical picture and complex treatment of septic thromboses of the cavernous sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, S V; Zubkov, Iu N; Ponomarev, A M; Shimchenko, P Ia

    1980-07-01

    Under analysis are etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis of a septic thrombosis of cavernous sinuses in 28 patients. The authors have shown the interrelationship between local manifestations of the disease, injuries of the brain and its sheaths and septic complications (abscessing pneumonia as the most severe of them). A scheme of the complex treatment of patients with thrombosis of the cavernous sinus is proposed. The leading role in this treatment is played by intracarotid infusion of antibiotics in combination with anticoagulant drugs, vasodilatatory agents and novocaine as well as the therapy of septic complications (abscesses of the face and hairy part of the head, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia).

  16. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  17. Genetic Analysis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 ( Leads to Misdiagnosis of an Extremely Rare Presentation of Intrasellar Cavernous Hemangioma as MEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Min Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMultiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of endocrine tumors in target tissues (mainly the pituitary, endocrine pancreas, and parathyroid glands. MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, which functions as a tumor suppressor and consists of one untranslated exon and nine exons encoding the menin protein. This condition is usually suspected when we encounter patients diagnosed with tumors in multiple endocrine organs, as mentioned above.MethodsA 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery for a pancreatic tumor (serous cystadenoma 5 years previously was referred to our hospital due to neurologic symptoms of diplopia and left ptosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3.4-cm lesion originating from the cavernous sinus wall and extending into the sellar region. It was thought to be a nonfunctioning tumor from the results of the combined pituitary function test. Incidentally, we found that she also had a pancreatic tumor, indicating the necessity of genetic analysis for MEN1.ResultsGenomic analysis using peripheral leukocytes revealed a heterozygous c.1621G>A mutation in the MEN1 gene that was previously reported to be either a pathogenic mutation or a simple polymorphism. We pursued a stereotactic approach to the pituitary lesion, and microscopic findings of the tumor revealed it to be an intrasellar cavernous hemangioma, a rare finding in the sellar region and even rarer in relation to oculomotor palsy. The patient recovered well from surgery, but refused further evaluation for the pancreatic lesion.ConclusionThere is great emphasis placed on genetic testing in the diagnosis of MEN1, but herein we report a case where it did not assist in diagnosis, hence, further discussion on the role of genetic testing in this disease is needed. Also, in cases of pituitary tumor with cranial nerve palsy, despite its low prevalence, intrasellar cavernous hemangioma

  18. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  19. Multiple growing fractures and cerebral venous anomaly after penetrating injuries: delayed diagnosis in a battered child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de

    2001-01-01

    A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)

  20. Multiple growing fractures and cerebral venous anomaly after penetrating injuries: delayed diagnosis in a battered child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkat, S.; Vandevenne, J.E.; Parizel, P.M.; Schepper, A.M. de [Dept. of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Edegem (Belgium)

    2001-05-01

    A growing fracture usually results from a skull fracture with dural tear after blunt head trauma during infancy. We present a case of child abuse with multiple growing fractures resulting from penetrating head trauma by scissors. MR imaging confirmed the presence of growing fractures and revealed a presumably post-traumatic venous anomaly (occluded left cavernous sinus and aberrant posterior venous drainage via the internal cerebral veins). Diagnosis of the growing fractures and venous anomaly was delayed until the age of 15 years. Medical expertise should be more readily available to battered children, and MR imaging is advocated in growing skull fracture to exclude associated post-traumatic brain lesions. (orig.)

  1. Trial Readiness in Cavernous Angiomas With Symptomatic Hemorrhage (CASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Sean P; Cao, Ying; Carroll, Timothy; Flemming, Kelly; Girard, Romuald; Hanley, Daniel; Hobson, Nicholas; Kim, Helen; Koenig, James; Koskimäki, Janne; Lane, Karen; Majersik, Jennifer J; McBee, Nichol; Morrison, Leslie; Shenkar, Robert; Stadnik, Agnieszka; Thompson, Richard E; Zabramski, Joseph; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Awad, Issam A

    2018-04-11

    Brain cavernous angiomas with symptomatic hemorrhage (CASH) are uncommon but exact a heavy burden of neurological disability from recurrent bleeding, for which there is no proven therapy. Candidate drugs to stabilize the CASH lesion and prevent rebleeding will ultimately require testing of safety and efficacy in multisite clinical trials. Much progress has been made in understanding the epidemiology of CASH, and novel biomarkers have been linked to the biological mechanisms and clinical activity in lesions. Yet, the ability to enroll and risk-stratify CASH subjects has never been assessed prospectively at multiple sites. Biomarkers and other outcomes have not been evaluated for their sensitivity and reliability, nor have they been harmonized across sites. To address knowledge gaps and establish a research network as infrastructure for future clinical trials, through the Trial Readiness grant mechanism, funded by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health. This project includes an observational cohort study to assess (1) the feasibility of screening, enrollment rates, baseline disease categorization, and follow-up of CASH using common data elements at multiple sites, (2) the reliability of imaging biomarkers including quantitative susceptibility mapping and permeability measures that have been shown to correlate with lesion activity, and (3) the rates of recurrent hemorrhage and change in functional status and biomarker measurements during prospective follow-up. We propose a harmonized multisite assessment of enrollment rates of CASH, baseline features relevant to stratification in clinical trials, and follow-up assessments of functional outcomes in relation to clinical bleeds. We introduce novel biomarkers of vascular leak and hemorrhage, with firm mechanistic foundations, which have been linked to clinical disease activity. We shall test their reliability and validity at multiple sites, and assess their changes over time

  2. Cavernous malformations isolated from cranial nerves: Unexpected diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, Michele; Natale, Massimo; D'Avanzo, Raffaele; Pascale, Michela; Scuotto, Assunta

    2014-11-01

    Cranial nerves (CN) cavernous malformations (CMs) are lesions that are isolated from the CNs. The authors present three cases of CN CMs, for which MR was demonstrated to be critical for management, and surgical resection produced good outcomes for the patients. Surgical removal is the recommended course of action to restore or preserve neurological function and to eliminate the risk of future haemorrhage. However, the anatomical location and the complexity of nearby neural structures can make these lesions difficult to access and remove. In this study, the authors review the literature of reported cases of CN CMs to analyse the clinical and radiographic presentations, surgical approaches and neurological outcomes. A MEDLINE/Pub Med search was performed and revealed 86 cases of CN CMs. The authors report three additional cases in this study for a total of 89 cases. CMs affecting the optic nerve (CN II), oculomotor nerve (CN III), facial/vestibule-cochlear nerves (CN VII, CN VIII) have been described. The records of three patients were reviewed with respect to the lesion locations, symptoms, surgical approaches and therapeutic considerations. Clinical and radiological follow-up results are reported. Three patients (2 females, 1 male; age range 21-37 year) presented with three CN lesions. One lesion involved CN III, one lesion involved CN VII-CN VIII, and one involved CN II. The patient with the CN III lesion had a one-month history of mild right ptosis and diplopia. The patient with the CN VII-CN VIII lesion exhibited acute hearing loss and on the left and left facial paresis. The patient with the opticchiasmatic lesion presented with acute visual deterioration on the right and a left temporal field deficit in the left eye. Pterional and orbitozygomatic craniotomies were performed for the CN III lesion and the CN II lesion, and retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed for the cerebello-pontine angle lesion. All patients experienced symptom improvement after surgery. On

  3. Dynamic digitized cerebral parenchymography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, J.; Alachkar, F.; Nelson, M.; Mazia, D.

    1992-01-01

    Aortic arch injections centred on the head have been performed routinely in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Digital angiograms with modified windowing (low and narrow) have been used. This 'cerebral' arch injection allows much improved analysis of the cerebral parenchymal vascularization, giving better understanding of hemispheric ischaemia and making the decision about revascularization more rational. (orig.)

  4. A creative therapy in treating cavernous hemangioma of penis with copper wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Haiyang; Sun, Peng; Li, Peng; Xue, Aibing; Jin, Xunbo

    2014-10-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of penis are rare benign lesions infrequently described in the literature. No completely satisfactory treatment has been found to correct the cosmetic deformities especially the extensive hemangiomas of corpus penis. In light of the promising application of copper wire/needle in vascular malformations, we began a clinical study to investigate the safety, feasibility, and cosmetic effect of copper wire therapy in treating cavernous hemangioma of penis. Seven patients ranging in age from 12 to 32 years with penile cavernous hemangiomas entered our study from 2005 to 2011. All patients received treatments with percutaneous copper wires. Perioperative data including mean operation time, estimated blood loss, length of copper wire retention, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. All possible complications were noted, and cosmetic result was evaluated. Patients were followed up after discharge from the hospital. All operations were successful, and no obvious complications were observed. The patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 5 years. Recurrence was discovered in a patient with the largest lesion of corpus penis 2 months after the treatment. Secondary procedure was carried out with the same technique, and no lesions were found later. The shortage of studies on this topic prevented us from defining a therapeutic reference standard. The results of our study confirmed that copper wire therapy was a simple, safe, and useful option for penile cavernous hemangioma. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Schwann cell seeded guidance tubes restore erectile function after ablation of cavernous nerves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, F; Weidner, N; Matiasek, K; Caspers, C; Mrva, T; Vroemen, M; Henke, J; Lehmer, A; Schwaibold, H; Erhardt, W; Gänsbacher, B; Hartung, R

    2004-07-01

    Dissection of the cavernous nerves eliminates spontaneous erections. We evaluated the ability of Schwann cell seeded nerve guidance tubes to restore erections after bilateral cavernous nerve resection in rats. Sections (5 mm) of the cavernous nerve were excised bilaterally, followed by immediate bilateral microsurgical reconstruction. In 10 animals per group (20 study nerves) reconstruction was performed by genitofemoral nerve interposition, interposition of silicone tubes or interposition of silicone tubes seeded with homologous Schwann cells. As the control 10 animals (20 study nerves) underwent sham operation (positive control) and bilateral nerve ablation (without reconstruction) was performed in a further 10 (negative control). Erectile function was evaluated 3 months postoperatively by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording. After 3 months neurostimulation resulted in an intact erectile response in 90% (18 of 20) of Schwann cell grafts, while treatment with autologous nerves (30% or 6 of 20) or tubes only (50% or 10 of 20) was less successful (p Schwann cell grafts compared to results in the other treatment groups (p Schwann cell grafts. Schwann cell seeded guidance tubes restore erectile function after the ablation of cavernous nerves in rats and they are superior to autologous nerve grafts.

  6. Aggressive cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: Angioarchitecture analysis and embolization by various approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bao Luo

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Aggressive CSDAVFs are associated with occlusion/stenosis of the IPS or compartment of IPS–cavernous sinus with leptomeningeal reflux. In this limited case series, aggressive CSDAVFs most presented with brainstem ischemia, followed by nonhemorrhagic/hemorrhagic stroke in the cerebrum. Embolization through various access routes is a feasible method to manage these aggressive CSDAVFs, with an acceptable level of periprocedural risks.

  7. Intramedullary cavernous angiomas of the spinal cord. Clinical characteristics of 13 lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takeshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has increased the incidence of the diagnosis of intramedullary cavernous angioma. Surgical therapy tends not to be recommended for asymptomatic lesions, but symptomatic lesions that bleed recurrently should be treated. The natural course of intramedullary cavernous angioma remains unknown and arguments have been raised against the surgical treatment of symptomatic lesions. We reviewed the clinical features of 13 intramedullary cavernous angiomas in 12 patients surgically treated between 1988 and 2009. The 7 men and 5 women were aged from 14 to 60 years, the preoperative interval ranged from 0 to 161 months, and the mean number of hemorrhages in the 13 lesions was 2.5. Sixteen operations were performed to treat the 13 lesions. The surgical approach depended on the lesion location. The outcome of patients with mild to moderate preoperative symptoms (McCormick grades I-III) was significantly better than that of patients with severe symptoms (McCormick grade IV) (p<0.05). Symptomatic intramedullary cavernous angioma tends to bleed repeatedly. The lesion should be surgically removed to avoid further deterioration due to recurrent hemorrhages. The shortest path approach should be selected based on preoperative images and complete removal should be attempted. Residual lesion may be masked by surrounding gliosis, so careful postoperative follow up is necessary. (author)

  8. Physical and Numerical Modeling of the Stability of Deep Caverns in Tahe Oil Field in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cave collapses emerge during the process of oil reservoir development, seriously affecting oil production. To reveal the collapse and failure mechanism of the carbonate cavern with a buried depth of 5600 m in Tahe Oil Field, using a self-developed ultra-high pressure model test system with the intelligent numerical control function, the model simulation material of carbonate rocks developed to carry out the 3D geo-mechanical model test. The model test and numerical results indicate that: (1 collapse and failure mechanism of the deep-buried caves mainly involve the failure mode of tensile shear. The rupture plane on the side wall is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum principal compressive stress. The V-type tension and split rupture plane then emerges. (2 In the process of forming holes in the model caverns, micro cracks are generated at the foot of the left and right side walls of the caverns, and the roof panels are constantly moving downward. The shorter the distance to the cave wall, the severer the destructiveness of the surrounding rocks will be. (3 The displacement of the top of the model cavern is relatively large and uniform, indicating that the cave roof moves downward as a whole. The area of the cavity suffering damage is 2.3 times as large as the cave span. The research results in this paper lay a solid test basis for revealing the cave collapse and failure mechanism in super depth.

  9. Detection of cavernous transformation of the portal vein by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Misun; Thimm, Matthew A; Guerrerio, Anthony L

    2018-06-01

    Cavernous transformation of the portal vein can be missed on color Doppler exam or arterial phase cross-sectional imaging due to their slow flow and delayed enhancement. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offers many advantages over other imaging techniques and can be used to successfully detect cavernous transformations of the portal vein. A 10-month-old female was followed for repeat episodes of hematemesis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA) and portal venography were performed. Color Doppler exam of the portal vein was performed followed by administration of Lumason, a microbubble US contrast agent. Magnetic resonance arteriogram, CTA, and color Doppler exam at the time of initial presentation was unremarkable without obvious vascular malformation within the limits of motion degraded exam. At 8-month follow-up, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a vascular malformation in the distal esophagus which was sclerosed. At 6 month after sclerosis of the lesion, portal venography revealed occlusion of the portal vein with extensive collateralization. Color Doppler revealed subtle hyperarterialization and periportal collaterals. CEUS following color Doppler exam demonstrated extensive enhancement of periportal collaterals. Repeat color Doppler after contrast administration demonstrated extensive Doppler signal in the collateral vessels, suggestive of cavernous transformation. We describe a case of cavernous transformation of the portal vein missed on initial color Doppler, CTA and MRA, but detected with contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique.

  10. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agrusa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy.

  11. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2000-01-01

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall

  12. Roentgenological investigation of cavernous sinus structure with special reference to paracavernous cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuha, M.; Aoki, H.; Okamura, T.

    1987-01-01

    We have evaluated the anatomical structure of cavernous sinuses in parasellar blocks obtained from adult cadavers to gain clinically useful information. Ten microdissectional studies of parasellar blocks (20 sides of cavernous sinus) were carried out with special emphasis on the course of paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th). These were also examined on plain radiographs. Secondly, CT investigations of the cavernous sinuses (notably as to paracavernous cranial nerves) were undertaken in twenty clinical cases having presumed parasellar lesions and in three parasellar blocks from cadavers. The results from microdisectional studies and plain radiographs were as follows. It was found that the 3rd cranial nerve entered the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus close to the antero-inferior part of the posterior clinoid on lateral projection. The 4th cranial nerve, on the other hand, entered near the postero-inferior portion of the posterior clinoid on the same view. Variations in Parkinson's triangle were fairly often noted, although marked asymmetry was not seen in individual cases. From CT findings, it was found that a postenhanced, magnified direct coronal study was essential for identifying paracavernous cranial nerves more clearly. The 3rd and 5th cranial nerves were fairly well identified on axial and coronal projections. Careful radiological investigation including plain skull radiographs and CT seems to be of value for those who diagnose or treat parasellar lesions. (orig.)

  13. Strains and stresses in the rock around and unlined hot water cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbinder, Göran

    1984-07-01

    Hot water stored in an unlined rock cavern is an efficient energy storage. A research program has been carried out with a test plant at the city of Avesta, Sweden. The plant consists of a rock cavern, the volume of which is 15000 m3, which serves as an energy buffer in the district heating system of the city. The water is heated from a garbage incinerator located close to the cavern. During the first test period the temperature of the stored water has varied between 40°C and 95°C. The heating of the rock causes strains and stresses in the rock. The measurements show that the state in the rock does mainly respond to the average temperature and not to the fluctuations. The maximum thermal stress is 9 MPa occurring at the wall of the cavern. The heave of the ground is less than 5 mm. The development of stress and strain will continue after the first test period since thermal equilibrium was not reached during this period.

  14. Derivation and application of an analytical rock displacement solution on rectangular cavern wall using the inverse mapping method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Gao

    Full Text Available Rectangular caverns are increasingly used in underground engineering projects, the failure mechanism of rectangular cavern wall rock is significantly different as a result of the cross-sectional shape and variations in wall stress distributions. However, the conventional computational method always results in a long-winded computational process and multiple displacement solutions of internal rectangular wall rock. This paper uses a Laurent series complex method to obtain a mapping function expression based on complex variable function theory and conformal transformation. This method is combined with the Schwarz-Christoffel method to calculate the mapping function coefficient and to determine the rectangular cavern wall rock deformation. With regard to the inverse mapping concept, the mapping relation between the polar coordinate system within plane ς and a corresponding unique plane coordinate point inside the cavern wall rock is discussed. The disadvantage of multiple solutions when mapping from the plane to the polar coordinate system is addressed. This theoretical formula is used to calculate wall rock boundary deformation and displacement field nephograms inside the wall rock for a given cavern height and width. A comparison with ANSYS numerical software results suggests that the theoretical solution and numerical solution exhibit identical trends, thereby demonstrating the method's validity. This method greatly improves the computing accuracy and reduces the difficulty in solving for cavern boundary and internal wall rock displacements. The proposed method provides a theoretical guide for controlling cavern wall rock deformation failure.

  15. Effects of Milrinone continuous intravenous infusion on global cerebral oxygenation and cerebral vasospasm after cerebral aneurysm surgical clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ghanem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Milrinone improved significantly the global cerebral oxygenation and reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm during the dangerous period of cerebral spasm after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  16. Endovascular management of dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas in 141 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, M. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Greifswald (Germany); Henkes, H.; Liebig, T.; Weber, W.; Golik, S.; Kuehne, D. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Esser, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Zentrum fuer Augenheilkunde, Essen (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-centre experience with transvenous coil treatment of dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. Methods: Between November 1991 and December 2005, a total of 141 patients (112 female) with dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula underwent 161 transvenous treatment sessions. The patient files and angiograms were analysed retrospectively. Clinical signs and symptoms included chemosis (94%), exophthalmos (87%), cranial nerve palsy (54%), increased intraocular pressure (60%), diplopia (51%), and impaired vision (28%). Angiography revealed in addition cortical drainage in 34% of the patients. Partial arterial embolization was carried out in 23% of the patients. Transvenous treatment comprised in by far the majority of patients complete filling of the cavernous sinus and the adjacent segment of the superior and inferior ophthalmic vein with detachable coils. Complete interruption of the arteriovenous shunt was achieved in 81% of the patients. A minor residual shunt (without cortical or ocular drainage) remained in 13%, a significant residual shunt (with cortical or ocular drainage) remained in 4%, and the attempted treatment failed in 2%. There was a tendency for ocular pressure-related symptoms to resolve rapidly, while cranial nerve palsy and diplopia improved slowly (65%) or did not change (11%). The 39 patients with visual impairment recovered within the first 2 weeks after endovascular treatment. After complete interruption of the arteriovenous shunt, no recurrence was observed. The transvenous coil occlusion of the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins and the cavernous sinus of the symptomatic eye is a highly efficient and safe treatment in dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. In the majority of patients a significant and permanent improvement in clinical signs and symptoms can be achieved. (orig.)

  17. Microembolism after cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Nagata, Izumi

    2000-01-01

    Acute microemboli are detected more precisely with the recently developed diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). We happened to obtain 24 DWIs after 350 diagnostic cerebral angiographies in 1999. DWIs after cerebral angiographies showed bright lesions in 7 patients (28%), of whom 6 had no neurological symptoms after cerebral angiography. Seven of the 24 patients had risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Only one patient had embolic events due to angiography. Microemboli related to cerebral angiographies are inevitable in some patients. Most are silent, however, we should investigate the cause of microemboli and should make cerebral angiography safer. (author)

  18. Progressive cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, Yoko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Isozaki, Eiji

    2015-12-01

    We report two cases of neuromyelitis optica patients with progressive cerebral atrophy. The patients exhibited characteristic clinical features, including elderly onset, secondary progressive tetraparesis and cognitive impairment, abnormally elevated CSF protein and myelin basic protein levels, and extremely highly elevated serum anti-AQP-4 antibody titer. Because neuromyelitis optica pathology cannot switch from an inflammatory phase to the degenerative phase until the terminal phase, neuromyelitis optica rarely appears as a secondary progressive clinical course caused by axonal degeneration. However, severe intrathecal inflammation and massive destruction of neuroglia could cause a secondary progressive clinical course associated with cerebral atrophy in neuromyelitis optica patients. © The Author(s), 2015.

  19. Successful Transarterial Embolization of a Posttraumatic Fistula Between a Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm and the Cavernous Sinus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinbo, Yin; Jun, Liu; Kejie, Mou; Zheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm-cavernous sinus fistulae are an extremely rare complication of head injury . The treatment of PCoA aneurysm-cavernous sinus fistulae has not been well described. A 27-year-old man was admitted with a retroocular bruit and blurred vision of the left eye seven months after a severe head injury. We report the angiographic appearance of a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm with a fistula to the cavernous sinus. This injury had been previously misinterpreted to be a PCoA aneurysm by computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). The patient was successfully treated with coils and Onyx of a fistula between the PCoA aneurysm and cavernous sinus.

  20. Use of Synthetic Nerve Grafts to Restore Cavernous Nerve Function Following Prostate Cancer Surgery: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konety, Badrinath R

    2006-01-01

    .... Schwann cell and neurona stem cells en neurite growth are being investigated. Tubulized sheets of the polymer with and without those factors/cells have been used to microsurgically replace resected cavernous nerve...

  1. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  2. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  3. Cavern disposal concepts for HLW/SF: assuring operational practicality and safety with maximum programme flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, Ian G.; Apted, Mick; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Most conventional engineered barrier system (EBS) designs for HLW/SF repositories are based on concepts developed in the 1970s and 1980s that assured feasibility with high margins of safety, in order to convince national decision makers to proceed with geological disposal despite technological uncertainties. In the interval since the advent of such 'feasibility designs', significant progress has been made in reducing technological uncertainties, which has lead to a growing awareness of other, equally important uncertainties in operational implementation and challenges regarding social acceptance in many new, emerging national repository programs. As indicated by the NUMO repository concept catalogue study (NUMO, 2004), there are advantages in reassessing how previous designs can be modified and optimised in the light of improved system understanding, allowing a robust EBS to be flexibly implemented to meet nation-specific and site-specific conditions. Full-scale emplacement demonstrations, particularly those carried out underground, have highlighted many of the practical issues to be addressed; e.g., handling of compacted bentonite in humid conditions, use of concrete for support infrastructure, remote handling of heavy radioactive packages in confined conditions, quality inspection, monitoring / ease of retrieval of emplaced packages and institutional control. The CAvern REtrievable (CARE) concept reduces or avoids such issues by emplacement of HLW or SF within multi-purpose transportation / storage / disposal casks in large ventilated caverns at a depth of several hundred metres. The facility allows the caverns to serve as inspectable stores for an extended period of time (up to a few hundred years) until a decision is made to close them. At this point the caverns are backfilled and sealed as a final repository, effectively with the same safety case components as conventional 'feasibility designs'. In terms of operational practicality an d safety, the CARE

  4. Virtual Reality Model of the Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Cavernous Sinus Based on a Cadaveric Image and Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zeng-Hui; Feng, Xu; Li, Yang; Tang, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Studying the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the cavernous sinus is essential for treating lesions in this region with skull base surgeries. Cadaver dissection is a conventional method that has insurmountable flaws with regard to understanding spatial anatomy. The authors' research aimed to build an image model of the cavernous sinus region in a virtual reality system to precisely, individually and objectively elucidate the complete and local stereo-anatomy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on 5 adult cadaver heads. Latex mixed with contrast agent was injected into the arterial system and then into the venous system. Computed tomography scans were performed again following the 2 injections. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed again after the cranial nerves were exposed. Image data were input into a virtual reality system to establish a model of the cavernous sinus. Observation results of the image models were compared with those of the cadaver heads. Visualization of the cavernous sinus region models built using the virtual reality system was good for all the cadavers. High resolutions were achieved for the images of different tissues. The observed results were consistent with those of the cadaver head. The spatial architecture and modality of the cavernous sinus were clearly displayed in the 3D model by rotating the model and conveniently changing its transparency. A 3D virtual reality model of the cavernous sinus region is helpful for globally and objectively understanding anatomy. The observation procedure was accurate, convenient, noninvasive, and time and specimen saving.

  5. Submarine groundwater discharge into the coast revealed by water chemistry of man-made undersea liquefied petroleum gas cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Cho, Byung Wook

    2008-10-01

    SummaryThe occurrence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) as well as its supply of many nutrients and metals to coastal seawaters is now generally known. However, previous studies have focused on the chemical and radiological analysis of groundwater, surface seawater, shallow marine sediments and their pore waters, as well as the measurement of upward flow through the marine sediments, as end members of the discharge process. In this study, chemical and isotopic analysis results of marine subsurface waters are reported. These were obtained from deep boreholes of an undersea liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage cavern, located about 8 km off the western coast of Korea. The cavern is about 130-150 m below the sea bottom, which is covered by a 4.8-19.5 m silty clay stratum. An isotopic composition (δ 2H and δ 18O) of the marine subsurface waters falls on a mixing line between terrestrial groundwater and seawater. Vertical EC profiling at the cavern boreholes revealed the existence of a fresh water zone. An increase in the contents of ferrous iron and manganese and a decrease in levels of nitrate, bicarbonate and cavern seepage were recorded in August 2006, indicating a decreased submarine groundwater flux originating from land, mainly caused by an elevated cavern gas pressure. It is suggested in this study that the main source of fresh waters in the man-made undersea cavern is the submarine groundwater discharge mainly originating from the land.

  6. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  7. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  8. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  9. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  10. [Effects of Naomaitong combined with mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on neuron apoptosis and expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-3 proteins in rats with cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Jing-xia; Tian, Yu-shou; Ren, Wei-hong; Zhang, Xin-feng; Wang, Ding-chao

    2009-09-01

    To observe the effects of Naomaitong, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, combined with mobilization of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on neuron apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia, and to explore the possible mechanism by detecting the expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-3 proteins. Two hundred and two SD rats were divided into sham-operated group, untreated group, recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF) group, Naomaitong group and Naomaitong plus rG-CSF group (combination group). Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion using a nylon thread with some modification. Rats in the rG-CSF group and the untreated group were administered with rG-CSF 10 microg/(kg x d) by subcutaneous injection 3 d before and 2 d after the operation respectively, once a day, and rats in the Naomaitong group and the combination group were intragastrically administered Naomaitong before and after the operation until sacrificed. Two, three, seven and fourteen days after operation, count of CD34-positive cells in peripheral blood and CD34 expression in brain tissue were determined. General neural function score (GNFS) was evaluated. Neuron apoptosis, expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-3 in rat's brain were all measured. Count of CD34-positive cells in peripheral blood and CD34 expression in brain tissue were high in the untreated group, and reached the peak at 3 d and 7 d respectively. CD34 expression in brain tissue was increased in each treated group, especially in the combination group. GNFS was increased at 3 d and 7 d in the untreated group, 7 d and 14 d in the rG-CSF group and the combination group. Expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-3 were increased 2, 3 and 7 d after operation, while expression of FasL at 2 d in the rG-CSF group, expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-3 in the combination group were decreased. Expressions of Fas, FasL and caspase-3 at 7 d and 14 d in the combination group

  11. 27 Febuary 2012 - US DoE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics J. Siegrist visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with adviser J.-P. Koutchouk and engineer M. Bajko; in CMS experimental cavern with Spokesperson J. Incadela;in ATLAS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford; in ALICE experimental cavern with Spokesperson P. Giubellino; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 Febuary 2012 - US DoE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics J. Siegrist visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with adviser J.-P. Koutchouk and engineer M. Bajko; in CMS experimental cavern with Spokesperson J. Incadela;in ATLAS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford; in ALICE experimental cavern with Spokesperson P. Giubellino; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  12. Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis related to dental infection--two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ogata, Atsushi; Kosugi, Masafumi; Takashima, Hiroshi; Sakata, Shuji; Matsushima, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Two cases of cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis (CST) caused by dental infection are described. A 64-year-old woman presented with palsies of the left oculomotor and trochlear nerves after tooth extraction for dental caries in the left maxilla. A 54-year-old man presented with palsy of the left trochlear nerve, sensory disturbance in the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the left trigeminal nerve, ptosis, proptosis, and chemosis after dental treatment for caries and periodontitis in the left maxilla. In both patients, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast medium showed non-enhanced lesions within the left cavernous sinus and dilation of the superior ophthalmic veins, which indicated CST. These conditions were resolved by administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. CST is rare but lethal, so prompt diagnosis is crucial, and immediate appropriate treatment is essential.

  13. The primary study of fistulae isolation for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by two accesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziliang; Li Tianxiao; Zhai Shuiting; Cao Huicun; Xu Jiangyu; Bai Weixing; Liu Jian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and security of the isolation of fistulae for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by the anterio or inferior communicating artery. Methods: Five patients with difficult-cured TCCF including four males and one female. They were cathetered by both femoral arteries. Balloon-catheter directly attached to the near of fistulae and microcatheter conversely attached to the far of fistulae. Detachable balloons and micro coils were used to isolated the fistulae. Results: Five patients were cured with fistulae isolation and angiography did not show remnants fistulae in time. Clinical signs and symptoms got better and better. During follows-up no one recurred. Conclusions: The isolation of fistulae is a feasible and secure therapy for the difficult-cured traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistulae. (authors)

  14. Delayed massive epistaxis from traumatic cavernous carotid false aneurysms: A report of two unusual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankahla, Ncedile; LeFeuvre, David; Taylor, Allan

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Blunt head trauma can injure the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). This may result in a carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Rarely, a traumatic aneurysm may bleed medially causing massive epistaxis. Case presentation We present two cases of traumatic intracavernous carotid pseudoaneurysms with delayed massive epistaxis. The patients were managed with endovascular treatment involving coil embolization with parent vessel sparing and detachable balloon occlusion with carotid sacrifice. Early clinical outcome was good in both patients. Wherever possible, the CARE 1 guidelines were followed in the reporting. Conclusion These cases illustrate the delayed nature of traumatic aneurysms and the need for a high index of suspicion in the presence of skull base fractures. The use of endovascular detachable balloon occlusion and coil embolization treatment with parent vessel preservation is shown.

  15. Study on Excavation of Particular Part of Underground Cavern for Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Shang, Qin; Zheng, Huakang

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, regarding four particular parts of underground cavern for hydropower station, i.e., crown, high sidewall, the intersection between high sidewall and tunnel and tailrace tunnel, by summarizing the previous construction experience, we have proposed the excavation approach based on “middle first and edge later, soft first and hard later”, “layered construction by excavating the thin layer first and supporting as the layer advances”, “tunnel first and wall later, small tunnels into large ones” and “excavating tunnels supported by separation piers”. In addition, the proposed excavation approach has been analyzed and verified with finite element numerical simulation. The result has indicated that the proposed special approach is reasonable and effective to reduce the turbulence on surrounding rocks, lower the influence of unloading during excavating and enhance the local and global stability of caverns and surrounding rocks.

  16. Cerebral microcirculation during experimental normovolaemic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eBellapart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is accepted amongst critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anaemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anaemia. Experimental studies suggest that anaemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion amongst critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anaemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anaesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anaemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anaemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anaemia does not result in short term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain.

  17. A numerical study on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Choi, Kyu Sup; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Dae Hong

    1991-01-01

    In order to design safe and economical underground disposal structures for radioactive wastes, understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. This study includes discussions about the computational model for discontinuous rock masses and the structural analysis method for underground storage structures. Then, based on an engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made in order to analyze and understand the structural behavior of the rock cavern with discontinuities

  18. Endoscopic management of Atypical sellar cavernous hemangioma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sharydah

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Seller cavernous hemangioma (SCH is an extremely rare lesion that can be misdiagnosed. It is characterized by clinico-radiological features similar to those of other lesions such as pituitary macroadenoma and should be included in the differential diagnosis. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal (EET approach with subtotal/total resection appears to be a feasible option for debulking, with less surgical complications. Nonetheless, combining stereotactic radiosurgery will reduce postsurgical morbidities.

  19. A cavernous haemangioma of breast in male: radiological-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, C.; Romero, C.; Urbasos, M.; Pinto, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Francisco, J.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Vascular tumours of the breast are especially rare in men, and a majority of them are angiosarcomas. In fact, we found only four cases of haemangioma in males in the literature. We present a case of cavernous haemangioma in a male aged 48 years, and which commenced as a palpable mass. We performed differential diagnosis and radiological-pathological correlation. We established the correct classification of this case histologically, and decided on the definitive therapeutic approach. (orig.)

  20. Cavernous sinus thrombosis following dental extraction: a rare case report and forgotten entity

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Karun; Rastogi, Sanjay; Joshi, Atul; Kumar, Ashish; Chaurasia, Archana; Prakash, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Prior to the advent of efficacious antimicrobial agents, the mortality rate from cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was effectively 100%. There have been very few reports of CST associated with tooth extraction. A 40-year-old female presented to the emergency room with swelling over the right side of the face and history of extraction in the upper right region by an unregistered dental practitioner. The patient presented with diplopia, periorbital ecchymosis, and chemosis of the right eye. A co...

  1. First DT+RPC chambers installation round in the UX5 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2007-01-01

    DT+RPC packages corresponding to sectors 1 and 7 of the barrel region cannot be installed on surface, since the lowering gantry from SX5 to UX5 uses their gaps to hold the wheels. Therefore this installation has to be carried out in the cavern. These pictures illustrate the first installation round on YB+2 right after the lowering. A total of 8 chambers were successfully installed in 2 days.

  2. Results of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with imaging defined cavernous sinus meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Stafford, Scott L.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery as primary management for patients with imaging defined cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods: Between 1992 and 2001, 49 patients had radiosurgery for dural-based masses of the cavernous sinus presumed to be meningiomas. The mean patient age was 55.5 years. The mean tumor volume was 10.2 mL; the mean tumor margin dose was 15.9 Gy. The mean follow-up was 58 months (range, 16-144 months). Results: No tumor enlarged after radiosurgery. Twelve of 38 patients (26%) with preexisting diplopia or facial numbness/pain had improvement in cranial nerve function. Five patients (10%) had new (n = 3) or worsened (n = 2) trigeminal dysfunction; 2 of these patients (4%) underwent surgery at 20 and 25 months after radiosurgery despite no evidence of tumor progression. Neither patient improved after partial tumor resection. One patient (2%) developed an oculomotor nerve injury. One patient (2%) had an ischemic stroke related to occlusion of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. Event-free survival was 98%, 85%, and 80% at 1, 3, and 7 years after radiosurgery, respectively. Univariate analysis of patient and dosimetric factors found no analyzed factor correlated with postradiosurgical morbidity. Conclusions: Radiosurgery was an effective primary management strategy for patients with an imaging defined cavernous sinus meningioma. Except in situations of symptomatic mass effect, unusual clinical presentation, or atypical imaging features, surgery to confirm the histologic diagnosis is unlikely to provide clinical benefit

  3. Computer-aided evaluation of waste disposal cavern construction methods. ISBN 3-9801713-0-2.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knissel, W.; Fahlbusch, M.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous radioactive and toxic wastes in deep geological formations is considered the safest solution in many countries. The Federal Republic of Germany prefers salt formations for underground disposal on account of the special advantages of the rock salt. Calculation methods are presented for the mathematical description of mining techniques for the construction of waste disposal salt caverns. The developed calculation model allows one to evaluate different construction methods with regard to expenses and time. (orig./DG) [de

  4. MRI findings of cavernous hemangioma of the uterus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Young Mi; Jeng, Hae Woong; Lee, Sun Joo; Eun, Choong Gi; Choi, Su Im; Kim, Gi Tae [College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Hemangioma is the most common soft tissue tumor in the body. Though it may occur anywhere in the body, hemangioma of the uterus is a very rare tumor. Hemangioma is almost asymptomatic, but it is sometimes clinically important because it can cause massive hemorrhage and this is a life-threatening condition. We report here on the magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings of cavernous hemangioma of the uterus in a 32-year-woman with menorrhagia.

  5. Role of fractionated radiotherapy in patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Min; Yoon, Sang Min; Lee, Su Min; Park, Jin Hong; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We performed this retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus after fractionated radiotherapy. We analyzed 10 patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus who were treated with conventional radiotherapy between January 2000 and December 2016. The median patient age was 54 years (range, 31–65 years), and 8 patients (80.0%) were female. The mean hemangioma volume was 34.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 6.8–83.2 cm{sup 3}), and fractionated radiation was administered to a total dose of 50–54 Gy with a daily dose of 2 Gy. The median follow-up period was 6.8 years (range, 2.2–8.8 years). At last follow-up, the volume of the tumor had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume reduction rate from the initial volume was 72.9% (range, 18.9–95.3%). All 10 of the cranial neuropathies observed before radiation therapy had improved, with complete symptomatic remission in 9 cases (90%) and partial remission in 1 case (10%). No new acute neurologic impairments were reported after radiotherapy. One probable compressive optic neuropathy was observed at 1 year after radiotherapy. Fractionated radiotherapy achieves both symptomatic and radiologic improvements. It is a well-tolerated treatment modality for hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus.

  6. The progress and results of a demonstration test of a cavern-type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity levels mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning and for part of transuranic (TRU) waste mainly from spent fuel reprocessing are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50 to 100 meters below ground, and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) of a combination of bentonite and cement materials in Japan. In order to advance the feasibility study for these disposal, a government-commissioned research project named Demonstration Test of Cavern-Type Disposal Facility started in fiscal 2005, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up test facility has been constructed under actual subsurface environment. The main objective of the test is to establish construction methodology and procedures which ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. By fiscal 2009 some parts of the facility have been constructed, and the test has demonstrated both practicability of the construction and achievement of the quality. They are respectively taken as low-permeability of less than 5x10 13 m/s and low-diffusivity of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the time of completion of construction. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of some parts of a bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  7. Current status of the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, the underground cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and for certain transuranic (TRU) waste, mainly from spent fuel reprocessing, are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50-100 m underground and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) made of bentonite and cement materials. To advance a disposal feasibility study, the Japanese government commissioned the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities in fiscal year (FY) 2005. Construction of a full-scale mock-up test facility in an actual subsurface environment started in FY 2007. The main test objective is to establish the construction methodology and procedures that ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. A portion of the facility was constructed by 2010, and the test has demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of quality standards: low permeability of less than 5x10 -13 m/s and low-diffusion of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the completion of construction. This paper covers the test results from the construction of certain parts using bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  8. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  9. Role of fractionated radiotherapy in patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Min; Yoon, Sang Min; Lee, Su Min; Park, Jin Hong; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2017-01-01

    We performed this retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus after fractionated radiotherapy. We analyzed 10 patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus who were treated with conventional radiotherapy between January 2000 and December 2016. The median patient age was 54 years (range, 31–65 years), and 8 patients (80.0%) were female. The mean hemangioma volume was 34.1 cm"3 (range, 6.8–83.2 cm"3), and fractionated radiation was administered to a total dose of 50–54 Gy with a daily dose of 2 Gy. The median follow-up period was 6.8 years (range, 2.2–8.8 years). At last follow-up, the volume of the tumor had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume reduction rate from the initial volume was 72.9% (range, 18.9–95.3%). All 10 of the cranial neuropathies observed before radiation therapy had improved, with complete symptomatic remission in 9 cases (90%) and partial remission in 1 case (10%). No new acute neurologic impairments were reported after radiotherapy. One probable compressive optic neuropathy was observed at 1 year after radiotherapy. Fractionated radiotherapy achieves both symptomatic and radiologic improvements. It is a well-tolerated treatment modality for hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus

  10. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  11. Simulation of concrete deterioration in Finnish rock cavern conditions for final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kari, O.P.; Puttonen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concrete deterioration in Finnish rock cavern disposal conditions was simulated. • Simulation requires advanced models instead of traditional linear diffusion models. • Concrete analysed performed moderately during the period of 500 years. • Corrosion of steel reinforcement cannot be excluded during the period analysed. - Abstract: A simulation of concrete ageing in Finnish rock cavern disposal conditions showed that the concrete undergoes complex deterioration processes during the period required for lowering the level of radiation. In respect of the concrete ageing, the life time of the disposal facilities shall be divided into the periods before and after the closing of the caverns. Generally, the sulphate-resistant type of concrete analysed performed moderately during the analysed period of 500 years contrary to the corrosion of steel reinforcement, which cannot be excluded. Simulation of ageing clearly requires thermodynamical methods instead of linear diffusion models based on Fick’s law, which are traditionally used in construction industry. The study proves that the thermodynamical simulation method developed with adequate experimental data also makes it possible to observe latent factors of concrete deterioration

  12. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  13. Rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis associated with cavernous sinus thrombosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haber, Daniel Martiniano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by Mucorales fungi, and the Rhizopus is the most common one (70% of the cases. It is an acute invasive fungal disease whose form is disseminated, cutaneous, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and rhino-orbitocerebral. The latter is the most common form and its symptoms comprise of unilateral sinusitis, fever and headache. Once established in the orbit the symptoms can be chemosis, diplopia and reduced vision. The infection can spread to the brain via the orbital apex, orbital arteries or via the cribriform plate. Mucormycosis is a medical emergency and the treatment consists of a surgery to an aggressive debridement and in the use of antifungal therapy. Despite the appropriate management, the mortality rate can reach 40% of the cases. One possible intracranial complication of Mucormycosis is the Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis which is a rare and fatal infective disease. The initial symptoms of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis are headache, retro-orbital pain, periorbital edema, proptosis, diplopia and reduced vision. Case Report: We describe the case of 43-year-old woman with medical history of diabetes mellitus and use of immunosuppressant drugs after kidney transplantation. The patient developed Acute Bacterial Sinusitis and Rhino-orbitocerebral Mucormycosis associated with Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula combined with sphenoid sinus pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huairui; Bai Rulin; Huang Chengguang; Hu Guohan; Luo Chun; Yuan Guoliang; Lu Yicheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula combined with sphenoid sinus pseudoaneurysm. Methods: Interventional diagnosed and treated 6 eases of traumatid carotid cavernous fistula combined with sphenoid sinus pseudoaneurysm. Results: 5 patients presented with recurrent massive epistaxis and symptoms of CCF caused by pseudoaneurysms and fistulas were occluded with detachable balloons and internal carotid arteries were reserved in 2 cases; of which, 1 case also had indirect carotid cavernous fistula in contralateral side, embolizated by trans facial vein approach with microcoil. Complete symptoms resolution was achieved in all cases, without procedure related complications. During the follow-up period, all patients returned to their work. Conclusions: Falling from high speed motorcycle without helmet may be one of the main causes of this disease. The site of strike mostly localize at the frontal and lateral aspects of the orbit. MRI scan is very helpful for the diagnosis before receiving angiography. Detachable balloon occlusion for the pseudoaneurysm and fistula is safe and efficient for the treatment. (authors)

  15. Cerebral venous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Tetsuji; Taguchi, Haruyoshi; Kamiya, Kazuko; Yano, Takashi; Nakajima, Reiko

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a 27-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as having cerebral venous angioma in the postero-temporal area by CT scan and cerebral angiography. The patient improved by removing angioma with electrocoagulation of medullary veins. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  17. Analysis of the evolution of the instability process of a coastal cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, P.; Reina, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work concerns the study performed for the interpretation of the potential failure mechanism of a large natural cavern, which is located along the rocky cliffs of Polignano a Mare town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which is located at the sea level, was formed due to an intense process of salt and wave erosion, mainly acting during sea storms, within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper soft calcarenite mass. Therefore, the influence of the climatic factors and of the upward erosion process within the cavern has been specifically investigated. At present, the thickness of the cave roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre and several buildings are founded on the ground surface above. In 2006 a large calcarenite block, of about 1.5 m diameter, fell down from the roof of the cavern and afterwards field and laboratory investigations as well as both simple analytical methods and elasto-plastic numerical modelling were carried out in order to assess the current state of the roof and to interpret the effects of the potential evolution of the inner erosion and of the local failure processes of the cave. As such, a detailed geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for the geomechanical characterisation of the rock materials and of the corresponding joints. An analysis of the sea storms occurred within the observation period has also been performed by considering daily rainfall and wind data. The rate of erosion has been measured by means of special nets installed at the sea level to collect the material falling down from the roof and the corresponding measurements, which lasted for about one year, indicate an erosion rate of at least 0.005 m3/month. A structural monitoring system, including extensometers and joint-meters, was also installed in several points of the cave in order to measure eventual block

  18. Role of EPI in diagnosing cavernous hemangioma and small HCC : comparison with fast T2-weighted MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Chang Won; Jung, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sang Yoel; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare single-shot echo-planar MR imaging (EPI) with breath-hold fast T2-weighted imaging (HASTE or Turbo spin-echo T2WI) for evaluation of the role of EPI in distinguishing small hepatocellular carcinoma from cavernous hemangioma. We retrospectively evaluated MR images of 35 patients (21 cases of small HCC and 14 cases of cavernous hemangioma). EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI images were obtained and compared on the basis of lesion detection sensitivity, lesion-to-liver signal intensity ratio (SIR), contrast ratio (CR), and lesion-to-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR). For the detection of small HCC, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI were equal in 14 of 21 cases (71.4%). The detection sensitivity of cavernous hemangioma with EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI was 100 % (14/14). Mean SIR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 2.02 ± 0.45 for small HCC and 3.65 ± 0.97 for cavernous hemangioma; on EPI, the corresponding figures were 2.91 ± 0.57 for cavernous hemangioma; On EPI, the figures obtained were 2.27 ± 0.52 and 6.26 ± 2.19, respectively. Mean CNR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 14.24 ± 4.098 for small HCC and 50.28 ± 10.96 for cavernous hemangioma, while on EPI, the corresponding figures were 13.84 ± 3.02 and 45.44 ± 11.21. In detecting focal hepatic mass, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI are comparable for the diagnosis of small HCC and cavernous hemangioma, EPI can provided additional information. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Comparison of MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors on the upregulation of vascular G-protein coupled receptors in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    on translational level and increased respective contractions. The prostanoid TP receptor mediated contraction curve was left-wards shifted by organ culture. Organ culture was associated with elevated pERK1/2 in the vascular smooth muscle cells: the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 attenuated the endothelin ET(B) receptor......Organ culture is an in vitro method for investigating cellular mechanisms involved in upregulation of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors. We hypothesize that mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MEK) and/or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) specific inhibitors will attenuate the G......), prostanoid TP receptor, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 and type 2 were investigated. Results were verified by measurement of mRNA with real time PCR and by protein immunohistochemistry. Organ culture induced transcriptional upregulation of endothelin ET(B) receptor and of serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor...

  20. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  1. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comparison of Intra-Articular Cavernous Synovial Hemangioma and Cystic Synovial Hyperplasia of the Knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, M.; Rovani, C.; Sudberry, J. J.; Rossi, F.; Pogliacomi, F.; Zompatori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, with and without intravenous contrast medium, of cavernous synovial hemangiomas and cystic synovial hyperplasia. Material and Methods: Four cases of cavernous synovial hemangioma and five of cystic synovial hyperplasia of the knee were studied retrospectively. The patients (5 F and 4 M; 15-25 years of age) all had long-standing knee pain. At clinical examination we observed elastic swelling and pain without significant joint effusion. The patients underwent conventional radiography and MRI without and following intravenous contrast medium before arthroscopic biopsy. Results: The radiographs were interpreted as negative in all patients. MRI examination without contrast medium revealed a similar multicystic appearance for both lesions. Following intravenous contrast agent administration, cavernous synovial hemangiomas demonstrated avid, rather homogenous enhancement, whereas cystic synovial hyperplasia demonstrated less intense, peripheral enhancement only. Arthroscopy with histological examination of the lesions confirmed the MRI diagnosis in every case. Conclusion: In our experience, cavernous synovial hemangioma and cystic synovial hyperplasia have a similar appearance on unenhanced MRI, but can be reliably differentiated on the basis of enhancement characteristics following intravenous contrast administration. Keywords: Cavernous synovial hemangioma; cystic synovial hyperplasia; knee; MRI

  3. Pathological review of late cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Late cerebral radionecrosis may be considered to be a specific chronic inflammatory response, although it is unknown whether the initial damage by brain irradiation is to an endothelial cell or a glial cell. I discuss the pathological specificity of late cerebral radionecrosis by studying the published literature and a case that I experienced. In late cerebral radionecrosis, there are typical coagulation necrosis areas containing fibrinoid necrosis with occlusion of the lumina and poorly active inflammatory areas with many inflammatory ghost cells, focal perivascular lymphocytes, hyalinized vessels, and telangiectatic vascularization near and in the necrotic tissue, and more active inflammatory areas formed as a partial rim of the reactive zone by perivascular lymphocytes, much vascularization, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the corticomedullary border adjacent to necrotic tissue in the white matter. It is difficult to believe that coagulation necrosis occurs without first disordering the vascular endothelial cells because fibrinoid necrosis is a main feature and a diffusely multiple lesion in late cerebral radionecrosis. Because various histological findings do develop, progress, and extend sporadically at different areas and times in the irradiated field of the brain for a long time after radiation, uncontrolled chronic inflammation containing various cytokine secretions may also play a key role in progression of this radionecrosis. Evaluation of the mechanism of the development/aggravation of late cerebral radionecrosis requires a further study for abnormal cytokine secretions and aberrant inflammatory reactions. (author)

  4. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Going to an Occupational Therapist Scoliosis In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  5. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion Cerebral contusions are ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion NOTE: This is ...

  6. Reliability analysis of hydrologic containment of liquefied petroleum gas within unlined rock caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Yan, E. C.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Y.; Hao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Notice that most of the underground liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage caverns are constructed in unlined rock caverns (URCs), where the variability of hydraulic properties (in particular, hydraulic conductivity) has significant impacts on hydrologic containment performance. However, it is practically impossible to characterize the spatial distribution of these properties in detail at the site of URCs. This dilemma forces us to cope with uncertainty in our evaluations of gas containment. As a consequence, the uncertainty-based analysis is deemed more appropriate than the traditional deterministic analysis. The objectives of this paper are 1) to introduce a numerical first order method to calculate the gas containment reliability within a heterogeneous, two-dimensional unlined rock caverns, and 2) to suggest a strategy for improving the gas containment reliability. In order to achieve these goals, we first introduced the stochastic continuum representation of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of fractured rock and analyzed the spatial variability of Ks at a field site. We then conducted deterministic simulations to demonstrate the importance of heterogeneity of Ks in the analysis of gas tightness performance of URCs. Considering the uncertainty of the heterogeneity in the real world situations, we subsequently developed a numerical first order method (NFOM) to determine the gas tightness reliability at crucial locations of URCs. Using the NFOM, the effect of spatial variability of Ks on gas tightness reliability was investigated. Results show that as variance or spatial structure anisotropy of Ks increases, most of the gas tightness reliability at crucial locations reduces. Meanwhile, we compare the results of NFOM with those of Monte Carlo simulation, and we find the accuracy of NFOM is mainly affected by the magnitude of the variance of Ks. At last, for improving gas containment reliability at crucial locations at this study site, we suggest that vertical

  7. Preoperative irradiation of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Kurihara, Masaki; Mori, Kazuo; Amamoto, Yuhei.

    1981-01-01

    This is a report of case with the extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa in which total removal was carried out after radiotherapy. Follow-up study with computed tomography during and after irradiation are presented. A 44-year-old house-wife complained of a decreased vision of the both eyes and paresis of the left upper and lower limbs. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the right middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Right carotid angio-graphy demonstrated a large avascular mass in the right middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. An attempt to total removal of the tumor had failed to success because of extensive hemorrhage from the tumor. Histological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. Irradiation with a total dose of 5000 rads was delivered. After irradiation. CT scan revealed a marked decrease of size and EMI number of the tumor. At this stage, hypervascular mass lesion with feeding arteries was noted in conventional angiography. Tumor stain in prolonged injection angiography was also visualized. In the second operation, removal of the tumor was performed without any difficulty and hemorrhage was controlled easily by electrocoagulation. Histology revealed a marked narrowing of vessels with an increase in the connective tissues. In the central part of specimen, there noted findings of coagulation necrosis, intraluminal thrombus formations and so on, which were attributed to the influence of radiation. It is concluded that in case of a extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3000 - 5000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increase of probability of total removal of the tumor. (author)

  8. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Nora M; Nguyen, Hoang M T; Honda, Matthew; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2018-04-01

    It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat. Only articles with BCNI and pharmacologic intervention that could be grouped into categories of immune modulation, growth factor therapy, receptor kinase inhibition, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic interventions were included. To assess outcomes of pharmaceutical intervention on erectile function recovery after BCNI in the rat model. The ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was the main outcome measure chosen for this analysis. All interventions improved erectile function recovery after BCNI based on the ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure results. Additional end-point analysis examined the corpus cavernosa and/or the major pelvic ganglion and CN. There was extreme heterogeneity within the literature, making accurate comparisons between crush injury and therapeutic interventions difficult. BCNI in the rat is the accepted animal model used to study nerve-sparing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, an important limitation is extreme variability. Efforts should be made to decrease this variability and increase the translational utility toward clinical trials in humans. Haney NM, Nguyen HMT, Honda M, et al. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:234-241. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  9. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    OpenAIRE

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamic...

  10. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Cavernous sinus syndrome in dogs and cats: case series (2002-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslynn M. Jones

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The cavernous sinus (CS is a paired venous sinus that runs along either side of the pituitary gland on the floor of the calvarium. Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS refers to deficits in more than one of the cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, as they are in close association in this region. The purpose of this study was to identify the presenting complaints, neurologic findings, diagnosis, and outcomes in dogs and cats with confirmed cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS. Medical records between 2002 and 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were neurologic signs consistent with CSS and advanced imaging and/or post-mortem examination. Thirteen dogs and 2 cats were included. Twelve dogs received advanced imaging. Post-mortem examination was performed on 2 cats and 3 dogs. Dogs were 6 -13 years (mean= 10.8 years of age and comprised of several different breeds. Both cats were male neutered domestic shorthair, ages 3 and 14 years. Presenting complaints included mydriasis (N=4, behavior changes (N=3, hyporexia (N=3, ptosis (N=2, ataxia (N=2, pain (N=2, weakness (N=2, lethargy (N=2, and one each of epiphora, ocular swelling, polydipsia, seizures, facial muscle atrophy, dysphagia, and head tilt. Neurologic signs included ophthalmoparesis/plegia (N=13, reduced/absent pupillary light response (N= 11, mydriasis (N= 10, reduced/absent corneal sensation (N= 7, ptosis (N= 6, reduced facial sensation (N= 2, and enophthalmos (N=1. Thirteen patients had a mass lesion within the cavernous sinus, 6 of which were confirmed neoplastic via histopathology. Median survival time for the 4 patients treated with radiation therapy was 1035 days (range 150-2280. Median survival for the 4 patients that received medical treatment was 360 days (range 7-1260 days, and for the 5 non-treated patients 14 days (range 0-90 days. In conclusion mydriasis and ophthalmoplegia are common signs of CSS. A mass lesion within the CS is the most common cause. Survival time may be improved with

  12. Multidetector CT angiography in the diagnosis and classification of carotid–cavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Jung, C.; Ihn, Y.K.; Kim, D.J.; Seong, S.O.; Kwon, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the performance of multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) in identifying and classifying carotid–cavernous fistulas (CCFs). Materials and methods: The neuro-interventional database was searched for patients with CCFs at four different institutions and for normal controls at one of the four institutions. Thirty-four patients were divided into the case group (direct type, n=8; indirect type, n=8) and the control group (n=18). Two readers retrospectively evaluated thin-section CTA images for the presence and laterality of four findings: (1) engorged ophthalmic vein, (2) engorged cavernous sinus, (3) similar enhancement of the cavernous sinus (CS) and internal carotid artery (ICA), and (4) greater enhancement of the CS than the transverse sinus (TS). Dehiscent ICA for the direct type was assessed only in the case group. Sensitivity, specificity, and inter-reader agreement were determined. Attenuation differences between the ICA and CS and between the CS and TS were compared across groups. Results: The sensitivity/specificity for two engorgement and two enhancement findings were 81%/100%, 88%/94%, 100%/100%, and 88%/100%, respectively, for Reader 1, and 75%/100%, 75%/100%, 88%/100%, and 88%/100%, respectively, for Reader 2. Agreement between readers was excellent for all findings (κ>0.80). Dehiscent ICA identified the direct type with a sensitivity/specificity of 100%/75% for Reader 1 and 100%/88% for Reader 2 (κ=0.871). In the case group, the difference between ICA and CS attenuation values was significantly lower (180.1±76.6 versus 7.5±23.7; ⤳<0.001) and that between CS and TS were higher (–31.2±69 versus 102.6±59.3; ⤳<0.001). The area under the curve for the latter values was 0.95. Conclusion: The engorgement and enhancement categories in MDCTA may perform comparably in identifying CCFs and measurements of vessel attenuation differences may be of high diagnostic value. Dehiscent ICA can greatly aid in identifying the

  13. The first Inner Detector End-Cap is lowered into the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Heinz Pernegger

    The first Inner Detector End-Cap, containing both the SCT and TRT detectors, arriving down the access shaft on the A-side. . The Inner Detector End-Cap A approaching the installation platform. During the difficult phase of inserting the Inner Detector into the cryostat. On Thursday, May 24, the first Inner Detector end-cap, with both the TRT and SCT end-caps, was taken down to the pit. More pictures can be found on the transfer from SR1 to SX1 as well as the lowering into the cavern and reception on the platform which can also be seen as a slide show

  14. Surgical treatment of a large congenital cavernous hemangioma on the thorax of a foal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Tnibar, Aziz

    2018-01-01

    A 3-day-old male foal was presented with a fluctuant 25 × 15 cm mass on the thorax. The mass had increased in size since birth. The mass did not respond to conservative treatment consisting of aspiration of serohaemorrhagic contents and compression bandages, and it was therefore surgically removed...... when the foal was approximately 2½ weeks. A histopathological diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma was made. Healing progressed without complications despite a large surgical wound left to heal by second intention. Recurrence was not observed during the 1.5-year follow-up period....

  15. Discussion on environment control technology of escaping cavern to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongkai

    2012-01-01

    As the important refuge of Uranium Mines, the environment of Escaping Cavern is important to the miner's life. In order to attain the standard of Environment Control, the paper gave the method of Environment Control to the fire danger, pervious, collapse; Gave the isolating prevention time; represented the scheme of compressed-air self-help system, high pressure oxygen system, emergency oxygen system; Introduced the air purge equipment to handle the CO, CO 2 , bacterium and other harmful gas. At the same time, gave the method to control the temperature with the phase-change materials and private prevention. (author)

  16. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  17. Expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the modeling of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Yaremenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In order to analyze the dynamics of expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein in the sensorimotor cortex of the large hemispheres in the simulation of transient ischemia against the background of previous sensitization by brain antigen and immunocorrection. Materials and methods. The study is conducted on 185 male mature white rats from Wistar line weighing 260-290 g, in which the damage of the brain was modulated. The brain for study was taken on the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 30th and 90th days after the start of the experiment. The histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical methods were used. Results. Observations have shown that sensitization by the brain antigen causes neurodegenerative changes in the sensorimotor cortex and a moderate increase in the number of GFAP+-gliocytes, which is gradually increasing. The discirculatory changes that occurred with PO and BCA against the background of previous sensitization practically do not lead to changes in the number of GFAP+-cells. Against the background of sensitization by brain antigen, brain ischemia leads to an increase in the number of gliocytes that are GFAP labeled. In the affected hemisphere, their number reaches a maximum in the end of the acute period of ischemia, after which it decreases. But even in 3 months after transient vascular lesion, there are almost twice as many as in conditionally intact rats. This can be a factor that will significantly affect the function of brain regions after a vascular accident. The increase in the number of GFAP+-gliocytes in the contralateral hemisphere allows us to speak about a certain systemic response of astrocytic glia after ischemic trauma. An early reaction to increase of the number of labeled astrocytes just a day after ischemic attack suggests that some of this type of gliocytes does not expresses GFAP under normal conditions. The action of Imunofan in MEAs results in a less significant decrease in manifestations of

  18. The first section of the CMS detector (centre of photo) arriving from the vertical shaft, viewed from the cavern floor.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    In the early morning of 2 November, the first section of the CMS detector began its eagerly awaited descent into the underground cavern. You may imagine the CMS detector as a loaf of sliced bread, cut into 15 slices of different sizes. The two HF sections are the end pieces; the slices in between will be lowered sequentially according to their positions in the ‘loaf', starting from the HF+ section at the far end of the cavern, towards the access shaft at the opposite end.

  19. Giant cavernous carotid aneurysm with spontaneous ipsilateral ICA occlusion: Report of 2 cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitr BV Sastri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant aneurysms of the cavernous carotid artery are rare entities which present predominantly with features of compression of the adjacent neural structures, most commonly the III, IV, VI and V cranial nerves. Historically, treatment options included occlusion of the feeding vessel, direct surgery on the aneurysm, bypass procedures and in recent times, the use of endovascular devices. While intramural thrombus formation is commonly seen in giant aneurysms, we present 2 cases of giant cavernous aneurysms which on evaluation were found to have spontaneous occlusion of the feeding internal carotid artery secondary to thrombus formation, and review the available literature regarding the same.

  20. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  1. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  2. [Molecular organization of glutamate-sensitive chemoexcitatory membranes of nerve cells. Comparative analysis of glutamate-binding membrane proteins from the cerebral cortex of rats and humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambinova, S A; Gorodinskiĭ, A I; Lekomtseva, T M; Koreshonkov, O N

    1987-10-01

    The kinetics of 3H-L-glutamate binding to human brain synaptic membranes revealed the existence of one type of binding sites with Kd and Vmax comparable with those for freshly isolated rat brain membranes. The fraction of glutamate-binding proteins (GBP) was shown to contain three components with Mr of 14, 60 and 280 kD whose stoichiometry is specific for human and rat brain. All fractions were found to bind the radiolabeled neurotransmitter and to dissociate into subunits with Mr of 14 kD after treatment with-potent detergents (with the exception of the 56-60 kD component). Study of association-dissociation of GBP protein subunits by high performance liquid chromatography confirmed the hypothesis on the oligomeric structure of glutamate receptors which are made up of low molecular weight glycoprotein-lipid subunits and which form ionic channels by way of repeated association. Despite the similarity of antigen determinants in the active center of glutamate receptors from human and rat brain, it was assumed that the stoichiometry of structural organization of receptor subunits isolated from different sources is different. The functional role of structural complexity of human brain glutamate receptors is discussed.

  3. Effect of epileptogenic agents on the incorporation of /sup 3/H-glycine into proteins in the cat's cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojik, I.; Feher, O.

    1982-06-01

    Filter paper strips soaked in /sup 3/H-glycine solution were applied to acoustic cortex of cats, anaesthetized with Nembutal and pretreated with epileptogenic agents (Metrazol, G-penicillin, and 3-amino-pyridine) and cycloheximide. The untreated contralateral hemisphere served as control. After 1 h incubation, both cortical samples were excised simultaneously and fixed in Bouin solution for autoradiography. Incorporation was blocked by cycloheximide. There was no glycine incorporation on the penicillin-treated side, while pyramidal cells were intensively labelled in layers II-V of the mirror focus. 3-Aminopyridine produced the same result. Metrazol as convulsant proved to be far weaker than the previous two. The intensity of incorporation was significantly more intensive in the mirror focus than in the primary one. Penicillin and 3-aminopyridine, while provoking cortical seizures, seem to inhibit glycine incorporation into a neuron-specific, function-dependent protein contained by the labelled cells in the autoradiogram.

  4. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  5. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  6. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Carusillo Theriault

    Full Text Available In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter.Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS at embryonic day (E 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks.mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2 and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9 for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls.In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development.

  7. Cavernous angioma of the cauda equina: case report Angioma cavernoso de cauda equina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of cavernous angioma of the cauda equina and review the eleven cases available in the literature. A 44-year-old woman presented with low back pain and sciatica associated with bowel and bladder dysfunction and motor weakness of the lower extremity. The MRI revealed an enhancing, heterogeneous and hyperintense intradural lesion compressing the cauda equina roots at the L4 level. Laminectomy at L3-L4 and total removal of the tumor were performed without additional neurological deficit. Pathology revealed a cavernous angioma. The literature, clinical presentation, technical examinations, and treatment are reviewed.Relatamos um caso de angioma cavernoso de cauda equina em mulher de 44 anos de idade com sintomas de lombociatalgia associada a fraqueza de membros inferiores e disfunção esfincteriana vesical e anal. Exame de ressonância magnética evidenciou lesão expansiva intradural heterogênea e hiperintensa na cauda eqüina. Indicado tratamento cirúrgico com remoção completa através de laminectomia L3 e L4. O exame anatomopatológico foi compatível com angioma cavernoso. Os onze casos encontrados na literatura são revisados correlacionando a apresentação clínica, tratamento proposto e prognóstico.

  8. Buffer Construction Methodology in Demonstration Test For Cavern Type Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro, Akiyama; Takahiro, Nakajima; Katsuhide, Matsumura; Kenji, Terada; Takao, Tsuboya; Kazuhiro, Onuma; Tadafumi, Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies concerning a cavern type disposal facility have been carried out for disposal of low level radioactive waste mainly generated by power plant decommissioning in Japan. The disposal facility is composed of an engineered barrier system with concrete pit and bentonite buffer, and planed to be constructed in sub-surface 50 - 100 meters depth. Though the previous studies have mainly used laboratory and mock-up tests, we conducted a demonstration test in a full-size cavern. The main objectives of the test were to study the construction methodology and to confirm the quality of the engineered barrier system. The demonstration test was planned as the construction of full scale mock-up. It was focused on a buffer construction test to evaluate the construction methodology and quality control in this paper. Bentonite material was compacted to 1.6 Mg/m 3 in-site by large vibrating roller in this test. Through the construction of the buffer part, a 1.6 Mg/m 3 of the density was accomplished, and the data of workability and quality is collected. (authors)

  9. Visits to the ATLAS cavern - A record of 20000 visitors in 2006!

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandra Ciocio

    The year 2006 closed with the impressive record of just under 20000 visitors to the ATLAS cavern. These visitors come from all walks of life - people within ATLAS, groups from other CERN divisions, retired CERN staff, school groups both from the local area and from far away, companies looking for something different as a special outing, celebrities (Cirque du Soleil, Black Eyed Peas hip-hop group) passing through Geneva who had read Angels and Demons, a stream of VIP visitors and now, more and more, Press visitors. There have been public visits in the ATLAS cavern since the middle of 2003. At that time a lot of the visitors were guided by Bernard Lebegue and Francois Butin. The total number of visits in 2003 was 2220 people. Not bad for just two guides! Over the following three years demand for visits increased to such an extent that the ATLAS Visits Service was created and is now run very successfully under the supervision of Connie Potter in the ATLAS Secretariat in close collaboration with the ever-helpfu...

  10. Lateral sellar compartment O.T. (cavernous sinus): history, anatomy, terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, D

    1998-08-01

    Claudios Galen (119-199 a.d.) dissected lower animals with parasellar carotid retia bathed in venous blood and transposed his findings to human anatomy. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) corrected most of Galen's errors but apparently never looked into this small, extradural compartment, nor, apparently, did Winslow (Exposition Anatomique de la Structure du Corps Humain. London: N. Prevast, 1734), who christened it the "cavernous sinus," (CS) presumably thinking that it would resemble the corpora cavernosa of the penis. Multiple surgical explorations, gross dissections, microscopic views, and vascular casts from early fetuses to an 81 year old have been examined and reviewed. The CS is not a dural sinus nor is it cavernous. The compartment is extradural, and the venous structures contained within consist of a greatly variable plexus of extremely thin-walled veins. The name, CS, is a barrier to the understanding of the structure and function of this extradural anatomical jewel box, which contains fat, myelinated and nonmyelinated nerves, arteries, and a plexus of veins. It is proposed that this name be changed, because it is inaccurate and misleading. The replacement should leave no doubt about its meaning. The lateral sellar compartment is descriptive and accurate. The veins within are a parasellar plexus.

  11. TIPS Placement via Combined Transjugular and Transhepatic Approach for Cavernous Portal Vein Occlusion: Targeted Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanel Jourabchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We report a novel technique which aided recanalization of an occluded portal vein for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation in a patient with symptomatic portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. Some have previously considered cavernous transformation a contraindication to TIPS. Case Presentation. 62-year-old man with chronic pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, portal hypertension and recurrent variceal bleeding presents with melena and hematemesis. The patient was severely anemic, hemodynamically unstable, and required emergent portal decompression. Attempts to recanalize the main portal vein using traditional transjugular access were unsuccessful. After percutaneous transhepatic right portal vein access and navigation of a wire through the occluded main portal vein, an angioplasty balloon was inflated at the desired site of shunt takeoff. The balloon was targeted and punctured from the transjugular approach, and a wire was passed into the portal system. TIPS placement then proceeded routinely. Conclusion. Although occlusion of the portal vein increases difficulty of performing TIPS, it should not be considered an absolute contraindication. We have described a method for recanalizing an occluded portal vein using a combined transhepatic and transjugular approach for TIPS. This approach may be useful to relieve portal hypertension in patients who fail endoscopic and/or surgical therapies.

  12. Effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Fukushima, Masaaki; Mori, Kazuo; Tsujimura, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hiroaki.

    1987-01-01

    We report three cases of extracerebral cavernous hemangiomas in the middle fossa all of which had received radiotherapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. In Case 1, radiotherapy after partial removal of the tumor reduced the tumor's size and CT number, and facilitated total removal. In Case 2 as well, irradiation was started before the operation. The tumor responded very well to irradiation and showed significant reduction in the size and CT number of the tumor with a dose of about 3,000 rads. Subtotal romoval was possible. In Case 3, the tumor responded very well clinically to irradiation, and vertigo were much improved with a dose of about 3,000 rads, and CT scan at that time showed significant reduction in the size and CT number of the tumor, therefore she only received radiation therapy, no surgical intervention. It is concluded that in cases of extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3,000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increased probability of total removal of the tumor, and moreover the possibility of eliminating surgery. (author)

  13. Delayed effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Mori, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of a case with extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa which had received radiation therapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. A 62-year-old housewife complained of vertigo. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the left middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Left carotid angiography demonstrated a large avascular mass in the left middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. At the end of radiation, CT scan revealed a slight decrease in size and CT number of the tumor. Follow-up CT scans 5 months later showed 50 % regression of the tumor and 19 months later were negative for tumor. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous angioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 30 - 50 Gy was a method of choice. The treatment results in the possibility of eliminating surgery and the benefit of irradiation may not become evident until the first year. (author)

  14. Gamma knife radiosurgery for benign cavernous sinus tumors. Treatment concept and outcomes in 120 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail; Tamura, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Availability of modern computer-aided robotized devices, such as the Automatic Positioning System (APS TM ; Elekta Instruments AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and Perfexion TM (Elekta Instruments AB), allowed us to develop the original concept of robotic gamma knife microradiosurgery, which is based on the very precise irradiation of the lesion with regard to conformity and selectivity; intentional avoidance of the excessive irradiation of functionally-important anatomical structures, particularly cranial nerves, located both within and in the vicinity of the target; and delivery of sufficient irradiation energy to the tumor with the intention to attain lesion shrinkage, while keeping the marginal dose sufficiently low for prevention of possible complications. The results of such treatment strategy were evaluated retrospectively in 120 patients with benign cavernous sinus neoplasms (pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, schwannomas, and hemangiomas), who were followed up from 24 to 78 months (mean 47 months) after radiosurgery. Tumor growth control and shrinkage rates were 98% and 68%, respectively. More than 50% volume reduction was noted in 25% of lesions. The most prominent volumetric tumor response was observed in hemangiomas, followed by schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, and meningiomas. Treatment-related complications were marked in 7% of cases, and were mainly related to transient isolated cranial neuropathy appearing within several months after radiosurgery. Major morbidity was limited to one patient (0.8%). Application of microradiosurgical treatment principles provides effective and safe management of benign cavernous sinus tumors and is associated with high probability of lesion shrinkage and minimal risk of complications. (author)

  15. Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts for Underground Caverns under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes an analytical model for the interaction between the bolt and surrounding rock based on the bearing mechanism of fully grouted rock bolts. The corresponding controlled differential equation for load transfer is deduced. The stress distributions of the anchorage body are obtained by solving the equations. A dynamic algorithm for the bolt considering shear damage on the anchoring interface is proposed based on the dynamic finite element method. The rationality of the algorithm is verified by a pull-out test and excavation simulation of a rounded tunnel. Then, a case study on the mechanical characteristics of the bolts in underground caverns under seismic loads is conducted. The results indicate that the seismic load may lead to stress originating from the bolts and damage on the anchoring interface. The key positions of the antiseismic support can be determined using the numerical simulation. The calculated results can serve as a reference for the antiseismic optimal design of bolts in underground caverns.

  16. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  17. Regulatory mechanism of endothelin receptor B in the cerebral arteries after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Thigarajah, Rushani; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Increased expression of endothelin receptor type B (ETBR), a vasoactive receptor, has recently been implied in the reduced cerebral blood flow and exacerbated neuronal damage after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The study explores the regulatory mechanisms of ETBR to identify...... drug targets to restore normal cerebral artery contractile function as part of successful neuroprotective therapy. METHODS: We have employed in vitro methods on human and rat cerebral arteries to study the regulatory mechanisms and the efficacy of target selective inhibitor, Mithramycin A (Mit...... the ETBR mRNA and protein levels. It also significantly reduced the ETBR mediated cerebrovascular contractility. Detailed analysis indicated that ERK1/2 mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 might be essential for ETBR transcription. CONCLUSION: Transcription factor Sp1 regulates the ETBR mediated...

  18. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenroth, M.; Saam, T.; Haehnel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  19. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  20. Diaschisis with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, R.; Reivich, M.; Goldberg, H.; Banka, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients admitted to Philadelphia General Hospital with acute strokes had repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow measured by the /sup 133/X inhalation method. A progressive decline in cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was observed during the first week after infarction in twelve of these patients. This decline could be partially explained by loss of autoregulation, but could not be correlated with level of consciousness, clinical status of PCO2. This progressive decline in flow in the non-ischemic hemisphere indicates a process more complex than a simple destruction of axonal afferants to neurons as implied by the term diaschisis. The flow changes in the non-ischemic hemisphere are likely caused by a combination of the immediate effects of decreased neuronal stimulation modified by loss of autoregulation, release of vasoactive substances, cerebral edema, and other factors.

  1. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  2. An Investigation of the Integrity of Cemented Casing Seals with Application to Salt Cavern Sealing and Abandonment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Skaug, N.T.; Bruno, M.S.

    2001-04-19

    This research project was pursued in three key areas. (1) Salt permeability testing under complex stress states; (2) Hydraulic and mechanical integrity investigations of the well casing shoe through benchscale testing; and (3) Geomechanical modeling of the fluid/salt hydraulic and mechanical interaction of a sealed cavern.

  3. Vascular lesions of the lumbar epidural space: magnetic resonance imaging features of epidural cavernous hemangioma and epidural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Júnior Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features in two cases with respectively lumbar epidural hematoma and cavernous hemangioma of the lumbar epidural space. Enhanced MRI T1-weighted scans show a hyperintense signal rim surrounding the vascular lesion. Non-enhanced T2-weighted scans showed hyperintense signal.

  4. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  5. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavsar Tapan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. Case presentation A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction

  6. Myometrial cavernous hemangioma with pulmonary thromboembolism in a post-partum woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Tapan; Wurzel, John; Duker, Nahum

    2012-11-23

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus are rare benign vascular lesions. Nine cases of diffuse cavernous hemangioma of the gravid uterus have been reported, most of which diffusely involved the myometrium. These vascular malformations are clinically significant, and may cause pronounced bleeding resulting in maternal or fetal demise. Thrombosis of cavernous hemangiomas of the uterus has been previously reported. We here report the first case in which a thrombosed cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium resulted in a fatal pulmonary embolism in a post-partum woman. A 25-year-old obese African-American woman who had one pregnancy and was delivered of twins by cesarean section was admitted 1 week after the successful delivery. The 12-day clinical course included ventilator-dependent respiratory failure, systemic hypertension, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum, leukocytosis and asystole. A transabdominal ultrasound examination showed heterogeneous thickened and irregular products in the endometrial canal. The laboratory values were relevant for an increased prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, ferritin and a decrease in hemoglobin. The clinical cause of death was cited as acute respiratory distress syndrome. At autopsy, a 400g spongy, hemorrhagic uterus with multiple cystic spaces measuring approximately 0.5 × 0.4cm filled with thrombi within the myometrium was identified. Immunohistological examination with a CD31 stain for vascular endothelium associated antigen confirmed several endothelium-lined vessels, some of which contained thrombi. These histological features were consistent with cavernous hemangioma of the myometrium. A histological examination of the lungs revealed multiple fresh thromboemboli in small- and medium-sized pulmonary arteries in the right upper and lower lobes without organization, but with adjacent areas of fresh hemorrhagic infarction. This case underscores the importance of a high index of suspicion in

  7. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  8. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  9. Hyperexpressed netrin-1promoted neural stem cells migration in mice after focal cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Lu; Xiaoyan Song; Feng Wang; Guodong Wang; Yuncheng Wu; Qiaoshu Wang; Yongting Wang; Guoyuan Yang; Zhijun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous Netrin-1 (NT-1) protein was significantly increased after cerebral ischemia, which may participate in the repair after transient cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we explored whether NT-1 can be steadily overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the exogenous NT-1 can promote neural stem cells migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) region after cerebral ischemia. Adult CD-1 mice were injected stereotacticly with AAV carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). Mice underwent ...

  10. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  11. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  12. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  13. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  14. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One

  15. Embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula using a silicone balloon and a tracker-catheter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Yong; Cho, Kil Ho; Park, Bok Hwan

    1992-01-01

    With the recent introduction and development of the detachable balloon system, it has become the treatment of choice in the management of carotid cavernous fistulas(CCFs). But, since most delivery systems for embolization of CCF mainly depend on flow guidance for balloon delivery, in case of small fistula, pseudo aneurysm and arterialized venous collaterals, failure of balloon embolization can occur. To overcome these limitation, the authors designed and used a new versatile, steerable, and flow-guided detachable balloon system by using a Tracker catheter system with silicone or latex balloons. Using this maneuver, we could get successful fistula occlusion in 7 out of 8 patients (silicone balloon). But in one case, we had to occlude the internal carotid artery at the fistula site, proximal and distal cervical portions of the internal carotid artery. This balloon delivery system proved to provide high selectivity for fistula and relatively ease of handing

  16. [Bilateral spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistula revealing Ehler-Danlos disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, M; Puzenat, E; Humbert, P; Aubin, F

    2013-04-01

    A 34-year-old woman with an extensive surgical history developed two spontaneous carotido-cavernous fistula bilaterally. Skin examination revealed an acrogeric form of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and this diagnosis was confirmed by genetic analysis. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that may be suspected on the grounds of clinical symptoms. Severe complications can occur in early life and are associated with a high mortality rate. The prognosis of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome has been radically changed by the use of beta-blockers. The originality of our observation lies in the long time to onset of the initial complications in the absence of any problems during the numerous operations undergone by the patient, as well as the two childbirths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration test of underground cavern-type disposal facilities, fiscal 2010 status - 59180

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    A test to demonstrate practical construction technology for underground cavern-type disposal facilities is currently underway. Cavern-type disposal facilities are a radioactive waste repository excavated to a depth of 50 to 100 m below ground and constructed with an engineered barrier system (EBS) that is a combination of low-permeable bentonite material and low-diffusive cementitious material. The disposed materials are low-level radioactive waste with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and certain transuranic wastes that are mainly generated from spent fuel reprocessing. The project started in fiscal 2005*, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up of a disposal facility has been constructed in an actual sub-surface environment. The main objective of the demonstration test is to establish construction procedures and methods which ensure the required quality of an EBS on-site. Certain component parts of the facility had been constructed in an underground cavern by fiscal 2010, and tests so far have demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of the required quality. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of certain EBS components. The following results were obtained from the construction test of EBS in the test cavern: 1) The dry density of bentonite buffer at the lower layer constructed by vibratory compaction shows that 95% of core samples have densities within the target range. 2) The specified mix for the low-diffusion layer has uniform density and crack-control properties, and meets the requirements for diffusion performance. 3) The specified mix of the concrete pit has sufficient passing ability through congested reinforcement and meets the requirements of strength performance. 4) The dry density of the bentonite buffer at the lateral layer constructed by the spraying method shows that 65% of the core samples are within the

  18. Evaluation on construction quality of pit filler material of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Shimbo, Hiroshi; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    The pit filler material of the underground cavern-type radioactive waste disposal facility, which is poured directly around the radioactive waste packages where high temperature environment is assumed by their decay heat, is concerned to be adversely affected on the filling behavior and its hardened properties. There also are specific issues that required quality of construction must be achieved by unmanned construction with remote operation, because the pit filler construction shall be done under radiation environment. In this paper, the mix proportion of filler material is deliberated with filling experiments simulating high temperature environment, and also the effect of temperature on hardened properties are confirmed with high temperature curing test. Subsequently, the feasibility of unmanned construction method of filler material by pumping, and by movable bucket, are comparatively discussed through a real size demonstration. (author)

  19. Cavernous sinus thrombosis following dental extraction: a rare case report and forgotten entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Karun; Rastogi, Sanjay; Joshi, Atul; Kumar, Ashish; Chaurasia, Archana; Prakash, Rajat

    2017-10-01

    Prior to the advent of efficacious antimicrobial agents, the mortality rate from cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was effectively 100%. There have been very few reports of CST associated with tooth extraction. A 40-year-old female presented to the emergency room with swelling over the right side of the face and history of extraction in the upper right region by an unregistered dental practitioner. The patient presented with diplopia, periorbital ecchymosis, and chemosis of the right eye. A computed tomography scan revealed venous dilatation of the right superior ophthalmic vein. The patient was immediately treated with incision and drainage, intravenous antibiotics, and heparin (low molecular weight). Unfortunately, the patient died two days after surgery due to complications from the disease. CST is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Therefore, dental health education in rural areas, legal action against unregistered dental practitioners, early diagnosis, and aggressive antibiotic treatment can prevent future mortality resulting from CST.

  20. Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein Might Increase the Risk of Liver Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Bo Ai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV is not quite common in adults, and cases with CTPV and acute liver abscess are lacking. We report a patient with CTPV inducing extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, finally leading to acute liver abscess due to bile duct infection. We aim to find out the possible relationship between CTPV and acute liver abscess. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital for recurrent upper abdominal pain and distension for one year, aggravated with fever for three years. A diagnosis of CTPV and liver abscess was made by 16-slice computed tomography. Effective antibiotics and drainage were used for this patients, and she was eventually cured. When treating patients with CTPV, extrahepatic and intrahepatic obstruction, one should be aware of the presence of acute liver abscess, and empirical antibiotics might be valuable.

  1. CNS cavernous haemangioma: “popcorn” in the brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.N.; Mohan, S.; Lim, C.C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas (CH) are relatively uncommon non-shunting vascular malformations of the central nervous system and can present with seizures or with neurological deficits due to haemorrhage. Radiologists can often suggest the diagnosis of CH based on characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, thus avoiding further invasive procedures such as digital subtraction angiography or surgical biopsy. Although typical MRI appearance combined with the presence of multiple focal low signal lesions on T2*-weighted images or the presence of one or more developmental venous anomaly within the brain can improve the diagnostic confidence, serial imaging studies are often required if a solitary CH presents at a time when the imaging appearances had not yet matured to the typical “popcorn” appearance.

  2. Disposal and solidification of LAW/MAW in underground caverns, phase 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.; Dedegil, Y.

    1989-05-01

    In this report the concluding phase IV of the project for the containerless disposal of LAW/MAW-concentrate is described. This phase IV became necessary because of two pipe pluggings during phase III to demonstrate the technical performability. Compared with phase III the following plant and process modifications were performed: partially filled cross section of the feed pipe ('snifting air'), increased feed pipe diameter (47.4 to 59.4 mm), increased plant throughput (12 t/h to 24 t/h), feed pipe instrumentation (density, flow, pressure). In the pilot scale the modified process was tested in a 100 m-pipe (Asse, Blindschacht 4). The technical demonstration was performed by the 1000 m pipe from the above-day plant to the prototype cavern of the Asse salt mine. Overall more than 1000 t of product have been feeded within several shifts in successful performance. (orig.) [de

  3. Interventional Treatment of a Symptomatic Neonatal Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmar, Oliver; Knirsch, Walter; Bernet, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention is one treatment option for symptomatic hepatic hemangioma in infants. We report the case of a newborn (birth weight 4060 g) with a large hepatic cavernous hemangioma, which presented early with high cardiac output failure due to arteriovenous shunting and signs of incipient Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. We performed a successful superselective transcatheter coil embolization of three feeding arteries on the seventh day of life. Because of remaining diffuse very small arteries causing a relevant residual shunt, additional occlusion of the three main draining veins was necessary with three Amplatzer vascular plugs. Cardiac failure resolved immediately. Without any additional therapy the large venous cavities disappeared within the following months. The tumor continues to regress in size 8 months after the intervention

  4. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  5. Cavernous sinus lesions biopsy with neuronavigation and tip-cut needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Martin; Carvalho, Herculano; Cattoni, Maria; Gonçalves-Ferreira, Antonio; Pimentel, José; Antuñes, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transoval biopsy of cavernous sinus (CS) lesions is the last non-invasive diagnostic option in those 15% of patients in whom etiology remains unclear in spite of extensive neuroradiological imaging, clinical assessment, and laboratory evaluation. However, there are no guidelines defining indications and the most appropriate technique for this procedure. Case Description: We present four patients in whom we performed X-ray and neuronavigation-assisted transoval CS biopsies using tip-cut needles. Conclusion: The technique described allows the operator to determine the optimal angle for entering the CS, avoiding the complications due to distorted anatomy, and facilitating orientation once inside the CS. It reduces both radiation exposure as well as general anesthesia duration. PMID:25593783

  6. A Comparison of Simplified Two-dimensional Flow Models Exemplified by Water Flow in a Cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybytak, Dzmitry; Zima, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    The paper shows the results of a comparison of simplified models describing a two-dimensional water flow in the example of a water flow through a straight channel sector with a cavern. The following models were tested: the two-dimensional potential flow model, the Stokes model and the Navier-Stokes model. In order to solve the first two, the boundary element method was employed, whereas to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, the open-source code library OpenFOAM was applied. The results of numerical solutions were compared with the results of measurements carried out on a test stand in a hydraulic laboratory. The measurements were taken with an ADV probe (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter). Finally, differences between the results obtained from the mathematical models and the results of laboratory measurements were analysed.

  7. Speleological study of the cavern of the Ecce homo hill, in the municipality of Chimichagua, Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank David Lascarro-Navarro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the municipality of Chimichagua, Cesar, there is a system of natural caves associated with carbonate sedimentary rocks, which have suffered chemical dissolution and mechanical erosion generating exokarstic and endokarstic processes, which explain the geochemical and morphological phenomena that have given rise to these cavities. This study presents the results of a speleological work performed to the cavern of the Eccehomo Hill, located in the municipality of Chimichagua department of Cesar, concluding that the lithostratigraphic units outside and inside of the cavities are micritic and micritic limestones with fossils that according to the classification of Folk (1974, belong to the Formation Aguas Blancas, of the Cogollo Group. The cavities possess throughout their extension, variety of speleothems, endokarstic process products such as stalactites, moonmilk, castings, flags, sawtooth, found in the walls and ceiling.

  8. Cavernous sinus thrombosis syndrome and brainstem involvement in patient with leptospirosis: Two rare complications of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Alian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. It can affect humans and animals. In humans, it can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms. It is known as the most common zoonosis in the world. The typical presentation of the disease is an acute biphasic febrile illness with or without jaundice. Less common clinical manifestations may result from involvement of different human body systems. In many places, this disease may be under-diagnosed, especially when associated with neurological complications. Moreover, without treatment, leptospirosis can lead to organ damages, and even death. Neurological complications are uncommon and are reported in a few cases. Cavernous sinus thrombosis syndrome and brainstem involvement are rare complications of leptospirosis and are associated with a high mortality risk. To our knowledge, no such cases have been reported in the literature.

  9. Simulations of argon accident scenarios in the ATLAS experimental cavern a safety analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Balda, F

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristic accidents in the ATLAS experimental cavern (UX15) are simulated by means of STAR-CD, a code using the "Finite-Volume" method. These accidents involve different liquid argon leaks from the barrel cryostat of the detector, thus causing the dispersion of the argon into the Muon Chamber region and the evaporation of the liquid. The subsequent temperature gradients and distribution of argon concentrations, as well as their evolution in time are simulated and discussed, with the purpose of analysing the dangers related to asphyxiation and to contact with cryogenic fluids for the working personnel. A summary of the theory that stands behind the code is also given. In order to validate the models, an experimental test on a liquid argon spill performed earlier is simulated, showing that the program is able to output reliable results. At the end, some safety-related recommendations are listed.

  10. Carotid cavernous fistula with central retinal artery occlusion and Terson syndrome after mid-facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna, Satya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a rare occurrence combination of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and Terson syndrome in a Barrow’s type A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF patient.Methods: Observational case report.Results: A twenty-year-old male patient with a history of road traffic accident presented with periorbital swelling and redness in the left eye. Examination revealed a CRAO with intraretinal and preretinal hemorrhages. On imaging, type A CCF and subarachnoid hemorrhage were detected. He underwent embolization of the fistula for cosmetic blemish. The possible mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. Conclusion: Patients with a head injury can have serious ocular damage. Posterior segment manifestations of CCFs are varied and at times can occur in various rare combinations, making it challenging. Early recognition of these rare manifestations and a multi-disciplinary approach are needed in patients with head trauma.

  11. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  12. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru

    1992-01-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  13. Effects of cavernous nerve reconstruction on expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Boris; Matiasek, Kaspar; Saur, Dieter; Gratzke, Christian; Bauer, Ricarda M; Herouy, Yared; Arndt, Christian; Blesch, Armin; Hartung, Rudolf; Stief, Christian G; Weidner, Norbert; May, Florian

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms after various reconstruction techniques in rats, to improve the understanding of neuronal repair mechanisms after radical prostatectomy, as Schwann cell-seeded guidance tubes have been shown to promote cavernous nerve regeneration, and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-overexpressing Schwann cells enhance nerve regenerative capacity. Segments (5 mm) of the cavernous nerve were excised bilaterally, followed by immediate bilateral microsurgical reconstruction. In four rats per group, the eight nerves were reconstructed by autologous nerve grafting (A), interposition of Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes (B), or silicon tubes seeded with GDNF-hypersecreting Schwann cells (C). Further rats were either sham-operated (D) or had nerve excision without repair (E). Erectile function was evaluated after 6 weeks by re-laparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and morphological evaluation of reconstructed nerves. NOS isoform mRNA expression was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in tissue specimens taken from the corpora cavernosa. GDNF-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than untransduced Schwann cell and autologous nerve grafts (88% vs 75% vs 38%; not significant). Tissue specimens in group C had the highest expression of neuronal NOS mRNA in relation to the neuronal marker PGP9.5 among all treatment groups (not significant). Compared to nerve grafts (A) and negative controls (E) nNOS/PGP9.5 expression was significantly higher (P Schwann cell grafts (P < 0.05). Restoration of erectile function is paralleled by an increase of neuronal NOS expression in rats. Further experiments will determine the physiological role of neuronal NOS in erectile nerve repair processes. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  14. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Lingitz, H. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Eder, H.G. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2008-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  15. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xu-guang [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Qingdao 266100 (China); Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai [Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  16. Spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula disappeared following cobalt 60 irradiation. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji; Asari, Syoji (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1983-12-01

    The authors reported a case of spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula fed by meningohypophyseal trunk of the internal carotid artery, that completely disappeared following cobalt 60 irradiation to the region of fistula (27 days; total dose, 4,100 rad). A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital on May 25, 1982, with a two-week history of progressive prominence of the left eye, diplopia on left lateral gaze, and continuous intracranial bruit. He first noted redness of the left eye without apparent cause such as head trauma. On admission, slight nonpulsative exophthalmos, periorbital edema, chemosis, and venous congestion of the conjunctiva of the left eye were noted. The pupils were reactive and equal in size, and the left abducent nerve palsy was observed. Fundoscopic examination disclosed to be normal. No bruit was heard over the left orbital region. Left carotid angiography on May 28 demonstrated dural internal carotid-cavernous sinus fistula fed by meningohypophyseal trunk, and drained into superior and inferior ophthalmic veins and basilar venous plexus. Though the patient was treated only conservatively, symptoms became worse to decrease visual acuity. On July 14, we started cobalt 60 irradiation to the region of fistula (27 days; total dose 4,100 rad). Symptoms gradually improved about halfway through irradiation. After completion of irradiation, almost complete improvement of visual and ocular symptoms was observed except the left abducent nerve palsy. Repeated angiography on Aug. 20 revealed complete disappearance of fistula. Three months after treatment, no recurrence of symptoms was observed and the abducent nerve palsy persisted without improvement.

  17. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  18. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-01-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures

  19. Cranial nerve assessment in cavernous sinus tumors with contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) imaging to the evaluation of cranial nerves (CN) in patients with cavernous sinus tumors. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA images were acquired from ten patients with cavernous sinus tumors with a 3-T unit. In all cases, the trigeminal nerve with tumor involvement was easily identified in the cavernous portions. Although oculomotor and abducens nerves were clearly visualized against the tumor area with intense contrast enhancement, they were hardly identifiable within the area lacking contrast enhancement. The trochlear nerve was visualized in part, but not delineated as a linear structure outside of the lesion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA can be useful in the assessment of cranial nerves in and around the cavernous sinus with tumor involvement. (orig.)

  20. A rare case of important and recurrent abnormal uterine bleeding in a post partum woman caused by cavernous hemangioma: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Kacou Edele; Apollinaire Horo, Gninlgninrin; Fomba, Minata; Kouyate, Salif; Koffi, Abdoul Koffi; Konan, Seni; Fanny, Mohamed; Effi, Benjamin; Kone, Mamourou

    2017-01-01

    The cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor. About 50 cases of this disease were found in the literature over the last century and only 9 cases of cavernous hemangioma on the pregnant uterus were published it comes into cavernous or capillary form. The symptomatology is not unequivocal and when it occurs during pregnancy or postpartum, it causes life-threatening cataclysmic hemorrhage. Antenatal diagnosis is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach with pathologists, radiologists and gynecologists to avoid these complications or unnecessary hysterectomies. The diagnosis is histological. Hysterectomy is possible after failure of conservative treatment means. We report a rare case, a novel mixed cavernous hemangioma of the body associated with a capillary hemangioma of the cervix in a patient of 28 years 5th visors with recurrent genital bleeding in the postpartum period leading to a hysterectomy.

  1. Cranial nerve assessment in cavernous sinus tumors with contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) imaging to the evaluation of cranial nerves (CN) in patients with cavernous sinus tumors. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA images were acquired from ten patients with cavernous sinus tumors with a 3-T unit. In all cases, the trigeminal nerve with tumor involvement was easily identified in the cavernous portions. Although oculomotor and abducens nerves were clearly visualized against the tumor area with intense contrast enhancement, they were hardly identifiable within the area lacking contrast enhancement. The trochlear nerve was visualized in part, but not delineated as a linear structure outside of the lesion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA can be useful in the assessment of cranial nerves in and around the cavernous sinus with tumor involvement. (orig.)

  2. Post-irradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy associated with multiple cavernous malformations of the cauda equina: Case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Drazin, Doniel; Kappel, Ari; Withrow, Stefan; Perry, Tiffany; Chu, Ray; Phuphanich, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina are extremely rare. A review of the literature suggested that the post-irradiation lumbosacral radiculopathy in our patient was most likely associated with a diagnosis of multiple radiation-induced cavernous malformations of the cauda equina. Case Description: A 76-year-old man with a remote history of abdominal radiation therapy presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening right foot drop and...

  3. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists.

  4. Cerebral venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soralova, T.; Sevcikova, H.; Petersky, D.

    2014-01-01

    We decided to process this theme due to its nonspecific clinical features as they often cause diagnostic problems not only to clinicians but also to diagnostic. It is important to think of this disease mainly in young women who administer hormonal contraception. Imaging methods play the crucial role in diagnostic of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The gold standard is a native CT of brain which shows the venous sinus thrombosis as a hyperdense lesion in the locus of the sinus (dense triangle sign), CT venography shows the sinus thrombosis as a defect in a contrast filling of the venous sinus (empty delta sign). Other investigative methods are magnetic resonance imaging or MRA. In short we also mention quite a rare but more serious thrombosis of profound cerebral veins v. cerebri magna-Galeni, vv. cerebri internae). The importance of early diagnostic and non specificity of symptoms is presented in 3 clinical cases that are the part of this work. (author)

  5. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  6. Brain endothelial dysfunction in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Patricia L; Gong, Yi; Snyder, Juliet M T; Jimenez, Sandra; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Moser, Ann B; Grabowski, Eric F; Frosch, Matthew P; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-11-01

    See Aubourg (doi:10.1093/awv271) for a scientific commentary on this article.X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene leading to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Its most severe neurological manifestation is cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we demonstrate that progressive inflammatory demyelination in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy coincides with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased MMP9 expression, and changes in endothelial tight junction proteins as well as adhesion molecules. ABCD1, but not its closest homologue ABCD2, is highly expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, far exceeding its expression in the systemic vasculature. Silencing of ABCD1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells causes accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, but much later than the immediate upregulation of adhesion molecules and decrease in tight junction proteins. This results in greater adhesion and transmigration of monocytes across the endothelium. PCR-array screening of human brain microvascular endothelial cells after ABCD1 silencing revealed downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor c-MYC (encoded by MYC). Interestingly, MYC silencing mimicked the effects of ABCD1 silencing on CLDN5 and ICAM1 without decreasing the levels of ABCD1 protein itself. Together, these data demonstrate that ABCD1 deficiency induces significant alterations in brain endothelium via c-MYC and may thereby contribute to the increased trafficking of leucocytes across the blood-brain barrier as seen in cerebral adrenouleukodystrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  9. Neonatal cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro; Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author)

  10. Cerebral Oximetry in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of numerous current references, the review describes different neuromonitoring methods during cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. It shows that it is important and necessary to make neuromonitoring for the early diagnosis and prevention of neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Particular attention is given to cerebral oximetry; the possibilities and advantages of this technique are described. Correction of cerebral oximetric values is shown to improve survival rates and to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. Lack of cerebral oximetry monitoring denudes a clinician of important information and possibilities to optimize patient status and to prevent potentially menacing complications, which allows one to conclude that it is necessary to use cerebral oximetry procedures within neu-romonitoring in cardiac surgery. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, cerebral oximetry, neurological dysfunction, cerebral oxygenation.

  11. Intractable hiccup as the presenting symptom of cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Min-Young; Jung, Shin

    2014-06-01

    A case of intractable hiccup developed by cavernous hemangioma in the medulla oblongata is reported. There have been only five previously reported cases of medullary cavernoma that triggered intractable hiccup. The patient was a 28-year-old man who was presented with intractable hiccup for 15 days. It developed suddenly, then aggravated progressively and did not respond to any types of medication. On magnetic resonance images, a well-demarcated and non-enhancing mass with hemorrhagic changes was noted in the left medulla oblongata. Intraoperative findings showed that the lesion was fully embedded within the brain stem and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. The hiccup resolved completely after the operation. Based on the presumption that the medullary cavernoma may trigger intractable hiccup by displacing or compression the hiccup arc of the dorsolateral medulla, surgical excision can eliminate the symptoms, even in the case totally buried in brainstem.

  12. Cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary adenomas. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging findings and histologically verified dural invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daita, Go; Yonemasu, Yukichi; Nakai, Hirofumi; Takei, Hidetoshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and histologically verified invasion of the cavernous sinus by tumor cells was studied in 26 patients treated surgically for pituitary adenoma. Dural invasion of the sellar floor by tumor cells was found in 10 cases (38%). All patients were classified according to MR imaging findings into three types. Type I showed a gadolinium-enhanced stripe medial to the carotid artery (5 patients), none of which showed dural invasion. Type II showed no enhanced stripe (17 patients), six of which showed dural invasion. Within this type, tumor size and dural invasion showed no correlation. Type III showed displacement or encasement of the carotid artery by the tumor with or without extracranial extension (4 patients), all of which showed massive infiltration of the tumor cells into the dura mater. This study shows that preoperative MR imaging can provide information for assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus in patients with pituitary adenoma. (author).

  13. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  14. Fatal Peritoneal Bleeding Following Embolization of a Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usinskiene, Jurgita; Mazighi, Mikael; Bisdorff, Annouk; Houdart, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman treated for a spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistula in a context of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Embolization with a transvenous approach was achieved without complications; however, the patient died 72 hr later of massive intraperitoneal bleeding. At autopsy, no lesion of the digestive arteries was identified. Possible causes of this bleeding are discussed

  15. Brainstem edema caused by traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    YU, JINLU; GUO, YUNBAO; ZHAO, SHUJIE; XU, KAN

    2015-01-01

    Brainstem edema caused by traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (TCCF) is rare, and there is little information available regarding its clinical characteristics. The present report describes the case of a 51-year-old man with TCCF, who presented with right exophthalmos and intracranial bruit for 1 week. One month prior to admission at hospital, he fractured the frontal and ethmoid sinuses. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the diagnosis of TCCF, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sugg...

  16. Intravenous Infusion of Bone Marrow–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduces Erectile Dysfunction Following Cavernous Nerve Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yohei Matsuda, MD; Masanori Sasaki, MD, PhD; Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, MD, PhD; Akio Takayanagi, MD, PhD; Ko Kobayashi, MD, PhD; Shinichi Oka, MD, PhD; Masahito Nakazaki, MD, PhD; Naoya Masumori, MD, PhD; Jeffery D. Kocsis, PhD; Osamu Honmou, MD, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Intravenous preload (delivered before cavernous nerve [CN] injury) of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can prevent or decrease postoperative erectile dysfunction (J Sex Med 2015;12:1713–1721). In the present study, the potential therapeutic effects of intravenously administered MSCs on postoperative erectile dysfunction were evaluated in a rat model of CN injury. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 2 groups after electric CN injury. Intrave...

  17. Computed tomography in severe protein energy malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Househam, K C; de Villiers, J F

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain was performed on eight children aged 1 to 4 years with severe protein energy malnutrition. Clinical features typical of kwashiorkor were present in all the children studied. Severe cerebral atrophy or brain shrinkage according to standard radiological criteria was present in every case. The findings of this study suggest considerable cerebral insult associated with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  18. An unusual association of headache, epilepsy, and late-onset Kleist’s pseudodepression syndrome in frontal lobe cavernoma of the cerebral left hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirchiglia D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Chirchiglia,1 Attilio Della Torre,1 Domenico Murrone,2 Pasquale Chirchiglia,3 Rosa Marotta4 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurophysiopathology Unit, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 2Neurosurgery Department, Di Venere Hospital, Bari, 3School of Medicine, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 4Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy Abstract: Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors. Psychopathological syndrome can be depression-type, pseudodepression syndrome or maniac-type, pseudomaniac syndrome. Surgical treatment of lesions like this may not always be possible due to their location in eloquent areas. In this study, we describe an unusual association of migraine-like headache, epilepsy and frontal lobe pseudodepression late-onset syndrome in the same patient. We have considered this case interesting mainly for the rarity of both a headache with migraine features and for the late onset of pseudodepression syndrome. Pathophysiology underlying migraine-like headache and that concerning the late-onset pseudodepression frontal lobe syndrome seems to be unclear. This case leads to further hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for headache syndromes and psychopathological disorders, in the specific case when caused by a cerebral frontal lobe lesion. Keywords: cerebral cavernoma, cavernous angioma, headache, frontal syndrome, pseudodepression syndrome 

  19. Unilateral duplicated abducens nerve coursing through both the sphenopetroclival venous gulf and cavernous sinus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet, Thomas; Lefranc, Michel; Chenin, Louis; Foulon, Pascal; Havet, Éric; Peltier, Johann

    2018-03-15

    In this anatomy report, we describe the first case of abducens nerve duplication limited to the sphenopetroclival venous gulf and the cavernous sinus. The objective point of division of the two duplicated roots was localized at the gulfar face of the dural porus, just distal to the unique cisternal trunk of the abducens nerve, as it pierced the petroclival dural mater. In the gulfar segment, both roots traveled through a variant of Dorello's canal called the "petrosphenoidal canal" and remained separated through the posterior half of the cavernous sinus. Both roots finally fused in the anterior half of the cavernous sinus to innervate the lateral rectus muscle as a single trunk. Although many variants of the abducens nerve have been reported over the recent decades, this anatomic variation has never been previously described and enriches the continuum of abducens nerve variations reported in the literature data. Awareness of this variation is crucial for neurosurgeons, especially during clival or petrosal surgical approaches used for resection of skull base chordomas.

  20. Principle of gas storage in salt caverns; Principe du stockage de gaz en cavites creusees dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durup, J.G. [Mining Research Institute, CA (United States)]|[Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-08-15

    The principle of the exploitation of a gas storage cavity is analogue to the one of a cylinder of compressed gas. Such a reservoir has remarkable dimensions with a volume of several thousands of m{sup 3}, a height of few hundred meters and a diameter of about 100 m. The mechanical resistance with respect to the gas pressure is ensured by the 'pre-stress' corresponding to the weight of the geologic strata. Salt (halite) is the ideal material for the digging out of such facilities because of its excellent tightness, its solubility in water (allowing the dissolution digging technique), and its good mechanical resistance. Natural gas storage is in general performed in natural porous and permeable environments, like depleted hydrocarbon fields or aquifers. The storage in salt caverns has the advantage of allowing important emission flow rates with respect to the quantities of immobilized gases. In some Northern Europe countries, like Germany, the salt deposits are well developed and abundant, in particular near the North Sea and its important natural gas fields. In France, there exists 3 gas storage sites in salt caverns, with about 40 cavities as a whole. This document briefly presents the main elements of the gas storage technique in salt caverns: characteristics and geology of salt deposits, geo-technique, wells, dissolution digging, gas injection and exploitation. (J.S.)

  1. Improvement in Visual Symptomatology after Endovascular Treatment of Cavernous Carotid Aneurysms: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Choulakian, Armen; Nuño, Miriam; Gandhi, Ravi; Edgell, Randall C; Alexander, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Aneurysms arising from the cavernous internal carotid artery (CCAs) pose technical challenges for surgical management and such patients are frequently referred for endovascular treatment. These aneurysms often produce a variety of neurological deficits, primarily those related to oculoparesis. Our purpose was to determine the visual and neurological outcome of patients with treated CCAs. We reviewed the medical records and angiograms for patients who underwent endovascular treatment for CCAs at three academic medical centers. The following outcomes were analyzed: angiographic assessment, visual improvement and outcome at 3 months using Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Thirty-four patients (mean age 54.7 years) were treated for CCAs. The mean aneurysm size was 14.2 mm (range: 3-45 mm), and fourteen patients (41.2%) required stent assistance. Twenty-one aneurysms (61.8%) were completely occluded; nine aneurysms (26.6%) had near-complete occlusion; 4 aneurysms (11.8%) had partial occlusion. Seven patients (20.6%) required retreatment. Fifteen of the 34 patients (44.1%) presented with visual symptoms, while only eight patients had residual visual symptomatology at follow-up (44.1% vs. 23.5%; p=0.02). Patients that presented with visual symptoms (N=15) had a mean aneurysm size of 24.5 mm, while those without visual symptoms (N=19) had a size of 7.5 mm (p=0.001). Follow-up GOS was good (4-5) in 29 patients (90.6%). No thromboembolic complications were observed. One patient died (3.1%) of an unrelated cause. Most patients in this multicenter series improved or remained stable after treatment. The results of this study indicate that endovascular treatment may improve the outcome of visual symptoms in patients with large cavernous aneurysms with low periprocedural morbidity. MJA is a consultant for Stryker and Codman. AC receives a Cordis Endovascular Fellowship Training Grant and a Stryker Endovascular Neurosurgery Post-graduate Fellow Grant. Dr. Drazin: Conception and Design

  2. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Edip Gürol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides (Ab in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, and veins. Despite the fact that these pathological changes were first described in 1909, major advancement in our understanding of the clinicoradiological manifestations, neurobiology, and course of CAA has occurred only during the last 30 years. No significant associations have been shown between CAA and other systemic/visceral amyloidoses or vascular risk factors, including hypertension. CAA is well known as the most common cause of spontaneous and anticoagulant-related lobar parenchymal ICH in the elderly. It also causes lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, small dot-like dark susceptibility artifacts visible with gradient recalled echo (GRE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. CMBs are important markers of disease severity and predictors of CAA progression. Amyloid angiopathy is also a common cause of ischemic microvascular white matter disease (WMD and deep cerebral infarctions. Such WMD is defined as subcortical and periventricular white matter changes without obvious infarction, as well as a dark appearance on computerized tomography (CT and a bright appearance on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR-MRI. CAA-related vascular dysfunction, with its hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, is a recognized contributor to vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly, an independent effect that is synergistically increased by Alzheimer pathologies, such as plaques and tangles. A set of clinicoradiological criteria was established for the accurate diagnosis of CAA. According to the Boston Criteria, patients aged 55 years and older with multiple hemorrhages (on CT or GRE-MRI restricted to the lobar, cortical, or corticosubcortical regions (cerebellar hemorrhage allowed are diagnosed as probable CAA when no other etiology is found; a single hemorrhage in the same region is classified as possible

  3. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  4. Techniques in cerebral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Passariello, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization.

  5. Cerebral aneurysms – an audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Abstract. We performed an audit to determine the profile of cerebral aneurysms at the Universitas Hospital Bloem- fontein, the only government hospital with a vascular suite in the Free State and Northern Cape area. Two hun- dred and twenty-three government patients, diagnosed with cerebral aneurysms during the period.

  6. Variations au cours de la journée de l'incorporation in vivo de la leucine tritiée dans les protéines du cervelet et du cerveau du jeune rat normal et hypothyroïdien. Daily variations of the in vivo [3H] leucine incorporation into the cerebellar and cerebral proteins of the normal and hypothyroid young rat [(author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, J; Rebière, A

    1978-02-15

    In the normal and hypothyroid 6-day-old rat, the specific radioactivity (RSA) and the relative RSA (ratio of the RSA to the [3H] lecine concentration of the acido soluble phase) of the cerebral and cerebellar proteins, changes during the day synchronally. They show a maximum at 15.00 h and a minimum at 0.300 h. At all stages studied, these values are significantly lower in the hyothyroid animals than in normal ones.

  7. GGF2 is neuroprotective in a rat model of cavernous nerve injury-induced erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Arthur L; Sezen, Sena F; Hoke, Ahmet; Caggiano, Anthony O; Iaci, Jennifer; Lagoda, Gwen; Musicki, Biljana; Bella, Anthony J

    2015-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a major complication of radical prostatectomy, commonly associated with penile neuropathy. In animal models of peripheral nerve injury, glial growth factor-2 (GGF2), a member of the neuregulin family of growth factors, has neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties, but this potential has not been established after cavernous nerve (CN) injury. The effectiveness of GGF2 in preserving axonal integrity and recovering erectile function in a rat model of radical prostatectomy-associated CN injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral CN crush injury (BCNI) or sham surgery. Rats were administered GGF2 (0.5, 5, or 15 mg/kg) or vehicle subcutaneously 24 hour pre and 24-hour post-BCNI, and once weekly for 5 weeks. Erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the CN. CN survival was assessed by fluorogold retrograde axonal tracing in major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Unmyelinated axons in the CNs were quantitated by electron microscopy. Erectile function recovery, CN survival, and unmyelinated CN axon preservation in response to GGF2 treatment following BCNI. Erectile function was decreased (P cells in the MPG was reduced (P Schwann cells in the BCNI group was higher (P Schwann cell compared with the BCNI group. GGF2 promotes erectile function recovery following CN injury in conjunction with preserving unmyelinated CN fibers. Our findings suggest the clinical opportunity to develop GGF2 as a neuroprotective therapy for radical prostatectomy. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Installation of the Liquid Argon Calorimater Barrel in the ATLAS Experimental Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Vandoni, G.

    On the 27th of October, the Liquid Argon Barrel cryostat was transported from Building 180 to point 1. The next day, the Barrel was lowered into the cavern, and was placed on jacks close to its final position inside the completed lower half of the Tile calorimeter. After a day of precise adjustment, it was resting within a few millimetres of its nominal final position, waiting for the upper half of the Tile calorimeter to be installed. Tight requests had been issued by the Liquid Argon collaboration for the whole transport. It was foreseen that the cryostat should not see any acceleration larger than 0.15g along its axis, 0.08g transversally and 0.3g in the vertical direction. In addition, no acceleration higher than 0.03g (or even 0.003g for permanent oscillation) would be allowed at 20Hz, to avoid the risk of damaging the absorbers at this spontaneous vibration frequency. The difficulty would arise when coping these demands with the tortuous route, its slopes and curbs, vibration transmission from the engi...

  9. Contralateral Supracerebellar-Infratentorial Approach for Resection of Thalamic Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascitelli, Justin; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-02-26

    Surgical resection of cavernous malformations (CM) in the posterior thalamus, pineal region, and midbrain tectum is technically challenging owing to the presence of adjacent eloquent cortex and critical neurovascular structures. Various supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approaches have been used in the surgical armamentarium targeting lesions in this region, including the median, paramedian, and extreme lateral variants. Surgical view of a posterior thalamic CM from the traditional ipsilateral vantage point may be obscured by occipital lobe and tentorium. To describe a novel surgical approach via a contralateral SCIT (cSCIT) trajectory for resecting posterior thalamic CMs. From 1997 to 2017, 75 patients underwent the SCIT approach for cerebrovascular/oncologic pathology by the senior author. Of these, 30 patients underwent the SCIT approach for CM resection, and 3 patients underwent the cSCIT approach. Historical patient data, radiographic features, surgical technique, and postoperative neurological outcomes were evaluated in each patient. All 3 patients presented with symptomatic CMs within the right posterior thalamus with radiographic evidence of hemorrhage. All surgeries were performed in the sitting position. There were no intraoperative complications. Neuroimaging demonstrated complete CM resection in all cases. There were no new or worsening neurological deficits or evidence of rebleeding/recurrence noted postoperatively. This study establishes the surgical feasibility of a contralateral SCIT approach in resection of symptomatic thalamic CMs It demonstrates the application for this procedure in extending the surgical trajectory superiorly and laterally and maximizing safe resectability of these deep CMs with gravity-assisted brain retraction.

  10. The far lateral transpontomedullary sulcus approach to pontine cavernous malformations: technical report and surgical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, Adib A; Benet, Arnau; Lawton, Michael T

    2014-09-01

    Pontine cavernous malformations (CMs) located on a peripheral pontine surface or the fourth ventricular floor are resectable lesions, but those deep within the pons away from a pial surface are typically observed. However, the anterior bulge of the pons formed by the brachium pontis creates a unique entry point for access to deep pontine lesions from below, working upward through the pontomedullary sulcus. We developed a transpontomedullary sulcus (TPMS) approach to these lesions. The TPMS approach used the far lateral craniotomy and upper vagoaccessory triangle to define the surgical corridor. The entry point was above the olive, lateral to the pyramidal tracts and cranial nerve (CN) VI, above the preolivary sulcus and CN XII, and medial to CNs VII and VIII and CNs IX through XI. Four patients underwent this approach. All presented with hemorrhage and CN VI palsies. All pontine CMs were resected completely. Three patients were improved or unchanged, with good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) in all patients. The central pons remains difficult territory to access, and new surgical corridors are needed. The bulging underbelly of the pons allows access to pontine lesions deep to the pial surface from below. The far lateral TPMS approach is a novel and more direct alternative to the retrosigmoid transmiddle cerebellar peduncle approach. Unlike the retrosigmoid approach, the TPMS approach requires minimal parenchymal transgression and uses a brainstem entry point medial to most lower CNs. Favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of resecting pontine CMs that might have been previously deemed unresectable.

  11. Research on base rock mechanic characteristics of caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isei, Takehiro; Katsuyama, Kunihisa; Seto, Masahiro; Ogata, Yuji; Utagawa, Manabu

    1997-01-01

    It has been considered that underground space is mechanically stable as compared with on the ground, and superior for storing radioactive waste for long period. However, in order to utilize underground space for the place of radioactive waste disposal, its long term stability such as the aseismatic ability of base rocks must be ensured, and for this purpose, it is necessary to grasp the mechanical characteristics of the base rocks around caverns, and to advance the technology for measuring and evaluating minute deformation and earth pressure change. In this research, the study on the fracture mechanics characteristics of base rocks and the development of the technology for measuring long terms stress change of base rocks were carried out. In this research, what degree the memory of past stress is maintained by rocks was presumed by measuring AE and strain when stress was applied to rock test pieces. The rocks tested were tuff, sandstone and granite. The experimental method and the experimental results of the prestress by AE method and DRA are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Possible role of the cavernous sinus veins in cerebrospinal fluid absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Lena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption pathways. To achieve this, Microfil (a coloured silastic material was infused into the subarachnoid space (cisterna magna of sheep post mortem, and the relevant tissues examined macroscopically and microscopically. The Microfil was taken up by an extensive network of extracranial lymphatic vessels in the olfactory turbinates. In addition however, Microfil also passed consistently through the dura at the base of the brain. Microfil was noted in the spaces surrounding the venous network that comprises the cavernous sinus, in the adventitia of the internal carotid arteries and adjacent to the pituitary gland. Additionally, Microfil was observed within the endoneurial spaces of the trigeminal nerve and in lymphatic vessels emerging from the epineurium of the nerve. These results suggest several unconventional pathways by which CSF may be removed from the subarachnoid space. The movement of CSF to locations external to the cranium via these routes may lead to its absorption into veins and lymphatics outside of the skull. The physiological importance of these pathways requires further investigation.

  13. The keys to successful TIPS in patients with portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, S; Espejo, J J; Pérez-Montilla, M E; Zurera, L J; González-Galilea, Á

    Portal vein thrombosis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis. Anticoagulation involves a high risk of bleeding secondary to portal hypertension, so placing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) has become an alternative treatment for portal vein thrombosis. Three strategies for TIPS placement have been reported: 1) portal recanalization and conventional implantation of the TIPS through the jugular vein; 2) portal recanalization through percutaneous transhepatic/transsplenic) access; and (3) insertion of the TIPS between the suprahepatic vein and a periportal collateral vessel without portal recanalization. We describe different materials that can be used as fluoroscopic targets for the TIPS needle and for portal recanalization. This article aims to show the success of TIPS implantation using different combinations of the techniques listed above, which is a good treatment alternative in these patients whose clinical condition makes them difficult to manage, and to show that portal vein thrombosis/cavernous transformation should not be considered a contraindication for TIPS. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Cavernous angioma after chemotherapy for desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Masao; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-02-01

    While cavernous angioma (CVA) after cranial irradiation has been documented, its development after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has not. We present a patient with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) who developed CVA 2 years after high-dose chemotherapy and PBSCT. A 1-year-old boy with ingravescent vomiting was admitted to our institute. He presented with a large head, a depressed nasal bridge, low-set ears, thick lips with peg-shaped teeth, hypohidrosis, sparse hair, thin atrophic skin, scaly dermatitis with frontal bossing, and a bulging anterior fontanel. Neuroradiological examination revealed multiple cerebellar masses with heterogeneous enhancement and speckled calcifications and severe obstructive hydrocephalus. The histological diagnosis of surgical specimens was DNMB, and he underwent postoperative multiple-drug chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT. The outcome was favorable and he did not undergo radiotherapy. After 2 years, intracranial hemorrhage was detected at his regular radiological check-up and he again underwent surgery. The histological diagnosis was CVA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AED-associated DNMB and CVA.

  15. Discovery Mondays: 'The civil engineering genius of the 100-metre deep underground caverns'

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN is first and foremost a place where physicists study particle collisions. But to be able to observe the infinitely small, they need huge pieces of equipment, the accelerators and detectors, whose construction, some 100 metres below the earth's surface calls on the services of other fascinating disciplines. Take civil engineering, for example. For the construction of the LHC some 420 000 cubic metres of rock have had to be excavated for the 6500 metres of tunnel, 6 new shafts and 32 underground chambers and caverns. To avoid disrupting other experiments in progress, the work on these exceptional structures has had to be done without creating vibrations. The ATLAS experiment hall, a huge cathedral-like structure 100 metres below ground, is another mind-blowing feat of civil engineering. Its construction involved the use of ground-breaking technology, such as the system for suspending the ceiling put in place during the excavation work. At the next Discovery Monday, the specialists responsible for...

  16. Gamma radiosurgery combined with trans-sphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor involved to the cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Shirokura, Hidefumi.

    1995-01-01

    Ten patients (2 males and 8 females with an average age of 39 years) were treated with combined trans-sphenoidal surgery and gamma radiosurgery for pituitary tumor involved to the cavernous sinus. A Follow-up period ranged from 7 to 29 months, with a mean of 21 months. Therapeutic effects were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) every 3 months, endocrine examination, optical examination for visual field, and auditory test. Pituitary tumor after radiosurgery was shown as hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. Tumor response could be classified on MRI into (1) a remarkably decreased tumor in size with increased contrast enhancement (n=6), (2) a remarkably decreased tumor in size with unchanged contrast enhancement (n=one), (3) a slightly decreased tumor in size with increased spotted contrast enhancement (n=2), and (4) unchanged tumor in size with decreased contrast enhancement (n=one). Of 6 Type 1 patients, 5 had growth hormone production. Growth hormone production tended to be associated with favorable response to radiosurgery. In 3 patients who showed endocrinologically favorable response (such as increased growth hormone in blood and somatomedin C value), complete regression of tumor was achieved at a 20-month follow-up period. Radiosurgery also seemed to be useful for treating hormone active tumors. (N.K.)

  17. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  18. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography; Alteracoes parenquimatosas na trombose venosa cerebral: aspectos da ressonancia magnetica e da angiorressonancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: csferreira@superig.com.br; Boasquevisque, Edson [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de [Hospital da Beneficencia Portuguesa do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Imagem. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica

    2006-09-15

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)

  19. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  20. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  1. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  3. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  4. Klotho upregulation contributes to the neuroprotection of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fang-Yi; Shi, Meng-Qi; Zhou, Hong-Jing; Liu, Dong-Ling; Sang, Na; Du, Jun-Rong

    2018-02-05

    Klotho, an aging-suppressor gene, encodes a protein that potentially acts as a neuroprotective factor. Our previous studies showed that ligustilide minimizes the cognitive dysfunction and brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to investigate whether klotho is involved in the protective effects of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury in mice. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arterial occlusion. Neurobehavioral tests as well as Nissl and Fluoro-Jade B staining were used to evaluate the protective effects of ligustilide in cerebral ischemia, and Western blotting and ELISA approaches were used to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Administration of ligustilide prevented the development of neurological deficits and reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 region and the caudate putamen after cerebral ischemia. The protective effects were associated with inhibition of the RIG-I/NF-κB p65 and Akt/FoxO1 pathways and with prevention of inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain. Further, downregulation of klotho could attenuate the neuroprotection of ligustilide against cerebral ischemic injury. Ligustilide exerted neuroprotective effects in mice after cerebral ischemia by regulating anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant signaling pathways. Furthermore, klotho upregulation contributes to the neuroprotection of LIG against cerebral ischemic injury. These results indicated that ligustilide may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology, genetic, natural history and clinical presentation of giant cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, M; Pennes, F; Sedat, J; Bataille, B

    2015-12-01

    Giant cerebral aneurysms represent 5% of intracranial aneurysms, and become symptomatic between 40 and 70 years with a female predominance. In the paediatric population, the giant aneurysm rate is higher than in the adult population. Classified as saccular, fusiform and serpentine, the natural history of giant cerebral aneurysms is characterized by thrombosis, growth and rupture. The pathogenesis of these giant aneurysms is influenced by a number of risk factors, including genetic variables. Genome-wide association studies have identified some chromosomes highlighting candidate genes. Although these giant aneurysms can occur at the same locations as their smaller counterparts, a predilection for the cavernous location has been observed. Giant aneurysms present with symptoms caused by a mass effect depending on their location or by rupture; ischemic manifestations rarely reveal the aneurysm. If the initial clinical descriptions have been back up by imagery, the clinical context with a pertinent analysis of the risk factors remain the cornerstone for the management decisions of these lesions. Five year cumulative rupture rates for patients with giant aneurysm were 40% for those located on the anterior part of circle of Willis and 50% for those on the posterior part. The poor outcome of untreated patients justifies the therapeutic risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Clinical importance of the basal cavernous sinuses and cavernous carotid arteries relative to the pituitary gland and macroadenomas: quantitative analysis of the complete anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazlar, Selcuk; Kocaeli, Hasan; Eyigor, Ozhan; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Korfali, Ender

    2008-08-01

    macroadenomas, some part of the CA's diameter was located below the line passing from the basal dural layer ranging from 12.5% to 100%. Our results indicate that a working area of 15.0 +/- 2.6 x 10.3 +/- 2.1 mm is safe during TSS. The position of the CCA posterior segment was notably more caudal than the anterior segment with respect to the basal dura, which should be taken into account during extended exposure. Also, preoperative recognition of the anatomical variations is beneficial for detection of the boundaries of dissection, which is particularly important in the BCS, where variable course of CCAs may transform the anatomical configuration. Slowly growing pituitary adenomas stretch out both CCAs considerably from medial to lateral directions, and they cause widening of intercarotid distances in all segments. Processing of fixation, decalcification, and paraffin embedding for the cadaveric tissue in contrast to physiologically hydrated tissues may change the accuracy of measurements. These measurements are significantly different than those in the radiologic images when arterial blood under pressure is in the CCA as well as when venous blood fills the cavernous sinus as is the case in vivo. In clinical practice, these facts must be taken into consideration in the cadaveric measurements.

  7. Impact of In Situ Stress Distribution Characteristics on Jointed Surrounding Rock Mass Stability of an Underground Cavern near a Hillslope Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a series of numerical simulations are performed to analyze the in situ stress distribution characteristics of the rock mass near different slope angles hillslope surfaces, which are subjected to the vertical gravity stress and different horizontal lateral stresses and the influence which the in situ stress distribution characteristics of 45° hillslope to the integral stability of surrounding rock mass when an underground cavern is excavated considering three different horizontal distances from the underground cavern to the slope surface. It can be concluded from the numerical results that different slope angles and horizontal lateral stresses have a strong impact on the in situ stress distribution and the integral surrounding rock mass stability of the underground cavern when the horizontal distance from the underground cavern to the slope surface is approximately 100 m to 200 m. The relevant results would provide some important constructive suggestions to the engineering site selection and optimization of large-scale underground caverns in hydropower stations.

  8. Intractable Posterior Epistaxis due to a Spontaneous Low-Flow Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giotakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 90-year-old patient with intractable posterior epistaxis presenting as the only symptom of a nontraumatic low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Purpose of this case report is to introduce low-flow carotid-cavernous sinus fistula in the differential diagnosis of intractable posterior epistaxis. We provide a literature review for the sequence of actions for the confrontation of posterior epistaxis. We also emphasize the significance of the radiological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the management of posterior epistaxis due to pathology of the cavernous sinus. The gold-standard diagnostic procedure of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is digital subtraction angiography (DSA. DSA with coils is also the state-of-the-art therapy. By failure of DSA, neurosurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS may be used as alternatives. SRS may also be used as enhancement procedure of the DSA. Considering the prognosis of a successfully closed carotid-cavernous sinus fistula, recanalization occurs only in a minority of patients. Close follow-up is advised.

  9. Positron emission tomography and cerebral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Maziere, M.; Zarifian, E.; Naquet, R.

    1979-01-01

    The association of new methods of labelling with short lived radioisotopes and of visualisation 'in vivo' of these labelled molecules by emission tomography, provide the possibility of studying brain metabolism at different levels. Two examples will illustrate the possibilities of this methodology. Cerebral metabolism of methionine- 11 C in phenylketonutic patients: The cerebral uptake of methionine was measured in 24 PKU children aged 1 to 40 months on a low protein diet. Ten of them were examined twice at intervals of several months. Stopping the diet for one week leads to an increase in blood phenylalanine and to a significant important decrease in brain uptake of labelled methionine. Futhermore, for children under treatment having a low phenylalanine blood concentration, brain uptake of methionine decreases with age between 1 and 40 months. These results suggest that the treatment of this disease should be started as soon as possible after birth. Cerebral metabolism of psychoactive drugs: The study of the brain distribution and kinetics of psychoactive drugs may help in understanding their mode of action. Chlorpromazine- 11 C was administered i.v. to schyzophrenic patients not previously treated with neuroleptics. In all patients the brain uptake of the drug was high and rapid, and was localized mainly in the grey matter, probably in proportion to the blood flow. Non-specific binding of this drug to brain proteins prevented visualization of specific binding to dopaminergic or αnor-adrenergic receptors. Specific receptor binding of benzodiazepines was however visualized in the brain of baboons after injection of 11 C-flunitrazepam (specific activity = 600 Ci/μmole) and subsequent displacement of this radioactive ligand by a pharmacological dose of Lorazepam

  10. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  11. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  12. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  13. Direct traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: angiographic classification and treatment strategies. Study of 172 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience in treatment of traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) via endovascular intervention. We hereof recommend an additional classification system for type A CCF and suggest respective treatment strategies. Only type A CCF patients (Barrow's classification) would be recruited for the study. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the CCF, we classified type A CCF into three subtypes including small size, medium size and large size fistula depending on whether there was presence of the anterior carotid artery (ACA) and/or middle carotid artery (MCA). Angiograms with opacification of both ACA and MCA were categorized as small size fistula. Angiograms with opacification of either ACA or MCA were categorized as medium size fistula and those without opacification of neither ACA nor MCA were classified as large size fiatula. After the confirm angiogram, endovascular embolization would be performed impromptu using detachable balloon, coils or both. All cases were followed up for complication and effect after the embolization. A total of 172 direct traumatic CCF patients were enrolled. The small size fistula was accountant for 12.8% (22 cases), medium size 35.5% (61 cases) and large size fistula accountant for 51.7% (89 cases). The successful rate of fistula occlusion under endovascular embolization was 94% with preservation of the carotid artery in 70%. For the treatment of each subtype, a total of 21/22 cases of the small size fistulas were successfully treated using coils alone. The other single case of small fistula was defaulted. Most of the medium and large size fistulas were cured using detachable balloons. When the fistula sealing could not be obtained using detachable balloon, coils were added to affirm the embolization of the cavernous sinus via venous access. There were about 2.9% of patient experienced direct carotid artery puncture and 0.6% puncture after carotid artery cut-down exposure. About 30% of cases experienced

  14. Cerebrovascular endothelin receptor upregulation in cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a serious neurological disease and the third leading cause of death in the western world. In roughly 15 % of the cases, the cause is due to an intracranial haemorrhage, and the remaining 85 % represent ischemic strokes. Ischemic stroke is caused by the occlusion of a cerebral artery...... either by an embolus or by local thrombosis. Several studies have shown an involvement of the endothelin system in ischemic stroke. This review aims to examine the alterations of vascular endothelin receptor expression in ischemic stroke. Furthermore, studies of the intracellular signalling pathways...... leading to the enhanced expression of vascular endothelin receptors show that both protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) play important roles. The results from this work provide new perspectives on the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, and give a possible explanation...

  15. Differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma. Possibility of progress evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furui, Sigeru; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yamauchi, Tadasuke; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1985-06-01

    In 35 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 25 cases of cavernous hemangioma (CH) of the liver, magnetic resonance (MR) spin echo images were obtained using a 0.35 tesla superconducting MR imager (Siemens, Magnetom). On the images with a TR (repetition time) of 1600 msec and a TE (echo delay time) of 70 msec, all tumors appeared as high intensity areas, and there, Tumor/Liver intensity ratio (T/L) was calculated. T/sub 1/ (longitudinal relaxation time) and T/sub 2/ (transverse relaxation time) of the lesions were also calculated from the images with two TR (400 and 1600 msec) and two TE (35 and 70 msec). The T/sub 1/(940 +- 180 msec), T/sub 2/(110 +- 40 msec) and T/L(2.2 +- 0.4) of CH were significantly higher (p<0.001) than the T/sub 1/(660 +- 100 msec), T/sub 2/(60+-8 msec) and T/L(1.5 +- 0.4) of HCC, respectively. There was no correlation between these values and tumor size on MR, which ranged from 1.5 to 10 cm in diameter. All of CH satisfied the condition; T/sub 1/>660 msec, T/sub 2/>54 msec and T/L>1.6. In contrast, 73% of HCC did not satisfy the above condition. Our results suggest that use of MR will improve the accuracy of the differential diagnosis of HCC and CH.

  16. Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Associated with Cavernous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas After Transvenous Embolization with Onyx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yang; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Yang, Xinjian, E-mail: yang-xj@163.net [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeCranial nerve dysfunction (CND) is not uncommon in patients with cavernous dural arteriovenous fistulas (cDAVFs), and may represent an initial manifestation or a complication after endovascular treatment. This study evaluated the outcome of CND associated with cDAVFs after transvenous embolization (TVE) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsForty-one patients with cDAVFs were treated with TVE in our department between April 2009 and October 2013. For each patient, clinical and radiologic records were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated, with an emphasis placed on evaluating the outcomes of the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced CND.ResultsOf the 41 cases, 25 had a history of preoperative CND. Postoperatively, gradual remission to complete recovery (CR) within 8 months was observed in 17 of these cases, transient aggravation in 7, and significant improvement to be better than preoperative function but no CR in 1. All aggravation of CND occurred immediately or within 1 day after TVE and resolved completely within 5 months. Nine patients developed new CND after TVE. New CND occurred during the perioperative period in 8 cases, but all cases resolved completely within 15 days–6 months. Delayed CND was observed in 3 cases with a time lag of 3–25 months after TVE. Two of these completely resolved within 20 days–1 month and the remaining case significantly improved.ConclusionBoth the pre-existing cDAVF-induced CND and the TVE-induced new or aggravated CND completely resolved in almost all cases after embolization with Onyx.

  17. Culturable microbial diversity and the impact of tourism in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikner, Luisa A; Toomey, Rickard S; Nolan, Ginger; Neilson, Julia W; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2007-01-01

    Kartchner Caverns in Benson, AZ, was opened for tourism in 1999 after a careful development protocol that was designed to maintain predevelopment conditions. As a part of an ongoing effort to determine the impact of humans on this limestone cave, samples were collected from cave rock surfaces along the cave trail traveled daily by tour groups (200,000 visitors year-1) and compared to samples taken from areas designated as having medium (30-40 visitors year-1) and low (2-3 visitors year-1) levels of human exposure. Samples were also taken from fiberglass moldings installed during cave development. Culturable bacteria were recovered from these samples and 90 unique isolates were identified by using 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Diversity generally decreased as human impact increased leading to the isolation of 32, 27, and 22 strains from the low, medium, and high impact areas, respectively. The degree of human impact was also reflected in the phylogeny of the isolates recovered. Although most isolates fell into one of three phyla: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, or Proteobacteria, the Proteobacteria were most abundant along the cave trail (77% of the isolates), while Firmicutes predominated in the low (66%) and medium (52%) impact areas. Although the abundance of Proteobacteria along the cave trail seems to include microbes of environmental rather than of anthropogenic origin, it is likely that their presence is a consequence of increased organic matter availability due to lint and other organics brought in by cave visitors. Monitoring of the cave is still in progress to determine whether these bacterial community changes may impact the future development of cave formations.

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio dos; Bustos Pérez de Salcedo, José; Gutiérrez Diaz, José Angel; Calvo, Felipe A.; Samblás, José; Marsiglia, Hugo; Sallabanda, Kita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM) have an elevated risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. Recurrence is often observed after partial resection. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), either alone or combined with surgery, represents an important advance in CSM management, but long-term results are lacking. Methods and Materials: A total of 88 CSM patients, treated from January 1991 to December 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 86.8 months (range, 17.1–179.4 months). Among the patients, 22 were followed for more than 10 years. There was a female predominance (84.1%). The age varied from 16 to 90 years (mean, 51.6). In all, 47 patients (53.4%) received SRS alone, and 41 patients (46.6%) had undergone surgery before SRS. A dose of 14 Gy was prescribed to isodose curves from 50% to 90%. In 25 patients (28.4%), as a result of the proximity to organs at risk, the prescribed dose did not completely cover the target. Results: After SRS, 65 (73.8%) patients presented with tumor volume reduction; 14 (15.9%) remained stable, and 9 (10.2%) had tumor progression. The progression-free survival was 92.5% at 5 years, and 82.5% at 10 years. Age, sex, maximal diameter of the treated tumor, previous surgery, and complete target coverage did not show significant associations with prognosis. Among the 88 treated patients, 17 experienced morbidity that was related to SRS, and 6 of these patients spontaneously recovered. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment for CSM, feasible either in the primary or the postsurgical setting. Incomplete coverage of the target did not worsen outcomes. More than 80% of the patients remained free of disease progression during long-term follow-up.

  19. Dsa examination and diagnosis of arteriovenous shunts in hepatic cavernous hemangiomas of adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yong; Ouyang Xuehui; Gu Subin; Zhou Qunhui

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To correct the misunderstanding that arteriovenous shunts (AVS) are rarely found in adult cavernous hemangiomas of the liver (CHL) and to increase its diagnosis rate by DSA. Methods: DSA examination and DSA images of thirty adults with definitely diagnostic CHL and without evidence of other hepatic diseases and hepatic injury were analyzed retrospectively. X-ray films of 21 cases with AVS taken immediately after transcatheter arterial embolization using lipiodol (L-TAE) were compared with the corresponding DSA images to check up those AVS opacified in DSA by observing sediment and distribution of iodized oil injected. Results: Definite diagnosis of AVS by DSA were obtained in 22 cases of this series (73%). All the AVS were located in the peritumoral parenchyma and appeared as parallel track sign, and early opacification of small draining veins, etc. during arterial phase of DSA. X-ray films taken immediately after L-TAE in 21 of 22 cases with AVS showed that few portal radicles or draining veins were refilled by iodized oil through incompletely occluded shunts in 11 cases, and no any vein was refilled by iodized oil resulted from complete occlusion of the present AVS in 10. No definite AVS was found in the other 8 cases of this series, and in 6 of them improper imaging factors of DSA were used. Conclusion: This study serves to emphasize that AVS is not a diagnosis of hepatic malignancy, but is frequently seen in the commonly benign CHL of adults. Proper imaging factors of DSA and superior images can be helpful to opacify small AVS of CHL. The formation of AVS in CHL may be closely related to the pathological changes of peritumoral parenchyma, however, its mechanism must be further studied

  20. Electrocautery-induced cavernous nerve injury in rats that mimics radical prostatectomy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lu-Jie; Zhu, Jian-Qiang; Xie, Min-Kai; Wang, Yong-Chuan; Li, Hong-Bin; Cui, Zhi-Qiang; Lu, Hong-Kai; Xu, Yue-Min

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the early and delayed effects of cavernous nerve electrocautery injury (CNEI) in a rat model, with the expectation that this model could be used to test rehabilitation therapies for erectile dysfunction (ED) after radical prostatectomy (RP). In all, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided equally into two groups (15 per group). The control group received CNs exposure surgery only and the experimental group received bilateral CNEI. At 1, 4 and 16 weeks after surgery (five rats at each time point), the ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure (ICP) to mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in the two groups. Neurofilament expression in the dorsal penile nerves was assessed by immunofluorescent staining and Masson's trichrome staining was used to assess the smooth muscle to collagen ratio in both groups. At the 1-week follow-up, the mean ICP/MAP was significantly lower in the CNEI group compared with the control group, at 9.94% vs 70.06% (P 0.05). The smooth muscle to collagen ratio in the CNEI group was significantly lower than in the control group at the 4- and 16-week follow-ups (P < 0.05), and the ratio at 16 weeks was further reduced compared with that at 4 weeks (P < 0.05). In the CNEI rat model, we found the damaging effects of CNEI were accompanied by a decline in ICP, reduced numbers of nerve fibres in the dorsal penile nerve, and exacerbated fibrosis in the corpus cavernosum. This may provide a basis for studying potential preventative measures or treatment strategies to ameliorate ED caused by CNEI during RP. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  1. Long-Term Outcomes of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio dos, E-mail: marcosrxt@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Bustos Perez de Salcedo, Jose; Gutierrez Diaz, Jose Angel [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Samblas, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain); Marsiglia, Hugo [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Sallabanda, Kita [Radiotherapy Department, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Neurosurgery Department, Sanatorio San Francisco de Asis, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSM) have an elevated risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. Recurrence is often observed after partial resection. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), either alone or combined with surgery, represents an important advance in CSM management, but long-term results are lacking. Methods and Materials: A total of 88 CSM patients, treated from January 1991 to December 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 86.8 months (range, 17.1-179.4 months). Among the patients, 22 were followed for more than 10 years. There was a female predominance (84.1%). The age varied from 16 to 90 years (mean, 51.6). In all, 47 patients (53.4%) received SRS alone, and 41 patients (46.6%) had undergone surgery before SRS. A dose of 14 Gy was prescribed to isodose curves from 50% to 90%. In 25 patients (28.4%), as a result of the proximity to organs at risk, the prescribed dose did not completely cover the target. Results: After SRS, 65 (73.8%) patients presented with tumor volume reduction; 14 (15.9%) remained stable, and 9 (10.2%) had tumor progression. The progression-free survival was 92.5% at 5 years, and 82.5% at 10 years. Age, sex, maximal diameter of the treated tumor, previous surgery, and complete target coverage did not show significant associations with prognosis. Among the 88 treated patients, 17 experienced morbidity that was related to SRS, and 6 of these patients spontaneously recovered. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment for CSM, feasible either in the primary or the postsurgical setting. Incomplete coverage of the target did not worsen outcomes. More than 80% of the patients remained free of disease progression during long-term follow-up.

  2. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Synn, Joong-Ho; Song, Won-Kyong

    2012-06-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  3. Preoperative irradiation of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa. Follow-up study with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, S; Kurihara, M; Mori, K [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Amamoto, Y

    1981-02-01

    This is a report of case with the extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa in which total removal was carried out after radiotherapy. Follow-up study with computed tomography during and after irradiation are presented. A 44-year-old house-wife complained of a decreased vision of the both eyes and paresis of the left upper and lower limbs. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the right middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Right carotid angio-graphy demonstrated a large avascular mass in the right middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. An attempt to total removal of the tumor had failed to succeed because of extensive hemorrhage from the tumor. Histological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. Irradiation with a total dose of 5000 rads was delivered. After irradiation CT scan revealed a marked decrease of size and EMI number of the tumor. At this stage, hypervascular mass lesion with feeding arteries was noted in conventional angiography. Tumor stain in prolonged injection angiography was also visualized. In the second operation, removal of the tumor was performed without any difficulty and hemorrhage was controlled easily by electrocoagulation. Histology revealed a marked narrowing of vessels with an increase in the connective tissues. In the central part of specimen, there noted findings of coagulation necrosis, intraluminal thrombus formations and so on, which were attributed to the influence of radiation. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3000 - 5000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increase of probability of total removal of the tumor.

  4. A new strategic neurosurgical planning tool for brainstem cavernous malformations using interactive computer graphics with multimodal fusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Shojima, Masaaki; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Kenji; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the authors used preoperative simulation employing 3D computer graphics (interactive computer graphics) to fuse all imaging data for brainstem cavernous malformations. The authors evaluated whether interactive computer graphics or 2D imaging correlated better with the actual operative field, particularly in identifying a developmental venous anomaly (DVA). The study population consisted of 10 patients scheduled for surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations. Data from preoperative imaging (MRI, CT, and 3D rotational angiography) were automatically fused using a normalized mutual information method, and then reconstructed by a hybrid method combining surface rendering and volume rendering methods. With surface rendering, multimodality and multithreshold techniques for 1 tissue were applied. The completed interactive computer graphics were used for simulation of surgical approaches and assumed surgical fields. Preoperative diagnostic rates for a DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation were compared between conventional 2D imaging and interactive computer graphics employing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The time required for reconstruction of 3D images was 3-6 hours for interactive computer graphics. Observation in interactive mode required approximately 15 minutes. Detailed anatomical information for operative procedures, from the craniotomy to microsurgical operations, could be visualized and simulated three-dimensionally as 1 computer graphic using interactive computer graphics. Virtual surgical views were consistent with actual operative views. This technique was very useful for examining various surgical approaches. Mean (±SEM) area under the ROC curve for rate of DVA diagnosis was significantly better for interactive computer graphics (1.000±0.000) than for 2D imaging (0.766±0.091; pcomputer graphics than with 2D images. Interactive computer graphics was also useful in helping to plan the surgical

  5. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  6. Efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in achieving biochemical cure of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas among patients with cavernous sinus invasion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Vanessa; Zaidi, Hasan A; Doucette, Joanne A; Onomichi, Kaho B; Alreshidi, Amer; Mekary, Rania A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas in adults can result in severe craniofacial disfigurement and potentially fatal medical complications. Surgical resection leading to remission of the disease is dependent on complete surgical resection of the tumor. Lesions that invade the cavernous sinus may not be safely accessible via an endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and the rates of biochemical remission of patients with residual disease vary widely in the literature. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of biochemical remission after TSS among patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with and without cavernous sinus invasion. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant publications. Fourteen studies with 972 patients with biochemically confirmed growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were included in the meta-analysis. The overall remission prevalence under a fixed-effect model was 47.6% (95% CI = 40.8-54.4%) for patients with invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 74.6%, p < 0.01); 76.4% (95% CI = 72.2-80.1%) for patients with non-invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 59.6%, p = 0.03); and 74.2% (95% CI = 66.3-80.7%) for patients with non-invasive microadenomas (I 2  = 36.4, p = 0.10). The significant difference among the three groups resulted from the difference between patients with or without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.01) and not from the size of adenomas among those without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.66). The prevalence of biochemical remission in patients with cavernous sinus invasion was lower than in patients without cavernous sinus invasion after TSS for acromegaly.

  7. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Tumor Hospital, Jinan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  8. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  9. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B.; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and

  10. Cerebral infarcts resulting from trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.

    1985-01-01

    Vascular occlusions due to cerebral trauma have always been regarded as great rarities. However, we have found hypo-dense foci of vascular distribution in 3.5% of 3500 CT examinations for trauma during the late phase. Lesions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery are usually the result of supratentorial pressure rise from epidural and subdural haematomas, leading to compression of the vessels against the edge of the tentorium. Typical infacts in the territory of the medial and anterior cerebral arteries were found only rarely by CT after cerebral trauma. Infarcts at the watersheds between the three vascular territories were found with surprising frequency and small infarcts were found in the basal ganglia. It is assumed that these were due to ischaemic or hypoxic events due to cardiac or pulmonary complications during the initial phase. (orig.) [de

  11. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Ahishali, B.; Rozanes, I.

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis is rare. We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  12. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  13. Lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles induce expression of inflammatory and extracellular-matrix-related genes in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikman, Petter; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    /JNK) and their downstream transcription factors (ATF-2, Elk-1 and c-Jun) were examined. RESULTS: We observed that compared with control (DMSO-treated cerebral arteries), the cerebral arteries treated by DSP exhibited enhanced expression of MMP13 and AT(1) receptors, but not of AT(2) receptors, at both mRNA and protein...... factor ATF-2 and Elk-1. However, ERK 1/2 and SAPK/JNK activities were markedly expressed in the control (organ culture per se with DMSO), and DSP failed to further enhance the activation of ERK 1/2 and SAPK/JNK in the cerebral arteries. CONCLUSIONS: DSP induces cerebral vessel inflammation...

  14. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  15. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  17. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and recurrent carotid-cavernous fistula: review of the literature, endovascular approach, technique and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desal, H.A.; Toulgoat, F.; Raoul, S.; Guillon, B.; Bommard, S.; Naudou-Giron, E.; Auffary-Calvier, E.; Kersaint-Gilly, A. de

    2005-01-01

    We report the follow-up of a previously published case (Forlodou et al. Neuroradiology 38:595-597, 1996) of carotido-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) in a patient presenting with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) that were successfully treated twice by an endovascular approach. Initial treatment with a detachable balloon was in 1994 for a right CCF, and, 8 years later, a left CCF was treated by selective transarterial occlusion of the cavernous sinus with coils. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from a spontaneous post-operative intracranial haemorrhage in the left hemisphere and died. Review of the literature, technical considerations for bilateral CCF and complication are discussed

  18. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV and recurrent carotid-cavernous fistula: review of the literature, endovascular approach, technique and difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desal, H.A.; Toulgoat, F.; Raoul, S.; Guillon, B.; Bommard, S.; Naudou-Giron, E.; Auffary-Calvier, E.; Kersaint-Gilly, A. de [Department of Neuroradiology, Laennec Hospital, University of Nantes (France); 1

    2005-04-01

    We report the follow-up of a previously published case (Forlodou et al. Neuroradiology 38:595-597, 1996) of carotido-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) in a patient presenting with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS 4) that were successfully treated twice by an endovascular approach. Initial treatment with a detachable balloon was in 1994 for a right CCF, and, 8 years later, a left CCF was treated by selective transarterial occlusion of the cavernous sinus with coils. Unfortunately, the patient suffered from a spontaneous post-operative intracranial haemorrhage in the left hemisphere and died. Review of the literature, technical considerations for bilateral CCF and complication are discussed.

  19. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix D: superconductive magnetic energy storage cavern construction methods and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The excavation and preparation of an underground cavern to contain a 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit is examined. The cavern's principal function is to provide a rock structure for supporting the magnetic forces from the charged storage coil. Certain economic considerations indicate the refrigerator cold box for the helium system should also be underground. The study includes such a provision and considers, among other things, rock bolting, water seepage, concrete lining of the walls, steel bearing pads, a system to prevent freezing of the walls, a mining schedule, and costs

  20. Parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis: findings of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Clecia Santos; Pellini, Marcos; Boasquevisque, Edson; Souza, Luis Alberto M. de

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to determine the frequency and localization of parenchymal abnormalities in cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography as well as their correlation with the territory and affected venous drainage. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis (1996 to 2004) of 21 patients (3 male and 18 female) age range between 3 and 82 years (mean 40 years, median 36 years) with clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in 2D PC, 3D PC and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF sequences. The statistical analysis was performed with the qui-square test. Four patients had follow-up exams and three patients underwent digital subtraction angiography. Results: main predisposing factors were: infection, use of oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and collagenosis. Predominant symptoms included: focal deficit, headache, alteration of consciousness level and seizures. Most frequent parenchymal manifestations were: cortical/subcortical edema or infarct, venous congestion and collateral circulation, meningeal enhancement and thalamic and basal ganglia edema or infarct. Occlusion occurred mainly in superior sagittal, left transverse, left sigmoid and straight sinuses. Cavernous sinus and cortical veins thrombosis are uncommon events. Conclusion: cerebral venous thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke, with favorable prognosis because of its reversibility. Diagnosis is highly dependent on the radiologist capacity to recognize the presentations of this disease, principally in cases where the diagnosis is suggested by parenchymal abnormalities rather than necessarily by visualization of the thrombus itself. An accurate and rapid diagnosis allows an immediate treatment, reducing the morbidity and mortality rates. (author)