WorldWideScience

Sample records for protein gene fusion

  1. Study on Fusion Protein and Its gene in Baculovirus Specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemr, W.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses are subdivided into two groups depending on the type of budded virus envelop fusion protein; group I utilized gp64 which include the most of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), group II utilized F protein which include the remnants of NPVs and all Granuloviruses (GVs). Recent studies reported the viral F protein coding gene as a host cellular sourced gene and may evolutionary acquired from the host genome referring to phylogeny analysis of fusion proteins. Thus, it was deduced that F protein coding gene is species- specific nucleotide sequence related to the type of the specific host and if virus could infect an unexpected host, the resulted virus may encode a vary F gene. In this regard, the present study utilized the mentioned properties of F gene in an attempt to produce a model of specific and more economic wider range granulovirus bio- pesticide able to infect both Spodoptera littoralis and Phthorimaea operculella larvae. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny analysis were performed on six members of group II baculovirus, novel universal PCR primers were manually designed from the conserved regions in the alignment graph, targeted to amplify species- specific sequence entire F gene open reading frame (ORF) which is useful in molecular identification of baculovirus in unknown samples. So, the PCR product of SpliGV used to prepare a specific probe for the F gene of this type of virus. Results reflected that it is possible to infect S. littoralis larvae by PhopGV if injected into larval haemocoel, the resulted virus of this infection showed by using DNA hybridization technique to be encode to F gene homologous with the F gene of Spli GV, which is revealed that the resulted virus acquired this F gene sequence from the host genome after infection. Consequently, these results may infer that if genetic aberrations occur in the host genome, this may affect in baculoviral infectivity. So, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation at

  2. Protein functional links in Trypanosoma brucei, identified by gene fusion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimpalis Philip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain or gene fusion analysis is a bioinformatics method for detecting gene fusions in one organism by comparing its genome to that of other organisms. The occurrence of gene fusions suggests that the two original genes that participated in the fusion are functionally linked, i.e. their gene products interact either as part of a multi-subunit protein complex, or in a metabolic pathway. Gene fusion analysis has been used to identify protein functional links in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotic model organisms, such as yeast and Drosophila. Results In this study we have extended this approach to include a number of recently sequenced protists, four of which are pathogenic, to identify fusion linked proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. We have also examined the evolution of the gene fusion events identified, to determine whether they can be attributed to fusion or fission, by looking at the conservation of the fused genes and of the individual component genes across the major eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages. We find relatively limited occurrence of gene fusions/fissions within the protist lineages examined. Our results point to two trypanosome-specific gene fissions, which have recently been experimentally confirmed, one fusion involving proteins involved in the same metabolic pathway, as well as two novel putative functional links between fusion-linked protein pairs. Conclusions This is the first study of protein functional links in T. brucei identified by gene fusion analysis. We have used strict thresholds and only discuss results which are highly likely to be genuine and which either have already been or can be experimentally verified. We discuss the possible impact of the identification of these novel putative protein-protein interactions, to the development of new trypanosome therapeutic drugs.

  3. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  4. IGF1 is a common target gene of Ewing's sarcoma fusion proteins in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cironi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein is associated with 85-90% of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT, the remaining 10-15% of cases expressing chimeric genes encoding EWS or FUS fused to one of several ets transcription factor family members, including ERG-1, FEV, ETV1 and ETV6. ESFT are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 for growth and survival and recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells constitute a candidate ESFT origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the functional relatedness between ESFT-associated fusion proteins, we compared mouse progenitor cell (MPC permissiveness for EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG and FUS-ERG expression and assessed the corresponding expression profile changes. Whereas all MPC isolates tested could stably express EWS-FLI-1, only some sustained stable EWS-ERG expression and none could express FUS-ERG for more than 3-5 days. Only 14% and 4% of the total number of genes that were respectively induced and repressed in MPCs by the three fusion proteins were shared. However, all three fusion proteins, but neither FLI-1 nor ERG-1 alone, activated the IGF1 promoter and induced IGF1 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Whereas expression of different ESFT-associated fusion proteins may require distinct cellular microenvironments and induce transcriptome changes of limited similarity, IGF1 induction may provide one common mechanism for their implication in ESFT pathogenesis.

  5. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HspX/EsxS Fusion Protein: Gene Cloning, Protein Expression, and Purification in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Farzad; Yousefi-Avarvand, Arshid; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Meshkat, Zahra; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Aryan, Ehsan; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clone, express, and purify a novel multidomain fusion protein of Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in a prokaryotic system. An hspX/esxS gene construct was synthesized and ligated into a pGH plasmid, E. coli TOP10 cells were transformed, and the vector was purified. The vector containing the construct and pET-21b (+) plasmid were digested with the same enzymes and the construct was ligated into pET-21b (+). The accuracy of cloning was confirmed by colony PCR and sequencing. E. coli BL21 cells were transformed with the pET-21b (+)/hspX/esxS expression vector and protein expression was evaluated. Finally, the expressed fusion protein was purified on a Ni-IDA column and verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The hspX/esxS gene construct was inserted into pET-21b (+) and recombinant protein expression was induced with IPTG in E. coli BL21 cells. Various concentrations of IPTG were tested to determine the optimum concentration for expression induction. The recombinant protein was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Three molar guanidine HCl was used to solubilize the insoluble protein. An HspX/EsxS Mtb fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. After immunological analysis, the HspX/EsxS fusion protein might be an anti-tuberculosis vaccine candidate in future clinical trial studies.

  7. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and gene fusion pattern in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ja Hee; Park, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Cheol; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer is considered to be highly heterogeneous, with various morphologic features and biologic behaviors. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequently observed genetic aberration in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion status. ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in samples from 168 prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, and 40 cases showing ERG-positive IHC staining were selected for tissue microarray (TMA) construction. Two to six representative cores were selected from each tumor focus. In the cases with heterogeneous ERG IHC staining intensity, the areas showing different intensities were separately selected. Using the TMA blocks, IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were conducted to evaluate the heterogeneity of ERG protein expression and ERG fusion gene patterns, respectively, in a single tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was defined as the simultaneous presence of negative and positive cores in the same tumor focus. Heterogeneity of ERG FISH was defined by the presence of cores with positive and negative FISH signals or cores with break-apart and interstitial deletion FISH signals in the same tumor focus. A total of 202 TMA cores were isolated from 40 ERG-positive cases. Of the 202 total cores, 19 were negative for ERG IHC staining, and 46 showed 1+, 52 showed 2+, and 85 showed 3+ ERG staining intensity. Eleven cores were negative for ERG FISH signal, 119 cores showed ERG break-apart FISH signals, and the remaining 72 cores revealed interstitial deletion. Intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG IHC staining was found in 20% (8/40) of cases, and intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion pattern was found in 32.5% (13/40) of cases. In summary, this study showed significantly frequent intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG protein expression, gene fusion status and fusion pattern. This heterogeneity can be caused by the development

  8. [Construction and prokaryotic expression of recombinant gene EGFRvIII HBcAg and immunogenicity analysis of the fusion protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiao-yi; Wang, Jian-sheng; Guo, You-min; Han, Jun-li; Wang, Quan-ying; Yang, Guang-xiao

    2007-01-01

    To construct recombinant prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a(+)/c-PEP-3-c and evaluate the immunogenicity of the fusion protein. cDNA fragment encoding PEP-3 was obtained from pGEM-T Easy/PEP-3 and inserted into recombinant plasmid pGEMEX/HBcAg. Then it was subcloned in prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3). The fusion protein was expressed by inducing IPTG and purified by Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with fusion protein and the antibody titre was determined by indirect ELISA. The recombinant gene was confirmed to be correct by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. After prokaryotic expression, fusion protein existed in sediment and accounted for 56% of all bacterial lysate. The purified product accounted for 92% of all protein and its concentration was 8 g/L. The antibody titre in blood serum reached 1:16 000 after the fourth immunization and reached 1:2.56x10(5) after the sixth immunization. The titre of anti-PEP-3 antibody reached 1:1.28x10(5) and the titre of anti-HBcAg antibody was less than 1:4x10(3). Fusion gene PEP-3-HBcAg is highly expressed in E.coli BL21. The expressed fusion protein can induce neutralizing antibody with high titer and specificity, which lays a foundation for the study of genetically engineering vaccine for malignant tumors with the high expression of EGFRvIII.

  9. TALE-PvuII Fusion Proteins – Novel Tools for Gene Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:24349308

  10. TALE-PvuII fusion proteins--novel tools for gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mert; Alzubi, Jamal; Lahaye, Thomas; Cathomen, Toni; Pingoud, Alfred; Wende, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) consist of zinc fingers as DNA-binding module and the non-specific DNA-cleavage domain of the restriction endonuclease FokI as DNA-cleavage module. This architecture is also used by TALE nucleases (TALENs), in which the DNA-binding modules of the ZFNs have been replaced by DNA-binding domains based on transcription activator like effector (TALE) proteins. Both TALENs and ZFNs are programmable nucleases which rely on the dimerization of FokI to induce double-strand DNA cleavage at the target site after recognition of the target DNA by the respective DNA-binding module. TALENs seem to have an advantage over ZFNs, as the assembly of TALE proteins is easier than that of ZFNs. Here, we present evidence that variant TALENs can be produced by replacing the catalytic domain of FokI with the restriction endonuclease PvuII. These fusion proteins recognize only the composite recognition site consisting of the target site of the TALE protein and the PvuII recognition sequence (addressed site), but not isolated TALE or PvuII recognition sites (unaddressed sites), even at high excess of protein over DNA and long incubation times. In vitro, their preference for an addressed over an unaddressed site is > 34,000-fold. Moreover, TALE-PvuII fusion proteins are active in cellula with minimal cytotoxicity.

  11. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.

    1986-01-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible λPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35 S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro

  12. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  13. Prevention of adverse events of interferon γ gene therapy by gene delivery of interferon γ-heparin-binding domain fusion protein in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained gene delivery of interferon (IFN γ can be an effective treatment, but our previous study showed high levels of IFNγ-induced adverse events, including the loss of body weight. These unwanted events could be reduced by target-specific delivery of IFNγ after in vivo gene transfer. To achieve this, we selected the heparin-binding domain (HBD of extracellular superoxide dismutase as a molecule to anchor IFNγ to the cell surface. We designed three IFNγ derivatives, IFNγ-HBD1, IFNγ-HBD2, and IFNγ-HBD3, each of which had 1, 2, or 3 HBDs, respectively. Each plasmid-encoding fusion proteins was delivered to the liver, a model target in this study, by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. The serum concentration of IFNγ-HBD2 and IFNγ-HBD3 after gene delivery was lower than that of IFNγ or IFNγ-HBD1. Gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2, but not of IFNγ-HBD3, effectively increased the mRNA expression of IFNγ-inducible genes in the liver, suggesting liver-specific distribution of IFNγ-HBD2. Gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2-suppressed tumor growth in the liver as efficiently as that of IFNγ with much less symptoms of adverse effects. These results indicate that the adverse events of IFNγ gene transfer can be prevented by gene delivery of IFNγ-HBD2, a fusion protein with high cell surface affinity.

  14. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  15. Preparation of GST Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-04-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes the preparation of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins, which have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis.

  16. Fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M.J.H. Kenter (Marcel); C. Örvell; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (F) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (PDV-2), recently isolated from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame ATG translation initiation codons. We suggest that the

  17. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  18. Gene expression profiling of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma indicates fusion protein-mediated activation of the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyl, Joanna; Kidzinski, Lukasz; Hastie, Trevor; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Nusse, Roel; van de Rijn, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESS) harbor chromosomal translocations that affect proteins associated with chromatin remodeling Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), including SUZ12, PHF1 and EPC1. Roughly half of LGESS also demonstrate nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, which is a hallmark of Wnt signaling activation. However, the targets affected by the fusion proteins and the role of Wnt signaling in the pathogenesis of these tumors remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis of three independent gene expression profiling studies on LGESS and immunohistochemical evaluation of nuclear expression of β-catenin and Lef1 in 112 uterine sarcoma specimens obtained from 20 LGESS and 89 LMS patients. Our results demonstrate that 143 out of 310 genes overexpressed in LGESS are known to be directly regulated by SUZ12. In addition, our gene expression meta-analysis shows activation of multiple genes implicated in Wnt signaling. We further emphasize the role of the Wnt signaling pathway by demonstrating concordant nuclear expression of β-catenin and Lef1 in 7/16 LGESS. Based on our findings, we suggest that LGESS-specific fusion proteins disrupt the repressive function of the PRC2 complex similar to the mechanism seen in synovial sarcoma, where the SS18-SSX fusion proteins disrupt the mSWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex. We propose that these fusion proteins in LGESS contribute to overexpression of Wnt ligands with subsequent activation of Wnt signaling pathway and formation of an active β-catenin/Lef1 transcriptional complex. These observations could lead to novel therapeutic approaches that focus on the Wnt pathway in LGESS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A dual function fusion protein of Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and firefly luciferase for noninvasive in vivo imaging of gene therapy in malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söling, Ariane; Theiss, Christian; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Rainov, Nikolai G

    2004-08-04

    BACKGROUND: Suicide gene therapy employing the prodrug activating system Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK)/ ganciclovir (GCV) has proven to be effective in killing experimental brain tumors. In contrast, glioma patients treated with HSV-TK/ GCV did not show significant treatment benefit, most likely due to insufficient transgene delivery to tumor cells. Therefore, this study aimed at developing a strategy for real-time noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the activity of a therapeutic gene in brain tumor cells. METHODS: The HSV-TK gene was fused to the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene and the fusion construct HSV-TK-Luc was expressed in U87MG human malignant glioma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous gliomas stably expressing HSV-TK-Luc were subjected to GCV treatment and tumor response to therapy was monitored in vivo by serial bioluminescence imaging. Bioluminescent signals over time were compared with tumor volumes determined by caliper. RESULTS: Transient and stable expression of the HSV-TK-Luc fusion protein in U87MG glioma cells demonstrated close correlation of both enzyme activities. Serial optical imaging of tumor bearing mice detected in all cases GCV induced death of tumor cells expressing the fusion protein and proved that bioluminescence can be reliably used for repetitive and noninvasive quantification of HSV-TK/ GCV mediated cell kill in vivo. CONCLUSION: This approach may represent a valuable tool for the in vivo evaluation of gene therapy strategies for treatment of malignant disease.

  20. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  1. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Benjamin S [Palo Alto, CA; Larenas, Edmund A [Palo Alto, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  2. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Serageldeen; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Maeda, Ken; Kai, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV) was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H) gene, the fusion (F) protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified. So, the sequence analysis of F gene was carried out to elucidate the genotypic varaitons among Asian isolates. Results The phylogenetic analysis of F and H gene sequences from fourteen CDV isolates obtained from diseased dogs in Japan and Thailand indicated that the F genes had a new initiation codon and extra 27 nucleotides upstream of the usual open reading frame (ORF) and the F proteins had extra 9 amino acids at the N-terminal position only in Asia 2 isolates. On the contrary, the Asia 1 isolates had three extra putative N-glycosylation sites (two sites in the signal peptide region and one site in the F1 region) except for two strains of Th12 and Ac96I (two sites in signal peptide region) adding to four putative N-glycosylation sites that were conserved among all Asian isolates and Onderstepoort strain. In addition to this difference in N-glycosylation sites, the signal peptide region had a great diversity between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Also, characteristic amino acids were detected for some strains. Conclusion Asia 2 isolates were distinguished from other CDV lineages by the extra 27 nucleotide sequence. The signal peptide region of F gene gives a remarkable differentiation between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Strains Th12 and Ac96I were differentiated from other Asia 1 strains by the F protein glycosylation sites. PMID:19807927

  3. Cloning of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus into a baculovirus derived bacmid shuttle vector, in order to express it in insect cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemzadeh MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Newcastle disease virus (NDV is one of the major pathogens in poultry and vaccination is intended to control the disease, as an effective solution, yet. Fusion protein (F on surface of NDV, has a fundamental role in virus pathogenicity and can induce protective immunity, alone. With this background, here our aim was to construct a baculovirus derived recombinant bacmid shuttle vector (encoding F-protein in order to express it in insect cell line. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, at first complete F gene from avirulent strain La Sota of NDV was amplified by RT-PCR to produce F cDNA. The amplicon was cloned into T/A cloning vector and afterwards into pFastBac Dual donor plasmid. After the verification of cloning process by two methods, PCR and enzymatic digestion analysis, the accuracy of F gene sequence was confirmed by sequencing. Finally, F-containing recombinant bacmid was subsequently generated in DH10Bac cell and the construct production was confirmed by a special PCR panel, using F specific primers and M13 universal primers. Results: Analysis of confirmatory tests showed that the recombinant bacmid, expressing of F-protein gene in correct sequence and framework, has been constructed successfully. Conclusion: The product of this F-containing recombinant bacmid, in addition to its independent application in the induction of protective immunity, can be used with the other individual recombinant baculoviruses, expressing HN and NP genes to produce NDV-VLPs in insect cell line.

  4. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  5. LDL receptor-GFP fusion proteins: new tools for the characterization of disease-causing mutations in the LDL receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Henrik Uffe; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2001-01-01

    . In cultured liver cells this mutation was found to inhibit the transport of LDL receptor GFP fusion protein to the cell surface, thus leading to impaired internalisation of fluorescent labelled LDL. Co-locallisation studies confirmed the retention of the mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum....

  6. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Rattanaporn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin, CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2, an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG. We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS: p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI, with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  7. Transient co-expression of post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors for increased in planta expression of a recombinant anthrax receptor fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M; McDonald, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  8. Menin-MLL inhibitors reverse oncogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins in leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembecka, Jolanta; He, Shihan; Shi, Aibin; Purohit, Trupta; Muntean, Andrew G; Sorenson, Roderick J; Showalter, Hollis D; Murai, Marcelo J; Belcher, Amalia M; Hartley, Thomas; Hess, Jay L; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-29

    Translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene result in human acute leukemias with very poor prognosis. The leukemogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins is critically dependent on their direct interaction with menin, a product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) gene. Here we present what are to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitors of the menin-MLL fusion protein interaction that specifically bind menin with nanomolar affinities. These compounds effectively reverse MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemic transformation by downregulating the expression of target genes required for MLL fusion protein oncogenic activity. They also selectively block proliferation and induce both apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells harboring MLL translocations. Identification of these compounds provides a new tool for better understanding MLL-mediated leukemogenesis and represents a new approach for studying the role of menin as an oncogenic cofactor of MLL fusion proteins. Our findings also highlight a new therapeutic strategy for aggressive leukemias with MLL rearrangements.

  9. [Eukaryotic expression of Leptospira interrogans lipL32/1-ompL1/1 fusion gene encoding genus-specific protein antigens and the immunoreactivity of expression products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Zhao, Shou-feng; Mao, Ya-fei; Ruan, Ping; Luo, Yi-hui; Li, Shu-ping; Li, Li-wei

    2005-01-01

    To construct the eukaryotic expression system of L.interrogans lipL32/1-ompL1/1 fusion gene and to identify the immunoreactivity of expression products. PCR with linking primer was used to construct the fusion gene lipL32/1-ompL1/1. The P.pastoris eukaryotic expression system of the fusion gene, pPIC9K-lipL32/1-ompL1/1-P. pastorisGS115, was constructed after the fusion gene was cloned and sequenced. Colony with phenotype His(+)Mut(+) was isolated by using MD and MM plates and His(+) Mut(+) transformant with high resistance to G418 was screened out by using YPD plate. Using lysate of His(+) Mut(+) colony with high copies of the target gene digested with yeast lyase as the template and 5'AOX1 and 3'AOX1 as the primers, the target fusion gene in chromosome DNA of the constructed P. pastoris engineering strain was detected by PCR. Methanol in BMMY medium was used to induce the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 expression. rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 in the medium supernatant was extracted by using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Output and immunoreactivity of rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 were measured by SDS-PAGE and Western blot methods, respectively. Amplification fragments of the obtained fusion gene lipL32/1-ompL1/1 was 1794 bp in size. The homogeneity of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences of the fusion gene were as high as 99.94 % and 100 %, respectively, compared with the sequences of original lipL32/1 and ompL1/1 genotypes. The constructed eukaryotic expression system was able to secrete rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1 with an output of 10 % of the total proteins in the supernatant, which located the expected position after SDS-PAGE. The rabbit anti-rLipL32/1 and anti-rOmpL1/1 sera could combine the expressed rLipL32/1-rOmpL1/1. An eukaryotic expression system with high efficiency in P.pastoris of L.interrogans lipL32/1-ompL1/1 fusion gene was successfully constructed in this study. The expressed fusion protein shows specific

  10. Nuclear topography and expression of the BCR/ABL fusion gene and its protein level influenced by cell differentiation and RNA interference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Harničarová, Andrea; Pacherník, Jiří; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 8 (2005), s. 901-913 ISSN 0145-2126 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0907; GA MZd NC6987; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5004306; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : BCR /ABL fusion gene * chromatin arrangement * gene expression Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2005

  11. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateu, Batirtze Prats; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L; Kainz, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  12. Fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the construction and characterisation of fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins used as building blocks for the fabrication of nanostructured monomolecular biocoatings on silica particles with defined fluorescence properties. The S-layer protein SgsE of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a was fused with the pH-dependant cyan, green and yellow variant of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the red fluorescent protein mRFP1. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins, acting as scaffold and optical sensing element simultaneously, were able to reassemble in solution and on silica particles forming 2D nanostructures with p2 lattice symmetry (a=11 ±0.5 nm, b=14 ±0.4 nm, g=80 ±1 o ). The pH-dependant fluorescence behaviour was studied with fluorimetry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins can be used as pH-sensor. 50% of the fluorescence intensity decreases at their calculated pKa values (pH6 - pH5). The fluorescence intensity of the GFP variants vanished completely between pH4 and pH3 whereas the chromophore of the red protein mRFP1 was only slightly affected in acidic conditions. At the isoelectric point of the S-layer coated silica particles (pH4.6 ±0.2) an increase in particle aggregation was detected by flow cytometry. The cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins were chosen to create a bi-fluorescent S-layer tandem fusion protein with the possibility for resonance energy transfer (FRET). A transfer efficiency of 20% and a molecular distance between the donor (ECFP) and acceptor (YFP) chromophores of around 6.2 nm could be shown. This bi-fluorescent ECFP-SgsE-YFP tandem fusion protein was able to reassemble on solid surfaces. The remarkable combination of fluorescence and self-assembly and the design of bi-functional S-layer tandem fusion protein matrices makes them to a promising tool in nanobiotechnology. (author) [de

  13. Fusion proteins useful for producing pinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for a modified host cell comprising a heterologous pinene synthase (PS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, and optionally a geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GPPS), or enzymatically active fragment or variant thereof, or a fusion protein comprising: (a) a PS and (b) a GPPS linked by a linker.

  14. Gene Fusion Markup Language: a prototype for exchanging gene fusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Shanmugam, Achiraman; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2012-10-16

    An avalanche of next generation sequencing (NGS) studies has generated an unprecedented amount of genomic structural variation data. These studies have also identified many novel gene fusion candidates with more detailed resolution than previously achieved. However, in the excitement and necessity of publishing the observations from this recently developed cutting-edge technology, no community standardization approach has arisen to organize and represent the data with the essential attributes in an interchangeable manner. As transcriptome studies have been widely used for gene fusion discoveries, the current non-standard mode of data representation could potentially impede data accessibility, critical analyses, and further discoveries in the near future. Here we propose a prototype, Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) as an initiative to provide a standard format for organizing and representing the significant features of gene fusion data. GFML will offer the advantage of representing the data in a machine-readable format to enable data exchange, automated analysis interpretation, and independent verification. As this database-independent exchange initiative evolves it will further facilitate the formation of related databases, repositories, and analysis tools. The GFML prototype is made available at http://code.google.com/p/gfml-prototype/. The Gene Fusion Markup Language (GFML) presented here could facilitate the development of a standard format for organizing, integrating and representing the significant features of gene fusion data in an inter-operable and query-able fashion that will enable biologically intuitive access to gene fusion findings and expedite functional characterization. A similar model is envisaged for other NGS data analyses.

  15. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions with Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONGlutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins have had a wide range of applications since their introduction as tools for synthesis of recombinant proteins in bacteria. GST was originally selected as a fusion moiety because of several desirable properties. First and foremost, when expressed in bacteria alone, or as a fusion, GST is not sequestered in inclusion bodies (in contrast to previous fusion protein systems). Second, GST can be affinity-purified without denaturation because it binds to immobilized glutathione, which provides the basis for simple purification. Consequently, GST fusion proteins are routinely used for antibody generation and purification, protein-protein interaction studies, and biochemical analysis. This article describes the use of GST fusion proteins as probes for the identification of protein-protein interactions.

  16. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  17. A Screening Method for the ALK Fusion Gene in NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer research has recently made significant progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and in developing treatments for it. Such achievements are directly utilized in clinical practice. Indeed, the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was first described in non-small cell lung cancer in 2007, and a molecularly targeted drug against the fusion was approved in 2011. However, lung cancer with the ALK fusion constitutes only a small fraction of lung cancers; therefore, efficient patient selection is crucial for successful treatment using the ALK inhibitor. Currently, RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry are commonly used to detect the ALK fusion. Although FISH is currently the gold standard technique, there are no perfect methods for detecting these genetic alterations. In this article, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the possible criteria for selecting patients who are more likely to have the ALK fusion. If we can successfully screen patients, then ALK inhibitor treatment will be the best example of personalized therapy in terms of selecting patients with an uncommon genotype from a larger group with the same tumor phenotype. In other words, the personalized therapy may offer a new challenge for current clinical oncology.

  18. Fusion protein is the main determinant of metapneumovirus host tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Herfst, Sander; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2009-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) infect humans and birds, respectively. This study confirmed the difference in host range in turkey poults, and analysed the contribution of the individual metapneumovirus genes to host range in an in vitro cell-culture model. Mammalian Vero-118 cells supported replication of both HMPV and AMPV-C in contrast to avian quail fibroblast (QT6) cells in which only AMPV-C replicated to high titres. Inoculation of Vero-118 and QT6 cells with recombinant HMPV in which genes were exchanged with those of AMPV-C revealed that the metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein is the main determinant for host tropism. Chimeric viruses in which polymerase complex proteins were exchanged between HMPV and AMPV-C replicated less efficiently compared with HMPV in QT6 cells. Using mini-genome systems, it was shown that exchanging these polymerase proteins resulted in reduced replication and transcription efficiency in QT6 cells. Examination of infected Vero-118 and QT6 cells revealed that viruses containing the F protein of AMPV-C yielded larger syncytia compared with viruses containing the HMPV F protein. Cell-content mixing assays revealed that the F protein of AMPV-C was more fusogenic compared with the F protein of HMPV, and that the F2 region is responsible for the difference observed between AMPV-C and HMPV F-promoted fusion in QT6 and Vero-118 cells. This study provides insight into the determinants of host tropism and membrane fusion of metapneumoviruses.

  19. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Beatriz; Maeland, Anne D; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bloor, James W; Brown, Nicholas H; Michelson, Alan M

    2007-07-15

    Multinucleated myotubes develop by the sequential fusion of individual myoblasts. Using a convergence of genomic and classical genetic approaches, we have discovered a novel gene, singles bar (sing), that is essential for myoblast fusion. sing encodes a small multipass transmembrane protein containing a MARVEL domain, which is found in vertebrate proteins involved in processes such as tight junction formation and vesicle trafficking where--as in myoblast fusion--membrane apposition occurs. sing is expressed in both founder cells and fusion competent myoblasts preceding and during myoblast fusion. Examination of embryos injected with double-stranded sing RNA or embryos homozygous for ethane methyl sulfonate-induced sing alleles revealed an identical phenotype: replacement of multinucleated myofibers by groups of single, myosin-expressing myoblasts at a stage when formation of the mature muscle pattern is complete in wild-type embryos. Unfused sing mutant myoblasts form clusters, suggesting that early recognition and adhesion of these cells are unimpaired. To further investigate this phenotype, we undertook electron microscopic ultrastructural studies of fusing myoblasts in both sing and wild-type embryos. These experiments revealed that more sing mutant myoblasts than wild-type contain pre-fusion complexes, which are characterized by electron-dense vesicles paired on either side of the fusing plasma membranes. In contrast, embryos mutant for another muscle fusion gene, blown fuse (blow), have a normal number of such complexes. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that sing acts at a step distinct from that of blow, and that sing is required on both founder cell and fusion-competent myoblast membranes to allow progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion, possibly by mediating fusion of the electron-dense vesicles to the plasma membrane.

  20. Fc-fusion Proteins in Therapy: An Updated View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Reza; Zolbanin, Naime M; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid

    2017-01-01

    Fc-fusion proteins are composed of Fc region of IgG antibody (Hinge-CH2-CH3) and a desired linked protein. Fc region of Fc-fusion proteins can bind to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) thereby rescuing it from degradation. The first therapeutic Fc-fusion protein was introduced for the treatment of AIDS. The molecular designing is the first stage in production of Fc-fusion proteins. The amino acid residues in the Fc region and linked protein are very important in the bioactivity and affinity of the fusion proteins. Although, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are the top selling biologics but the application of therapeutic Fc-fusion proteins in clinic is in progress and among these medications Etanercept is the most effective in therapy. At present, eleven Fc-fusion proteins have been approved by FDA. There are novel Fc-fusion proteins which are in pre-clinical and clinical development. In this article, we review the molecular and biological characteristics of Fc-fusion proteins and then further discuss the features of novel therapeutic Fc-fusion proteins. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Murine leukemia virus pol gene products: analysis with antisera generated against reverse transcriptase and endonuclease fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.C.; Court, D.L.; Zweig, M.; Levin, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The organization of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) pol gene was investigated by expressing molecular clones containing AKR MuLV reverse transcriptase or endonuclease or both gene segments in Escherichia coli and generating specific antisera against the expressed bacterial proteins. Reaction of these antisera with detergent-disrupted virus precipitated and 80-kilodalton (kDa) protein, the MuLV reverse transcriptase, and a 46-kDa protein which we believe is the viral endonuclease. A third (50-kDa) protein, related to reverse transcriptase, was also precipitated. Bacterial extracts of clones expressing reverse transcriptase and endonuclease sequences competed with the viral 80- and 46-kDa proteins, respectively. These results demonstrate that the antisera are specific for viral reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. Immunoprecipitation of AKR MuLV with antisera prepared against a bacterial protein containing only endonuclease sequences led to the observation that reverse transcriptase and endonuclease can be associated as a complex involving a disulfide bond(s)

  2. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, M.; Nord, A. L.; Chamousset, D.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Pedaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side

  3. Genetic variability of attachment (G and Fusion (F protein genes of human metapneumovirus strains circulating during 2006-2009 in Kolkata, Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawla-Sarkar Mamta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with the acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI in all the age groups. However, there is limited information on prevalence and genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus (hMPV strains circulating in India. Objective To study prevalence and genomic diversity of hMPV strains among ARTI patients reporting in outpatient departments of hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. Methods Nasal and/or throat swabs from 2309 patients during January 2006 to December 2009, were screened for the presence of hMPV by RT-PCR of nucleocapsid (N gene. The G and F genes of representative hMPV positive samples were sequenced. Results 118 of 2309 (5.11% clinical samples were positive for hMPV. The majority (≈80% of the positive cases were detected during July−November all through the study period. Genetic analysis revealed that 77% strains belong to A2 subgroup whereas rest clustered in B1 subgroup. G sequences showed higher diversity at the nucleotide and amino acid level. In contrast, less than 10% variation was observed in F gene of representative strains of all four years. Sequence analysis also revealed changes in the position of stop codon in G protein, which resulted in variable length (217-231 aa polypeptides. Conclusion The study suggests that approximately 5% of ARTI in the region were caused by hMPV. This is the first report on the genetic variability of G and F gene of hMPV strains from India which clearly shows that the G protein of hMPV is continuously evolving. Though the study partially fulfills lacunae of information, further studies from other regions are necessary for better understanding of prevalence, epidemiology and virus evolution in Indian subcontinent.

  4. Can gene fusions serve for fingerprints of radiogenic cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that malignancies in blood cells often bear specific chromosome translocations or gene fusions. In recent years, the presence of fusion genes became to be known also among solid cancers as driver mutations. However, representative solid cancers bearing specific gene fusions are limited to cancers of thyroid, prostate, and sarcomas among which only thyroid cancer risk is known to be related to radiation exposures. On the other hand, it is extremely rare to find recurrent reciprocal translocations among common cancers such as in the lung, stomach, breast, and colon, which form a major component of radiation risks. It is therefore unlikely that radiation increases the risk of cancer by inducing specific translocations (gene fusions) but more likely through induction of mutations (including deletions). Although gene fusions could play a role in radiation carcinogenesis, it does not seem good enough to serve for a radiation fingerprint. (author)

  5. Nuclear localization and transactivating capacities of the papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated TFE3 and PRCC (fusion) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterman, M. A. J.; van Groningen, J. J.; Jansen, A.; van Kessel, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    The papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated t(X;1)(p11;q21) leads to fusion of the transcription factor TFE3 gene on the X-chromosome to a novel gene, PRCC, on chromosome 1. As a result, two putative fusion proteins are formed: PRCCTFE3, which contains all known domains for DNA binding,

  6. MEMBRANE-FUSION OF SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS INVOLVES HOMOTRIMERS OF THE FUSION PROTEIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAHLBERG, JM; WILSCHUT, J; GAROFF, H

    1992-01-01

    Infection of cells with enveloped viruses is accomplished through membrane fusion. The binding and fusion Processes are mediated by the spike proteins in the envelope of the virus particle and usually involve a series of conformational changes in these proteins. We have studied the low-pH-mediated

  7. Gene fusion analysis in the battle against the African endemic sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Trimpalis

    Full Text Available The protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness in humans, which can be lethal if untreated. Most available pharmacological treatments for the disease have severe side-effects. The purpose of this analysis was to detect novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs, vital for the parasite, which could lead to the development of drugs against this disease to block the specific interactions. In this work, the Domain Fusion Analysis (Rosetta Stone method was used to identify novel PPIs, by comparing T. brucei to 19 organisms covering all major lineages of the tree of life. Overall, 49 possible protein-protein interactions were detected, and classified based on (a statistical significance (BLAST e-value, domain length etc., (b their involvement in crucial metabolic pathways, and (c their evolutionary history, particularly focusing on whether a protein pair is split in T. brucei and fused in the human host. We also evaluated fusion events including hypothetical proteins, and suggest a possible molecular function or involvement in a certain biological process. This work has produced valuable results which could be further studied through structural biology or other experimental approaches so as to validate the protein-protein interactions proposed here. The evolutionary analysis of the proteins involved showed that, gene fusion or gene fission events can happen in all organisms, while some protein domains are more prone to fusion and fission events and present complex evolutionary patterns.

  8. Paramyxovirus F1 protein has two fusion peptides: implications for the mechanism of membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisajovich, S G; Samuel, O; Shai, Y

    2000-03-10

    Viral fusion proteins contain a highly hydrophobic segment, named the fusion peptide, which is thought to be responsible for the merging of the cellular and viral membranes. Paramyxoviruses are believed to contain a single fusion peptide at the N terminus of the F1 protein. However, here we identified an additional internal segment in the Sendai virus F1 protein (amino acids 214-226) highly homologous to the fusion peptides of HIV-1 and RSV. A synthetic peptide, which includes this region, was found to induce membrane fusion of large unilamellar vesicles, at concentrations where the known N-terminal fusion peptide is not effective. A scrambled peptide as well as several peptides from other regions of the F1 protein, which strongly bind to membranes, are not fusogenic. The functional and structural characterization of this active segment suggest that the F1 protein has an additional internal fusion peptide that could participate in the actual fusion event. The presence of homologous regions in other members of the same family suggests that the concerted action of two fusion peptides, one N-terminal and the other internal, is a general feature of paramyxoviruses. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  9. Structural characterization of Mumps virus fusion protein core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueyong; Xu Yanhui; Lou Zhiyong; Zhu Jieqing; Hu Xuebo; Gao, George F.; Qiu Bingsheng; Rao Zihe; Tien, Po

    2006-01-01

    The fusion proteins of enveloped viruses mediating the fusion between the viral and cellular membranes comprise two discontinuous heptad repeat (HR) domains located at the ectodomain of the enveloped glycoproteins. The crystal structure of the fusion protein core of Mumps virus (MuV) was determined at 2.2 A resolution. The complex is a six-helix bundle in which three HR1 peptides form a central highly hydrophobic coiled-coil and three HR2 peptides pack against the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of central coiled-coil in an oblique antiparallel manner. Fusion core of MuV, like those of simian virus 5 and human respiratory syncytium virus, forms typical 3-4-4-4-3 spacing. The similar charecterization in HR1 regions, as well as the existence of O-X-O motif in extended regions of HR2 helix, suggests a basic rule for the formation of the fusion core of viral fusion proteins

  10. The strategy of fusion genes construction determines efficient expression of introduced transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, Tomasz; Konieczny, Paweł; Sekuła, Małgorzata; Sułkowski, Maciej; Majka, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    The main goal in gene therapy and biomedical research is an efficient transcription factors (TFs) delivery system. SNAIL, a zinc finger transcription factor, is strongly involved in tumor, what makes its signaling pathways an interesting research subject. The necessity of tracking activation of intracellular pathways has prompted fluorescent proteins usage as localization markers. Advanced molecular cloning techniques allow to generate fusion proteins from fluorescent markers and transcription factors. Depending on fusion strategy, the protein expression levels and nuclear transport ability are significantly different. The P2A self-cleavage motif through its cleavage ability allows two single proteins to be simultaneously expressed. The aim of this study was to compare two strategies for introducing a pair of genes using expression vector system. We have examined GFP and SNAI1 gene fusions by comprising common nucleotide polylinker (multiple cloning site) or P2A motif in between them, resulting in one fusion or two independent protein expressions respectively. In each case transgene expression levels and translation efficiency as well as nuclear localization of expressed protein have been analyzed. Our data showed that usage of P2A motif provides more effective nuclear transport of SNAIL transcription factor than conventional genes linker. At the same time the fluorescent marker spreads evenly in subcellular space.

  11. Distinct roles for key karyogamy proteins during yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; Rose, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    During yeast mating, cell fusion is followed by the congression and fusion of the two nuclei. Proteins required for nuclear fusion are found at the surface (Prm3p) and within the lumen (Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8p) of the nuclear envelope (NE). Electron tomography (ET) of zygotes revealed that mutations in these proteins block nuclear fusion with different morphologies, suggesting that they act in different steps of fusion. Specifically, prm3 zygotes were blocked before formation of membrane bridges, whereas kar2, kar5, and kar8 zygotes frequently contained them. Membrane bridges were significantly larger and occurred more frequently in kar2 and kar8, than in kar5 mutant zygotes. The kinetics of NE fusion in prm3, kar5, and kar8 mutants, measured by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, were well correlated with the size and frequency of bridges observed by ET. However the kar2 mutant was defective for transfer of NE lumenal GFP, but not diffusion within the lumen, suggesting that transfer was blocked at the NE fusion junction. These observations suggest that Prm3p acts before initiation of outer NE fusion, Kar5p may help dilation of the initial fusion pore, and Kar2p and Kar8p act after outer NE fusion, during inner NE fusion.

  12. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  13. Novel fusion genes and chimeric transcripts in ependymal tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thale Kristin; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    with subsequent Sanger sequencing was used to validate the potential fusions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using locus-specific probes was also performed. A total of 841 candidate chimeric transcripts were identified in the 12 tumors, with an average of 49 unique candidate fusions per tumor. After...... infratentorial anaplastic ependymoma. Our previously reported ALK rearrangements and the RELA and YAP1 fusions found in supratentorial ependymomas were until now the only known fusion genes present in ependymal tumors. The chimeric transcripts presented here are the first to be reported in infratentorial...

  14. Fusion peptides from oncogenic chimeric proteins as putative specific biomarkers of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Kevin P; Basrur, Venkatesha; Rolland, Delphine; Wolfe, Thomas; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; MacCoss, Michael J; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2013-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations encoding chimeric fusion proteins constitute one of the most common mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation in human cancer. Fusion peptides resulting from such oncogenic chimeric fusions, though unique to specific cancer subtypes, are unexplored as cancer biomarkers. Here we show, using an approach termed fusion peptide multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, the direct identification of different cancer-specific fusion peptides arising from protein chimeras that are generated from the juxtaposition of heterologous genes fused by recurrent chromosomal translocations. Using fusion peptide multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry in a clinically relevant scenario, we demonstrate the specific, sensitive, and unambiguous detection of a specific diagnostic fusion peptide in clinical samples of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but not in a diverse array of benign lymph nodes or other forms of primary malignant lymphomas and cancer-derived cell lines. Our studies highlight the utility of fusion peptides as cancer biomarkers and carry broad implications for the use of protein biomarkers in cancer detection and monitoring.

  15. Relevance of Fusion Genes in Pediatric Cancers: Toward Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Dupain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cancers differ from adult tumors, especially by their very low mutational rate. Therefore, their etiology could be explained in part by other oncogenic mechanisms such as chromosomal rearrangements, supporting the possible implication of fusion genes in the development of pediatric cancers. Fusion genes result from chromosomal rearrangements leading to the juxtaposition of two genes. Consequently, an abnormal activation of one or both genes is observed. The detection of fusion genes has generated great interest in basic cancer research and in the clinical setting, since these genes can lead to better comprehension of the biological mechanisms of tumorigenesis and they can also be used as therapeutic targets and diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of fusion genes and their particularities in pediatric cancers, as well as their relevance in murine models and in the clinical setting. We also point out the difficulties encountered in the discovery of fusion genes. Finally, we discuss future perspectives and priorities for finding new innovative therapies in childhood cancer.

  16. Purification of CD47-streptavidin fusion protein from bacterial lysate using biotin-agarose affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nasrin; Peng, Ching-An

    2016-07-08

    CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that modulates the activity of a plethora of immune cells via its extracellular domain. Therefore, CD47 plays important roles in the regulation of immune responses and may serve as targets for the development of immunotherapeutic agents. To make sure CD47 functionality is intact under the process of protein conjugation, CD47-streptavidin fusion protein was expressed and purified because it can easily bind to biotin-tagged materials via the unique biotin-streptavidin affinity. In this study, gene sequences of CD47 extracellular domain (CD47ECD) and core streptavidin (coreSA) with a total 834 bp were inserted into pET20b plasmid to construct recombinant plasmid encoding CD47-SA fusion gene. After bacteria transformation, the CD47-SA fusion protein was expressed by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The collected bacteria lysate was loaded on biotinylated agarose to proceed the purification of CD47-SA fusion protein. Due to the unexpected high affinity between biotin and coreSA, standard washing and elution approaches (e.g., varying pH, using biotin, and applying guanidine hydrochloride) reported for biotin-streptavidin affinity chromatography were not able to separate the target fusion protein. Instead, using low concentration of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 followed with alkaline buffer could efficiently weaken the binding between biotin and coreSA, thereby eluting out CD47-SA fusion protein from the biotin agarose column. The purified CD47-SA fusion protein was further characterized by molecular biology methods and its antiphagocytic functionality was confirmed by the phagocytosis assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:949-958, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  18. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, M; Nord, A L; Chamousset, D; van Rijn, E; Beaumont, H J E; Pedaci, F

    2017-10-03

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side effects, but such insight is still lacking for many applications. This is particularly relevant in the study of the internal dynamics of motor proteins, where both the chemical and mechanical reaction coordinates can be affected. Fluorescent proteins fused to the stator of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM) have previously been used to unveil the motor subunit dynamics. Here we report the effects on single motors of three fluorescent proteins fused to the stators, all of which altered BFM behavior. The torque generated by individual stators was reduced while their stoichiometry remained unaffected. MotB fusions decreased the switching frequency and induced a novel bias-dependent asymmetry in the speed in the two directions. These effects could be mitigated by inserting a linker at the fusion point. These findings provide a quantitative account of the effects of fluorescent fusions to the stator on BFM dynamics and their alleviation- new insights that advance the use of fluorescent fusions to probe the dynamics of protein complexes.

  19. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchells J Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data.

  20. C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2006-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUB) replicons are derivatives of the RUB infectious cDNA clone that retain the nonstructural open reading frame (NS-ORF) that encodes the replicase proteins but not the structural protein ORF (SP-ORF) that encodes the virion proteins. RUB defective interfering (DI) RNAs contain deletions within the SP-ORF and thus resemble replicons. DI RNAs often retain the 5' end of the capsid protein (C) gene that has been shown to modulate virus-specific RNA synthesis. However, when replicons either with or without the C gene were passaged serially in the presence of wt RUB as a source of the virion proteins, it was found that neither replicon was maintained and DI RNAs were generated. The majority DI RNA species contained in-frame deletions in the SP-ORF leading to a fusion between the 5' end of the C gene and the 3' end of the E1 glycoprotein gene. DI infectious cDNA clones were constructed and transcripts from these DI infectious cDNA clones were maintained during serial passage with wt RUB. The C-E1 fusion protein encoded by the DI RNAs was synthesized and was required for maintenance of the DI RNA during serial passage. This is the first report of a functional novel gene product resulting from deletion during DI RNA generation. Thus far, the role of the C-E1 fusion protein in maintenance of DI RNAs during serial passage remained elusive as it was found that the fusion protein diminished rather than enhanced DI RNA synthesis and was not incorporated into virus particles

  1. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  2. Characterization of the fusion core in zebrafish endogenous retroviral envelope protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Zhang, Huaidong [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Gong, Rui, E-mail: gongr@wh.iov.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China)

    2015-05-08

    Zebrafish endogenous retrovirus (ZFERV) is the unique endogenous retrovirus in zebrafish, as yet, containing intact open reading frames of its envelope protein gene in zebrafish genome. Similarly, several envelope proteins of endogenous retroviruses in human and other mammalian animal genomes (such as syncytin-1 and 2 in human, syncytin-A and B in mouse) were identified and shown to be functional in induction of cell–cell fusion involved in placental development. ZFERV envelope protein (Env) gene appears to be also functional in vivo because it is expressible. After sequence alignment, we found ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) which were crucial for membrane fusion. We expressed the regions of N + C protein in the ZFERV Env (residues 459–567, including predicted NHR and CHR) to characterize the fusion core structure. We found N + C protein could form a stable coiled-coil trimer that consists of three helical NHR regions forming a central trimeric core, and three helical CHR regions packing into the grooves on the surface of the central core. The structural characterization of the fusion core revealed the possible mechanism of fusion mediated by ZFERV Env. These results gave comprehensive explanation of how the ancient virus infects the zebrafish and integrates into the genome million years ago, and showed a rational clue for discovery of physiological significance (e.g., medicate cell–cell fusion). - Highlights: • ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes. • The fusion core of ZFERV Env forms stable coiled-coil trimer including three NHRs and three CHRs. • The structural mechanism of viral entry mediated by ZFERV Env is disclosed. • The results are helpful for further discovery of physiological function of ZFERV Env in zebrafish.

  3. IQCJ-SCHIP1, a novel fusion transcript encoding a calmodulin-binding IQ motif protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Carson, Andrew R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of transcripts that span two adjacent, independent genes is considered rare in the human genome. This study characterizes a novel human fusion gene named IQCJ-SCHIP1. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is the longest isoform of a complex transcriptional unit that bridges two separate genes that encode distinct proteins, IQCJ, a novel IQ motif containing protein and SCHIP1, a schwannomin interacting protein that has been previously shown to interact with the Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) protein. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is located on the chromosome 3q25 and comprises a 1692-bp transcript encompassing 11 exons spanning 828 kb of the genomic DNA. We show that IQCJ-SCHIP1 mRNA is highly expressed in the brain. Protein encoded by the IQCJ-SCHIP1 gene was localized to cytoplasm and actin-rich regions and in differentiated PC12 cells was also seen in neurite extensions

  4. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  5. Pioglitazone Induces a Proadipogenic Antitumor Response in Mice with PAX8-PPARγ Fusion Protein Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Melissa E.; Diallo-Krou, Ericka; Grachtchouk, Vladimir; Yu, Jingcheng; Colby, Lesley A.; Wilkinson, John E.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Koenig, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 35% of follicular thyroid carcinomas harbor a chromosomal translocation that results in expression of a paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene (PPARγ) fusion protein (PPFP). To better understand the oncogenic role of PPFP and its relationship to endogenous PPARγ, we generated a transgenic mouse model that combines Cre-dependent PPFP expression (PPFP;Cre) with homozygous deletion of floxed Pten (PtenFF;Cre), both thyroid specific. Although neither PPF...

  6. Influence of rhTPO/GM-CSF fusion protein on hemopoiesis in mice irradiated with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hua; Ge Zhongliang; Zhang Qunwei; Liu Xiuzhen

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To find a new biological therapy for secondary hematopoietic failure including anemia, infection and hemorrhage after administration of chemotherapeutic drugs etc. Methods: hGM-CSF gene was ligated with hTPO gene isolated from human fetal liver mRNA and a new fusion protein rh TPO/GM-CSF obtained. Results: The new fusion protein could promote recovery of peripheral WBC and PLT of 5.0 Gy irradiated mice. BFU-E, CFU-Meg and CFU-GM in bone marrow of mice after irradiation recovered significantly by treatment with rhTPO/GM-CSF fusion protein for 10 days. Conclusion: These results suggest that the new fusion protein has the biological activity of both hTPO and hGM-CSF simultaneously and can stimulate the proliferation of megakaryocytes and granulocyte progenitors

  7. CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linea; Fehr, André; Heegaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    -grade MEC of the lacrimal gland. There were no signs of recurrence or metastases during a five-year follow-up. Using RT-PCR and FISH we demonstrated that the tumor was positive for the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion previously shown to be associated with in particular low-grade salivary MECs with favorable...... prognosis. By immunohistochemistry we showed that the majority of tumor cells, including epidermoid, intermediate and mucous producing cells, expressed the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion protein. In contrast, 15 non-MEC lacrimal neoplasm were fusion-negative. Our findings show that lacrimal MEC is not only clinically...... anatomical sites and organs. Moreover, our findings indicate that the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lacrimal MEC....

  8. The yeast cell fusion protein Prm1p requires covalent dimerization to promote membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Prm1p is a multipass membrane protein that promotes plasma membrane fusion during yeast mating. The mechanism by which Prm1p and other putative regulators of developmentally controlled cell-cell fusion events facilitate membrane fusion has remained largely elusive. Here, we report that Prm1p forms covalently linked homodimers. Covalent Prm1p dimer formation occurs via intermolecular disulfide bonds of two cysteines, Cys-120 and Cys-545. PRM1 mutants in which these cysteines have been substituted are fusion defective. These PRM1 mutants are normally expressed, retain homotypic interaction and can traffic to the fusion zone. Because prm1-C120S and prm1-C545S mutants can form covalent dimers when coexpressed with wild-type PRM1, an intermolecular C120-C545 disulfide linkage is inferred. Cys-120 is adjacent to a highly conserved hydrophobic domain. Mutation of a charged residue within this hydrophobic domain abrogates formation of covalent dimers, trafficking to the fusion zone, and fusion-promoting activity. The importance of intermolecular disulfide bonding informs models regarding the mechanism of Prm1-mediated cell-cell fusion.

  9. Fusion of NUP98 and the SET binding protein 1 (SETBP1) gene in a paediatric acute T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(11;18)(p15;q12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Kerndrup, Gitte; Carlsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Three NUP98 chimaeras have previously been reported in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL): NUP98/ADD3, NUP98/CCDC28A, and NUP98/RAP1GDS1. We report a T-ALL with t(11;18)(p15;q12) resulting in a novel NUP98 fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation showed NUP98 and SET binding protein 1(...... in leukaemias; however, it encodes a protein that specifically interacts with SET, fused to NUP214 in a case of acute undifferentiated leukaemia.......Three NUP98 chimaeras have previously been reported in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL): NUP98/ADD3, NUP98/CCDC28A, and NUP98/RAP1GDS1. We report a T-ALL with t(11;18)(p15;q12) resulting in a novel NUP98 fusion. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation showed NUP98 and SET binding protein 1...

  10. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv [Portola Valley, CA; Pritha, Ray [Mountain View, CA

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  11. Computational and biological characterization of fusion proteins of two insecticidal proteins for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Shaista; Naz, Sehrish; Amin, Imran; Jander, Georg; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Mansoor, Shahid

    2018-03-19

    Sucking pests pose a serious agricultural challenge, as available transgenic technologies such as Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins (Bt) are not effective against them. One approach is to produce fusion protein toxins for the control of these pests. Two protein toxins, Hvt (ω-atracotoxin from Hadronyche versuta) and onion leaf lectin, were translationally fused to evaluate the negative effects of fusion proteins on Phenacoccus solenopsis (mealybug), a phloem-feeding insect pest. Hvt was cloned both N-terminally (HL) and then C-terminally (LH) in the fusion protein constructs, which were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum using a Potato Virus X (PVX) vector. The HL fusion protein was found to be more effective against P. solenopsis, with an 83% mortality rate, as compared to the LH protein, which caused 65% mortality. Hvt and lectin alone caused 42% and 45%, respectively, under the same conditions. Computational studies of both fusion proteins showed that the HL protein is more stable than the LH protein. Together, these results demonstrate that translational fusion of two insecticidal proteins improved the insecticidal activity relative to each protein individually and could be expressed in transgenic plants for effective control of sucking pests.

  12. Gene expression profiling and candidate gene resequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Rachel L; Harper, David P; Caudell, David; Slape, Christopher; Beachy, Sarah H; Aplan, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both preleukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 of 27 (30%) acquired an Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired an Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Low Resolution Structure of RAR1-GST-Tag Fusion Protein in Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Kozak, M.; Jarmolowski, A.

    2010-01-01

    RAR1 is a protein required for resistance mediated by many R genes and function upstream of signaling pathways leading to H 2 O 2 accumulation. The structure and conformation of RAR1-GST-Tag fusion protein from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in solution was studied by the small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation. It was found that the dimer of RAR1-GST-Tag protein is characterized in solution by radius of gyration R G = 6.19 nm and maximal intramolecular vector D max = 23 nm. On the basis of the small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation SAXS data two bead models obtained by ab initio modeling are proposed. Both models show elongated conformations. We also concluded that molecules of fusion protein form: dimers in solution via interaction of GST domains. (authors)

  14. Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanara Marincevic-Zuniga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts. Methods We combined fusion gene detection with genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, gene expression profiling, and targeted sequencing to determine molecular signatures of emerging ALL subtypes. Results We identified 64 unique fusion events distributed among 80 individual patients, of which over 50% have not previously been reported in ALL. Although the majority of the fusion genes were found only in a single patient, we identified several recurrent fusion gene families defined by promiscuous fusion gene partners, such as ETV6, RUNX1, PAX5, and ZNF384, or recurrent fusion genes, such as DUX4-IGH. Our data show that patients harboring these fusion genes displayed characteristic genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression signatures in addition to distinct patterns in single nucleotide variants and recurrent copy number alterations. Conclusion Our study delineates the fusion gene landscape in pediatric ALL, including both known and novel fusion genes, and highlights fusion gene families with shared molecular etiologies, which may provide additional information for prognosis and therapeutic options in the future.

  15. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  16. InFusion: Advancing Discovery of Fusion Genes and Chimeric Transcripts from Deep RNA-Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Okonechnikov

    Full Text Available Analysis of fusion transcripts has become increasingly important due to their link with cancer development. Since high-throughput sequencing approaches survey fusion events exhaustively, several computational methods for the detection of gene fusions from RNA-seq data have been developed. This kind of analysis, however, is complicated by native trans-splicing events, the splicing-induced complexity of the transcriptome and biases and artefacts introduced in experiments and data analysis. There are a number of tools available for the detection of fusions from RNA-seq data; however, certain differences in specificity and sensitivity between commonly used approaches have been found. The ability to detect gene fusions of different types, including isoform fusions and fusions involving non-coding regions, has not been thoroughly studied yet. Here, we propose a novel computational toolkit called InFusion for fusion gene detection from RNA-seq data. InFusion introduces several unique features, such as discovery of fusions involving intergenic regions, and detection of anti-sense transcription in chimeric RNAs based on strand-specificity. Our approach demonstrates superior detection accuracy on simulated data and several public RNA-seq datasets. This improved performance was also evident when evaluating data from RNA deep-sequencing of two well-established prostate cancer cell lines. InFusion identified 26 novel fusion events that were validated in vitro, including alternatively spliced gene fusion isoforms and chimeric transcripts that include intergenic regions. The toolkit is freely available to download from http:/bitbucket.org/kokonech/infusion.

  17. Kinase impact assessment in the landscape of fusion genes that retain kinase domains: a pan-cancer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pora; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Assessing the impact of kinase in gene fusion is essential for both identifying driver fusion genes (FGs) and developing molecular targeted therapies. Kinase domain retention is a crucial factor in kinase fusion genes (KFGs), but such a systematic investigation has not been done yet. To this end, we analyzed kinase domain retention (KDR) status in chimeric protein sequences of 914 KFGs covering 312 kinases across 13 major cancer types. Based on 171 kinase domain-retained KFGs including 101 kinases, we studied their recurrence, kinase groups, fusion partners, exon-based expression depth, short DNA motifs around the break points and networks. Our results, such as more KDR than 5′-kinase fusion genes, combinatorial effects between 3′-KDR kinases and their 5′-partners and a signal transduction-specific DNA sequence motif in the break point intronic sequences, supported positive selection on 3′-kinase fusion genes in cancer. We introduced a degree-of-frequency (DoF) score to measure the possible number of KFGs of a kinase. Interestingly, kinases with high DoF scores tended to undergo strong gene expression alteration at the break points. Furthermore, our KDR gene fusion network analysis revealed six of the seven kinases with the highest DoF scores (ALK, BRAF, MET, NTRK1, NTRK3 and RET) were all observed in thyroid carcinoma. Finally, we summarized common features of ‘effective’ (highly recurrent) kinases in gene fusions such as expression alteration at break point, redundant usage in multiple cancer types and 3′-location tendency. Collectively, our findings are useful for prioritizing driver kinases and FGs and provided insights into KFGs’ clinical implications. PMID:28013235

  18. Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS, then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes.

  19. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores

  20. Viral membrane fusion: is glycoprotein G of rhabdoviruses a representative of a new class of viral fusion proteins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Da Poian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses always gain entry into the cytoplasm by fusion of their lipid envelope with a cell membrane. Some enveloped viruses fuse directly with the host cell plasma membrane after virus binding to the cell receptor. Other enveloped viruses enter the cells by the endocytic pathway, and fusion depends on the acidification of the endosomal compartment. In both cases, virus-induced membrane fusion is triggered by conformational changes in viral envelope glycoproteins. Two different classes of viral fusion proteins have been described on the basis of their molecular architecture. Several structural data permitted the elucidation of the mechanisms of membrane fusion mediated by class I and class II fusion proteins. In this article, we review a number of results obtained by our laboratory and by others that suggest that the mechanisms involved in rhabdovirus fusion are different from those used by the two well-studied classes of viral glycoproteins. We focus our discussion on the electrostatic nature of virus binding and interaction with membranes, especially through phosphatidylserine, and on the reversibility of the conformational changes of the rhabdovirus glycoprotein involved in fusion. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a third class of fusion proteins and support the idea that new insights should emerge from studies of membrane fusion mediated by the G protein of rhabdoviruses. In particular, the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the G protein or even of the fusion peptide at different pH's might provide valuable information for understanding the fusion mechanism of this new class of fusion proteins.

  1. Functional NifD-K fusion protein in Azotobacter vinelandii is a homodimeric complex equivalent to the native heterotetrameric MoFe protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Gavini, Nara

    2005-01-01

    The MoFe protein of the complex metalloenzyme nitrogenase folds as a heterotetramer containing two copies each of the homologous α and β subunits, encoded by the nifD and the nifK genes respectively. Recently, the functional expression of a fusion NifD-K protein of nitrogenase was demonstrated in Azotobacter vinelandii, strongly implying that the MoFe protein is flexible as it could accommodate major structural changes, yet remain functional [M.H. Suh, L. Pulakat, N. Gavini, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 5353-5360]. This finding led us to further explore the type of interaction between the fused MoFe protein units. We aimed to determine whether an interaction exists between the two fusion MoFe proteins to form a homodimer that is equivalent to native heterotetrameric MoFe protein. Using the Bacteriomatch Two-Hybrid System, translationally fused constructs of NifD-K (fusion) with the full-length λCI of the pBT bait vector and also NifD-K (fusion) with the N-terminal α-RNAP of the pTRG target vector were made. To compare the extent of interaction between the fused NifD-K proteins to that of the β-β interactions in the native MoFe protein, we proceeded to generate translationally fused constructs of NifK with the α-RNAP of the pTRG vector and λCI protein of the pBT vector. The strength of the interaction between the proteins in study was determined by measuring the β-galactosidase activity and extent of ampicillin resistance of the colonies expressing these proteins. This analysis demonstrated that direct protein-protein interaction exists between NifD-K fusion proteins, suggesting that they exist as homodimers. As the interaction takes place at the β-interfaces of the NifD-K fusion proteins, we propose that these homodimers of NifD-K fusion protein may function in a similar manner as that of the heterotetrameric native MoFe protein. The observation that the extent of protein-protein interaction between the β-subunits of the native MoFe protein in Bacterio

  2. Comparative immunoblot analysis with 10 different, partially overlapping recombinant fusion proteins derived from 5 different cytomegalovirus proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, J.; LAZZAROTTO, T; CAMPISI, B; VORNHAGEN, R; JAHN, G; LANDINI, MP; The, T. Hauw

    Ten fusion proteins derived from five various CMV encoded proteins were used for the detection of specific antibody response by immunoblot technique in sera from renal transplant recipients. The fusion proteins were derived from the following CMV specific proteins: the assembly protein ppUL80a with

  3. Exploration of the gene fusion landscape of glioblastoma using transcriptome sequencing and copy number data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nameeta; Lankerovich, Michael; Lee, Hwahyung; Yoon, Jae-Geun; Schroeder, Brett; Foltz, Greg

    2013-11-22

    RNA-seq has spurred important gene fusion discoveries in a number of different cancers, including lung, prostate, breast, brain, thyroid and bladder carcinomas. Gene fusion discovery can potentially lead to the development of novel treatments that target the underlying genetic abnormalities. In this study, we provide comprehensive view of gene fusion landscape in 185 glioblastoma multiforme patients from two independent cohorts. Fusions occur in approximately 30-50% of GBM patient samples. In the Ivy Center cohort of 24 patients, 33% of samples harbored fusions that were validated by qPCR and Sanger sequencing. We were able to identify high-confidence gene fusions from RNA-seq data in 53% of the samples in a TCGA cohort of 161 patients. We identified 13 cases (8%) with fusions retaining a tyrosine kinase domain in the TCGA cohort and one case in the Ivy Center cohort. Ours is the first study to describe recurrent fusions involving non-coding genes. Genomic locations 7p11 and 12q14-15 harbor majority of the fusions. Fusions on 7p11 are formed in focally amplified EGFR locus whereas 12q14-15 fusions are formed by complex genomic rearrangements. All the fusions detected in this study can be further visualized and analyzed using our website: http://ivygap.swedish.org/fusions. Our study highlights the prevalence of gene fusions as one of the major genomic abnormalities in GBM. The majority of the fusions are private fusions, and a minority of these recur with low frequency. A small subset of patients with fusions of receptor tyrosine kinases can benefit from existing FDA approved drugs and drugs available in various clinical trials. Due to the low frequency and rarity of clinically relevant fusions, RNA-seq of GBM patient samples will be a vital tool for the identification of patient-specific fusions that can drive personalized therapy.

  4. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  5. ETS Gene Fusions as Predictive Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    phenotype  in   preclinical  models  of  prostate  cancer,  2)  to  explore  the  mechanism  of  interaction  between   ERG  (the  predominant  ETS...established  this  axis  as  a  potential  therapeutic   target.         15. SUBJECT  TERMS Prostate cancer, ETS gene fusions, ERG , radiation resistance, DNA...interaction  between   ERG   (the   predominant   ETS   gene   fusion   product)   and   the   DNA   repair   protein   DNA-­PK,   and   3)   to

  6. Junction region of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein has a dominant negative effect in Ewing's sarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jully, Babu; Vijayalakshmi, Ramshankar; Gopal, Gopisetty; Sabitha, Kesavan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2012-11-12

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignancy characterized by a specific 11:22 chromosomal translocation which generates a novel EWS-FLI1 fusion protein functioning as an aberrant transcription factor. In the present study, we have further characterized the junction region of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. In-silico model of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein was analysed for ligand binding sites, and a putative region (amino acid (aa) 251-343 of the type 1 fusion protein) in the vicinity of the fusion junction was cloned and expressed using bacterial expression. The recombinant protein was characterized by Circular Dichroism (CD). We then expressed aa 251-280 ectopically in Ewing's sarcoma cell-line and its effect on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity and expression of EWS-FLI1 target genes were analysed. Our modelling analysis indicated that Junction region (aa 251-343) encompasses potential ligand biding sites in the EWS-FLI1 protein and when expressed in bacteria was present as soluble form. Ectopically expressing this region in Ewing's sarcoma cells inhibited tumorigenicity, and EWS-FLI1 target genes indicating a dominant negative biological effect. Junction region can be exploited further as target for drug development in future to specifically target EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's Sarcoma.

  7. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M; Iorio, Ronald M; Li, Jianrong

    2012-11-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented.

  8. [Prokaryotic expression of trigeminy artificial fusion gene of Leptospira interrogans and the immunogenicity of its products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-jiao; Qiu, Xiao-feng; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Jin; Wang, Hai-bin; Zhou, Jin-cheng; Yan, Jie

    2008-11-01

    To construct lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene of Leptospira interrogans and its prokaryotic expression system, and to identify the immunogenicity of its products. PCR using linking primers was applied to construct lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene and a prokaryotic expression system of the fusion gene was then established using routine genetic engineering technique. SDS-PAGE was used to examine output of the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2. Double immunodiffusion and Western Blot assay were applied to identify immunogenicity of rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2. lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 fusion gene with correct sequence and its prokaryotic expression system E.coli BL21DE3pET42a-lipL32/1-lipL21-ompL1/2 was obtained in this study. The output of rLipL32/1-LipL21- OmpL1/2 after optimisation was 37.78 mg/L. The immunodiffusion titer of rabbit antiserum against rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 was 1:4. The rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 antiserum was able to recognize rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2, rLipL32/1, rLipL21 and rOmpL1/2. Positive Western hybridization signals were found among rLipL32/1-LipL21-OmpL1/2 and rabbit antiserum against whole cell of strain 56601 and serum from patients infected with L.interrogans serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Autumnalis and Pomona. The fusion gene lipL32/1-lipL21-OmpL1/2 and its prokaryotic expression system were successfully constructed in this study. The expressed fusion protein can be used as the antigen for developing universal genetic engineering vaccine and universal serological tests of leptospirosis.

  9. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  10. Protein-induced fusion can be modulated by target membrane lipids through a structural switch at the level of the fusion peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecheur, EI; Martin, [No Value; Bienvenue, A; Ruysschaert, JM; Hoekstra, D

    2000-01-01

    Regulatory features of protein-induced membrane fusion are largely unclear, particularly at the level of the fusion peptide. Fusion peptides being part of larger protein complexes, such investigations are met with technical limitations. Here, we show that the fusion activity of influenza virus or

  11. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: togjun@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly

  12. Intracellular delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-transcriptional factor fusion protein and its role in selective osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jin Sook; Lee, Jue Yeon; Choi, Yoon Jung; You, Hyung Keun; Hong, Seong-Doo; Chung, Chong Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Protein-transduction technology has been attempted to deliver macromolecular materials, including protein, nucleic acids, and polymeric drugs, for either diagnosis or therapeutic purposes. Herein, fusion protein composed of an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide, termed low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP), and a transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein was prepared and applied in combination with biomaterials to increase bone-forming capacity. TAZ has been recently identified as a specific osteogenic stimulating transcriptional coactivator in human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation, while simultaneously blocking adipogenic differentiation. However, TAZ by itself cannot penetrate the cells, and thus needs a transfection tool for translocalization. The LMWP-TAZ fusion proteins were efficiently translocalized into the cytosol of hMSCs. The hMSCs treated with cell-penetrating LMWP-TAZ exhibited increased expression of osteoblastic genes and protein, producing significantly higher quantities of mineralized matrix compared to free TAZ. In contrast, adipogenic differentiation of the hMSCs was blocked by treatment of LMWP-TAZ fusion protein, as reflected by reduced marker-protein expression, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ messenger ribonucleic acid levels. LMWP-TAZ was applied in alginate gel for the purpose of localization and controlled release. The LMWP-TAZ fusion protein-loaded alginate gel matrix significantly increased bone formation in rabbit calvarial defects compared with alginate gel matrix mixed with free TAZ protein. The protein transduction of TAZ fused with cell-penetrating LMWP peptide was able selectively to stimulate osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this fusion protein-transduction technology for osteogenic protein can thus be applied in combination with biomaterials for tissue regeneration and controlled release for tissue

  13. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  14. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3, followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM. Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml. Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  15. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rounsley Steve

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Results Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. Conclusions The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  16. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Adriana; Zheng, Chunfang; Zhu, Qian; Albert, Victor A; Rounsley, Steve; Sankoff, David

    2010-06-04

    There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  17. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun; Lim, Chaeseung; Kim, Jungho; Cha, Dae Ryong; Oh, Junseo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. ► Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). ► Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. ► RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I–III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin domain III (R-III) and albumin domain I -RBP-albumin III (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises of stellate cell inactivation-inducing moiety and targeting moiety, which may lead to the development of effective anti

  18. Identification of Driving ALK Fusion Genes and Genomic Landscape of Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic landscape of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC is not yet fully understood, although some oncogenic mutations have been identified. To explore genetic profiles of MTCs, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from MTC patients were assayed on the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel v2. Eighty-four sporadic MTC samples and 36 paired normal thyroid tissues were successfully sequenced. We discovered 101 hotspot mutations in 18 genes in the 84 MTC tissue samples. The most common mutation was in the ret proto-oncogene, which occurred in 47 cases followed by mutations in genes encoding Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (N = 14, serine/threonine kinase 11 (N = 11, v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (N = 6, mutL homolog 1 (N = 4, Kiesten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (N = 3 and MET proto-oncogene (N = 3. We also evaluated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement by immunohistochemistry and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Two of 98 screened cases were positive for ALK FISH. To identify the genomic breakpoint and 5' fusion partner of ALK, customized targeted cancer panel sequencing was performed using DNA from tumor samples of the two patients. Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1-ALK and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK fusions were identified. Additional PCR analysis, followed by Sanger sequencing, confirmed the GFPT1-ALK fusion, indicating that the fusion is a result of intra-chromosomal translocation or deletion. Notably, a metastatic MTC case harboring the EML4-ALK fusion showed a dramatic response to an ALK inhibitor, crizotinib. In conclusion, we found several genetic mutations in MTC and are the first to identify ALK fusions in MTC. Our results suggest that the EML4-ALK fusion in MTC may be a potential driver mutation and a valid target of ALK inhibitors. Furthermore, the GFPT1-ALK fusion may be a potential candidate for molecular

  19. Mimivirus reveals Mre11/Rad50 fusion proteins with a sporadic distribution in eukaryotes, bacteria, viruses and plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mre11/Rad50 complex and the homologous SbcD/SbcC complex in bacteria play crucial roles in the metabolism of DNA double-strand breaks, including DNA repair, genome replication, homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining in cellular life forms and viruses. Here we investigated the amino acid sequence of the Mimivirus R555 gene product, originally annotated as a Rad50 homolog, and later shown to have close homologs in marine microbial metagenomes. Results Our bioinformatics analysis revealed that R555 protein sequence is constituted from the fusion of an N-terminal Mre11-like domain with a C-terminal Rad50-like domain. A systematic database search revealed twelve additional cases of Mre11/Rad50 (or SbcD/SbcC fusions in a wide variety of unrelated organisms including unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, the megaplasmid of a bacterium associated to deep-sea hydrothermal vents (Deferribacter desulfuricans and the plasmid of Clostridium kluyveri. We also showed that R555 homologs are abundant in the metagenomes from different aquatic environments and that they most likely belong to aquatic viruses. The observed phyletic distribution of these fusion proteins suggests their recurrent creation and lateral gene transfers across organisms. Conclusions The existence of the fused version of protein sequences is consistent with known functional interactions between Mre11 and Rad50, and the gene fusion probably enhanced the opportunity for lateral transfer. The abundance of the Mre11/Rad50 fusion genes in viral metagenomes and their sporadic phyletic distribution in cellular organisms suggest that viruses, plasmids and transposons played a crucial role in the formation of the fusion proteins and their propagation into cellular genomes.

  20. [Research progress in hirudin fusion protein--review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Yu, Ai-Ping; Jin, Ji-De; Wu, Chu-Tse

    2007-02-01

    Natural hirudin extracted from the secretion of medical leech salivary gland is a single-chain peptide containing 65 aminoacid residues with molecular weight of 7000 D, and exists in three isomers of HV1, HV2 and HV3. Hirudin possesses three disulfide bridges forming the structure of core cyclic peptides, which binds to the catalytic site of thrombin so as to inhibit the catalysis of thrombin. Its c-terminus rich in acidic aminoacid residues possesses hydrophilicity, and is free on the molecular surface, and can bind with fibrin recognition site of hirudin. The minimal segment of 12 - 16 C-terminal acidic residues keeps the minimal activity of anti-thrombosis. Thus, hirudin, as a potent and specific inhibitor of thrombin, can be used to protect from and to treat clinically thrombosis. As it has some disadvantages such as short half-life, bleeding side-effect and mono-function, and so on, hirudin has been fused with some other functional proteins in recent years. The obtained fusion proteins can prolong the half life of hirudin, or relieve it bleeding side effect, or bring new functions, such as thrombolysis, inhibiting the platelet aggregation, targeting specifically. The research progress in hirudin fusion protein was summarized in this review.

  1. Site-specific modification of genome with cell-permeable Cre fusion protein in preimplantation mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Kim, Hwain; Lee, Daekee

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific recombination (SSR) by Cre recombinase and its target sequence, loxP, is a valuable tool in genetic analysis of gene function. Recently, several studies reported successful application of Cre fusion protein containing protein transduction peptide for inducing gene modification in various mammalian cells including ES cell as well as in the whole animal. In this study, we show that a short incubation of preimplantation mouse embryos with purified cell-permeable Cre fusion protein results in efficient SSR. X-Gal staining of preimplantation embryos, heterozygous for Gtrosa26 tm1Sor , revealed that treatment of 1-cell or 2-cell embryos with 3 μM of Cre fusion protein for 2 h leads to Cre-mediated excision in 70-85% of embryos. We have examined the effect of the concentration of the Cre fusion protein and the duration of the treatment on embryonic development, established a condition for full term development and survival to adulthood, and demonstrated the germ line transmission of excised Gtrosa26 allele. Potential applications and advantages of the highly efficient technique described here are discussed.

  2. Localization of a Region in the Fusion Protein of Avian Metapneumovirus That Modulates Cell-Cell Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented. PMID:22915815

  3. Development of Peptidomimetic Inhibitors of the ERG Gene Fusion Product in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Asangani, Irfan A; Ateeq, Bushra; Poliakov, Anton; Cieślik, Marcin; Pitchiaya, Sethuramasundaram; Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Cao, Xuhong; Jing, Xiaojun; Wang, Cynthia X; Apel, Ingrid J; Wang, Rui; Tien, Jean Ching-Yi; Juckette, Kristin M; Yan, Wei; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Shaomeng; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2017-04-10

    Transcription factors play a key role in the development of diverse cancers, and therapeutically targeting them has remained a challenge. In prostate cancer, the gene encoding the transcription factor ERG is recurrently rearranged and plays a critical role in prostate oncogenesis. Here, we identified a series of peptides that interact specifically with the DNA binding domain of ERG. ERG inhibitory peptides (EIPs) and derived peptidomimetics bound ERG with high affinity and specificity, leading to proteolytic degradation of the ERG protein. The EIPs attenuated ERG-mediated transcription, chromatin recruitment, protein-protein interactions, cell invasion and proliferation, and tumor growth. Thus, peptidomimetic targeting of transcription factor fusion products may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer as well as other malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene Fusions Associated with Recurrent Amplicons Represent a Class of Passenger Aberrations in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing has spurred highly sensitive detection and discovery of gene fusions in cancer, but distinguishing potentially oncogenic fusions from random, “passenger” aberrations has proven challenging. Here we examine a distinctive group of gene fusions that involve genes present in the loci of chromosomal amplifications—a class of oncogenic aberrations that are widely prevalent in breast cancers. Integrative analysis of a panel of 14 breast cancer cell lines comparing gene fusions discovered by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and genome-wide copy number aberrations assessed by array comparative genomic hybridization, led to the identification of 77 gene fusions, of which more than 60% were localized to amplicons including 17q12, 17q23, 20q13, chr8q, and others. Many of these fusions appeared to be recurrent or involved highly expressed oncogenic drivers, frequently fused with multiple different partners, but sometimes displaying loss of functional domains. As illustrative examples of the “amplicon-associated” gene fusions, we examined here a recurrent gene fusion involving the mediator of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, RPS6KB1 kinase in BT-474, and the therapeutically important receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line. These gene fusions comprise a minor allelic fraction relative to the highly expressed full-length transcripts and encode chimera lacking the kinase domains, which do not impart dependence on the respective cells. Our study suggests that amplicon-associated gene fusions in breast cancer primarily represent a by-product of chromosomal amplifications, which constitutes a subset of passenger aberrations and should be factored accordingly during prioritization of gene fusion candidates.

  5. Protein fold recognition using geometric kernel data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Pooya; Jeuris, Ben; Vandebril, Raf; Moreau, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Various approaches based on features extracted from protein sequences and often machine learning methods have been used in the prediction of protein folds. Finding an efficient technique for integrating these different protein features has received increasing attention. In particular, kernel methods are an interesting class of techniques for integrating heterogeneous data. Various methods have been proposed to fuse multiple kernels. Most techniques for multiple kernel learning focus on learning a convex linear combination of base kernels. In addition to the limitation of linear combinations, working with such approaches could cause a loss of potentially useful information. We design several techniques to combine kernel matrices by taking more involved, geometry inspired means of these matrices instead of convex linear combinations. We consider various sequence-based protein features including information extracted directly from position-specific scoring matrices and local sequence alignment. We evaluate our methods for classification on the SCOP PDB-40D benchmark dataset for protein fold recognition. The best overall accuracy on the protein fold recognition test set obtained by our methods is ∼ 86.7%. This is an improvement over the results of the best existing approach. Moreover, our computational model has been developed by incorporating the functional domain composition of proteins through a hybridization model. It is observed that by using our proposed hybridization model, the protein fold recognition accuracy is further improved to 89.30%. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of our approach on the protein remote homology detection problem by fusing multiple string kernels. The MATLAB code used for our proposed geometric kernel fusion frameworks are publicly available at http://people.cs.kuleuven.be/∼raf.vandebril/homepage/software/geomean.php?menu=5/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. → The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. → While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. → This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  7. Expression of hybrid fusion protein (Cry1Ac::ASAL) in transgenic rice plants imparts resistance against multiple insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddupally, Dayakar; Tamirisa, Srinath; Gundra, Sivakrishna Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2018-05-31

    To evolve rice varieties resistant to different groups of insect pests a fusion gene, comprising DI and DII domains of Bt Cry1Ac and carbohydrate binding domain of garlic lectin (ASAL), was constructed. Transgenic rice lines were generated and evaluated to assess the efficacy of Cry1Ac::ASAL fusion protein against three major pests, viz., yellow stem borer (YSB), leaf folder (LF) and brown planthopper (BPH). Molecular analyses of transgenic plants revealed stable integration and expression of the fusion gene. In planta insect bioassays on transgenics disclosed enhanced levels of resistance compared to the control plants. High insect mortality of YSB, LF and BPH was observed on transgenics compared to that of control plants. Furthermore, honeydew assays revealed significant decreases in the feeding ability of BPH on transgenic plants as compared to the controls. Ligand blot analysis, using BPH insects fed on cry1Ac::asal transgenic rice plants, revealed a modified receptor protein-binding pattern owing to its ability to bind to additional receptors in insects. The overall results authenticate that Cry1Ac::ASAL protein is endowed with remarkable entomotoxic effects against major lepidopteran and hemipteran insects. As such, the fusion gene appears promising and can be introduced into various other crops to control multiple insect pests.

  8. Baculovirus display of fusion protein of Peste des petits ruminants virus and hemagglutination protein of Rinderpest virus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masmudur Rahman, Md.; Shaila, M.S.; Gopinathan, Karumathil P.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses (BmNPV) displaying the immunodominant ectodomains of fusion glycoprotein (F) of Peste des petitis ruminants virus (PPRV) and the hemagglutinin protein (H) of Rinderpest virus (RPV), on the budded virions as well as the surface of the infected host cells have been constructed. The F and H protein sequences were inserted in-frame within the amino-terminal region of BmNPV envelope glycoprotein GP64 expressing under the strong viral polyhedrin (polh) promoter. We improved the recombinant virus selection in BmNPV by incorporating the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) as selection marker under a separate promoter within the transfer cassette harboring the desired genes. Following infection of the insect larvae or the host-derived BmN cells with these recombinant BmNPVs, the expressed GP64 fusion proteins were displayed on the host cell surface and the budded virions. The antigenic epitopes of the recombinant proteins were properly displayed and the recombinant virus particles induced immune response in mice against PPRV or RPV

  9. Pooled-matrix protein interaction screens using Barcode Fusion Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachie, Nozomu; Petsalaki, Evangelia; Mellor, Joseph C; Weile, Jochen; Jacob, Yves; Verby, Marta; Ozturk, Sedide B; Li, Siyang; Cote, Atina G; Mosca, Roberto; Knapp, Jennifer J; Ko, Minjeong; Yu, Analyn; Gebbia, Marinella; Sahni, Nidhi; Yi, Song; Tyagi, Tanya; Sheykhkarimli, Dayag; Roth, Jonathan F; Wong, Cassandra; Musa, Louai; Snider, Jamie; Liu, Yi-Chun; Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Stagljar, Igor; Hao, Tong; Calderwood, Michael A; Pelletier, Laurence; Aloy, Patrick; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Roth, Frederick P

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput binary protein interaction mapping is continuing to extend our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms. However, we remain one or two orders of magnitude away from a complete interaction map for humans and other major model organisms. Completion will require screening at substantially larger scales with many complementary assays, requiring further efficiency gains in proteome-scale interaction mapping. Here, we report Barcode Fusion Genetics-Yeast Two-Hybrid (BFG-Y2H), by which a full matrix of protein pairs can be screened in a single multiplexed strain pool. BFG-Y2H uses Cre recombination to fuse DNA barcodes from distinct plasmids, generating chimeric protein-pair barcodes that can be quantified via next-generation sequencing. We applied BFG-Y2H to four different matrices ranging in scale from ~25 K to 2.5 M protein pairs. The results show that BFG-Y2H increases the efficiency of protein matrix screening, with quality that is on par with state-of-the-art Y2H methods. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  10. Gene trapping in differentiating cell lines: regulation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin B in skeletal myoblast growth and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogos, J A; Thompson, R; Lowry, W; Sloane, B F; Weintraub, H; Horwitz, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify genes regulated during skeletal muscle differentiation, we have infected mouse C2C12 myoblasts with retroviral gene trap vectors, containing a promoterless marker gene with a 5' splice acceptor signal. Integration of the vector adjacent to an actively transcribed gene places the marker under the transcriptional control of the endogenous gene, while the adjacent vector sequences facilitate cloning. The vector insertionally mutates the trapped locus and may also form fusion proteins with the endogenous gene product. We have screened several hundred clones, each containing a trapping vector integrated into a different endogenous gene. In agreement with previous estimates based on hybridization kinetics, we find that a large proportion of all genes expressed in myoblasts are regulated during differentiation. Many of these genes undergo unique temporal patterns of activation or repression during cell growth and myotube formation, and some show specific patterns of subcellular localization. The first gene we have identified with this strategy is the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin B. Expression from the trapped allele is upregulated during early myoblast fusion and downregulated in myotubes. A direct role for cathepsin B in myoblast growth and fusion is suggested by the observation that the trapped cells deficient in cathepsin B activity have an unusual morphology and reduced survival in low-serum media and undergo differentiation with impaired cellular fusion. The phenotype is reproduced by antisense cathepsin B expression in parental C2C12 myoblasts. The cellular phenotype is similar to that observed in cultured myoblasts from patients with I cell disease, in which there is diminished accumulation of lysosomal enzymes. This suggests that a specific deficiency of cathepsin B could contribute to the myopathic component of this illness.

  11. Cloning, Expression and Purification of the Recombinant HIV-1 Tat-Nef Fusion Protein in Prokaryotic Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Kadkhodayan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Nef is one of the HIV-1 critical proteins, because it is essential for viral replication and AIDS disease progression and induction of immune response against it can partially inhibit viral infection. Moreover, a domain of the HIV-1 Trans-Activator of Transcription (Tat, 48-60 aa could act as a cell penetrating peptide (CPP. In current study, cloning and expression of Tat-Nef fusion protein was performed in E. coli for the first time. The protein expression was confirmed by western blot analysis and was purified using reverse staining method. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, primarily, cloning of Tat-Nef fusion gene was done in pGEX6p2 expression vector. Then, the expression of Tat-Nef recombinat protein in E.coli BL21 (DE3 strain was performed by using IPTG inducer. The protein expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting using anti-Nef monoclonal antibody. Then, the recombinant fusion protein was purified from gel using reverse staining method. Results: The results of PCR analysis and enzyme digestion showed a clear band of ~ 726 bp in agarose gel indicating the correct Tat-Nef fusion cloning in pGEX6p2 prokaryotic expression vector. In addition, a 54 kDa band of Tat-Nef on SDS-PAGE revealed Tat-Nef protein expression that western blot analysis using anti-Nef monoclonal antibody confirmed it. Conclusion: The purified Tat-Nef recombinant fusion protein will be used as an antigen for protein vaccine design against HIV infection.

  12. An Efficient Method for Identifying Gene Fusions by Targeted RNA Sequencing from Fresh Frozen and FFPE Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Scolnick

    Full Text Available Fusion genes are known to be key drivers of tumor growth in several types of cancer. Traditionally, detecting fusion genes has been a difficult task based on fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal abnormalities. More recently, RNA sequencing has enabled an increased pace of fusion gene identification. However, RNA-Seq is inefficient for the identification of fusion genes due to the high number of sequencing reads needed to detect the small number of fusion transcripts present in cells of interest. Here we describe a method, Single Primer Enrichment Technology (SPET, for targeted RNA sequencing that is customizable to any target genes, is simple to use, and efficiently detects gene fusions. Using SPET to target 5701 exons of 401 known cancer fusion genes for sequencing, we were able to identify known and previously unreported gene fusions from both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue RNA in both normal tissue and cancer cells.

  13. Long-Term Endurance Exercise in Humans Stimulates Cell Fusion of Myoblasts along with Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Genes In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Frese

    Full Text Available Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Comparing muscle biopsies from post- with the pre-competitive seasons a significant 2.25-fold increase of myonuclei/mm fiber, a 2.38-fold decrease of fiber area/nucleus and a 3.1-fold decrease of satellite cells (SCs occurred. We propose that during the pre-competitive season SC proliferation occurred following with increased cell fusion during the competitive season. Expression of twenty-two envelope genes of muscle biopsies demonstrated a significant increase of putative muscle-cell fusogenic genes Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-3, but also for the non-fusogenic erv3. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Syncytin-1 mainly localized to the sarcolemma of myofibers positive for myosin heavy-chain isotypes. Cellular receptors SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 of Syncytin-1 showed significant decrease of expression in post-competitive muscles compared with the pre-competitive season, but only SLC1A4 protein expression localized throughout the myofiber. Erv3 protein was strongly expressed throughout the myofiber, whereas envK1-7 localized to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1 transcription factors, PPARγ and RXRα, showed no protein expression in the myofiber, whereas the pCREB-Ser133 activator of Syncytin-1 was enriched to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-3, SLC1A4 and PAX7 gene regulations along with MyoD1 and myogenin were verified during proliferating or actively-fusing human

  14. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  15. Production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid using two sequential enzymes overexpressed as double-tagged fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chung-Hsien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two sequential enzymes in the production of sialic acids, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (GlcNAc 2-epimerase and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid aldolase (Neu5Ac aldolase, were overexpressed as double-tagged gene fusions. Both were tagged with glutathione S-transferase (GST at the N-terminus, but at the C-terminus, one was tagged with five contiguous aspartate residues (5D, and the other with five contiguous arginine residues (5R. Results Both fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and retained enzymatic activity. The fusions were designed so their surfaces were charged under enzyme reaction conditions, which allowed isolation and immobilization in a single step, through a simple capture with either an anionic or a cationic exchanger (Sepharose Q or Sepharose SP that electrostatically bound the 5D or 5R tag. The introduction of double tags only marginally altered the affinity of the enzymes for their substrates, and the double-tagged proteins were enzymatically active in both soluble and immobilized forms. Combined use of the fusion proteins led to the production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc. Conclusion Double-tagged gene fusions were overexpressed to yield two enzymes that perform sequential steps in sialic acid synthesis. The proteins were easily immobilized via ionic tags onto ionic exchange resins and could thus be purified by direct capture from crude protein extracts. The immobilized, double-tagged proteins were effective for one-pot enzymatic production of sialic acid.

  16. The Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins in Medicago truncatula A17 Inoculated Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA KUSUMAWATI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Subtilisin-like serine protease (MtSBT, serine carboxypeptidase (MtSCP, MtN5, non-specific lipid transfer protein (MtnsLTP, early nodulin2-like protein (MtENOD2-like, FAD-binding domain containing protein (MtFAD-BP1, and rhicadhesin receptor protein (MtRHRE1 were among 34 proteins found in the supernatant of M. truncatula 2HA and sickle cell suspension cultures. This study investigated the expression of genes encoding those proteins in roots and developing nodules. Two methods were used: quantitative real time RT-PCR and gene expression analysis (with promoter:GUS fusion in roots. Those proteins are predicted as secreted proteins which is indirectly supported by the findings that promoter:GUS fusions of six of the seven genes encoding secreted proteins were strongly expressed in the vascular bundle of transgenic hairy roots. All six genes have expressed in 14-day old nodule. The expression levels of the selected seven genes were quantified in Sinorhizobium-inoculated and control plants using quantitative real time RT-PCR. In conclusion, among seven genes encoding secreted proteins analyzed, the expression level of only one gene, MtN5, was up-regulated significantly in inoculated root segments compared to controls. The expression of MtSBT1, MtSCP1, MtnsLTP, MtFAD-BP1, MtRHRE1 and MtN5 were higher in root tip than in other tissues examined.

  17. Statistical Assessment of Gene Fusion Detection Algorithms using RNASequencing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varadan, V.; Janevski, A.; Kamalakaran, S.; Banerjee, N.; Harris, L.; Dimitrova, D.

    2012-01-01

    The detection and quantification of fusion transcripts has both biological and clinical implications. RNA sequencing technology provides a means for unbiased and high resolution characterization of fusion transcript information in tissue samples. We evaluated two fusiondetection algorithms,

  18. BCR-ABL fusion genes are inducible by X-irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi; Seyama, Toshio; Mizuno, Terumi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Nakamura, Nori; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Dohi, Kiyohiko.

    1992-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome consists of a reciprocal translocation between the ABL oncogene at chromosome 9q34 and the BCR gene at chromosome 22q resulting in the expression of chimeric BCR-ABL mRNAs specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The presence of the fusion genes can be detected with high specificity and sensitivity by means of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Using this assay, it was possible to detect BCR-ABL fusion genes induced among HL60 cells after 100 Gy of X-irradiation in vitro. A total of five fusion gene transcripts were obtained. These fusion genes contained not only CML-specific BCR-ABL rearrangements, but also other forms of BCR-ABL fusions. These latter genes had junctions of BCR exon 4/ABL exon 2 intervened by a segment of DNA of unknown origin, BCR exon 5/ABL exon 2, and BCR exon 4/ABL exon 2. The results appear to be the first evidence for the induction of the BCR-ABL fusion gene by X-irradiation. In terms of leukemogenesis, it is suggested that only those cells bearing certain CML-related BCR-ABL fusion genes are positively selected by virtue of a growth advantage in vivo. (author)

  19. Expression of the Acyl-Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase GFP Fusion Protein in Sf21 Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtani, H. K.; Richmond, R. C.; Chang, T. Y.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important contributor to the pathological expression of plaque leading to artherosclerosis n a major health problem. Adequate knowledge of the structure of this protein will enable pharmaceutical companies to design drugs specific to the enzyme. ACAT is a membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum.t The protein has never been purified to homogeneity.T.Y. Chang's laboratory at Dartmouth College provided a 4-kb cDNA clone (K1) coding for a structural gene of the protein. We have modified the gene sequence and inserted the cDNA into the BioGreen His Baculovirus transfer vector. This was successfully expressed in Sf2l insect cells as a GFP-labeled ACAT protein. The advantage to this ACAT-GFP fusion protein (abbreviated GCAT) is that one can easily monitor its expression as a function of GFP excitation at 395 nm and emission at 509 nm. Moreover, the fusion protein GCAT can be detected on Western blots with the use of commercially available GFP antibodies. Antibodies against ACAT are not readily available. The presence of the 6xHis tag in the transfer vector facilitates purification of the recombinant protein since 6xHis fusion proteins bind with high affinity to Ni-NTA agarose. Obtaining highly pure protein in large quantities is essential for subsequent crystallization. The purified GCAT fusion protein can readily be cleaved into distinct GFP and ACAT proteins in the presence of thrombin. Thrombin digests the 6xHis tag linking the two protein sequences. Preliminary experiments have indicated that both GCAT and ACAT are expressed as functional proteins. The ultimate aim is to obtain large quantities of the ACAT protein in pure and functional form appropriate for protein crystal growth. Determining protein structure is the key to the design and development of effective drugs. X-ray analysis requires large homogeneous crystals that are difficult to obtain in the gravity environment of earth

  20. Recombinant fusion protein of albumin-retinol binding protein inactivates stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soyoung; Park, Sangeun; Kim, Suhyun [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chaeseung [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungho [Department of Life Science, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Dae Ryong [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-020 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Junseo, E-mail: ohjs@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Korea University Graduate School of Medicine, Ansan, Gyeonggi do 425-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed novel recombinant albumin-RBP fusion proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of fusion proteins inactivates pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fusion proteins are successfully internalized into and inactivate PSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBP moiety mediates cell specific uptake of fusion protein. -- Abstract: Quiescent pancreatic- (PSCs) and hepatic- (HSCs) stellate cells store vitamin A (retinol) in lipid droplets via retinol binding protein (RBP) receptor and, when activated by profibrogenic stimuli, they transform into myofibroblast-like cells which play a key role in the fibrogenesis. Despite extensive investigations, there is, however, currently no appropriate therapy available for tissue fibrosis. We previously showed that the expression of albumin, composed of three homologous domains (I-III), inhibits stellate cell activation, which requires its high-affinity fatty acid-binding sites asymmetrically distributed in domain I and III. To attain stellate cell-specific uptake, albumin (domain I/III) was coupled to RBP; RBP-albumin{sup domain} {sup III} (R-III) and albumin{sup domain} {sup I}-RBP-albumin{sup III} (I-R-III). To assess the biological activity of fusion proteins, cultured PSCs were used. Like wild type albumin, expression of R-III or I-R-III in PSCs after passage 2 (activated PSCs) induced phenotypic reversal from activated to fat-storing cells. On the other hand, R-III and I-R-III, but not albumin, secreted from transfected 293 cells were successfully internalized into and inactivated PSCs. FPLC-purified R-III was found to be internalized into PSCs via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and its efficient cellular uptake was also observed in HSCs and podocytes among several cell lines tested. Moreover, tissue distribution of intravenously injected R-III was closely similar to that of RBP. Therefore, our data suggest that albumin-RBP fusion protein comprises

  1. Oncogenic fusion proteins adopt the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Haim; Meisel-Sharon, Shilhav; Bruchim, Ilan

    2018-02-19

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) has been identified as a potent anti-apoptotic, pro-survival tyrosine kinase-containing receptor. Overexpression of the IGF1R gene constitutes a typical feature of most human cancers. Consistent with these biological roles, cells expressing high levels of IGF1R are expected not to die, a quintessential feature of cancer cells. Tumor specific chromosomal translocations that disrupt the architecture of transcription factors are a common theme in carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence gathered over the past fifteen years demonstrate that this type of genomic rearrangements is common not only among pediatric and hematological malignancies, as classically thought, but may also provide a molecular and cytogenetic foundation for an ever-increasing portion of adult epithelial tumors. In this review article we provide evidence that the mechanism of action of oncogenic fusion proteins associated with both pediatric and adult malignancies involves transactivation of the IGF1R gene, with ensuing increases in IGF1R levels and ligand-mediated receptor phosphorylation. Disrupted transcription factors adopt the IGF1R signaling pathway and elicit their oncogenic activities via activation of this critical regulatory network. Combined targeting of oncogenic fusion proteins along with the IGF1R may constitute a promising therapeutic approach.

  2. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Edgren, Henrik; Nicorici, Daniel; Murumägi, Astrid; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2012-01-01

    RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60%) of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  3. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kangaspeska

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60% of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  4. A case of lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hisashi; Hayashi, Akihito; Morimoto, Takeshi; Taima, Kageaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Shimada, Michiko; Kurose, Akira; Takanashi, Shingo; Okumura, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) - tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is used for the patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Recently, phase III studies in the patients with EGFR-mutant demonstrated that EGFR-TKI monotherapy improved progression-free survival compared with platinum-doublet chemotherapy. The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents one of the newest molecular targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients who harbor EML4-ALK fusions have been associated with a lack of EGFR or KRAS mutations. We report a 39-year-old patient diagnosed as adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK fusion gene. We treated this patient with erlotinib as the third line therapy, but no clinical benefit was obtained. We experienced a rare case with EGFR mutation and EML4-ALK. Any clinical benefit using EGFR-TKI was not obtained in our case. The therapeutic choice for the patients with more than one driver mutations is unclear. We needs further understanding of the lung cancer molecular biology and the biomarker infomation

  5. Protein Annotation from Protein Interaction Networks and Gene Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Cao D.; Gardiner, Katheleen J.; Cios, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for annotating protein function that combines Naïve Bayes and association rules, and takes advantage of the underlying topology in protein interaction networks and the structure of graphs in the Gene Ontology. We apply our method to proteins from the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and show that, in comparison with other approaches, it predicts protein functions with significantly higher recall with no loss of precision. Specifically, it achieves 51% precis...

  6. The coronavirus spike protein : mechanisms of membrane fusion and virion incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The coronavirus spike protein is a membrane-anchored glycoprotein responsible for virus-cell attachment and membrane fusion, prerequisites for a successful virus infection. In this thesis, two aspects are described regarding the molecular biology of the coronavirus spike protein: its membrane fusion

  7. Spike Protein Fusion Peptide and Feline Coronavirus Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Wen; Egberink, Herman F.; Halpin, Rebecca; Spiro, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new diseases and changes in pathogenicity; severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates that FIPV originates from FECV by mutation, but consistent distinguishing differences have not been established. We sequenced the full genome of 11 viruses of each pathotype and then focused on the single most distinctive site by additionally sequencing hundreds of viruses in that region. As a result, we identified 2 alternative amino acid differences in the putative fusion peptide of the spike protein that together distinguish FIPV from FECV in >95% of cases. By these and perhaps other mutations, the virus apparently acquires its macrophage tropism and spreads systemically. PMID:22709821

  8. Human cytomegaloviruses expressing yellow fluorescent fusion proteins--characterization and use in antiviral screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Straschewski

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses labelled with fluorescent proteins are useful tools in molecular virology with multiple applications (e.g., studies on intracellular trafficking, protein localization, or gene activity. We generated by homologous recombination three recombinant cytomegaloviruses carrying the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP fused with the viral proteins IE-2, ppUL32 (pp150, and ppUL83 (pp65. In growth kinetics, the three viruses behaved all like wild type, even at low multiplicity of infection (MOI. The expression of all three fusion proteins was detected, and their respective localizations were the same as for the unmodified proteins in wild-type virus-infected cells. We established the in vivo measurement of fluorescence intensity and used the recombinant viruses to measure inhibition of viral replication by neutralizing antibodies or antiviral substances. The use of these viruses in a pilot screen based on fluorescence intensity and high-content analysis identified cellular kinase inhibitors that block viral replication. In summary, these viruses with individually EYFP-tagged proteins will be useful to study antiviral substances and the dynamics of viral infection in cell culture.

  9. Loss of the NKX3.1 tumorsuppressor promotes the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene expression in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangapazham, Rajesh; Saenz, Francisco; Katta, Shilpa; Mohamed, Ahmed A; Tan, Shyh-Han; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Srivastava, Shiv; Dobi, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In normal prostate epithelium the TMPRSS2 gene encoding a type II serine protease is directly regulated by male hormones through the androgen receptor. In prostate cancer ERG protooncogene frequently gains hormonal control by seizing gene regulatory elements of TMPRSS2 through genomic fusion events. Although, the androgenic activation of TMPRSS2 gene has been established, little is known about other elements that may interact with TMPRSS2 promoter sequences to modulate ERG expression in TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion context. Comparative genomic analyses of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences and pathway analyses were performed by the Genomatix Software. NKX3.1 and ERG genes expressions were evaluated by immunoblot or by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in response to siRNA knockdown or heterologous expression. QRT-PCR assay was used for monitoring the gene expression levels of NKX3.1-regulated genes. Transcriptional regulatory function of NKX3.1 was assessed by luciferase assay. Recruitment of NKX3.1 to its cognate elements was monitored by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay. Comparative analysis of the TMPRSS2 promoter upstream sequences among different species revealed the conservation of binding sites for the androgen inducible NKX3.1 tumor suppressor. Defects of NKX3.1, such as, allelic loss, haploinsufficiency, attenuated expression or decreased protein stability represent established pathways in prostate tumorigenesis. We found that NKX3.1 directly binds to TMPRSS2 upstream sequences and negatively regulates the expression of the ERG protooncogene through the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These observations imply that the frequently noted loss-of-function of NKX3.1 cooperates with the activation of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions in prostate tumorigenesis

  10. Gene fusions with lacZ by duplication insertion in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, E.; Minton, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is the most-studied species of a eubacterial family characterized by extreme resistance to DNA damage. We have focused on developing molecular biological techniques to investigate the genetics of this organism. We report construction of lacZ gene fusions by a method involving both in vitro splicing and the natural transformation of D. radiodurans. Numerous fusion strains were identified by expression of beta-galactosidase. Among these fusion strains, several were inducible by exposure to the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C, and four of the inducible fusion constructs were cloned in Escherichia coli. Hybridization studies indicate that one of the damage-inducible genes contains a sequence reiterated throughout the D. radiodurans chromosome. Survival measurements show that two of the fusion strains have increased sensitivity to mitomycin C, suggesting that the fusions within these strains inactivate repair functions

  11. Respiratory syncytial virus subunit vaccine based on a recombinant fusion protein expressed transiently in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallet, Sophie; Amacker, Mario; Westerfeld, Nicole; Baldi, Lucia; König, Iwo; Hacker, David L; Zaborosch, Christiane; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo; Wurm, Florian M

    2009-10-30

    Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants and adults at risk, no RSV vaccine is currently available. In this report, efforts toward the generation of an RSV subunit vaccine using recombinant RSV fusion protein (rRSV-F) are described. The recombinant protein was produced by transient gene expression (TGE) in suspension-adapted human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293E) in 4 L orbitally shaken bioreactors. It was then purified and formulated in immunostimulating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs). The candidate vaccine induced anti-RSV-F neutralizing antibodies in mice, and challenge studies in cotton rats are ongoing. If successful in preclinical and clinical trials, this will be the first recombinant subunit vaccine produced by large-scale TGE in mammalian cells.

  12. Construction of a fusion gene containing hepatitis B virus L gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... the successful construction of a recombinant yeast expression vector containing gene coding L protein and Ag85B ..... the production of memory T cells, promote cytokine secretion and ... Dual DNA vaccination of rainbow trout.

  13. Analysis of the selective advantage conferred by a C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Claudia; Tzeng, W.-P.; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Frey, Teryl K.

    2007-01-01

    During serial passaging of rubella virus (RUB) in cell culture, the dominant species of defective-interfering RNA (DI) generated contains an in-frame deletion between the capsid protein (C) gene and E1 glycoprotein gene resulting in production of a C-E1 fusion protein that is necessary for the maintenance of the DI [Tzeng, W.P., Frey, T.K. (2006). C-E1 fusion protein synthesized by rubella virus DI RNAs maintained during serial passage. Virology 356 198-207.]. A BHK cell line stably expressing the RUB structural proteins was established which was used to package DIs into virus particles following transfection with in vitro transcripts from DI infectious cDNA constructs. Packaging of a DI encoding an in-frame C-GFP-E1 reporter fusion protein corresponding to the C-E1 fusion protein expressed in a native DI was only marginally more efficient than packaging of a DI encoding GFP, indicating that the C-E1 fusion protein did not function by enhancing packaging. However, infection with the DI encoding the C-GFP-E1 fusion protein (in the absence of wt RUB helper virus) resulted in formation of clusters of GFP-positive cells and the percentage of GFP-positive cells in the culture following infection remained relatively constant. In contrast, a DI encoding GFP did not form GFP-positive clusters and the percentage of GFP-positive cells declined by roughly half from 2 to 4 days post-infection. Cluster formation and sustaining the percentage of infected (GFP-positive) cells required the C part of the fusion protein, including the downstream but not the upstream of two arginine clusters (both of which are associated with RNA binding and association with mitochondrial p32 protein) and the E1 part through the transmembrane sequence, but not the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Among a collection of mutant DI constructs, cluster formation and sustaining infected cell percentage correlated with maintenance during serial passage with wt RUB. We hypothesize that cluster formation and

  14. Chaperone activity of human small heat shock protein-GST fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbach, Hannah; Butler, Caley; McMenimen, Kathryn A

    2017-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a ubiquitous part of the machinery that maintains cellular protein homeostasis by acting as molecular chaperones. sHsps bind to and prevent the aggregation of partially folded substrate proteins in an ATP-independent manner. sHsps are dynamic, forming an ensemble of structures from dimers to large oligomers through concentration-dependent equilibrium dissociation. Based on structural studies and mutagenesis experiments, it is proposed that the dimer is the smallest active chaperone unit, while larger oligomers may act as storage depots for sHsps or play additional roles in chaperone function. The complexity and dynamic nature of their structural organization has made elucidation of their chaperone function challenging. HspB1 and HspB5 are two canonical human sHsps that vary in sequence and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. In order to determine the role of the dimer in chaperone activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was genetically linked as a fusion protein to the N-terminus regions of both HspB1 and HspB5 (also known as Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, respectively) proteins in order to constrain oligomer formation of HspB1 and HspB5, by using GST, since it readily forms a dimeric structure. We monitored the chaperone activity of these fusion proteins, which suggest they primarily form dimers and monomers and function as active molecular chaperones. Furthermore, the two different fusion proteins exhibit different chaperone activity for two model substrate proteins, citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). GST-HspB1 prevents more aggregation of MDH compared to GST-HspB5 and wild type HspB1. However, when CS is the substrate, both GST-HspB1 and GST-HspB5 are equally effective chaperones. Furthermore, wild type proteins do not display equal activity toward the substrates, suggesting that each sHsp exhibits different substrate specificity. Thus, substrate specificity, as described here for full-length GST

  15. Elastin-like-polypeptide based fusion proteins for osteogenic factor delivery in bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryce; Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-07-08

    Modern treatments of bone injuries and diseases are becoming increasingly dependent on the usage of growth factors to stimulate bone growth. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a potent osteogenic inductive protein, exhibits promising results in treatment models, but recently has had its practical efficacy questioned due to the lack of local retention, ectopic bone formation, and potentially lethal inflammation. Where a new delivery technique of the BMP-2 is necessary, here we demonstrate the viability of an elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusion protein containing BMP-2 for delivery of the BMP-2. This fusion protein retains the performance characteristics of both the BMP-2 and ELP. The fusion protein was found to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells as evidenced by the production of alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposits in response to treatment by the fusion protein. Retention of the ELPs inverse phase transition property has allowed for expression of the fusion protein within a bacterial host (such as Escherichia coli) and easy and rapid purification using inverse transition cycling. The fusion protein formed self-aggregating nanoparticles at human-body temperature. The data collected suggests the viability of these fusion protein nanoparticles as a dosage-efficient and location-precise noncytotoxic delivery vehicle for BMP-2 in bone treatment. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1029-1037, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Premature activation of the paramyxovirus fusion protein before target cell attachment with corruption of the viral fusion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Palermo, Laura M; Yokoyama, Christine C; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-11-04

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents.

  17. [Construction of eukaryotic recombinant vector and expression in COS7 cell of LipL32-HlyX fusion gene from Leptospira serovar Lai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi; Bao, Lang; Zhong, Qi; Zhang, Huidong; Zhang, Ying

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to construct eukaryotic recombinant vector of LipL32-HlyX fusion gene from Leptospira serovar Lai and express it in mammalian cell. Both of LipL32 gene and HlyX gene were amplified from Leptospira strain O17 genomic DNA by PCR. Then with the two genes as template, LipL32-HlyX fusion gene was obtained by SOE PCR (gene splicing by overlap extension PCR). The fusion gene was then cloned into pcDNA3.1 by restriction nuclease digestion. Having been transformed into E. coli DH5alpha, the recombiant plasmid was identified by restriction nuclease digestion, PCR analysis and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was then transfected into COS7 cell whose expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. RT-PCR amplified a fragment about 2000 bp and Western blotting analysis found a specific band about 75 KD which was consistent with the expected fusion protein size. In conclusion, the successful construction of eukaryotic recombinant vector containing LipL32-HlyX fusion gene and the effective expression in mammalian have laid a foundation for the application of Leptospira DNA vaccine.

  18. Sesquiterpene Synthase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Synthase Fusion Protein Responsible for Hirsutene Biosynthesis in Stereum hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Christopher M; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2018-06-01

    The wood-rotting mushroom Stereum hirsutum is a known producer of a large number of namesake hirsutenoids, many with important bioactivities. Hirsutenoids form a structurally diverse and distinct class of sesquiterpenoids. No genes involved in hirsutenoid biosynthesis have yet been identified or their enzymes characterized. Here, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of a hirsutene synthase as an unexpected fusion protein of a sesquiterpene synthase (STS) with a C-terminal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) synthase (HMGS) domain. Both the full-length fusion protein and truncated STS domain are highly product-specific 1,11-cyclizing STS enzymes with kinetic properties typical of STSs. Complementation studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that the HMGS domain is also functional in vivo Phylogenetic analysis shows that the hirsutene synthase domain does not form a clade with other previously characterized sesquiterpene synthases from Basidiomycota. Comparative gene structure analysis of this hirsutene synthase with characterized fungal enzymes reveals a significantly higher intron density, suggesting that this enzyme may be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. In contrast, the HMGS domain is clearly related to other fungal homologs. This STS-HMGS fusion protein is part of a biosynthetic gene cluster that includes P450s and oxidases that are expressed and could be cloned from cDNA. Finally, this unusual fusion of a terpene synthase to an HMGS domain, which is not generally recognized as a key regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate isoprenoid precursor pathway, led to the identification of additional HMGS duplications in many fungal genomes, including the localization of HMGSs in other predicted sesquiterpenoid biosynthetic gene clusters. IMPORTANCE Hirsutenoids represent a structurally diverse class of bioactive sesquiterpenoids isolated from fungi. Identification of their biosynthetic pathways will provide

  19. Engineering and Functional Characterization of Fusion Genes Identifies Novel Oncogenic Drivers of Cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncogenic gene fusions drive many human cancers, but tools to more quickly unravel their functional contributions are needed. Here we describe methodology permitting fusion gene construction for functional evaluation. Using this strategy, we engineered the known fusion oncogenes, BCR-ABL1, EML4-ALK, and ETV6-NTRK3, as well as 20 previously uncharacterized fusion genes identified in TCGA datasets.

  20. Osteoinductive recombinant silk fusion proteins for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjaski, Nina; Plowright, Robyn; Zhou, Shun; Belton, David J; Perry, Carole C; Kaplan, David L

    2017-02-01

    Protein polymers provide a unique opportunity for tunable designs of material systems due to the genetic basis of sequence control. To address the challenge of biomineralization interfaces with protein based materials, we genetically engineered spider silks to design organic-inorganic hybrid systems. The spider silk inspired domain (SGRGGLGGQG AGAAAAAGGA GQGGYGGLGSQGT) 15 served as an organic scaffold to control material stability and to allow multiple modes of processing, whereas the hydroxyapatite binding domain VTKHLNQISQSY (VTK), provided control over osteogenesis. The VTK domain was fused either to the N-, C- or both terminals of the spider silk domain to understand the effect of position on material properties and mineralization. The addition of the VTK domain to silk did not affect the physical properties of the silk recombinant constructs, but it had a critical role in the induction of biomineralization. When the VTK domain was placed on both the C- and N-termini the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite was significantly increased. In addition, all of the recombinant proteins in film format supported the growth and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Importantly, the presence of the VTK domain enhanced osteoinductive properties up to 3-fold compared to the control (silk alone without VTK). Therefore, silk-VTK fusion proteins have been shown suitable for mineralization and functionalization for specific biomedical applications. Organic-inorganic interfaces are integral to biomaterial functions in many areas of repair and regeneration. Several protein polymers have been investigated for this purpose. Despite their success the limited options to fine-tune their material properties, degradation patterns and functionalize them for each specific biomedical application limits their application. Various studies have shown that the biological performance of such proteins can be improved by genetic engineering. The present study provides data

  1. Intracellular delivery of cell-penetrating peptide-transcriptional factor fusion protein and its role in selective osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh JS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jin Sook Suh,1,* Jue Yeon Lee,2,* Yoon Jung Choi,1 Hyung Keun You,3 Seong-Doo Hong,4 Chong Pyoung Chung,2 Yoon Jeong Park1,2 1Dental Regenerative Biotechnology, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 2Central Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC, Seoul, 3Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 4Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Protein-transduction technology has been attempted to deliver macromolecular materials, including protein, nucleic acids, and polymeric drugs, for either diagnosis or therapeutic purposes. Herein, fusion protein composed of an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide, termed low-molecular-weight protamine (LMWP, and a transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ protein was prepared and applied in combination with biomaterials to increase bone-forming capacity. TAZ has been recently identified as a specific osteogenic stimulating transcriptional coactivator in human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC differentiation, while simultaneously blocking adipogenic differentiation. However, TAZ by itself cannot penetrate the cells, and thus needs a transfection tool for translocalization. The LMWP-TAZ fusion proteins were efficiently translocalized into the cytosol of hMSCs. The hMSCs treated with cell-penetrating LMWP-TAZ exhibited increased expression of osteoblastic genes and protein, producing significantly higher quantities of mineralized matrix compared to free TAZ. In contrast, adipogenic differentiation of the hMSCs was blocked by treatment of LMWP-TAZ fusion protein, as reflected by reduced marker-protein expression, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ messenger ribonucleic acid levels. LMWP-TAZ was applied in

  2. Aequorin fusion proteins as bioluminescent tracers for competitive immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Deo, Sapna K.; Dikici, Emre; Roda, Aldo; Daunert, Sylvia

    2004-06-01

    The use of bio- and chemiluminescence for the development of quantitative binding assays offers undoubted advantages over other detection systems, such as spectrophotometry, fluorescence, or radioactivity. Indeed, bio- and chemiluminescence detection provides similar, or even better, sensitivity and detectability than radioisotopes, while avoiding the problems of health hazards, waste disposal, and instability associated with the use of radioisotopes. Among bioluminescent labels, the calcium-activated photoprotein aequorin, originally isolated from Aequorea victoria and today available as a recombinant product, is characterized by very high detectability, down to attomole levels. It has been used as a bioluminescent label for developing a variety of highly sensitive immunoassays, using various analyte-aequorin conjugation strategies. When the analyte is a protein or a peptide, genetic engineering techniques can be used to produce protein fusions where the analyte is in-frame fused with aequorin, thus producing homogeneous one-to-one conjugation products, available in virtually unlimited amount. Various assays were developed using this strategy: a short review of the most interesting applications is presented, as well as the cloning, purification and initial characterization of an endothelin-1-aequorin conjugate suitable for developing a competitive immunoassay for endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, involved in hypertension.

  3. Production and evaluation of cytotoxic effects of DT386-BR2 fusion protein as a novel anti-cancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a fusion protein consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects for targeted eradication of cancer cells. For this purpose, The DT386-BR2 structure was predicted using Modeller 9.14 and the best predicted model was selected based on the minimum DOPE score. A synthetic gene encoding DT386-BR2 was cloned in pET28a expression vector, expressed and purified by affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed the expression of the DT386-BR2 fusion protein by revealing a band of about 47kDa after the induction of the expression. Finally, the purified protein was subjected to MTT assay for evaluation of its cyto-lethal effects on cancer and normal cell lines. Statistical analysis showed significant reduction in survival percent of HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells in comparison to negative control (PBS), while the cytotoxic effect was not significant on the normal cells, i.e. HUVEC and HEK 293. The IC50 of DT386-BR2 for HeLa and MCF-7 was about 0.55 and 2.08μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the production and purification of DT386-BR2 fusion protein was successfully achieved and its cytotoxic effects on the studied cancer cell lines was established. The promising cytotoxic effects of this newly constructed fusion protein made it a suitable candidate for targeted therapy of cancer, and further in vitro and in vivo studies on this fusion protein is underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  5. Revealing Surface Waters on an Antifreeze Protein by Fusion Protein Crystallography Combined with Molecular Dynamic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjun; Gauthier, Sherry Y; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2015-10-08

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) adsorb to ice through an extensive, flat, relatively hydrophobic surface. It has been suggested that this ice-binding site (IBS) organizes surface waters into an ice-like clathrate arrangement that matches and fuses to the quasi-liquid layer on the ice surface. On cooling, these waters join the ice lattice and freeze the AFP to its ligand. Evidence for the generality of this binding mechanism is limited because AFPs tend to crystallize with their IBS as a preferred protein-protein contact surface, which displaces some bound waters. Type III AFP is a 7 kDa globular protein with an IBS made up two adjacent surfaces. In the crystal structure of the most active isoform (QAE1), the part of the IBS that docks to the primary prism plane of ice is partially exposed to solvent and has clathrate waters present that match this plane of ice. The adjacent IBS, which matches the pyramidal plane of ice, is involved in protein-protein crystal contacts with few surface waters. Here we have changed the protein-protein contacts in the ice-binding region by crystallizing a fusion of QAE1 to maltose-binding protein. In this 1.9 Å structure, the IBS that fits the pyramidal plane of ice is exposed to solvent. By combining crystallography data with MD simulations, the surface waters on both sides of the IBS were revealed and match well with the target ice planes. The waters on the pyramidal plane IBS were loosely constrained, which might explain why other isoforms of type III AFP that lack the prism plane IBS are less active than QAE1. The AFP fusion crystallization method can potentially be used to force the exposure to solvent of the IBS on other AFPs to reveal the locations of key surface waters.

  6. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walchli John

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. Results In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38α, viral polymerase (HCV NS5B, and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. Conclusion The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  7. [Rapid expression and preparation of the recombinant fusion protein sTNFRII-gAD by adenovirus vector system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoren; Liu, Xuerong; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Liu, Yunfan; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xiaobing; Gao, Jimin

    2011-08-01

    We expressed and prepared the recombinant fusion protein sTNFRII-gAD consisted of soluble TNF receptor II and the globular domain of adiponectin by Adenovirus Vector System in mammalian BHK21c022 cells. First we used the adenovirus vector containing EGFP gene (rAd5-EGFP) to infect BHK21c022 cells at different MOI (from 0 to 1 000), and then evaluated their transduction efficiency and cytotoxicity. Similarly, we constructed the replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-sTNFRII-gAD (rAd5-sTNFRII-gAD). We collected the supernatants for Western blotting to determine the optimal MOI by comparing the expression levels of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein, 48 h after the BHK21c022 cells were infected by rAd5-sTNFRII-gAD at different MOIs (from 0 to 1 000). Then, we chose rAd5-sTNFRII-gAD at MOI 100 to infect five bottles of BHK21c022 cells in 100 mL of serum-free chemically defined media 100 mL, harvested the supernatant every 48 h for 6 times, and condense and purify sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein by ammonium sulfate salt-out and size-exclusion chromatography, respectively. Finally, we analyzed anti-TNFalpha activity of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein on L929 cells in vitro. The results showed that the number of BHK21c022 cells expressing EGFP protein was increased significantly with the increase of MOI. However, some cells died at MOI of 1 000 while there was no significant cytotoxicity at MOI from 0 to 100. Western blotting analysis showed that the more adenoviruses, the higher expression of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein in the supernatant with the highest expression at MOI 1 000. We successfully obtained about 11 mg bioactive and purified sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein at last. The in vitro assay demonstrated that the sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein was potent to antagonize TNFalpha's cytotoxicity to L929 cells. Put together, we established a recombinant adenovirus vector/BHK21 cell expression system, characteristic of the efficient serum-free culture and easy scaling-up.

  8. Thioredoxin-albumin fusion protein prevents copper enhanced zinc-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Shimoda, Mikako; Chuang, Victor T G; Nishida, Kento; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru; Ishima, Yu

    2018-01-15

    Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death. Thioredoxin-Albumin fusion (HSA-Trx) is a derivative of thioredoxin (Trx), an antioxidative protein, with improved plasma retention and stability of Trx. In this study, we examined the effect of HSA-Trx on Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neurotoxicity. Firstly, HSA-Trx was found to clearly suppress Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neuronal cell death in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). Moreover, HSA-Trx markedly suppressed Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced ROS production and the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as heme oxygenase-1. In contrast, HSA-Trx did not affect the intracellular levels of both Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ after Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ treatment. Finally, HSA-Trx was found to significantly suppress endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ treatment in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that HSA-Trx counteracted Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neurotoxicity by suppressing the production of ROS via interfering the related gene expressions, in addition to the highly possible radical scavenging activity of the fusion protein. Based on these findings, HSA-Trx has great potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of refractory neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Junction region of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein has a dominant negative effect in Ewing’s Sarcoma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jully, Babu; Vijayalakshmi, Ramshankar; Gopal, Gopisetty; Sabitha, Kesavan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2012-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a malignancy characterized by a specific 11:22 chromosomal translocation which generates a novel EWS-FLI1 fusion protein functioning as an aberrant transcription factor. In the present study, we have further characterized the junction region of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. In-silico model of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein was analysed for ligand binding sites, and a putative region (amino acid (aa) 251–343 of the type 1 fusion protein) in the vicinity of the fusion junction was cloned and expressed using bacterial expression. The recombinant protein was characterized by Circular Dichroism (CD). We then expressed aa 251–280 ectopically in Ewing’s sarcoma cell-line and its effect on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity and expression of EWS-FLI1 target genes were analysed. Our modelling analysis indicated that Junction region (aa 251–343) encompasses potential ligand biding sites in the EWS-FLI1 protein and when expressed in bacteria was present as soluble form. Ectopically expressing this region in Ewing’s sarcoma cells inhibited tumorigenicity, and EWS-FLI1 target genes indicating a dominant negative biological effect. Junction region can be exploited further as target for drug development in future to specifically target EWS-FLI1 in Ewing’s Sarcoma

  10. Discovery and characterization of a novel CCND1/MRCK gene fusion in mantle cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioniso Patience Masamha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The t(11;14 translocation resulting in constitutive cyclin D1 expression is an early event in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL transformation. Patients with a highly proliferative phenotype produce cyclin D1 transcripts with truncated 3′UTRs that evade miRNA regulation. Here, we report the recurrence of a novel gene fusion in MCL cell lines and MCL patient isolates that consists of the full protein coding region of cyclin D1 (CCND1 and a 3′UTR consisting of sequences from both the CCND1 3′UTR and myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase's (MRCK intron one. The resulting CCND1/MRCK mRNA is resistant to CCND1-targeted miRNA regulation, and targeting the MRCK region of the chimeric 3′UTR with siRNA results in decreased CCND1 levels.

  11. Tyrosine kinase fusion genes in pediatric BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Judith M.; Steeghs, Elisabeth M.P.; Marchante, João R.M.; Boeree, Aurélie; Beaudoin, James J.; Berna Beverloo, H.; Kuiper, Roland P.; Escherich, Gabriele; van der Velden, Vincent H.J.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Pieters, Rob; den Boer, Monique L.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 15% of pediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by gene expression similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive disease and unfavorable prognosis. This BCR-ABL1-like subtype shows a high frequency of B-cell development gene aberrations and tyrosine kinase-activating lesions. To evaluate the clinical significance of tyrosine kinase gene fusions in children with BCP-ALL, we studied the frequency of recently identified tyrosine kinase fusions, associated genetic features, and prognosis in a representative Dutch/German cohort. We identified 14 tyrosine kinase fusions among 77 BCR-ABL1-like cases (18%) and none among 76 non-BCR-ABL1-like B-other cases. Novel exon fusions were identified for RCSD1-ABL2 and TERF2-JAK2. JAK2 mutation was mutually exclusive with tyrosine kinase fusions and only occurred in cases with high CRLF2 expression. The non/late response rate and levels of minimal residual disease in the fusion-positive BCR-ABL1-like group were higher than in the non-BCR-ABL1-like B-others (p<0.01), and also higher, albeit not statistically significant, compared with the fusion-negative BCR-ABL1-like group. The 8-year cumulative incidence of relapse in the fusion-positive BCR-ABL1-like group (35%) was comparable with that in the fusion-negative BCR-ABL1-like group (35%), and worse than in the non-BCR-ABL1-like B-other group (17%, p=0.07). IKZF1 deletions, predominantly other than the dominant-negative isoform and full deletion, co-occurred with tyrosine kinase fusions. This study shows that tyrosine kinase fusion-positive cases are a high-risk subtype of BCP-ALL, which warrants further studies with specific kinase inhibitors to improve outcome. PMID:27894077

  12. The Fusion Loops of the Initial Prefusion Conformation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Fusion Protein Point Toward the Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fontana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available All enveloped viruses, including herpesviruses, must fuse their envelope with the host membrane to deliver their genomes into target cells, making this essential step subject to interference by antibodies and drugs. Viral fusion is mediated by a viral surface protein that transits from an initial prefusion conformation to a final postfusion conformation. Strikingly, the prefusion conformation of the herpesvirus fusion protein, gB, is poorly understood. Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a model system for herpesviruses, causes diseases ranging from mild skin lesions to serious encephalitis and neonatal infections. Using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, we have characterized the structure of the prefusion conformation and fusion intermediates of HSV-1 gB. To this end, we have set up a system that generates microvesicles displaying full-length gB on their envelope. We confirmed proper folding of gB by nondenaturing electrophoresis-Western blotting with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs covering all gB domains. To elucidate the arrangement of gB domains, we labeled them by using (i mutagenesis to insert fluorescent proteins at specific positions, (ii coexpression of gB with Fabs for a neutralizing MAb with known binding sites, and (iii incubation of gB with an antibody directed against the fusion loops. Our results show that gB starts in a compact prefusion conformation with the fusion loops pointing toward the viral membrane and suggest, for the first time, a model for gB’s conformational rearrangements during fusion. These experiments further illustrate how neutralizing antibodies can interfere with the essential gB structural transitions that mediate viral entry and therefore infectivity.

  13. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion status in minute (minimal) prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Toubaji, Antoun; Haffner, Michael; Isaacs, William B; A Platz, Elizabeth; Meeker, Alan K; Demarzo, Angelo M; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-11-01

    Minute prostatic adenocarcinomas are considered to be of insufficient virulence. Given recent suggestions of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion association with aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma, we evaluated the incidence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute prostatic adenocarcinomas. A total of 45 consecutive prostatectomies with minute adenocarcinoma were used for tissue microarray construction. A total of 63 consecutive non-minimal, Gleason Score 6 tumors, from a separate PSA Era prostatectomy tissue microarray, were used for comparison. FISH was carried out using ERG break-apart probes. Tumors were assessed for fusion by deletion (Edel) or split (Esplit), duplicated fusions and low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus. Minute adenocarcinomas: Fusion was evaluable in 32/45 tumors (71%). Fifteen out of 32 (47%) tumors were positive for fusion. Six (19%) were of the Edel class and 7 (22%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT2): Fusion was identified in 20/30 tumors (67%). Four (13%) were of Edel class and 5 (17%) were combined Edel+Esplit. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 5 (16%) tumors. Non-minute adenocarcinomas (pT3): Fusion was identified in 19/33 (58%). Fusion was due to a deletion in 6 (18%) tumors. Seven tumors (21%) were classified as combined Edel+Esplit. One tumor showed Esplit alone. Duplicated fusions were encountered in 3 (9%) cases. The incidence of duplicated fusions was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas (13 vs 0%; P=0.03). A trend for higher incidence of low-level copy number gain in normal ERG gene locus without fusion was noted in non-minute adenocarcinomas (10 vs 0%; P=0.07). We found a TMPRSS2-ERG fusion rate of 47% in minute adenocarcinomas. The latter is not significantly different from that of grade matched non-minute adenocarcinomas. The incidence of duplicated fusion was higher in non-minute adenocarcinomas. Our finding of comparable rate of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in minute adenocarcinomas may argue

  14. Nanoparticle-Fusion Protein Complexes Protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter; Copland, Alastair; Diogo, Gil Reynolds; Harris, Shane; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Basile, Juan; Rottenberg, Martin; Paul, Matthew John; Reljic, Rajko

    2018-03-07

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease, and the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is inadequate. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an emerging vaccine technology, with recent successes in oncology and infectious diseases. NPs have been exploited as antigen delivery systems and also for their adjuvantic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying their immunological activity remain obscure. Here, we developed a novel mucosal TB vaccine (Nano-FP1) based upon yellow carnauba wax NPs (YC-NPs), coated with a fusion protein consisting of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens: Acr, Ag85B, and HBHA. Mucosal immunization of BCG-primed mice with Nano-FP1 significantly enhanced protection in animals challenged with low-dose, aerosolized Mtb. Bacterial control by Nano-FP1 was associated with dramatically enhanced cellular immunity compared to BCG, including superior CD4 + and CD8 + T cell proliferation, tissue-resident memory T cell (Trm) seeding in the lungs, and cytokine polyfunctionality. Alongside these effects, we also observed potent humoral responses, such as the generation of Ag85B-specific serum IgG and respiratory IgA. Finally, we found that YC-NPs were able to activate antigen-presenting cells via an unconventional IRF-3-associated activation signature, without the production of potentially harmful inflammatory mediators, providing a mechanistic framework for vaccine efficacy and future development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Protein annotation from protein interaction networks and Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao D; Gardiner, Katheleen J; Cios, Krzysztof J

    2011-10-01

    We introduce a novel method for annotating protein function that combines Naïve Bayes and association rules, and takes advantage of the underlying topology in protein interaction networks and the structure of graphs in the Gene Ontology. We apply our method to proteins from the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) and show that, in comparison with other approaches, it predicts protein functions with significantly higher recall with no loss of precision. Specifically, it achieves 51% precision and 60% recall versus 45% and 26% for Majority and 24% and 61% for χ²-statistics, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A multidomain fusion protein in Listeria monocytogenes catalyzes the two primary activities for glutathione biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Shubha; Borovok, Ilya; Ofer, Amos; Yanku, Michaela; Cohen, Gerald; Goebel, Werner; Kreft, Jürgen; Aharonowitz, Yair

    2005-06-01

    Glutathione is the predominant low-molecular-weight peptide thiol present in living organisms and plays a key role in protecting cells against oxygen toxicity. Until now, glutathione synthesis was thought to occur solely through the consecutive action of two physically separate enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and glutathione synthetase. In this report we demonstrate that Listeria monocytogenes contains a novel multidomain protein (termed GshF) that carries out complete synthesis of glutathione. Evidence for this comes from experiments which showed that in vitro recombinant GshF directs the formation of glutathione from its constituent amino acids and the in vivo effect of a mutation in GshF that abolishes glutathione synthesis, results in accumulation of the intermediate gamma-glutamylcysteine, and causes hypersensitivity to oxidative agents. We identified GshF orthologs, consisting of a gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GshA) domain fused to an ATP-grasp domain, in 20 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Remarkably, 95% of these bacteria are mammalian pathogens. A plausible origin for GshF-dependent glutathione biosynthesis in these bacteria was the recruitment by a GshA ancestor gene of an ATP-grasp gene and the subsequent spread of the fusion gene between mammalian hosts, most likely by horizontal gene transfer.

  17. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  18. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Margot N.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  19. Structural Transition and Antibody Binding of EBOV GP and ZIKV E Proteins from Pre-Fusion to Fusion-Initiation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lappala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion proteins are responsible for viral entry into host cells—a crucial first step in viral infection. These proteins undergo large conformational changes from pre-fusion to fusion-initiation structures, and, despite differences in viral genomes and disease etiology, many fusion proteins are arranged as trimers. Structural information for both pre-fusion and fusion-initiation states is critical for understanding virus neutralization by the host immune system. In the case of Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GP and Zika virus envelope protein (ZIKV E, pre-fusion state structures have been identified experimentally, but only partial structures of fusion-initiation states have been described. While the fusion-initiation structure is in an energetically unfavorable state that is difficult to solve experimentally, the existing structural information combined with computational approaches enabled the modeling of fusion-initiation state structures of both proteins. These structural models provide an improved understanding of four different neutralizing antibodies in the prevention of viral host entry.

  20. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  1. Moult-inhibiting fusion protein augments while polyclonal antisera attenuate moult stages and duration in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinda, S; Jasmin, C; Sivakumar, K C; Jose, Blessy; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-07-01

    Moulting in crustaceans is regulated by moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the CHH family neuropeptides. The inhibitory functions of MIH have pivotal roles in growth and reproduction of Penaeus monodon. In this study, we report the expression of a thioredoxin-fused mature MIH I protein (mf-PmMIH I) of P. monodon in a bacterial system and its use as antigen to raise polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I). The mature MIH I gene of 231bp, that codes for 77 amino acids, was cloned into the Escherichia coli thioredoxin gene fusion expression system. The translation expression vector construct (mf-PmMIH I+pET32a+) upon induction produced 29.85kDa mature MIH I fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I). The purified fusion protein was used as exogenous MIH I and as antigen to raise polyclonal antisera. When fusion protein (mf-PmMIH I) was injected into D2 and D3 stages of juvenile shrimp, the moult cycle duration was extended significantly to 16.67±1.03 and 14.67±1.03days respectively compared to that of 11.67±1.03days in controls. Moult duration was further reduced to 8.33±0.82days when polyclonal antiserum (anti-mf-PmMIH I - 1:500 dilutions) was injected. Anti-mf-PmMIH I immunolocalized MIH I producing neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk of P. monodon. In short, the present manuscript reports an innovative means of moult regulation in P. monodon with thioredoxin fused MIH I and antisera developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Tamara L; Toubaji, Antoun; Albadine, Roula; Latour, Mathieu; Herawi, Mehsati; Meeker, Alan K; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

    2009-03-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an unusual subtype that may be associated with a more aggressive clinical course, and is less responsive to conventional therapies than the more common prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. However, given its frequent association with an acinar component at prostatectomy, some have challenged the concept of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. We studied the occurrence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, in 40 surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma cases, and in their associated acinar component using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A group of 38 'pure' acinar adenocarcinoma cases matched with the ductal adenocarcinoma group for pathological grade and stage was studied as a control. Compared with the matched acinar adenocarcinoma cases, the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was significantly less frequently observed in ductal adenocarcinoma (45 vs 11% of cases, P=0.002, Fisher's exact test). Here, of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases with the gene fusion, 75% were fused through deletion, and the remaining case was fused through translocation. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was also rare in the acinar component of mixed ductal-acinar tumors when compared with the pure acinar adenocarcinoma controls (5 vs 45%, P=0.001, Fisher's exact test). In 95% of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases in which a concurrent acinar component was analyzed, there was concordance for presence/absence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion between the different histologic subtypes. In the control group of pure acinar adenocarcinoma cases, 59% were fused through deletion and 41% were fused through translocation. The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in some cases of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma supports the concept that ductal adenocarcinoma and acinar adenocarcinoma may be related genetically. However, the significantly lower rate of the gene fusion in pure ductal adenocarcinoma cases underscores the fact that genetic and biologic

  3. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Friis, Jenny Blechingberg; Fernandes, Ana Miguel

    2015-01-01

    at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. Conclusions The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes...... involved in pathways at the RNA regulatory level with potential to mediate normal and disease-associated functions of the FUS and EWS proteins.......Background FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins...

  4. [The Influence of New Medium with RGD on Cell Growth,Cell Fusion and Expression of Exogenous Gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Wei, Da-Peng; Zhu, Tong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the influence of a new culture medium added with RGD on cell growth,cell fusion and expression of exogenous gene. A new medium was prepared by adding different concentrations of RGD to ordinary culture medium. The optimum concentration of RGD was determined by observation of the growth of human pancreatic epithelial cell line HPDE6-C7. After determining the optimum concentration of RGD,different concentrations of cells HPDE6-C7 (5×10 4 ,10 5 ,5×10 5 mL -1 ) were inoculated in the two mediums. The morphology,adherence,growth and density of the cells were observed by inverted microscope; The ratio of clone formation and the positive rate of cloning were compared between the two cultures after fusion; The fluorescence intensity after the transfection of plasmid with green fluorescent protein ( GFP ) and the protein expression after transfection of plasmid with KRAS were observed to campare the expression of exogenous genes between the new medium with ordinary medium. Firstly,the optimal concentration of RGD was 10 ng/mL. Compared with the normal medium,the cultured cells with RGD had better morphology,adhesion and faster proliferation. In addition,both of the number and positive rate of clones formed in the new medium were significantly higher than that in the ordinary medium ( P exogenous gene GFP in the new medium was significantly higher than that in normal medium ( P exogenous gene KRAS of the new medium was also significantly higher than that in normal medium. The new culture medium has highlighted advantages in cell growth,cell fusion and expression of exogenous genes. RGD peptide has widely prospect and potential value in the cell culture. Copyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition).

  5. Development of a novel fluorescent imaging probe for tumor hypoxia by use of a fusion protein with oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2007-02-01

    More malignant tumors contain more hypoxic regions. In hypoxic tumor cells, expression of a series of hypoxiaresponsive genes related to malignant phenotype such as angiogenesis and metastasis are induced. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master transcriptional activator of such genes, and thus imaging of hypoxic tumor cells where HIF-1 is active, is important in cancer therapy. We have been developing PTD-ODD fusion proteins, which contain protein transduction domain (PTD) and the VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of HIF-1 alpha subunit (HIF-1α). Thus PTD-ODD fusion proteins can be delivered to any tissue in vivo through PTD function and specifically stabilized in hypoxic cells through ODD function. To investigate if PTD-ODD fusion protein can be applied to construct hypoxia-specific imaging probes, we first constructed a fluorescent probe because optical imaging enable us to evaluate a probe easily, quickly and economically in a small animal. We first construct a model fusion porein PTD-ODD-EGFP-Cy5.5 named POEC, which is PTD-ODD protein fused with EGFP for in vitro imaging and stabilization of fusion protein, and conjugated with a near-infrared dye Cy5.5. This probe is designed to be degraded in normoxic cells through the function of ODD domain and followed by quick clearance of free fluorescent dye. On the other hand, this prove is stabilized in hypoxic tumor cells and thus the dye is stayed in the cells. Between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, the difference in the clearance rate of the dye will reveals suited contrast for tumor-hypoxia imaging. The optical imaging probe has not been optimized yet but the results presented here exhibit a potential of PTD-ODD fusion protein as a hypoxia-specific imaging probe.

  6. Recurrent Fusion Genes in Gastric Cancer: CLDN18-ARHGAP26 Induces Loss of Epithelial Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangements, a hallmark of cancer, can result in gene fusions with oncogenic properties. Using DNA paired-end-tag (DNA-PET whole-genome sequencing, we analyzed 15 gastric cancers (GCs from Southeast Asians. Rearrangements were enriched in open chromatin and shaped by chromatin structure. We identified seven rearrangement hot spots and 136 gene fusions. In three out of 100 GC cases, we found recurrent fusions between CLDN18, a tight junction gene, and ARHGAP26, a gene encoding a RHOA inhibitor. Epithelial cell lines expressing CLDN18-ARHGAP26 displayed a dramatic loss of epithelial phenotype and long protrusions indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Fusion-positive cell lines showed impaired barrier properties, reduced cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, retarded wound healing, and inhibition of RHOA. Gain of invasion was seen in cancer cell lines expressing the fusion. Thus, CLDN18-ARHGAP26 mediates epithelial disintegration, possibly leading to stomach H+ leakage, and the fusion might contribute to invasiveness once a cell is transformed.

  7. Escherichia coli fusion carrier proteins act as solubilizing agents for recombinant uncoupling protein 1 through interactions with GroEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Gerkens, Pascal; Galleni, Moreno; Levy, Daniel; Sluse, Francis E.

    2005-01-01

    Fusing recombinant proteins to highly soluble partners is frequently used to prevent aggregation of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Moreover, co-overexpression of prokaryotic chaperones can increase the amount of properly folded recombinant proteins. To understand the solubility enhancement of fusion proteins, we designed two recombinant proteins composed of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial membrane protein, in fusion with MBP or NusA. We were able to express soluble forms of MBP-UCP1 and NusA-UCP1 despite the high hydrophobicity of UCP1. Furthermore, the yield of soluble fusion proteins depended on co-overexpression of GroEL that catalyzes folding of polypeptides. MBP-UCP1 was expressed in the form of a non-covalent complex with GroEL. MBP-UCP1/GroEL was purified and characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, and electron microscopy. Our findings suggest that MBP and NusA act as solubilizing agents by forcing the recombinant protein to pass through the bacterial chaperone pathway in the context of fusion protein

  8. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  9. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Piyaratna, Rohith; Lintao, Linda D; Chu, Marla; Liem, Alexis; Mark, Mary; Spaete, Richard R; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V

    2009-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years). Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C) 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years). Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently. PMID:19740442

  10. Construction of a fusion gene containing hepatitis B virus L gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that the recombinant protein was induced by methanol and stably expressed in P. pastoris, while it has specific reaction with the serum containing anti-HbsAg or anti-Ag85B. However, the successful construction of a recombinant yeast expression vector containing gene ...

  11. The TIP30 protein complex, arachidonic acid and coenzyme A are required for vesicle membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengliang Zhang

    Full Text Available Efficient membrane fusion has been successfully mimicked in vitro using artificial membranes and a number of cellular proteins that are currently known to participate in membrane fusion. However, these proteins are not sufficient to promote efficient fusion between biological membranes, indicating that critical fusogenic factors remain unidentified. We have recently identified a TIP30 protein complex containing TIP30, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4 and Endophilin B1 (Endo B1 that promotes the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles, which transport endosomal acidification enzymes vacuolar (H⁺-ATPases (V-ATPases to the early endosomes in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the TIP30 protein complex facilitates the fusion of endocytic vesicles with Rab5a vesicles in vitro. Fusion of the two vesicles also depends on arachidonic acid, coenzyme A and the synthesis of arachidonyl-CoA by ACSL4. Moreover, the TIP30 complex is able to transfer arachidonyl groups onto phosphatidic acid (PA, producing a new lipid species that is capable of inducing close contact between membranes. Together, our data suggest that the TIP30 complex facilitates biological membrane fusion through modification of PA on membranes.

  12. Optimizing HIV-1 protease production in Escherichia coli as fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piubelli Luciano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the etiological agent in AIDS and related diseases. The aspartyl protease encoded by the 5' portion of the pol gene is responsible for proteolytic processing of the gag-pol polyprotein precursor to yield the mature capsid protein and the reverse transcriptase and integrase enzymes. The HIV protease (HIV-1Pr is considered an attractive target for designing inhibitors which could be used to tackle AIDS and therefore it is still the object of a number of investigations. Results A recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1Pr was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells as a fusion protein with bacterial periplasmic protein dithiol oxidase (DsbA or glutathione S-transferase (GST, also containing a six-histidine tag sequence. Protein expression was optimized by designing a suitable HIV-1Pr cDNA (for E. coli expression and to avoid autoproteolysis and by screening six different E. coli strains and five growth media. The best expression yields were achieved in E. coli BL21-Codon Plus(DE3-RIL host and in TB or M9 medium to which 1% (w/v glucose was added to minimize basal expression. Among the different parameters assayed, the presence of a buffer system (based on phosphate salts and a growth temperature of 37°C after adding IPTG played the main role in enhancing protease expression (up to 10 mg of chimeric DsbA:HIV-1Pr/L fermentation broth. GST:HIVPr was in part (50% produced as soluble protein while the overexpressed DsbA:HIV-1Pr chimeric protein largely accumulated in inclusion bodies as unprocessed fusion protein. A simple refolding procedure was developed on HiTrap Chelating column that yielded a refolded DsbA:HIV-1Pr with a > 80% recovery. Finally, enterokinase digestion of resolubilized DsbA:HIV-1Pr gave more than 2 mg of HIV-1Pr per liter of fermentation broth with a purity ≤ 80%, while PreScission protease cleavage of soluble GST:HIVPr yielded ~ 0.15 mg of pure HIV-1

  13. Rapamycin-induced oligomer formation system of FRB-FKBP fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inobe, Tomonao; Nukina, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Most proteins form larger protein complexes and perform multiple functions in the cell. Thus, artificial regulation of protein complex formation controls the cellular functions that involve protein complexes. Although several artificial dimerization systems have already been used for numerous applications in biomedical research, cellular protein complexes form not only simple dimers but also larger oligomers. In this study, we showed that fusion proteins comprising the induced heterodimer formation proteins FRB and FKBP formed various oligomers upon addition of rapamycin. By adjusting the configuration of fusion proteins, we succeeded in generating an inducible tetramer formation system. Proteins of interest also formed tetramers by fusing to the inducible tetramer formation system, which exhibits its utility in a broad range of biological applications. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga; Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C.; Calder, Lesley J.; Melero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV F occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV F , we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV F at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy

  15. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific for the six-helix bundle of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein as probes of the protein post-fusion conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, Concepción; Mas, Vicente; Vázquez, Mónica; Cano, Olga [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Luque, Daniel; Terrón, María C. [Unidad de Microscopía Electrónica y Confocal, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Calder, Lesley J. [National Institute for Medical Research, MRC, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Melero, José A., E-mail: jmelero@isciii.es [Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) has two major surface glycoproteins (G and F) anchored in the lipid envelope. Membrane fusion promoted by hRSV{sub F} occurs via refolding from a pre-fusion form to a highly stable post-fusion state involving large conformational changes of the F trimer. One of these changes results in assembly of two heptad repeat sequences (HRA and HRB) into a six-helix bundle (6HB) motif. To assist in distinguishing pre- and post-fusion conformations of hRSV{sub F}, we have prepared polyclonal (α-6HB) and monoclonal (R145) rabbit antibodies specific for the 6HB. Among other applications, these antibodies were used to explore the requirements of 6HB formation by isolated protein segments or peptides and by truncated mutants of the F protein. Site-directed mutagenesis and electron microscopy located the R145 epitope in the post-fusion hRSV{sub F} at a site distantly located from previously mapped epitopes, extending the repertoire of antibodies that can decorate the F molecule. - Highlights: • Antibodies specific for post-fusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are described. • Polyclonal antibodies were obtained in rabbit inoculated with chimeric heptad repeats. • Antibody binding required assembly of a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion protein. • A monoclonal antibody with similar structural requirements is also described. • Binding of this antibody to the post-fusion protein was visualized by electron microscopy.

  16. Development of a single-chain variable fragment-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and a sensitive direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of ractopamine in pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Jiexian; Li Zhenfeng; Lei Hongtao; Sun Yuanming [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Ducancel, Frederic [CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immnoanalyse (SPI), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Xu Zhenlin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Boulain, Jean-Claude [CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immnoanalyse (SPI), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Yang Jinyi; Shen Yudong [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: gzwhongd@63.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-07-29

    Graphical abstract: Detection model of dc-CLEIA based on anti-RAC scFv-AP fusion protein. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The scFv-AP fusion protein against ractopamine (RAC) was produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dc-CLEIA for RAC was developed based on the purified scFv-AP fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitivity of dc-CLEIA was 10 times as sensitive as dc-ELISA for RAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovery tests from pork samples were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good accuracy was obtained. - Abstract: A rapid, sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for ractopamine (RAC) based on a single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning the heavy- and light-chain variable region genes (V{sub H} and V{sub L}) from hybridoma cell line AC2, which secretes antibodies against RAC, and assembling V{sub H} and V{sub L} genes with a linker by means of splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The resulting scFv gene was inserted into the expression vector pLIP6/GN containing AP to produce the fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21. The purified scFv-AP fusion protein was used to develop a direct competitive CLEIA (dcCLEIA) protocol for detection of RAC. The average concentration required for 50% inhibition of binding and the limit of detection of the assay were 0.25 {+-} 0.03 and 0.02 {+-} 0.004 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively, and the linear response range extended from 0.05 to 1.45 ng mL{sup -1}. The assay was 10 times as sensitive as the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the same fusion protein. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the fusion protein did not cross react with RAC analogs. DcCLEIA was used to analyze RAC spiked pork samples, and the validation was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The results showed a good correlation between

  17. Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the fusion protein CusF3H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant protein expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli still is the number one choice for large-scale protein production. Nevertheless, many complications can arise using this microorganism, such as low yields, the formation of inclusion bodies, and the requirement for difficult purification steps. Most of these problems can be solved with the use of fusion proteins. Here, the use of the metal-binding protein CusF3H+ is described as a new fusion protein for recombinant protein expression and purification in E. coli. We have previously shown that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein, with low levels of formation of inclusion bodies, and that proteins can be purified using IMAC resins charged with Cu(II) ions. CusF3H+ is an enhanced variant of CusF, formed by the addition of three histidine residues at the N-terminus. These residues then can bind Ni(II) ions allowing improved purity after affinity chromatography. Expression and purification of Green Fluorescent Protein tagged with CusF3H+ showed that the mutation did not alter the capacity of the fusion protein to increase protein expression, and purity improved considerably after affinity chromatography with immobilized nickel ions; high yields are obtained after tag-removal since CusF3H+ is a small protein of just 10 kDa. Furthermore, the results of experiments involving expression of tagged proteins having medium to large molecular weights indicate that the presence of the CusF3H+ tag improves protein solubility, as compared to a His-tag. We therefore endorse CusF3H+ as a useful alternative fusion protein/affinity tag for production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: Silk–silica binding peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J.; Simmons, Leo O.; Perry, Carole C.; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk–silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution–solution and solution– solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600–800 nm) were formed in the presence of the recombinant silk and chimeras, which were smaller than those formed by 15mer-SiBP chimeras [1], revealing that the molecular weight of the silk domain correlated to the sizes of the condensed silica particles in the solution system. In addition, the chimeras (6mer-A1/A3/R5) produced smaller condensed silica particles than the control (6mer), revealing that the silica particle size formed in the solution system is controlled by the size of protein assemblies in solution. In the solution–solid interface system, silicification reactions were performed on the surface of films fabricated from the recombinant silk proteins and chimeras and then treated to induce β-sheet formation. A higher density of condensed silica formed on the films containing the lowest β-sheet content while the films with the highest β-sheet content precipitated the lowest density of silica, revealing an inverse correlation between the β-sheet secondary structure and the silica content formed on the films. Intriguingly, the 6mer-A3 showed the highest rate of silica condensation but the lowest density of silica deposition on the films, compared with 6mer-A1 and -R5, revealing antagonistic crosstalk between the silk and the SiBP domains in terms of protein assembly. These findings offer a path forward in the tailoring of biopolymer–silica composites for biomaterial related needs. PMID:25462851

  19. Dual-therapeutic reporter genes fusion for enhanced cancer gene therapy and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, T V; Foygel, K; Willmann, J K; Paulmurugan, R

    2013-05-01

    Two of the successful gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapies include herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) enzyme-ganciclovir prodrug and the Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme-CB1954 prodrug strategies; these enzyme-prodrug combinations produce activated cytotoxic metabolites of the prodrugs capable of tumor cell death by inhibiting DNA synthesis and killing quiescent cells, respectively. Both these strategies also affect significant bystander cell killing of neighboring tumor cells that do not express these enzymes. We have developed a dual-combination gene strategy, where we identified HSV1-TK and NTR fused in a particular orientation can effectively kill tumor cells when the tumor cells are treated with a fusion HSV1-TK-NTR gene- along with a prodrug combination of GCV and CB1954. In order to determine whether the dual-system demonstrate superior therapeutic efficacy than either HSV1-TK or NTR systems alone, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo tumor xenograft studies using triple negative SUM159 breast cancer cells, by evaluating the efficacy of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis upon treatment with the dual HSV1-TK genes-GCV-CB1954 prodrugs system, and compared the efficiency to HSV1-TK-GCV and NTR-CB1954. Our cell-based studies, tumor regression studies in xenograft mice, histological analyses of treated tumors and bystander studies indicate that the dual HSV1-TK-NTR-prodrug system is two times more efficient even with half the doses of both prodrugs than the respective single gene-prodrug system, as evidenced by enhanced apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells in vitro in culture and xenograft of tumor tissues in animals.

  20. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  1. In vivo import of plastocyanin and a fusion protein into developmentally different plastids of transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Douwe de; Cremers, Fons; Teertstra, Renske; Smits, Lianne; Hille, Jacques; Smeekens, Sjef; Weisbeek, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants that constitutively express a foreign plastocyanin gene were used to study protein transport in different tissues. Normally expression of endogenous plastocyanin genes in plants is restricted to photosynthetic tissues only, whereas this foreign plastocyanin protein is found

  2. Generation of a selectively cytotoxic fusion protein against p53 mutated cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousparou, Christina A; Yiacoumi, Efthymia; Deonarain, Mahendra P; Epenetos, Agamemnon A

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of cancers are caused by defects in p21 causing functional defects in p21 or p53 tumour-suppressor proteins. This has led to many therapeutic approaches including restoration by gene therapy with wild-type p53 or p21 using viral or liposomal vectors, which have toxicity or side-effect limitations. We set out to develop a safer, novel fusion protein which has the ability to reconstitute cancer cell lines with active p21 by protein transduction. The fusion protein was produced from the cell-translocating peptide Antennapedia (Antp) and wild-type, full-length p21 (Antp-p21). This was expressed and refolded from E. coli and tested on a variety of cell lines and tumours (in a BALB/c nude xenograft model) with differing p21 or p53 status. Antp-p21 penetrated and killed cancer cells that do not express wild type p53 or p21. This included cells that were matched to cogenic parental cell lines. Antp-p21 killed cancer cells selectively that were malignant as a result of mutations or nuclear exclusion of the p53 and p21 genes and over-expression of MDM2. Non-specific toxicity was excluded by showing that Antp-p21 penetrated but did not kill p53- or p21- wild-type cells. Antp-p21 was not immunogenic in normal New Zealand White rabbits. Recombinant Antp peptide alone was not cytotoxic, showing that killing was due to the transduction of the p21 component of Antp-p21. Antp-p21 was shown to penetrate cancer cells engrafted in vivo and resulted in tumour eradication when administered with conventionally-used chemotherapeutic agents, which alone were unable to produce such an effect. Antp-p21 may represent a new and promising targeted therapy for patients with p53-associated cancers supporting the concept that rational design of therapies directed against specific cancer mutations will play a part in the future of medical oncology

  3. Generation of a selectively cytotoxic fusion protein against p53 mutated cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousparou Christina A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of cancers are caused by defects in p21 causing functional defects in p21 or p53 tumour-suppressor proteins. This has led to many therapeutic approaches including restoration by gene therapy with wild-type p53 or p21 using viral or liposomal vectors, which have toxicity or side-effect limitations. We set out to develop a safer, novel fusion protein which has the ability to reconstitute cancer cell lines with active p21 by protein transduction. Methods The fusion protein was produced from the cell-translocating peptide Antennapedia (Antp and wild-type, full-length p21 (Antp-p21. This was expressed and refolded from E. coli and tested on a variety of cell lines and tumours (in a BALB/c nude xenograft model with differing p21 or p53 status. Results Antp-p21 penetrated and killed cancer cells that do not express wild type p53 or p21. This included cells that were matched to cogenic parental cell lines. Antp-p21 killed cancer cells selectively that were malignant as a result of mutations or nuclear exclusion of the p53 and p21 genes and over-expression of MDM2. Non-specific toxicity was excluded by showing that Antp-p21 penetrated but did not kill p53- or p21- wild-type cells. Antp-p21 was not immunogenic in normal New Zealand White rabbits. Recombinant Antp peptide alone was not cytotoxic, showing that killing was due to the transduction of the p21 component of Antp-p21. Antp-p21 was shown to penetrate cancer cells engrafted in vivo and resulted in tumour eradication when administered with conventionally-used chemotherapeutic agents, which alone were unable to produce such an effect. Conclusions Antp-p21 may represent a new and promising targeted therapy for patients with p53-associated cancers supporting the concept that rational design of therapies directed against specific cancer mutations will play a part in the future of medical oncology.

  4. Construction and prokaryotic expression of the fusion gene PRRSV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... The fusion expressing plasmid pET32-GP5-Hsp70 was constructed and expressed in ... 2004). Hsps, expressed by prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their action as molecular ..... Facts, thoughts, and dreams. Shock. 12(4): ...

  5. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  6. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumors carry the NAB2-STAT6 fusion and can be diagnosed by nuclear expression of STAT6 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Leonille; Koelsche, Christian; Sahm, Felix; Piro, Rosario M; Capper, David; Reuss, David E; Pusch, Stefan; Habel, Antje; Meyer, Jochen; Göck, Tanja; Jones, David T W; Mawrin, Christian; Schittenhelm, Jens; Becker, Albert; Heim, Stephanie; Simon, Matthias; Herold-Mende, Christel; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Paulus, Werner; König, Rainer; Wiestler, Otmar D; Pfister, Stefan M; von Deimling, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    Non-central nervous system hemangiopericytoma (HPC) and solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) are considered by pathologists as two variants of a single tumor entity now subsumed under the entity SFT. Recent detection of frequent NAB2-STAT6 fusions in both, HPC and SFT, provided additional support for this view. On the other hand, current neuropathological practice still distinguishes between HPC and SFT. The present study set out to identify genes involved in the formation of meningeal HPC. We performed exome sequencing and detected the NAB2-STAT6 fusion in DNA of 8/10 meningeal HPC thereby providing evidence of close relationship of these tumors with peripheral SFT. Due to the considerable effort required for exome sequencing, we sought to explore surrogate markers for the NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein. We adopted the Duolink proximity ligation assay and demonstrated the presence of NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein in 17/17 HPC and the absence in 15/15 meningiomas. More practical, presence of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein resulted in a strong nuclear signal in STAT6 immunohistochemistry. The nuclear reallocation of STAT6 was detected in 35/37 meningeal HPC and 25/25 meningeal SFT but not in 87 meningiomas representing the most important differential diagnosis. Tissues not harboring the NAB2-STAT6 fusion protein presented with nuclear expression of NAB2 and cytoplasmic expression of STAT6 proteins. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence for meningeal HPC and SFT to constitute variants of a single entity which is defined by NAB2-STAT6 fusion. In addition, we demonstrate that this fusion can be rapidly detected by STAT6 immunohistochemistry which shows a consistent nuclear reallocation. This immunohistochemical assay may prove valuable for the differentiation of HPC and SFT from other mesenchymal neoplasms.

  7. Protective effects of a bacterially expressed NIF-KGF fusion protein against bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinping; Li, Shengli; Zhang, Miaotao; Li, Xiukun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Chuanghong

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence suggests that the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and the polymorphonuclear leukocyte may play key roles in the development of lung fibrosis. Here we describe the construction, expression, purification, and identification of a novel NIF (neutrophil inhibitory factor)-KGF mutant fusion protein (NKM). The fusion gene was ligated via a flexible octapeptide hinge and expressed as an insoluble protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The fusion protein retained the activities of KGF and NIF, as it inhibited both fibroblast proliferation and leukocyte adhesion. Next, the effects of NKM on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice were examined. The mice were divided into the following four groups: (i) saline group; (ii) bleomycin group (instilled with 5 mg/kg bleomycin intratracheally); (iii) bleomycin plus dexamethasone (Dex) group (Dex was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 1 mg/kg/day 2 days prior to bleomycin instillation and daily after bleomycin instillation until the end of the treatment); and (iv) bleomycin plus NKM group (NKM was given i.p. at 2 mg/kg/day using the same protocol as the Dex group). NKM significantly improved the survival rates of mice exposed to bleomycin. The marked morphological changes and increased hydroxyproline levels resulted from the instillation of bleomycin (on Day 17) in the lungs were significantly inhibited by NKM. These results revealed that NKM can attenuate bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, suggesting that NKM could be used to prevent bleomycin-induced lung damage or other interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Function of Nup98 subtypes and their fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 in nuclear-cytoplasmic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Yokokawa, Takafumi; Iizuka, Gemmei; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2017-05-20

    Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex. The nup98-fusion genes derived by chromosome translocations are involved in hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we investigated the functions of Nup98 isoforms and two unexamined Nup98-fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1. We first demonstrated that two Nup98 isoforms are expressed in various mouse tissues and similarly localized in the nucleus and the nuclear envelope. We also showed that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 are localized in the nucleus and partially co-localized with full-length Nup98 and a nuclear export receptor XPO1. We demonstrated that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 negatively regulate the XPO1-mediated protein export. Our results will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism by which the Nup98-fusion proteins induce tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell surface expression system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of bacillus halodurans isolate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of a Bacillus halodurans isolate Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Bacillus halodurans Alk 36 xrhombus Ability to over-produce cell... for functionality of the His-tag for metal binding. Slide 13 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za PAGE gel showing over-production of chimeric poly-His flagellin proteins 66.2 kDa 45.0 kDa 31.0 kDa 1. LMW ladder 2. NC3 3. NHisC3 4. NC6 5...

  10. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  11. Intracellular expression of IRF9 Stat fusion protein overcomes the defective Jak-Stat signaling and inhibits HCV RNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balart Luis A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interferon alpha (IFN-α binds to a cell surface receptor that activates the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. A critical component of this pathway is the translocation of interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (a complex of three proteins Stat1, Stat2 and IRF9 to the nucleus to activate antiviral genes. A stable sub-genomic replicon cell line resistant to IFN-α was developed in which the nuclear translocation of Stat1 and Stat2 proteins was prevented due to the lack of phosphorylation; whereas the nuclear translocation of IRF9 protein was not affected. In this study, we sought to overcome defective Jak-Stat signaling and to induce an antiviral state in the IFN-α resistant replicon cell line by developing a chimera IRF9 protein fused with the trans activating domain (TAD of either a Stat1 (IRF9-S1C or Stat2 (IRF9-S2C protein. We show here that intracellular expression of fusion proteins using the plasmid constructs of either IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C, in the IFN-α resistant cells, resulted in an increase in Interferon Stimulated Response Element (ISRE luciferase promoter activity and significantly induced HLA-1 surface expression. Moreover, we show that transient transfection of IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C plasmid constructs into IFN-α resistant replicon cells containing sub-genomic HCV1b and HCV2a viruses resulted in an inhibition of viral replication and viral protein expression independent of IFN-α treatment. The results of this study indicate that the recombinant fusion proteins of IRF9-S1C, IRF9-S2C alone, or in combination, have potent antiviral properties against the HCV in an IFN-α resistant cell line with a defective Jak-Stat signaling.

  12. ACCUMULATION OF RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEIN – SECRETORY ANALOG OF Ag85B AND ESAT6 MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS PROTEINS – IN TRANSGENIC Lemna minor L. PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.Peterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the presence of the recombinant fusion protein (ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His and its accumulation level in duckweed plants (Lemna minor L. was the aim of the research. ESAT6 and Ag85B are secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are considered as potential candidates for development of new vaccine against tuberculosis (TB. Transgenic duckweed plants were obtained previously by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation and possessed fusion gene sequence esxA-fbpBΔTMD. Specific polyclonal antibodies were produced in immunized mice to identify levels of accumulation of TB antigens in plants. Recombinant antigen used for mice immunization was obtained in our laboratory by expression in E. coli. Western blot analysis revealed the recombinant tuberculosis antigen ESAT6-Ag85B(ΔTMD-6His in extracts from transgenic L. minor plants. The level of accumulation of the protein corresponds to 0.4-0.5 µg protein per 1 g of fresh weight of plant. Additionally, the accumulation of recombinant protein was investigated in lyophilized transgenic plants after 1.5 year storage. Duckweed plants accumulating a recombinant analogue of M. tuberculosis secretory proteins can be used for development of plant-based edible vaccines.

  13. Evaluation of EML4-ALK Fusion Proteins in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Small Molecule Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The echinoderm microtubule–associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene resulting from an inversion within chromosome 2p occurs in approximately 5% of non–small cell lung cancer and is mu-tually exclusive with Ras and EGFR mutations. In this study, we have used a potent and selective ALK small molecule inhibitor, NPV-TAE684, to assess the oncogenic role of EML4-ALK in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We show here that TAE684 inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor regression in two NSCLC models that harbor EML4-ALK fusions. TAE684 inhibits EML4-ALK activation and its downstream signaling including ERK, AKT, and STAT3. We used microarray analysis to carry out targeted pathway studies of gene expression changes in H2228 NSCLC xenograft model after TAE684 treatment and identified a gene signature of EML4-ALK inhibition. The gene signature represents 1210 known human genes, and the top biologic processes represented by these genes are cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell death. We also compared the effect of TAE684 with PF2341066, a c-Met and ALK small molecule inhibitor currently in clinical trial in cancers harboring ALK fusions, and demonstrated that TAE684 is a much more potent inhibitor of EML4-ALK. Our data demonstrate that EML4-ALK plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a subset of NSCLC and provides insight into the mech-anism of EML4-ALK inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor.

  14. A PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Chuanbao; Liang, Tingyu; Yang, Fan; Wang, Haoyuan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Wen; Xu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Ding, Yaozhong

    2017-10-17

    Collagen XVII expression has recently been demonstrated to be correlated with the tumor malignance. While Collagen XVII is known to be widely distributed in neurons of the human brain, its precise role in pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene in GMB using transcriptome sequencing. Although fusion gene did not result in measurable fusion protein production, its presence is accompanied with high levels of COL17A1 expression, revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Collagen XVII expression by PTEN-COL17A1 gene fusion. Knocked down Collagen XVII expression in glioma cell lines resulted in decreased tumor invasiveness, along with significant reduction of MMP9 expression, while increased Collagen XVII expression promotes invasive activities of glioma cells and associated with GBM recurrences. Together, our results uncovered a new PTEN-COL17A1 fusion gene and its novel regulatory role in Collagen XVII expression and GBM malignance, and demonstrated that COL17A1 could serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for GBM.

  15. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  16. Overexpression of HMGA2-LPP fusion transcripts promotes expression of the α 2 type XI collagen gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takahiro; Matsui, Yoshito; Goto, Tomohiro; Yukata, Kiminori; Yasui, Natsuo

    2006-01-01

    In a subset of human lipomas, a specific t (3; 12) chromosome translocation gives rise to HMGA2-LPP fusion protein, containing the amino (N)-terminal DNA binding domains of HMGA2 fused to the carboxyl (C)-terminal LIM domains of LPP. In addition to its role in adipogenesis, several observations suggest that HMGA2-LPP is linked to chondrogenesis. Here, we analyzed whether HMGA2-LPP promotes chondrogenic differentiation, a marker of which is transactivation of the α 2 type XI collagen gene (Col11a2). Real-time PCR analysis showed that HMGA2-LPP and COL11A2 were co-expressed. Luciferase assay demonstrated that either of HMGA2-LPP, wild-type HMGA2 or the N-terminal HMGA2 transactivated the Col11a2 promoter in HeLa cells, while the C-terminal LPP did not. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMGA2-LPP transcripts in lipomas with the fusion were 591-fold of full-length HMGA2 transcripts in lipomas without the fusion. These results indicate that in vivo overexpression of HMGA2-LPP promotes chondrogenesis by upregulating cartilage-specific collagen gene expression through the N-terminal DNA binding domains

  17. Structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brett D; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kors, Christopher A; Leser, George P; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Lamb, Robert A

    2012-10-09

    The paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) enters cells by fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane through the concerted action of the fusion (F) protein and the receptor binding protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The F protein folds initially to form a trimeric metastable prefusion form that is triggered to undergo large-scale irreversible conformational changes to form the trimeric postfusion conformation. It is thought that F refolding couples the energy released with membrane fusion. The F protein is synthesized as a precursor (F0) that must be cleaved by a host protease to form a biologically active molecule, F1,F2. Cleavage of F protein is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Cleavage creates a new N terminus on F1 that contains a hydrophobic region, known as the FP, which intercalates target membranes during F protein refolding. The crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of the uncleaved form of PIV5 F is known; here we report the crystal structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of PIV5 F. The structure shows minimal movement of the residues adjacent to the protease cleavage site. Most of the hydrophobic FP residues are buried in the uncleaved F protein, and only F103 at the newly created N terminus becomes more solvent-accessible after cleavage. The conformational freedom of the charged arginine residues that compose the protease recognition site increases on cleavage of F protein.

  18. Rational design of an EGF-IL18 fusion protein: Implication for developing tumor therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Peng Ying; Meng Zhefeng; Jin Liqin; Lu Yongsui; Guan Minxin

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine. This protein has a role in regulating immune responses and exhibits significant anti-tumor activities. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor that plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle and differentiation. It was proposed that a targeted delivery of IL-18 by generation of IL-18-EGF fusion protein might decrease adverse effects and result in enhancing cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In the present study, a fusion protein, consisting of EGFR binding domain fused to human IL-18 mature peptide via a linker peptide of (Gly 4 Ser) 3, was constructed and expressed in the insect cell line Sf9 using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. We showed that the purified recombinant fusion protein induced similar levels of IFN-γ to that of native IL-18 protein in human PBMC in the presence of ConA. Furthermore, EGF receptor competitive test in human epithelial cancer A431 cell line showed that EGF-IL18 fusion protein can specifically bind with EGFR by competing with native EGF protein. These suggest that this rationally designed protein can be further developed as novel tumor therapeutics

  19. Analysis of mammary specific gene locus regulation in differentiated cells derived by somatic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F.

    2009-01-01

    The transcriptional regulation of a gene is best analysed in the context of its normal chromatin surroundings. However, most somatic cells, in contrast to embryonic stem cells, are refractory to accurate modification by homologous recombination. We show here that it is possible to introduce precise genomic modifications in ES cells and to analyse the phenotypic consequences in differentiated cells by using a combination of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and somatic cell fusion. To provide a proof of principle, we have analysed the regulation of the casein gene locus in mammary gland cells derived from modified murine ES cells by somatic cell fusion. A β-galactosidase reporter gene was inserted in place of the β-casein gene and the modified ES cells, which do not express the reporter gene, were fused with the mouse mammary gland cell line HC11. The resulting cell clones expressed the β-galactosidase gene to a similar extent and with similar hormone responsiveness as the endogenous gene. However, a reporter gene under the control of a minimal β-casein promoter (encompassing the two consensus STAT5 binding sites which mediate the hormone response of the casein genes) was unable to replicate expression levels or hormone responsiveness of the endogenous gene when inserted into the same site of the casein locus. As expected, these results implicate sequences other than the STAT5 sites in the regulation of the β-casein gene

  20. The equine herpesvirus-1 IR3 gene that lies antisense to the sole immediate-early (IE) gene is trans-activated by the IE protein, and is poorly expressed to a protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Chul; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Kim, Seong K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The unique IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is expressed as a late 1.0-kb transcript. Previous studies confirmed the IR3 transcription initiation site and tentatively identified other cis-acting elements specific to IR3 such as a TATA box, a 443 base pair 5'untranslated region (UTR), a 285 base pair open reading frame (ORF), and a poly adenylation (A) signal [Holden, V.R., Harty, R.N., Yalamanchili, R.R., O'Callaghan, D.J., 1992. The IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene regulated by sequences within the intron of the immediate-early gene. DNA Seq. 3, 143-152]. Transient transfection assays revealed that the IR3 promoter is strongly trans-activated by the IE protein (IEP) and that coexpression of the IEP with the early EICP0 and IR4 regulatory proteins results in maximal trans-activation of the IR3 promoter. Gel shift assays revealed that the IEP directly binds to the IR3 promoter region. Western blot analysis showed that the IR3 protein produced in E. coli was detected by antibodies to IR3 synthetic peptides; however, the IR3 protein was not detected in EHV-1 infected cell extracts by these same anti-IR3 antibodies, even though the IR3 transcript was detected by northern blot. These findings suggest that the IR3 may not be expressed to a protein. Expression of an IR3/GFP fusion gene was not observed, but expression of a GFP/IR3 fusion gene was detected by fluorescent microscopy. In further attempts to detect the IR3/GFP fusion protein using anti-GFP antibody, western blot analysis showed that the IR3/GFP fusion protein was not detected in vivo. Interestingly, a truncated form of the GFP/IR3 protein was synthesized from the GFP/IR3 fusion gene. However, GFP/IR3 and IR3/GFP fusion proteins of the predicted sizes were synthesized by in vitro coupled transcription and translation of the fusion genes, suggesting poor expression of the IR3 protein in vivo. The possible role of the IR3 transcript in EHV-1 infection is discussed

  1. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Chao

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521 of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1, designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  2. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins for improving efficacy and safety of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-11-01

    Cytokines are key players in the regulation of immune responses both in physiological and pathological states. A number of cytokines have been evaluated in clinical trials and shown promising results in the treatment of different malignancies. Despite this, the clinical application of these molecules may be plagued by undesirable side effects The development of recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins, which offer a means for target delivery of cytokines toward the tumor site, has significantly improved the therapeutic index of these immunomodulatory molecules. Selective tumor localization is provided by the monoclonal antibody component of the fusion protein that binds to the molecules present on the surface of tumor cells or accumulated preferentially in the diseased site. In this manner, the cytokine element is specifically located at the tumor site and can stimulate immune cells with appropriate cytokine receptors. Over the recent years, several antibody-cytokine fusion proteins have been developed with the capacity to target a wide variety of cancers whose application, in some cases, has led to complete rejection of the tumor. These findings support the notion that antibody-cytokine fusion proteins represent huge potential for cancer therapy. This review presents an overview of the advances made in the field of targeted cytokine delivery, which is made possible by genetically engineering antibody-cytokine fusion proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Egg CD9 protein tides correlated with sperm oscillations tune the gamete fusion ability in mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Benjamin; Favier, Sophie; Perez, Eric; Gourier, Christine

    2018-01-23

    Mammalian fertilization involves membrane events -adhesion, fusion, sperm engulfment, membrane block to polyspermy- whose causes remain largely unknown. Recently, specific oscillations of the sperm in contact with the egg were shown to be necessary for fusion. Using a microfluidic chip to impose the venue for the encounter of two gametes allowed real-time observation of the membrane remodelling occurring at the sperm/egg interface. The spatiotemporal mapping of egg CD9 revealed that this protein concentrates at the egg/sperm interface as a result of sperm oscillations, until a CD9-rich platform is nucleated on which fusion immediately takes place. Within 2 to 5 minutes after fusion, most of the CD9 leaves the egg for the external aqueous medium. Then an egg membrane wave engulfs the sperm head in approximately 25 minutes. These results show that sperm oscillations initiate the CD9 recruitment that causes gamete fusion after which CD9 and associated proteins leave the membrane in a process likely to contribute to block polyspermy. They highlight that the gamete fusion story in mammals is an unexpected interplay between mechanical constraints and proteins. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of protein body formation in plant leaves by elastin-like polypeptide fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joensuu Jussi J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastin-like polypeptides are synthetic biopolymers composed of a repeating pentapeptide 'VPGXG' sequence that are valuable for the simple non-chromatographic purification of recombinant proteins. In addition, elastin-like polypeptide fusions have been shown to enhance the accumulation of a range of different recombinant proteins in plants, thus addressing the major limitation of plant-based expression systems, which is a low production yield. This study's main objectives were to determine the general utility of elastin-like polypeptide protein fusions in various intracellular compartments and to elucidate elastin-like polypeptide's mechanism of action for increasing recombinant protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of plants. Results The effect of elastin-like polypeptide fusions on the accumulation of green fluorescent protein targeted to the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, apoplast, and endoplasmic reticulum was evaluated. The endoplasmic reticulum was the only intracellular compartment in which an elastin-like polypeptide tag was shown to significantly enhance recombinant protein accumulation. Interestingly, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted elastin-like polypeptide fusions induced the formation of a novel type of protein body, which may be responsible for elastin-like polypeptide's positive effect on recombinant protein accumulation by excluding the heterologous protein from normal physiological turnover. Although expressed in the leaves of plants, these novel protein bodies appeared similar in size and morphology to the prolamin-based protein bodies naturally found in plant seeds. The elastin-like polypeptide-induced protein bodies were highly mobile organelles, exhibiting various dynamic patterns of movement throughout the cells, which were dependent on intact actin microfilaments and a functional actomyosin motility system. Conclusion An endoplasmic reticulum-targeted elastin-like polypeptide fusion approach

  5. Ubiquitin--conserved protein or selfish gene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, André; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2005-11-01

    The posttranslational modifier ubiquitin is encoded by a multigene family containing three primary members, which yield the precursor protein polyubiquitin and two ubiquitin moieties, Ub(L40) and Ub(S27), that are fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27, respectively. The gene encoding polyubiquitin is highly conserved and, until now, those encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) have been generally considered to be equally invariant. The evolution of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties is, however, proving to be more dynamic. It seems that the genes encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) are actively maintained by homologous recombination with the invariant polyubiquitin locus. Failure to recombine leads to deterioration of the sequence of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties in several phyla, although this deterioration is evidently constrained by the structural requirements of the ubiquitin fold. Only a few amino acids in ubiquitin are vital for its function, and we propose that conservation of all three ubiquitin genes is driven not only by functional properties of the ubiquitin protein, but also by the propensity of the polyubiquitin locus to act as a 'selfish gene'.

  6. Amelogenesis Imperfecta; Genes, Proteins, and Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. L. Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is the name given to a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by inherited developmental enamel defects. AI enamel is abnormally thin, soft, fragile, pitted and/or badly discolored, with poor function and aesthetics, causing patients problems such as early tooth loss, severe embarrassment, eating difficulties, and pain. It was first described separately from diseases of dentine nearly 80 years ago, but the underlying genetic and mechanistic basis of the condition is only now coming to light. Mutations in the gene AMELX, encoding an extracellular matrix protein secreted by ameloblasts during enamel formation, were first identified as a cause of AI in 1991. Since then, mutations in at least eighteen genes have been shown to cause AI presenting in isolation of other health problems, with many more implicated in syndromic AI. Some of the encoded proteins have well documented roles in amelogenesis, acting as enamel matrix proteins or the proteases that degrade them, cell adhesion molecules or regulators of calcium homeostasis. However, for others, function is less clear and further research is needed to understand the pathways and processes essential for the development of healthy enamel. Here, we review the genes and mutations underlying AI presenting in isolation of other health problems, the proteins they encode and knowledge of their roles in amelogenesis, combining evidence from human phenotypes, inheritance patterns, mouse models, and in vitro studies. An LOVD resource (http://dna2.leeds.ac.uk/LOVD/ containing all published gene mutations for AI presenting in isolation of other health problems is described. We use this resource to identify trends in the genes and mutations reported to cause AI in the 270 families for which molecular diagnoses have been reported by 23rd May 2017. Finally we discuss the potential value of the translation of AI genetics to clinical care with improved patient pathways and

  7. Amelogenesis Imperfecta; Genes, Proteins, and Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire E L; Poulter, James A; Antanaviciute, Agne; Kirkham, Jennifer; Brookes, Steven J; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is the name given to a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by inherited developmental enamel defects. AI enamel is abnormally thin, soft, fragile, pitted and/or badly discolored, with poor function and aesthetics, causing patients problems such as early tooth loss, severe embarrassment, eating difficulties, and pain. It was first described separately from diseases of dentine nearly 80 years ago, but the underlying genetic and mechanistic basis of the condition is only now coming to light. Mutations in the gene AMELX , encoding an extracellular matrix protein secreted by ameloblasts during enamel formation, were first identified as a cause of AI in 1991. Since then, mutations in at least eighteen genes have been shown to cause AI presenting in isolation of other health problems, with many more implicated in syndromic AI. Some of the encoded proteins have well documented roles in amelogenesis, acting as enamel matrix proteins or the proteases that degrade them, cell adhesion molecules or regulators of calcium homeostasis. However, for others, function is less clear and further research is needed to understand the pathways and processes essential for the development of healthy enamel. Here, we review the genes and mutations underlying AI presenting in isolation of other health problems, the proteins they encode and knowledge of their roles in amelogenesis, combining evidence from human phenotypes, inheritance patterns, mouse models, and in vitro studies. An LOVD resource (http://dna2.leeds.ac.uk/LOVD/) containing all published gene mutations for AI presenting in isolation of other health problems is described. We use this resource to identify trends in the genes and mutations reported to cause AI in the 270 families for which molecular diagnoses have been reported by 23rd May 2017. Finally we discuss the potential value of the translation of AI genetics to clinical care with improved patient pathways and speculate on the

  8. Different regions of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein modulate pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Heiden

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease virus (NDV, also designated as Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1, is the causative agent of a notifiable disease of poultry but it exhibits different pathogenicity dependent on the virus strain. The molecular basis for this variability is not fully understood. The efficiency of activation of the fusion protein (F is determined by presence or absence of a polybasic amino acid sequence at an internal proteolytic cleavage site which is a major determinant of NDV virulence. However, other determinants of pathogenicity must exist since APMV-1 of high (velogenic, intermediate (mesogenic and low (lentogenic virulence specify a polybasic F cleavage site. We aimed at elucidation of additional virulence determinants by constructing a recombinant virus that consists of a lentogenic NDV Clone 30 backbone and the F protein gene from a mesogenic pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1 isolate with an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI of 1.1 specifying the polybasic sequence R-R-K-K-R*F motif at the cleavage site. The resulting virus was characterized by an ICPI of 0.6, indicating a lentogenic pathotype. In contrast, alteration of the cleavage site G-R-Q-G-R*L of the lentogenic Clone 30 to R-R-K-K-R*F resulted in a recombinant virus with an ICPI of 1.36 which was higher than that of parental PPMV-1. Substitution of different regions of the F protein of Clone 30 by those of PPMV-1, while maintaining the polybasic amino acid sequence at the F cleavage site, resulted in recombinant viruses with ICPIs ranging from 0.59 to 1.36 suggesting that virulence is modulated by regions of the F protein other than the polybasic cleavage site.

  9. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Dauer, William [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Johnson, David [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  10. Expression of the A56 and K2 proteins is sufficient to inhibit vaccinia virus entry and cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Timothy R; Moss, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Many animal viruses induce cells to fuse and form syncytia. For vaccinia virus, this phenomenon is associated with mutations affecting the A56 and K2 proteins, which form a multimer (A56/K2) on the surface of infected cells. Recent evidence that A56/K2 interacts with the entry/fusion complex (EFC) and that the EFC is necessary for syncytium formation furnishes a strong connection between virus entry and cell fusion. Among the important remaining questions are whether A56/K2 can prevent virus entry as well as cell-cell fusion and whether these two viral proteins are sufficient as well as necessary for this. To answer these questions, we transiently and stably expressed A56 and K2 in uninfected cells. Uninfected cells expressing A56 and K2 exhibited resistance to fusing with A56 mutant virus-infected cells, whereas expression of A56 or K2 alone induced little or no resistance, which fits with the need for both proteins to bind the EFC. Furthermore, transient or stable expression of A56/K2 interfered with virus entry and replication as determined by inhibition of early expression of a luciferase reporter gene, virus production, and plaque formation. The specificity of this effect was demonstrated by restoring entry after enzymatically removing a chimeric glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored A56/K2 or by binding a monoclonal antibody to A56. Importantly, the antibody disrupted the interaction between A56/K2 and the EFC without disrupting the A56-K2 interaction itself. Thus, we have shown that A56/K2 is sufficient to prevent virus entry and fusion as well as formation of syncytia through interaction with the EFC.

  11. ChimerDB 3.0: an enhanced database for fusion genes from cancer transcriptome and literature data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myunggyo; Lee, Kyubum; Yu, Namhee; Jang, Insu; Choi, Ikjung; Kim, Pora; Jang, Ye Eun; Kim, Byounggun; Kim, Sunkyu; Lee, Byungwook; Kang, Jaewoo; Lee, Sanghyuk

    2017-01-04

    Fusion gene is an important class of therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in cancer. ChimerDB is a comprehensive database of fusion genes encompassing analysis of deep sequencing data and manual curations. In this update, the database coverage was enhanced considerably by adding two new modules of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq analysis and PubMed abstract mining. ChimerDB 3.0 is composed of three modules of ChimerKB, ChimerPub and ChimerSeq. ChimerKB represents a knowledgebase including 1066 fusion genes with manual curation that were compiled from public resources of fusion genes with experimental evidences. ChimerPub includes 2767 fusion genes obtained from text mining of PubMed abstracts. ChimerSeq module is designed to archive the fusion candidates from deep sequencing data. Importantly, we have analyzed RNA-Seq data of the TCGA project covering 4569 patients in 23 cancer types using two reliable programs of FusionScan and TopHat-Fusion. The new user interface supports diverse search options and graphic representation of fusion gene structure. ChimerDB 3.0 is available at http://ercsb.ewha.ac.kr/fusiongene/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Sieve element occlusion (SEO) genes encode structural phloem proteins involved in wound sealing of the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Antonia M; Jekat, Stephan B; Zielonka, Sascia; Müller, Boje; Neumann, Ulla; Rüping, Boris; Twyman, Richard M; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A

    2012-07-10

    The sieve element occlusion (SEO) gene family originally was delimited to genes encoding structural components of forisomes, which are specialized crystalloid phloem proteins found solely in the Fabaceae. More recently, SEO genes discovered in various non-Fabaceae plants were proposed to encode the common phloem proteins (P-proteins) that plug sieve plates after wounding. We carried out a comprehensive characterization of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SEO genes (NtSEO). Reporter genes controlled by the NtSEO promoters were expressed specifically in immature sieve elements, and GFP-SEO fusion proteins formed parietal agglomerates in intact sieve elements as well as sieve plate plugs after wounding. NtSEO proteins with and without fluorescent protein tags formed agglomerates similar in structure to native P-protein bodies when transiently coexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and the analysis of these protein complexes by electron microscopy revealed ultrastructural features resembling those of native P-proteins. NtSEO-RNA interference lines were essentially devoid of P-protein structures and lost photoassimilates more rapidly after injury than control plants, thus confirming the role of P-proteins in sieve tube sealing. We therefore provide direct evidence that SEO genes in tobacco encode P-protein subunits that affect translocation. We also found that peptides recently identified in fascicular phloem P-protein plugs from squash (Cucurbita maxima) represent cucurbit members of the SEO family. Our results therefore suggest a common evolutionary origin for P-proteins found in the sieve elements of all dicotyledonous plants and demonstrate the exceptional status of extrafascicular P-proteins in cucurbits.

  13. Expression and characterization of truncated human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) and a fusion protein of hHO-1 with human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, A; Black, S M; Miller, W L; Ortiz de Montellano, P R

    1995-04-04

    A human heme oxygenase (hHO-1) gene without the sequence coding for the last 23 amino acids has been expressed in Escherichia coli behind the pho A promoter. The truncated enzyme is obtained in high yields as a soluble, catalytically-active protein, making it available for the first time for detailed mechanistic studies. The purified, truncated hHO-1/heme complex is spectroscopically indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme and converts heme to biliverdin when reconstituted with rat liver cytochrome P450 reductase. A self-sufficient heme oxygenase system has been obtained by fusing the truncated hHO-1 gene to the gene for human cytochrome P450 reductase without the sequence coding for the 20 amino acid membrane binding domain. Expression of the fusion protein in pCWori+ yields a protein that only requires NADPH for catalytic turnover. The failure of exogenous cytochrome P450 reductase to stimulate turnover and the insensitivity of the catalytic rate toward changes in ionic strength establish that electrons are transferred intramolecularly between the reductase and heme oxygenase domains of the fusion protein. The Vmax for the fusion protein is 2.5 times higher than that for the reconstituted system. Therefore, either the covalent tether does not interfere with normal docking and electron transfer between the flavin and heme domains or alternative but equally efficient electron transfer pathways are available that do not require specific docking.

  14. Cleaved thioredoxin fusion protein enables the crystallization of poorly soluble ERα in complex with synthetic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, Vincent; Gangloff, Monique; Eiler, Sylvia; Moras, Dino; Ruff, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A new crystallization strategy: the presence of cleaved thioredoxin fusion is critical for crystallization of the estrogen nuclear receptor ligand binding domain in complex with synthetic ligands. This novel technique should be regarded as an interesting alternative for crystallization of difficult proteins. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human oestrogen receptor α was produced in Escherichia coli as a cleavable thioredoxin (Trx) fusion in order to improve solubility. Crystallization trials with either cleaved and purified LBD or with the purified fusion protein both failed to produce crystals. In another attempt, Trx was not removed from the LBD after endoproteolytic cleavage and its presence promoted nucleation and subsequent crystal growth, which allowed the structure determination of two different LBD–ligand–coactivator peptide complexes at 2.3 Å resolution. This technique is likely to be applicable to other low-solubility proteins

  15. Mechanistic insight provided by glutaredoxin within a fusion to redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP) contains a dithiol disulfide pair that is thermodynamically suitable for monitoring intracellular glutathione redox potential. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1p) from yeast is known to catalyze the redox equilibrium between rxYFP and glutathione, and here, we...... have generated a fusion of the two proteins, rxYFP-Grx1p. In comparison to isolated subunits, intramolecular transfer of reducing equivalents made the fusion protein kinetically superior in reactions with glutathione. The rate of GSSG oxidation was thus improved by a factor of 3300. The reaction...... separately and in the fusion. This could not be ascribed to the lack of an unproductive side reaction to glutaredoxin disulfide. Instead, slower alkylation kinetics with iodoacetamide indicates a better leaving-group capability of the remaining cysteine residue, which can explain the increased activity....

  16. Nanoscale organization of {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud [Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Taylor, Rod [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Johnston, Linda J., E-mail: Linda.Johnston@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Pezacki, John Paul, E-mail: John.Pezacki@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors ({beta}{sub 2}AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of {beta}{sub 2}AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress {beta}{sub 2}AR-GFP and {beta}{sub 2}AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for {beta}{sub 2}AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on {beta}{sub 2}AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  17. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo immobilization of fusion proteins on bioplastics by the novel tag BioF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Cristina; García, Pedro; García, José L; Prieto, María A

    2004-06-01

    A new protein immobilization and purification system has been developed based on the use of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, or bioplastics), which are biodegradable polymers accumulated as reserve granules in the cytoplasm of certain bacteria. The N-terminal domain of the PhaF phasin (a PHA-granule-associated protein) from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 was used as a polypeptide tag (BioF) to anchor fusion proteins to PHAs. This tag provides a novel way to immobilize proteins in vivo by using bioplastics as supports. The granules carrying the BioF fusion proteins can be isolated by a simple centrifugation step and used directly for some applications. Moreover, when required, a practically pure preparation of the soluble BioF fusion protein can be obtained by a mild detergent treatment of the granule. The efficiency of this system has been demonstrated by constructing two BioF fusion products, including a functional BioF-beta-galactosidase. This is the first example of an active bioplastic consisting of a biodegradable matrix carrying an active enzyme.

  19. Recurrent MET fusion genes represent a drug target in pediatric glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric glioblastoma is one of the most common and most deadly brain tumors in childhood. Using an integrative genetic analysis of 53 pediatric glioblastomas and five in vitro model systems, we identified previously unidentified gene fusions involving the MET oncogene in ∼10% of cases. These MET...

  20. An ER-directed fusion protein comprising a bacterial subtilisin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nausch

    subtilase tag was fused to human interleukin 6 (IL6) and transiently expressed in Nicotiana ..... MP, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein; TVCV-3'-NTR, TVCV-3' untranslated .... on the degradation pattern of heterologous proteins.

  1. Investigation of PAX3/7-FKHR fusion genes and IGF2 gene expression in rhabdomyosarcoma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Robson Ramos; Oliveira, Indhira Dias; Caran, Eliana Maria Monteiro; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Abib, Simone; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence of the PAX3/7-FKHR fusion genes and quantify the IGF2 gene expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) samples. Soft tissue sarcomas account 5% of childhood cancers and 50% of them are RMS. Morphological evaluation of pediatric RMS has defined two histological subtypes, embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS). Chromosomal analyses have demonstrated two translocations associated with ARMS, resulting in the PAX3/7-FKHR rearrangements. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is extremely useful in the diagnosis of ARMS positive for these rearrangements. Additionally, several studies have shown a significant involvement of IGF pathway in the pathogenesis of RMS. The presence of PAX3/7-FKHR gene fusions was studied in 25 RMS samples from patients attending the IOP-GRAACC/UNIFESP and three RMS cell lines by RT-PCR. IGF2 gene expression was quantified by qPCR and related with clinic pathological parameters. Of the 25 samples, nine (36%) were ARMS and 16 (64%) were ERMS. PAX3/7-FKHR gene fusions expression was detected in 56% of ARMS tumor samples. IGF2 overexpression was observed in 80% of samples and could indicate an important role of this pathway in RMS biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Directed supramolecular surface assembly of SNAP-tag fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, H.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, J.; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Brunsveld, L.

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  3. Immobilization of ferrocene-modified SNAP-fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasserberg, D.; Uhlenheuer, D.; Neirynck, P.; Neirynck, Pauline; Cabanas Danés, Jordi; Schenkel, J.H.; Ravoo, B.J.; An, Q.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Milroy, L.G.; Brunsveld, Luc; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces has been investigated via the site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular moiety on proteins. To this end, fluorescent proteins have been site-selectively labeled with ferrocenes, as supramolecular guest moieties, via SNAP-tag technology. The

  4. Directed Supramolecular Surface Assembly of SNAP-tag Fusion Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Wasserberg, D.; Haase, C.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Schenkel, J.H.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular assembly of proteins on surfaces and vesicles was investigated by site-selective incorporation of a supramolecular guest element on proteins. Fluorescent proteins were site-selectively labeled with bisadamantane by SNAP-tag technology. The assembly of the bisadamantane functionalized

  5. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells

  6. RT-PCR and sequence analysis of the full-length fusion protein of Canine Distemper Virus from domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanutti, Carina; Gallo Calderón, Marina; Keller, Leticia; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José

    2016-02-01

    During 2007-2014, 84 out of 236 (35.6%) samples from domestic dogs submitted to our laboratory for diagnostic purposes were positive for Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), as analyzed by RT-PCR amplification of a fragment of the nucleoprotein gene. Fifty-nine of them (70.2%) were from dogs that had been vaccinated against CDV. The full-length gene encoding the Fusion (F) protein of fifteen isolates was sequenced and compared with that of those of other CDVs, including wild-type and vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis using the F gene full-length sequences grouped all the Argentinean CDV strains in the SA2 clade. Sequence identity with the Onderstepoort vaccine strain was 89.0-90.6%, and the highest divergence was found in the 135 amino acids corresponding to the F protein signal-peptide, Fsp (64.4-66.7% identity). In contrast, this region was highly conserved among the local strains (94.1-100% identity). One extra putative N-glycosylation site was identified in the F gene of CDV Argentinean strains with respect to the vaccine strain. The present report is the first to analyze full-length F protein sequences of CDV strains circulating in Argentina, and contributes to the knowledge of molecular epidemiology of CDV, which may help in understanding future disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yonglun; Blechingberg, Jenny; Fernandes, Ana Miguel; Li, Shengting; Fryland, Tue; Børglum, Anders D; Bolund, Lars; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-11-14

    FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins and involved in the human neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. To determine the gene regulatory functions of FUS and EWS at the level of chromatin, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Our results show that FUS and EWS bind to a subset of actively transcribed genes, that binding often is downstream the poly(A)-signal, and that binding overlaps with RNA polymerase II. Functional examinations of selected target genes identified that FUS and EWS can regulate gene expression at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes involved in pathways at the RNA regulatory level with potential to mediate normal and disease-associated functions of the FUS and EWS proteins.

  8. Mining disease genes using integrated protein-protein interaction and gene-gene co-regulation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Wang, Limei; Guo, Maozu; Zhang, Ruijie; Dai, Qiguo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Xuan, Ping; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    In humans, despite the rapid increase in disease-associated gene discovery, a large proportion of disease-associated genes are still unknown. Many network-based approaches have been used to prioritize disease genes. Many networks, such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI), KEGG, and gene co-expression networks, have been used. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been successfully applied for the determination of genes associated with several diseases. In this study, we constructed an eQTL-based gene-gene co-regulation network (GGCRN) and used it to mine for disease genes. We adopted the random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm to mine for genes associated with Alzheimer disease. Compared to the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) PPI network alone, the integrated HPRD PPI and GGCRN networks provided faster convergence and revealed new disease-related genes. Therefore, using the RWR algorithm for integrated PPI and GGCRN is an effective method for disease-associated gene mining.

  9. Differential transactivation by orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 and its fusion gene product EWS/NOR1: possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase I, PARP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Naganari; Nagamura, Yuko; Tsukada, Toshihiko

    2008-10-15

    In extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, a chromosomal translocation creates a gene fusion between EWS and an orphan nuclear receptor, NOR1. The resulting fusion protein EWS/NOR1 has been believed to lead to malignant transformation by functioning as a transactivator for NOR1-target genes. By comparing the gene expression profiles of NOR1- and EWS/NOR1-overexpressing cells, we found that they largely shared up-regulated genes, but no significant correlation was observed with respect to the transactivation levels of each gene. In addition, the proteins associated with NOR1 and EWS/NOR1 were mostly the same in these cells. The results suggest that these proteins differentially transactivate overlapping target genes through a similar transcriptional machinery. To clarify the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional divergence between NOR1 and EWS/NOR1, we searched for alternatively associated proteins, and identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase I (PARP-1) as an NOR1-specific binding protein. Consistent with its binding properties, PARP-1 acted as a transcriptional repressor of NOR1, but not EWS/NOR1, in a luciferase reporter assay employing PARP-1(-/-) fibroblasts. Interestingly, suppressive activity of PARP-1 was observed in a DNA response element-specific manner, and in a subtype-specific manner toward the NR4A family (Nur77, Nurr1, and NOR1), suggesting that PARP-1 plays a role in the diversity of transcriptional regulation mediated by the NR4A family in normal cells. Altogether, our findings suggest that NOR1 and EWS/NOR1 regulate overlapping target genes differently by utilizing associated proteins, including PARP-1; and that EWS/NOR1 may acquire oncogenic activities by avoiding (or gaining) transcription factor-specific modulation by the associated proteins. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Site-directed antibody immobilization using a protein A-gold binding domain fusion protein for enhanced SPR immunosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan-Franco, Elena; Caruz, Antonio; Pedrajas, J R; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-04-07

    We have implemented a novel strategy for the oriented immobilization of antibodies onto a gold surface based on the use of a fusion protein, the protein A-gold binding domain (PAG). PAG consists of a gold binding peptide (GBP) coupled to the immunoglobulin-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. This fusion protein provides an easy and fast oriented immobilization of antibodies preserving its native structure, while leaving the antigen binding sites (Fab) freely exposed. Using this immobilization strategy, we have demonstrated the performance of the immunosensing of the human Growth Hormone by SPR. A limit of detection of 90 ng mL(-1) was obtained with an inter-chip variability lower than 7%. The comparison of this method with other strategies for the direct immobilization of antibodies over gold surfaces has showed the enhanced sensitivity provided by the PAG approach.

  11. A Search for Gene Fusions/Translocations in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Freemont PS, Solomon E . Characterization of a zinc finger gene disrupted by the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Science 1991;254:1371–1374...characterization of gene f usions potentially provides novel di agnostic a nd t herapeutic markers, as e xemplified by th e successful application of BCR-ABL1...or e xons) are nominated a s c andidate g ene f usion partners (Figure 1). Further an alysis o f C NT loci b y s pectral k aryotyping ( SKY

  12. Control of silicification by genetically engineered fusion proteins: silk-silica binding peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Huang, Wenwen; Belton, David J; Simmons, Leo O; Perry, Carole C; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, an artificial spider silk gene, 6mer, derived from the consensus sequence of Nephila clavipes dragline silk gene, was fused with different silica-binding peptides (SiBPs), A1, A3 and R5, to study the impact of the fusion protein sequence chemistry on silica formation and the ability to generate a silk-silica composite in two different bioinspired silicification systems: solution-solution and solution-solid. Condensed silica nanoscale particles (600-800 nm) were formed in the presence of the recombinant silk and chimeras, which were smaller than those formed by 15mer-SiBP chimeras, revealing that the molecular weight of the silk domain correlated to the sizes of the condensed silica particles in the solution system. In addition, the chimeras (6mer-A1/A3/R5) produced smaller condensed silica particles than the control (6mer), revealing that the silica particle size formed in the solution system is controlled by the size of protein assemblies in solution. In the solution-solid interface system, silicification reactions were performed on the surface of films fabricated from the recombinant silk proteins and chimeras and then treated to induce β-sheet formation. A higher density of condensed silica formed on the films containing the lowest β-sheet content while the films with the highest β-sheet content precipitated the lowest density of silica, revealing an inverse correlation between the β-sheet secondary structure and the silica content formed on the films. Intriguingly, the 6mer-A3 showed the highest rate of silica condensation but the lowest density of silica deposition on the films, compared with 6mer-A1 and -R5, revealing antagonistic crosstalk between the silk and the SiBP domains in terms of protein assembly. These findings offer a path forward in the tailoring of biopolymer-silica composites for biomaterial related needs. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and evolutionary analysis of tributyltin-binding protein and pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein genes in toxic and nontoxic pufferfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Lee, J M; Shiraishi, M; Komatsu, S; Miki, S; Shimasaki, Y; Mochioka, N; Kusakabe, T; Oshima, Y

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes has been long-standing problem in toxicology and evolutionary biology. Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein (PSTBP) is involved in the transport and accumulation of tetrodotoxin and is one of the most intriguing proteins related to the toxicity of pufferfishes. PSTBPs are fusion proteins consisting of two tandem repeated tributyltin-binding protein type 2 (TBT-bp2) domains. In this study, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes to understand the evolution of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes. Database searches and/or PCR-based cDNA cloning in nine pufferfish species (6 toxic and 3 nontoxic) revealed that all species possessed one or more TBT-bp2 genes, but PSTBP genes were found only in 5 toxic species belonging to genus Takifugu. These toxic Takifugu species possessed two or three copies of PSTBP genes. Phylogenetic analysis of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes suggested that PSTBPs evolved in the common ancestor of Takifugu species by repeated duplications and fusions of TBT-bp2 genes. In addition, a detailed comparison of Takifugu TBT-bp2 and PSTBP gene sequences detected a signature of positive selection under the pressure of gene conversion. The complicated evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes may reflect the diversity of toxicity in pufferfishes. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Studies to Prevent Degradation of Recombinant Fc-Fusion Protein Expressed in Mammalian Cell Line and Protein Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta Chakrabarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clipping of recombinant proteins is a major issue in animal cell cultures. A recombinant Fc-fusion protein, VEGFR1(D1–D3-Fc expressed in CHOK1SV GS-KO cells was observed to be undergoing clippings in lab scale cultures. Partial cleaving of expressed protein initiated early on in cell culture and was observed to increase over time in culture and also on storage. In this study, a few parameters were explored in a bid to inhibit clipping in the fusion protein The effects of culture temperature, duration of culture, the addition of an anti-clumping agent, ferric citrate and use of protease inhibitor cocktail on inhibition of proteolysis of the Fc fusion were studied. Lowering of culture temperature from 37 to 30 °C alone appears to be the best solution for reducing protein degradation from the quality, cost and regulatory points of view. The obtained Fc protein was characterized and found to be in its stable folded state, exhibiting a high affinity for its ligand and also biological and functional activities.

  15. A Search for Gene Fusions/Translocations in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    2008). The transcriptional landscape of the yeast genome defined by RNA sequencing. Science 320, 1344–1349. Palanisamy, N., Ateeq, B., Kalyana-Sundaram...census of human cancer genes. Nat Rev Cancer 4, 177–183. [2] Santarius T, Shipley J, Brewer D, Stratton MR, and Cooper CS (2010). A census of amplified

  16. Genetically engineered endostatin-lidamycin fusion proteins effectively inhibit tumor growth and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wen-guo; Zhen, Yong-su; Lu, Xin-an; Shang, Bo-yang; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Sheng-hua; Zhou, Daifu; Li, Liang; Li, Yi; Luo, Yongzhang

    2013-01-01

    Endostatin (ES) inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation. It also shows antiangiogenesis and antitumor activities in several animal models. Endostatin specifically targets tumor vasculature to block tumor growth. Lidamycin (LDM), which consists of an active enediyne chromophore (AE) and a non-covalently bound apo-protein (LDP), is a member of chromoprotein family of antitumor antibiotics with extremely potent cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Therefore, we reasoned that endostatin-lidamycin (ES-LDM) fusion proteins upon energizing with enediyne chromophore may obtain the combined capability targeting tumor vasculature and tumor cell by respective ES and LDM moiety. In this study, we designed and obtained two new endostatin-based fusion proteins, endostatin-LDP (ES-LDP) and LDP-endostatin (LDP-ES). In vitro, the antiangiogenic effect of fusion proteins was determined by the wound healing assay and tube formation assay and the cytotoxicity of their enediyne-energized analogs was evaluated by CCK-8 assay. Tissue microarray was used to analyze the binding affinity of LDP, ES or ES-LDP with specimens of human lung tissue and lung tumor. The in vivo efficacy of the fusion proteins was evaluated with human lung carcinoma PG-BE1 xenograft and the experimental metastasis model of 4T1-luc breast cancer. ES-LDP and LDP-ES disrupted the formation of endothelial tube structures and inhibited endothelial cell migration. Evidently, ES-LDP accumulated in the tumor and suppressed tumor growth and metastasis. ES-LDP and ES show higher binding capability than LDP to lung carcinoma; in addition, ES-LDP and ES share similar binding capability. Furthermore, the enediyne-energized fusion protein ES-LDP-AE demonstrated significant efficacy against lung carcinoma xenograft in athymic mice. The ES-based fusion protein therapy provides some fundamental information for further drug development. Targeting both tumor vasculature and tumor cells by endostatin

  17. Enhanced SUMOylation of proteins containing a SUMO-interacting motif by SUMO-Ubc9 fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Tae; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Matunis, Mike J.; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Identifying new targets for SUMO and understanding the function of protein SUMOylation are largely limited by low level of SUMOylation. It was found recently that Ubc9, the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme, is covalently modified by SUMO at a lysine 14 in the N-terminal alpha helix, and that SUMO-modified Ubc9 has enhanced conjugation activity for certain target proteins containing a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM). Here, we show that, compared to intact Ubc9, the SUMO-Ubc9 fusion protein has higher conjugating activity for SIM-containing targets such as Sp100 and human cytomegalovirus IE2. Assays using an IE2 SIM mutant revealed the requirement of SIM for the enhanced IE2 SUMOylation by SUMO-Ubc9. In pull-down assays with cell extracts, the SUMO-Ubc9 fusion protein bound to more diverse cellular proteins and interacted with some SIM-containing proteins with higher affinities than Ubc9. Therefore, the devised SUMO-Ubc9 fusion will be useful for identifying SIM-containing SUMO targets and producing SUMO-modified proteins.

  18. The leukemia-specific fusion gene ETV6/RUNX1 perturbs distinct key biological functions primarily by gene repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fuka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ETV6/RUNX1 (E/R (also known as TEL/AML1 is the most frequent gene fusion in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and also most likely the crucial factor for disease initiation; its role in leukemia propagation and maintenance, however, remains largely elusive. To address this issue we performed a shRNA-mediated knock-down (KD of the E/R fusion gene and investigated the ensuing consequences on genome-wide gene expression patterns and deducible regulatory functions in two E/R-positive leukemic cell lines. FINDINGS: Microarray analyses identified 777 genes whose expression was substantially altered. Although approximately equal proportions were either up- (KD-UP or down-regulated (KD-DOWN, the effects on biological processes and pathways differed considerably. The E/R KD-UP set was significantly enriched for genes included in the "cell activation", "immune response", "apoptosis", "signal transduction" and "development and differentiation" categories, whereas in the E/R KD-DOWN set only the "PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling" and "hematopoietic stem cells" categories became evident. Comparable expression signatures obtained from primary E/R-positive ALL samples underline the relevance of these pathways and molecular functions. We also validated six differentially expressed genes representing the categories "stem cell properties", "B-cell differentiation", "immune response", "cell adhesion" and "DNA damage" with RT-qPCR. CONCLUSION: Our analyses provide the first preliminary evidence that the continuous expression of the E/R fusion gene interferes with key regulatory functions that shape the biology of this leukemia subtype. E/R may thus indeed constitute the essential driving force for the propagation and maintenance of the leukemic process irrespective of potential consequences of associated secondary changes. Finally, these findings may also provide a valuable source of potentially attractive therapeutic targets.

  19. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-08

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  1. New sensitive and specific assay for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies using labeled recombinant fusion protein and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Siitari, H; Turunen, P; Schrimsher, J; Nunn, M

    1990-01-01

    A new, rapid method for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was developed. In this assay format, microtitration strips were coated with a recombinant fusion protein, and the same protein was labeled with europium and added into the wells simultaneously with the test specimens. The recombinant fusion protein contained the HIV-1 p24 gag protein sequence that carried an insertion, near the carboxyl terminus, of a 23-am...

  2. Imaging of dihydrofolate reductase fusion gene expression in xenografts of human liver metastases of colorectal cancer in living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata [Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/UMDNJ, 195 Little Albany Street, NJ 08903, New Brunswick (United States); Doubrovin, Mikhail; Blasberg, Ronald; Tjuvajev, Juri Gelovani [Department of Neurooncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gusani, Niraj J.; Fong, Yuman [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gade, Terence; Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Balatoni, Julius; Finn, Ronald [Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Akhurst, Tim; Larson, Steven [Nuclear Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging has been demonstrated to be feasible to monitor transgene expression in vivo. We hypothesized that a potential application of this technique is to non-invasively detect in deep tissue, such as cancer cells metastatic to the liver, a specific molecular response following systemic drug treatment. Utilizing human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from a patient's liver lesion we first developed a nude rat xenograft model for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Expression of a dihydrofolate reductase-herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase fusion (DHFR-HSV1 TK) transgene in the hepatic tumors was monitored in individual animals using the tracer [{sup 124}I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodouracil-{beta}-d-arabinofuranoside (FIAU) and a small animal micro positron emission tomograph (microPET), while groups of rats were imaged using the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a clinical gamma camera. Growth of the human metastatic colorectal cancer cells in the rat liver was detected using magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by surgical inspection. Single as well as multiple lesions of different sizes and sites were observed in the liver of the animals. Next, using a subset of rats bearing hepatic tumors, which were retrovirally bulk transduced to express the DHFR-HSV1 TK transgene, we imaged the fusion protein expression in the hepatic tumor of living rats using the tracer [{sup 124}I]FIAU and a microPET. The observed deep tissue signals were highly specific for the tumors expressing the DHFR-HSV1 TK fusion protein compared with parental untransduced tumors and other tissues as determined by gamma counting of tissue samples. A subsequent study used the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a gamma camera to monitor two groups of transduced hepatic tumor-bearing rats. Prior to imaging, one group was treated with trimetrexate to exploit DHFR-mediated upregulation of the fusion gene product. Imaging in the living animal as well as subsequent gamma

  3. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Fusion Proteins and Their Uses in Human Stem Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsoonthornruksa, Sumeth; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn; Parnpai, Rangsun; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the cost of cytokines and growth factors in stem cell research, a simple method for the production of soluble and biological active human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was established. Under optimal conditions, approximately 60-80 mg of >95% pure hbFGF fusion proteins (Trx-6xHis-hbFGF and 6xHis-hbFGF) were obtained from 1 liter of culture broth. The purified hbFGF proteins, both with and without the fusion tags, were biologically active, which was confirmed by their ability to stimulate proliferation of NIH3T3 cells. The fusion proteins also have the ability to support several culture passages of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells and induce pluripotent stem cells. This paper describes a low-cost and uncomplicated method for the production and purification of biologically active hbFGF fusion proteins. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Rational design of highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins: Implication for developing antiviral therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC 50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics

  5. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Lokman, C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications

  6. IgM-specific serodiagnosis of acute human cytomegalovirus infection using recombinant autologous fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vornhagen, R; Hinderer, W; Sonneborn, HH; Bein, G; Matter, L; The, T. Hauw; Enders, G; Jahn, G; Plachter, B

    Portions of three human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) polypeptides, which were shown previously to be highly reactive with patient sera, were expressed in Escherichia coli as autologous fusion proteins. Purified recombinant polypeptides were used as antigens in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and

  7. Membrane fusion is induced by a distinct peptide sequence of the sea urchin fertilization protein bindin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, AS; Glabe, CG; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    Fertilization in the sea urchin is mediated by the membrane-associated acrosomal protein bindin, which plays a key role in the adhesion and fusion between sperm and egg. We have investigated the structure/function relationship of an 18-amino acid peptide fragment "B18," which represents the minimal

  8. Expression and Purification of Neurotrophin-Elastin-Like Peptide Fusion Proteins for Neural Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tamina; Koria, Piyush

    2016-04-01

    Neural injuries such as spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries, or nerve transection injuries pose a major health problem. Neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been shown to improve the outcome of neural injuries in several pre-clinical models, but their use in clinics is limited by the lack of a robust delivery system that enhances their bioavailability and half-life. We describe two fusion proteins comprising NGF or BDNF fused with elastin-like peptides (ELPs). The aim of this study was to investigate the biological activity of neurotrophin-ELP (N-ELP) fusion proteins via in vitro culture models. NGF and BDNF were cloned in front of an elastin-like polypeptide sequence V40C2. These proteins were expressed in bacteria as inclusion bodies. These fusion proteins underwent solubilization via 8 M urea and purification via inverse transition cycling (ITC). We measured the particle size and the effect of temperature on precipitated particles using dynamic light scattering (DLS). We used western blot analysis to confirm the specificity of NGF-ELP to tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) antibody and to confirm the specificity of BDNF-ELP to TrkB antibody. PC12 cells were used to perform a neurite outgrowth assay to determine the biological activity of NGF-ELP. Bioactivity of BDNF-ELP was ascertained via transfecting human epithelial kidney (HEK 293-T) cells to express the TrkB receptor. The proteins were successfully purified to high homogeneity by exploiting the phase transition property of ELPs and urea, which solubilize inclusion bodies. Using PC12 neurite outgrowth assay, we further demonstrated that the biological activity of NGF was retained in the fusion. Similarly, BDNF-ELP phosphorylated the TrkB receptor, suggesting the biological activity of BDNF was also retained in the fusion. We further show that owing to the phase transition property of ELPs in the fusion, these proteins self-assembled into

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 Engineering of Adult Mouse Liver Demonstrates That the Dnajb1–Prkaca Gene Fusion Is Sufficient to Induce Tumors Resembling Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, Lars H.; Riaz, Anjum; Serra, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a primary liver cancer that predominantly affects children and young adults with no underlying liver disease. A somatic, 400 Kb deletion on chromosome 19 that fuses part of the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 gene...... (DNAJB1) to the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha gene (PRKACA) has been repeatedly identified in patients with FL-HCC. However, the DNAJB1–PRKACA gene fusion has not been shown to induce liver tumorigenesis. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to delete in mice the syntenic region...... on chromosome 8 to create a Dnajb1–Prkaca fusion and monitored the mice for liver tumor development. Methods We delivered CRISPR/Cas9 vectors designed to juxtapose exon 1 of Dnajb1 with exon 2 of Prkaca to create the Dnajb1–Prkaca gene fusion associated with FL-HCC, or control Cas9 vector, via hydrodynamic tail...

  10. Direct and indirect targets of the E2A-PBX1 leukemia-specific fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofer Diakos

    Full Text Available E2A-PBX1 is expressed as a result of the t(1;19 chromosomal translocation in nearly 5% of cases of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The E2A-PBX1 chimeric transcription factor contains the N-terminal transactivation domain of E2A (TCF3 fused to the C-terminal DNA-binding homeodomain of PBX1. While there is no doubt of its oncogenic potential, the mechanisms of E2A-PBX1-mediated pre-B cell transformation and the nature of direct E2A-PBX1 target genes and pathways remain largely unknown. Herein we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP-chip to identify direct targets of E2A-PBX1, and we used gene expression arrays of siRNA E2A-PBX1-silenced cells to evaluate changes in expression induced by the fusion protein. Combined ChIP-chip and expression data analysis gave rise to direct and functional targets of E2A-PBX1. Further we observe that the set of ChIP-chip identified E2A-PBX1 targets show a collective down-regulation trend in the E2A-PBX1 silenced samples compared to controls suggesting an activating role of this fusion transcription factor. Our data suggest that the expression of the E2A-PBX1 fusion gene interferes with key regulatory pathways and functions of hematopoietic biology. Among these are members of the WNT and apoptosis/cell cycle control pathways, and thus may comprise an essential driving force for the propagation and maintenance of the leukemic phenotype. These findings may also provide evidence of potentially attractive therapeutic targets.

  11. Direct and indirect targets of the E2A-PBX1 leukemia-specific fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakos, Christofer; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Shichun; Kager, Leo; Dworzak, Michael; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    E2A-PBX1 is expressed as a result of the t(1;19) chromosomal translocation in nearly 5% of cases of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The E2A-PBX1 chimeric transcription factor contains the N-terminal transactivation domain of E2A (TCF3) fused to the C-terminal DNA-binding homeodomain of PBX1. While there is no doubt of its oncogenic potential, the mechanisms of E2A-PBX1-mediated pre-B cell transformation and the nature of direct E2A-PBX1 target genes and pathways remain largely unknown. Herein we used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP-chip) to identify direct targets of E2A-PBX1, and we used gene expression arrays of siRNA E2A-PBX1-silenced cells to evaluate changes in expression induced by the fusion protein. Combined ChIP-chip and expression data analysis gave rise to direct and functional targets of E2A-PBX1. Further we observe that the set of ChIP-chip identified E2A-PBX1 targets show a collective down-regulation trend in the E2A-PBX1 silenced samples compared to controls suggesting an activating role of this fusion transcription factor. Our data suggest that the expression of the E2A-PBX1 fusion gene interferes with key regulatory pathways and functions of hematopoietic biology. Among these are members of the WNT and apoptosis/cell cycle control pathways, and thus may comprise an essential driving force for the propagation and maintenance of the leukemic phenotype. These findings may also provide evidence of potentially attractive therapeutic targets.

  12. The small G-proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasyutina, Elena; Martarelli, Benedetta; Brakebusch, Cord

    2009-01-01

    Rac1 and Cdc42 are small G-proteins that regulate actin dynamics and affect plasma membrane protrusion and vesicle traffic. We used conditional mutagenesis in mice to demonstrate that Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in vivo and in vitro. The deficit in fusion of Rac1 or Cdc42 mut...... genetic analysis demonstrates thus that the function of Rac in myoblast fusion is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and that Cdc42, a molecule hitherto not implicated in myoblast fusion, is essential for the fusion of murine myoblasts....

  13. The distribution of BRAF gene fusions in solid tumors and response to targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey S; Wang, Kai; Chmielecki, Juliann; Gay, Laurie; Johnson, Adrienne; Chudnovsky, Jacob; Yelensky, Roman; Lipson, Doron; Ali, Siraj M; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Roels, Steven; Miller, Vincent A; Nakamura, Brooke N; Gray, Adam; Wong, Michael K; Stephens, Philip J

    2016-02-15

    Although the BRAF V600E base substitution is an approved target for the BRAF inhibitors in melanoma, BRAF gene fusions have not been investigated as anticancer drug targets. In our study, a wide variety of tumors underwent comprehensive genomic profiling for hundreds of known cancer genes using the FoundationOne™ or FoundationOne Heme™ comprehensive genomic profiling assays. BRAF fusions involving the intact in-frame BRAF kinase domain were observed in 55 (0.3%) of 20,573 tumors, across 12 distinct tumor types, including 20 novel BRAF fusions. These comprised 29 unique 5' fusion partners, of which 31% (9) were known and 69% (20) were novel. BRAF fusions included 3% (14/531) of melanomas; 2% (15/701) of gliomas; 1.0% (3/294) of thyroid cancers; 0.3% (3/1,062) pancreatic carcinomas; 0.2% (8/4,013) nonsmall-cell lung cancers and 0.2% (4/2,154) of colorectal cancers, and were enriched in pilocytic (30%) vs. nonpilocytic gliomas (1%; p < 0.0001), Spitzoid (75%) vs. nonSpitzoid melanomas (1%; p = 0.0001), acinar (67%) vs. nonacinar pancreatic cancers (<1%; p < 0.0001) and papillary (3%) vs. nonpapillary thyroid cancers (0%; p < 0.03). Clinical responses to trametinib and sorafenib are presented. In conclusion, BRAF fusions are rare driver alterations in a wide variety of malignant neoplasms, but enriched in Spitzoid melanoma, pilocytic astrocytomas, pancreatic acinar and papillary thyroid cancers. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  14. The apoptotic response in HCT116BAX-/- cancer cells becomes rapidly saturated with increasing expression of a GFP-BAX fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semaan, Sheila J; Nickells, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Many chemotherapeutic agents promote tumor cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Intrinsic apoptosis involves permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the release of cytochrome c, a process that is controlled by proteins of the BCL2 gene family. Chemoresistance is often associated with abnormalities in concentrations of BCL2 family proteins. Although stoichiometirc interactions between anti-apoptotic and BH3-only BCL2 family proteins have been well documented as affecting cell death, the association between changes in BAX concentration and intrinsic apoptosis are poorly understood. Exogenous GFP-murine Bax fusion constructs were transfected into BAX-deficient HCT116 cells. To titrate the expression of the fusion protein, GFP-BAX was cloned into a tetracycline sensitive expression cassette and cotransfected with a plasmid expressing the rtTA transcription factor into HCT116 BAX-/- cells. Linear expression of the fusion gene was induced with doxycycline and monitored by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Cell death was assayed by DAPI staining cells after exposure to indomethacin, and scoring nuclei for condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei. HCT116 BAX-/- cells were resistant to indomethacin, but susceptibility could be recovered in cells expressing a GFP-BAX fusion protein. Titration of GFP-BAX expression revealed that the concentration of BAX required to induce a saturating apoptosis response from baseline, was rapidly achieved. Increased levels of GFP-BAX were unable to stimulate higher levels of cell death. Examination of GFP-BAX distribution before and after indomethacin treatment indicated that BAX protein did not form aggregates when present at sub-lethal concentrations. Within the limitations of this experimental system, BAX-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells exhibits an all-or-none response depending on the level of BAX protein present. The lack of BAX aggregation at sub-saturation levels suggests that the

  15. The apoptotic response in HCT116BAX-/- cancer cells becomes rapidly saturated with increasing expression of a GFP-BAX fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semaan Sheila J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many chemotherapeutic agents promote tumor cell death by activating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Intrinsic apoptosis involves permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and the release of cytochrome c, a process that is controlled by proteins of the BCL2 gene family. Chemoresistance is often associated with abnormalities in concentrations of BCL2 family proteins. Although stoichiometirc interactions between anti-apoptotic and BH3-only BCL2 family proteins have been well documented as affecting cell death, the association between changes in BAX concentration and intrinsic apoptosis are poorly understood. Methods Exogenous GFP-murine Bax fusion constructs were transfected into BAX-deficient HCT116 cells. To titrate the expression of the fusion protein, GFP-BAX was cloned into a tetracycline sensitive expression cassette and cotransfected with a plasmid expressing the rtTA transcription factor into HCT116BAX-/- cells. Linear expression of the fusion gene was induced with doxycycline and monitored by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Cell death was assayed by DAPI staining cells after exposure to indomethacin, and scoring nuclei for condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei. Results HCT116BAX-/- cells were resistant to indomethacin, but susceptibility could be recovered in cells expressing a GFP-BAX fusion protein. Titration of GFP-BAX expression revealed that the concentration of BAX required to induce a saturating apoptosis response from baseline, was rapidly achieved. Increased levels of GFP-BAX were unable to stimulate higher levels of cell death. Examination of GFP-BAX distribution before and after indomethacin treatment indicated that BAX protein did not form aggregates when present at sub-lethal concentrations. Conclusion Within the limitations of this experimental system, BAX-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 cells exhibits an all-or-none response depending on the level of BAX protein present. The lack of

  16. Detection of Promyelocytic Leukemia/Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PML/RARα Fusion Gene with Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to use functionalized graphene oxide (GO to detect the Promyelocytic leukemia/Retinoic acid receptor α fusion gene (PML/RARα fusion gene, a marker gene of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The functionalized GO was prepared by chemical exfoliation method, followed by a polyethylene glycol grafting. It is found that the functionalized GO can selectively adsorb the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-labeled single-stranded DNA probe and quench its fluorescence. The probe can be displaced by the PML/RARα fusion gene to restore the fluorescence, which can be detected by laser confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. These can be used to detect the presence of the PML/RARα fusion gene. This detection method is verified to be fast, simple and reliable.

  17. A fluorescent cassette-based strategy for engineering multiple domain fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorchid Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of fusion proteins has become increasingly important and most recently has formed the basis of many biosensors, protein purification systems, and classes of new drugs. Currently, most fusion proteins consist of three or fewer domains, however, more sophisticated designs could easily involve three or more domains. Using traditional subcloning strategies, this requires micromanagement of restriction enzymes sites that results in complex workaround solutions, if any at all. Results Therefore, to aid in the efficient construction of fusion proteins involving multiple domains, we have created a new expression vector that allows us to rapidly generate a library of cassettes. Cassettes have a standard vector structure based on four specific restriction endonuclease sites and using a subtle property of blunt or compatible cohesive end restriction enzymes, they can be fused in any order and number of times. Furthermore, the insertion of PCR products into our expression vector or the recombination of cassettes can be dramatically simplified by screening for the presence or absence of fluorescence. Conclusions Finally, the utility of this new strategy was demonstrated by the creation of basic cassettes for protein targeting to subcellular organelles and for protein purification using multiple affinity tags.

  18. Myristylation of gag-onc fusion proteins in mammalian transforming retroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, A.; Oroszlan, S.

    1984-01-01

    Four cell lines producing transforming proteins encoded by three mammalian oncogenes (fes, abl, and ras) were investigated for incorporation of [ 3 H]myristate into gag-onc fusion proteins. Using 5-min pulse-labelings, fusion proteins of Abelson murine leukemia virus, Gardner-Arnstein strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV), and Snyder-Theilen strain of FeSV were shown to be myristylated. In a 4-hr pulse, p29gag-ras of rat sarcoma virus (RaSV) was also shown to incorporate radiolabel. The fatty acid was recovered from this labeled protein by acid hydrolysis, and identified by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography to be [ 3 H]myristic acid. The results indicate that substitution of viral gag sequences by cellular oncogene sequences does not abolish their ability to become post-translationally modified by this long chain fatty acid. It is assumed that in the fusion proteins the myristyl moiety is linked through an amide linkage to the amino-terminal glycine as previously found for several retroviral gag precursor polyproteins. The possible role of myristylation of transforming proteins is discussed

  19. Myristylation of gag-onc fusion proteins in mammalian transforming retroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, A.; Oroszlan, S.

    1984-03-01

    Four cell lines producing transforming proteins encoded by three mammalian oncogenes (fes, abl, and ras) were investigated for incorporation of (/sup 3/H)myristate into gag-onc fusion proteins. Using 5-min pulse-labelings, fusion proteins of Abelson murine leukemia virus, Gardner-Arnstein strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV), and Snyder-Theilen strain of FeSV were shown to be myristylated. In a 4-hr pulse, p29gag-ras of rat sarcoma virus (RaSV) was also shown to incorporate radiolabel. The fatty acid was recovered from this labeled protein by acid hydrolysis, and identified by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography to be (/sup 3/H)myristic acid. The results indicate that substitution of viral gag sequences by cellular oncogene sequences does not abolish their ability to become post-translationally modified by this long chain fatty acid. It is assumed that in the fusion proteins the myristyl moiety is linked through an amide linkage to the amino-terminal glycine as previously found for several retroviral gag precursor polyproteins. The possible role of myristylation of transforming proteins is discussed.

  20. Horizontal gene transfers with or without cell fusions in all categories of the living matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the history of widespread exchanges of genetic segments initiated over 3 billion years ago, to be part of their life style, by sphero-protoplastic cells, the ancestors of archaea, prokaryota, and eukaryota. These primordial cells shared a hostile anaerobic and overheated environment and competed for survival. "Coexist with, or subdue and conquer, expropriate its most useful possessions, or symbiose with it, your competitor" remain cellular life's basic rules. This author emphasizes the role of viruses, both in mediating cell fusions, such as the formation of the first eukaryotic cell(s) from a united crenarchaeon and prokaryota, and the transfer of host cell genes integrated into viral (phages) genomes. After rising above the Darwinian threshold, rigid rules of speciation and vertical inheritance in the three domains of life were established, but horizontal gene transfers with or without cell fusions were never abolished. The author proves with extensive, yet highly selective documentation, that not only unicellular microorganisms, but the most complex multicellular entities of the highest ranks resort to, and practice, cell fusions, and donate and accept horizontally (laterally) transferred genes. Cell fusions and horizontally exchanged genetic materials remain the fundamental attributes and inherent characteristics of the living matter, whether occurring accidentally or sought after intentionally. These events occur to cells stagnating for some 3 milliard years at a lower yet amazingly sophisticated level of evolution, and to cells achieving the highest degree of differentiation, and thus functioning in dependence on the support of a most advanced multicellular host, like those of the human brain. No living cell is completely exempt from gene drains or gene insertions.

  1. Recombinant Brucella abortus gene expressing immunogenic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, J.E.; Tabatabai, L.B.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a synthetic recombinant DNA molecule containing a DNA sequence. It comprises a gene of Brucella abortus encoding an immunogenic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the protein having an isoelectric point around 4.9, and containing a twenty-five amino acid sequence from its amino terminal end consisting of Gln-Ala-Pro-Thr-Phe-Phe-Arg-Ile-Gly-Thr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Ala, wherein Gln, Ala, Pro, Thr, Phe, Arg, Ile, Gly, Tyr, and Leu, respectively, represent glutamine, alanine, proline, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, isolecuine, glycine, tyrosine, and leucine.

  2. End-to-end gene fusions and their impact on the production of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, Mazen; Antranikian, Garabed; Elleuche, Skander

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multifunctional enzymes offer an interesting approach for biomass degradation. ► Size and conformation of separate constructs play a role in the effectiveness of chimeras. ► A connecting linker allows for maximal flexibility and increased thermostability. ► Genes with functional similarities are the best choice for fusion candidates. -- Abstract: The reduction of fossil fuels, coupled with its increase in price, has made the search for alternative energy resources more plausible. One of the topics gaining fast interest is the utilization of lignocellulose, the main component of plants. Its primary constituents, cellulose and hemicellulose, can be degraded by a series of enzymes present in microorganisms, into simple sugars, later used for bioethanol production. Thermophilic bacteria have proven to be an interesting source of enzymes required for hydrolysis since they can withstand high and denaturing temperatures, which are usually required for processes involving biomass degradation. However, the cost associated with the whole enzymatic process is staggering. A solution for cost effective and highly active production is through the construction of multifunctional enzyme complexes harboring the function of more than one enzyme needed for the hydrolysis process. There are various strategies for the degradation of complex biomass ranging from the regulation of the enzymes involved, to cellulosomes, and proteins harboring more than one enzymatic activity. In this review, the construction of multifunctional biomass degrading enzymes through end-to-end gene fusions, and its impact on production and activity by choosing the enzymes and linkers is assessed.

  3. [HMGA proteins and their genes as a potential neoplastic biomarkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerczak, Ewa; Balcerczak, Mariusz; Mirowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    HMGA proteins and their genes are described in this article. HMGA proteins reveal ability to bind DNA in AT-rich regions, which are characteristic for gene promoter sequences. This interaction lead to gene silencing or their overexpression. In normal tissue HMGA proteins level is low or even undetectable. During embriogenesis their level is increasing. High HMGA proteins level is characteristic for tumor phenotype of spontaneous and experimental malignant neoplasms. High HMGA proteins expression correlate with bad prognostic factors and with metastases formation. HMGA genes expression can be used as a marker of tumor progression. Present studies connected with tumor gene therapy based on HMGA proteins sythesis inhibition by the use of viral vectors containing gene encoding these proteins in antisence orientation, as well as a new potential anticancer drugs acting as crosslinkers between DNA and HMGA proteins suggest their usefulness as a targets in cancer therapy.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of membrane remodeling and fusion proteins during endocytic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Henning; Auffarth, Kathrin; Kurre, Rainer; Lisse, Dominik; Piehler, Jacob; Ungermann, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Organelles of the endolysosomal system undergo multiple fission and fusion events to combine sorting of selected proteins to the vacuole with endosomal recycling. This sorting requires a consecutive remodeling of the organelle surface in the course of endosomal maturation. Here we dissect the remodeling and fusion machinery on endosomes during the process of endocytosis. We traced selected GFP-tagged endosomal proteins relative to exogenously added fluorescently labeled α-factor on its way from the plasma membrane to the vacuole. Our data reveal that the machinery of endosomal fusion and ESCRT proteins has similar temporal localization on endosomes, whereas they precede the retromer cargo recognition complex. Neither deletion of retromer nor the fusion machinery with the vacuole affects this maturation process, although the kinetics seems to be delayed due to ESCRT deletion. Of importance, in strains lacking the active Rab7-like Ypt7 or the vacuolar SNARE fusion machinery, α-factor still proceeds to late endosomes with the same kinetics. This indicates that endosomal maturation is mainly controlled by the early endosomal fusion and remodeling machinery but not the downstream Rab Ypt7 or the SNARE machinery. Our data thus provide important further understanding of endosomal biogenesis in the context of cargo sorting. © 2015 Arlt et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Engineering of a parainfluenza virus type 5 fusion protein (PIV-5 F): development of an autonomous and hyperfusogenic protein by a combinational mutagenesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Durupt, F; Cartet, G; Thomas, L; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M

    2009-12-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is accomplished by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. For the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV-5), this fusion involves an attachment protein (HN) and a class I viral fusion protein (F). We investigated the effect of 20 different combinations of 12 amino-acid substitutions within functional domains of the PIV-5 F glycoprotein, by performing cell surface expression measurements, quantitative fusion and syncytia assays. We found that combinations of mutations conferring an autonomous phenotype with mutations leading to an increased fusion activity were compatible and generated functional PIV-5 F proteins. The addition of mutations in the heptad-repeat domains led to both autonomous and hyperfusogenic phenotypes, despite the low cell surface expression of the corresponding mutants. Such engineering approach may prove useful not only for deciphering the fundamental mechanism behind viral-mediated membrane fusion but also in the development of potential therapeutic applications.

  6. Novel fusion protein approach for efficient high-throughput screening of small molecule-mediating protein-protein interactions in cells and living animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2005-08-15

    Networks of protein interactions execute many different intracellular pathways. Small molecules either synthesized within the cell or obtained from the external environment mediate many of these protein-protein interactions. The study of these small molecule-mediated protein-protein interactions is important in understanding abnormal signal transduction pathways in a variety of disorders, as well as in optimizing the process of drug development and validation. In this study, we evaluated the rapamycin-mediated interaction of the human proteins FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) rapamycin-binding domain (FRB) and FKBP12 by constructing a fusion of these proteins with a split-Renilla luciferase or a split enhanced green fluorescent protein (split-EGFP) such that complementation of the reporter fragments occurs in the presence of rapamycin. Different linker peptides in the fusion protein were evaluated for the efficient maintenance of complemented reporter activity. This system was studied in both cell culture and xenografts in living animals. We found that peptide linkers with two or four EAAAR repeat showed higher protein-protein interaction-mediated signal with lower background signal compared with having no linker or linkers with amino acid sequences GGGGSGGGGS, ACGSLSCGSF, and ACGSLSCGSFACGSLSCGSF. A 9 +/- 2-fold increase in signal intensity both in cell culture and in living mice was seen compared with a system that expresses both reporter fragments and the interacting proteins separately. In this fusion system, rapamycin induced heterodimerization of the FRB and FKBP12 moieties occurred rapidly even at very lower concentrations (0.00001 nmol/L) of rapamycin. For a similar fusion system employing split-EGFP, flow cytometry analysis showed significant level of rapamycin-induced complementation.

  7. Oral or parenteral administration of replication-deficient adenoviruses expressing the measles virus haemagglutinin and fusion proteins: protective immune responses in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Jeevarajah, D; Lee, J; Warnes, A; Niewiesk, S; ter Meulen, V; Stephenson, J R; Clegg, J C

    1998-05-01

    The genes encoding the measles virus (MV) haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins were placed under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter in a replication-deficient adenovirus vector. Immunofluorescence and radioimmune precipitation demonstrated the synthesis of each protein and biological activity was confirmed by the detection of haemadsorption and fusion activities in infected cells. Oral as well as parenteral administration of the H-expressing recombinant adenovirus elicited a significant protective response in mice challenged with MV. While the F-expressing adenovirus failed to protect mice, cotton rats immunized with either the H- or F-expressing recombinant showed reduced MV replication in the lungs. Antibodies elicited in mice following immunization with either recombinant had no in vitro neutralizing activity, suggesting a protective mechanism involving a cell-mediated immune response. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using oral administration of adenovirus recombinants to induce protective responses to heterologous proteins.

  8. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  9. Identification of a STOP1-like protein in Eucalyptus that regulates transcription of Al tolerance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Tolerance to soil acidity is an important trait for eucalyptus clones that are introduced to commercial forestry plantations in pacific Asian countries, where acidic soil is dominant in many locations. A conserved transcription factor regulating aluminum (Al) and proton (H⁺) tolerance in land-plant species, STOP1 (SENSITIVE TOPROTON RHIZOTOXICITY 1)-like protein, was isolated by polymerase chain reaction-based cloning, and then suppressed by RNA interference in hairy roots produced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Eucalyptus STOP1-like protein complemented proton tolerance in an Arabidopsis thaliana stop1-mutant, and localized to the nucleus in a transient assay of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein expressed in tobacco leaves by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Genes encoding a citrate transporting MULTIDRUGS AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION protein and an orthologue of ALUMINUM SENSITIVE 3 were suppressed in transgenic hairy roots in which the STOP1 orthologue was knocked down. In summary, we identified a series of genes for Al-tolerance in eucalyptus, including a gene for STOP1-like protein and the Al-tolerance genes it regulates. These genes may be useful for molecular breeding and genomic selection of elite clones to introduce into acid soil regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fusion protein based on Grb2-SH2 domain for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuriko; Furukawa, Takako; Arano, Yasushi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Grb2 mediates EGFR signaling through binding to phosphorylate EGFR with SH2 domain. → We generated fusion proteins containing 1 or 2 SH2 domains of Grb2 added with TAT. → The one with 2 SH2 domains (TSSF) interfered ERK phosphorylation. → TSSF significantly delayed the growth of EGFR overexpressing tumor in a mouse model. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the very attractive targets for cancer therapy. In this study, we generated fusion proteins containing one or two Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), which bind to phosphorylated EGFR, added with HIV-1 transactivating transcription for cell membrane penetration (termed TSF and TSSF, respectively). We examined if they can interfere Grb2-mediated signaling pathway and suppress tumor growth as expected from the lack of SH3 domain, which is necessary to intermediate EGFR-Grb2 cell signaling, in the fusion proteins. The transduction efficiency of TSSF was similar to that of TSF, but the binding activity of TSSF to EGFR was higher than that of TSF. Treatment of EGFR-overexpressing cells showed that TSSF decreased p42-ERK phosphorylation, while TSF did not. Both the proteins delayed cell growth but did not induce cell death in culture. TSSF also significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo under consecutive administration. In conclusion, TSSF showed an ability to inhibit EGFR-Grb2 signaling and could have a potential to treat EGFR-activated cancer.

  11. Domain fusion analysis by applying relational algebra to protein sequence and domain databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Kevin; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2003-05-06

    Domain fusion analysis is a useful method to predict functionally linked proteins that may be involved in direct protein-protein interactions or in the same metabolic or signaling pathway. As separate domain databases like BLOCKS, PROSITE, Pfam, SMART, PRINTS-S, ProDom, TIGRFAMs, and amalgamated domain databases like InterPro continue to grow in size and quality, a computational method to perform domain fusion analysis that leverages on these efforts will become increasingly powerful. This paper proposes a computational method employing relational algebra to find domain fusions in protein sequence databases. The feasibility of this method was illustrated on the SWISS-PROT+TrEMBL sequence database using domain predictions from the Pfam HMM (hidden Markov model) database. We identified 235 and 189 putative functionally linked protein partners in H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, respectively. From scientific literature, we were able to confirm many of these functional linkages, while the remainder offer testable experimental hypothesis. Results can be viewed at http://calcium.uhnres.utoronto.ca/pi. As the analysis can be computed quickly on any relational database that supports standard SQL (structured query language), it can be dynamically updated along with the sequence and domain databases, thereby improving the quality of predictions over time.

  12. Structural characterization of the fusion core in syncytin, envelope protein of human endogenous retrovirus family W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Rui; Peng Xiaoxue; Kang Shuli; Feng Huixing; Huang Jianying; Zhang Wentao; Lin Donghai; Tien Po; Xiao Gengfu

    2005-01-01

    Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein, possibly involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer generated by trophoblast cell fusion at the maternal-fetal interface. We found that syncytin and type I viral envelope proteins shared similar structural profiling, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR). We expressed the predicted regions of NHR (41 aa) and CHR (34 aa) in syncytin as a native single chain (named 2-helix protein) to characterize it. 2-helix protein exists as a trimer and is highly α-helix, thermo-stable, and denatured by low pH. NHR and CHR could form a protease-resistant complex. The complex structure built by the molecular docking demonstrated that NHR and CHR associated in an antiparallel manner. Overall, the 2-helix protein could form a thermo-stable coiled coil trimer. The fusion core structure of syncytin was first demonstrated in endogenous retrovirus. These results support the explanation how syncytin mediates cytotrophoblast cell fusion involved in placental morphogenesis

  13. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv retains antibody specificity and chemokine function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqing, Guo; Liu, Chen; Hongwu, Ai; Jiannian, Jing; Jiyong, Zhou; Chuyu, Zhang; Shangyou, You

    2004-07-23

    We combined the specificity of tumor-specific antibody with the chemokine function of interferon-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) to recruit immune effector cells in the vicinity of tumor cells. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv was constructed by fusing mouse IP-10 to V{sub H} region of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) against acidic isoferritin (AIF), and expressed in NS0 murine myeloma cells. The IP10-scFv fusion protein was shown to maintain the specificity of the antiAIF scFv with similar affinity constant, and bind to the human hepatocarcinoma SMMC 7721 cells secreting AIF as well as the activated mouse T lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 receptor. Furthermore, the IP10-scFv protein either in solution or bound on the surface of SMMC 7721 cells induced significant chemotaxis of mouse T cells in vitro. The results indicate that the IP10-scFv fusion protein possesses both bioactivities of the tumor-specific antibody and IP-10 chemokine, suggesting its possibility to induce an enhanced immune response against the residual tumor cells in vivo.

  14. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv retains antibody specificity and chemokine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Junqing; Chen Liu; Ai Hongwu; Jing Jiannian; Zhou Jiyong; Zhang Chuyu; You Shangyou

    2004-01-01

    We combined the specificity of tumor-specific antibody with the chemokine function of interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) to recruit immune effector cells in the vicinity of tumor cells. A novel fusion protein of IP10-scFv was constructed by fusing mouse IP-10 to V H region of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) against acidic isoferritin (AIF), and expressed in NS0 murine myeloma cells. The IP10-scFv fusion protein was shown to maintain the specificity of the antiAIF scFv with similar affinity constant, and bind to the human hepatocarcinoma SMMC 7721 cells secreting AIF as well as the activated mouse T lymphocytes expressing CXCR3 receptor. Furthermore, the IP10-scFv protein either in solution or bound on the surface of SMMC 7721 cells induced significant chemotaxis of mouse T cells in vitro. The results indicate that the IP10-scFv fusion protein possesses both bioactivities of the tumor-specific antibody and IP-10 chemokine, suggesting its possibility to induce an enhanced immune response against the residual tumor cells in vivo

  15. The conserved glycine residues in the transmembrane domain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein are not required for assembly and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Maofu; Kielian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein. Both the E1 fusion peptide and transmembrane (TM) domain are essential for membrane fusion, but the functional requirements for the TM domain are poorly understood. Here we explored the role of the five TM domain glycine residues, including the highly conserved glycine pair at E1 residues 415/416. SFV mutants with alanine substitutions for individual or all five glycine residues (5G/A) showed growth kinetics and fusion pH dependence similar to those of wild-type SFV. Mutants with increasing substitution of glycine residues showed an increasingly more stringent requirement for cholesterol during fusion. The 5G/A mutant showed decreased fusion kinetics and extent in fluorescent lipid mixing assays. TM domain glycine residues thus are not required for efficient SFV fusion or assembly but can cause subtle effects on the properties of membrane fusion

  16. Maltose binding protein-fusion enhances the bioactivity of truncated forms of pig myostatin propeptide produced in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Beum Lee

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. MSTN propeptide (MSTNpro inhibits MSTN binding to its receptor through complex formation with MSTN, implying that MSTNpro can be a useful agent to improve skeletal muscle growth in meat-producing animals. Four different truncated forms of pig MSTNpro containing N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP as a fusion partner were expressed in E. coli, and purified by the combination of affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The MSTN-inhibitory capacities of these proteins were examined in an in vitro gene reporter assay. A MBP-fused, truncated MSTNpro containing residues 42-175 (MBP-Pro42-175 exhibited the same MSTN-inhibitory potency as the full sequence MSTNpro. Truncated MSTNpro proteins containing either residues 42-115 (MBP-Pro42-115 or 42-98 (MBP-Pro42-98 also exhibited MSTN-inhibitory capacity even though the potencies were significantly lower than that of full sequence MSTNpro. In pull-down assays, MBP-Pro42-175, MBP-Pro42-115, and MBP-Pro42-98 demonstrated their binding to MSTN. MBP was removed from the truncated MSTNpro proteins by incubation with factor Xa to examine the potential role of MBP on MSTN-inhibitory capacity of those proteins. Removal of MBP from MBP-Pro42-175 and MBP-Pro42-98 resulted in 20-fold decrease in MSTN-inhibitory capacity of Pro42-175 and abolition of MSTN-inhibitory capacity of Pro42-98, indicating that MBP as fusion partner enhanced the MSTN-inhibitory capacity of those truncated MSTNpro proteins. In summary, this study shows that MBP is a very useful fusion partner in enhancing MSTN-inhibitory potency of truncated forms of MSTNpro proteins, and MBP-fused pig MSTNpro consisting of amino acid residues 42-175 is sufficient to maintain the full MSTN-inhibitory capacity.

  17. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression and Activation of Horseradish Peroxidase-Protein A/G Fusion Protein in Silkworm Larvae for Diagnostic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xxxx, Patmawati; Minamihata, Kosuke; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2018-06-01

    Recombinant protein production can create artificial proteins with desired functions by introducing genetic modifications to the target proteins. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been used extensively as a reporter enzyme in biotechnological applications; however, recombinant production of HRP has not been very successful, hampering the utilization of HRP with genetic modifications. A fusion protein comprising an antibody binding protein and HRP will be an ideal bio-probe for high-quality HRP-based diagnostic systems. A HRP-protein A/G fusion protein (HRP-pAG) is designed and its production in silkworm (Bombyx mori) is evaluated for the first time. HRP-pAG is expressed in a soluble apo form, and is activated successfully by incubating with hemin. The activated HRP-pAG is used directly for ELISA experiments and retains its activity over 20 days at 4 °C. Moreover, HRP-pAG is modified with biotin by the microbial transglutaminase (MTG) reaction. The biotinylated HRP-pAG is conjugated with streptavidin to form a HRP-pAG multimer and the multimeric HRP-pAG produced higher signals in the ELISA system than monomeric HRP-pAG. The successful production of recombinant HRP in silkworm will contribute to creating novel HRP-based bioconjugates as well as further functionalization of HRP by applying enzymatic post-translational modifications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analysis of gene and protein name synonyms in Entrez Gene and UniProtKB resources

    KAUST Repository

    Arkasosy, Basil

    2013-01-01

    be ambiguous, referring in some cases to more than one gene or one protein, or in others, to both genes and proteins at the same time. Public biological databases give a very useful insight about genes and proteins information, including their names

  20. Production of FMDV virus-like particles by a SUMO fusion protein approach in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu-Mei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs are formed by the self-assembly of envelope and/or capsid proteins from many viruses. Some VLPs have been proven successful as vaccines, and others have recently found applications as carriers for foreign antigens or as scaffolds in nanoparticle biotechnology. However, production of VLP was usually impeded due to low water-solubility of recombinant virus capsid proteins. Previous studies revealed that virus capsid and envelope proteins were often posttranslationally modified by SUMO in vivo, leading into a hypothesis that SUMO modification might be a common mechanism for virus proteins to retain water-solubility or prevent improper self-aggregation before virus assembly. We then propose a simple approach to produce VLPs of viruses, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. An improved SUMO fusion protein system we developed recently was applied to the simultaneous expression of three capsid proteins of FMDV in E. coli. The three SUMO fusion proteins formed a stable heterotrimeric complex. Proteolytic removal of SUMO moieties from the ternary complexes resulted in VLPs with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. The method described here can also apply to produce capsid/envelope protein complexes or VLPs of other disease-causing viruses.

  1. Fusions between green fluorescent protein and beta-glucuronidase as sensitive and vital bifunctional reporters in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedvlieg, N E; Schlaman, H R; Admiraal, P C; Wijting, S E; Stougaard, J; Spaink, H P

    1998-11-01

    By fusing the genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) we have created a set of bifunctional reporter constructs which are optimized for use in transient and stable expression studies in plants. This approach makes it possible to combine the advantage of GUS, its high sensitivity in histochemical staining, with the advantages of GFP as a vital marker. The fusion proteins were functional in transient expression studies in tobacco using either DNA bombardment or potato virus X as a vector, and in stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana and Lotus japonicus plants. The results show that high level of expression does not interfere with efficient stable transformation in A. thaliana and L. japonicus. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the fusion constructs are very suitable for promoter expression studies in all organs of living plants, including root nodules. The use of these reporter constructs in the model legume L. japonicus offers exciting new possibilities for the study of the root nodulation process.

  2. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  3. Gene expression profiling analysis of CRTC1-MAML2 fusion oncogene-induced transcriptional program in human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Jian-Liang; Chen, Zirong; Griffin, James D.; Wu, Lizi

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) arises from multiple organs and accounts for the most common types of salivary gland malignancies. Currently, patients with unresectable and metastatic MEC have poor long-term clinical outcomes and no targeted therapies are available. The majority of MEC tumors contain a t(11;19) chromosomal translocation that fuses two genes, CRTC1 and MAML2, to generate the chimeric protein CRTC1-MAML2. CRTC1-MAML2 displays transforming activity in vitro and is required for human MEC cell growth and survival, partially due to its ability to constitutively activate CREB-mediated transcription. Consequently, CRTC1-MAML2 is implicated as a major etiologic molecular event and a therapeutic target for MEC. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRTC1-MAML2 oncogenic action in MEC have not yet been systematically analyzed. Elucidation of the CRTC1-MAML2-regulated transcriptional program and its underlying mechanisms will provide important insights into MEC pathogenesis that are essential for the development of targeted therapeutics. Transcriptional profiling was performed on human MEC cells with the depletion of endogenous CRTC1-MAML2 fusion or its interacting partner CREB via shRNA-mediated gene knockdown. A subset of target genes was validated via real-time RT-PCR assays. CRTC1-MAML2-perturbed molecular pathways in MEC were identified through pathway analyses. Finally, comparative analysis of CRTC1-MAML2-regulated and CREB-regulated transcriptional profiles was carried out to assess the contribution of CREB in mediating CRTC1-MAML2-induced transcription. A total of 808 differentially expressed genes were identified in human MEC cells after CRTC1-MAML2 knockdown and a subset of known and novel fusion target genes was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Pathway Analysis revealed that CRTC1-MAML2-regulated genes were associated with network functions that are important for cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. Comparison of CRTC

  4. G protein betagamma-subunits activated by serotonin mediate presynaptic inhibition by regulating vesicle fusion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photowala, Huzefa; Blackmer, Trillium; Schwartz, Eric; Hamm, Heidi E; Alford, Simon

    2006-03-14

    Neurotransmitters are thought to be released as quanta, where synaptic vesicles deliver packets of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft by fusion with the plasma membrane. However, synaptic vesicles may undergo incomplete fusion. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors inhibit release by causing such incomplete fusion. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor signaling potently inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) between lamprey reticulospinal axons and their postsynaptic targets by a direct action on the vesicle fusion machinery. We show that 5-HT receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition, at this synapse, involves a reduction in EPSC quantal size. Quantal size was measured directly by comparing unitary quantal amplitudes of paired EPSCs before and during 5-HT application and indirectly by determining the effect of 5-HT on the relationship between mean-evoked EPSC amplitude and variance. Results from FM dye-labeling experiments indicate that 5-HT prevents full fusion of vesicles. 5-HT reduces FM1-43 staining of vesicles with a similar efficacy to its effect on the EPSC. However, destaining of FM1-43-labeled vesicles is abolished by lower concentrations of 5-HT that leave a substantial EPSC. The use of a water-soluble membrane impermeant quenching agent in the extracellular space reduced FM1-43 fluorescence during stimulation in 5-HT. Thus vesicles contact the extracellular space during inhibition of synaptic transmission by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT, via free Gbetagamma, prevents the collapse of synaptic vesicles into the presynaptic membrane.

  5. Inhibitory effect of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein on Bcr-Abl in K562 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao GAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the transduction dynamics, location of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein and its interaction with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein in K562 cell lines, and explore the influence of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein on oligomerization and tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl. Methods PTD-OD-HA fusion protein was labeled with FITC and co-cultured with K562 cells. The transduction efficiency of labeled PTD-OD-HA at different doses and time intervals was observed under fluorescence microscope. The location of labeled PTD-OD-HA fusion protein in K562 cells was detected by confocal microscopy. The interaction of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. The phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was detected by Western blotting. Results PTD-OD-HA fusion protein labeled with FITC was transduced into K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PTD-OD-HA fusion protein was located in the cytoplasm of K562 cells and was consistent with the location of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. The interaction of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was proved in K562 cells. This interaction could interrupt the homologous oligomerization of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein and reduce the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Conclusion PTD-OD-HA fusion protein could be transduced into K562 cells efficiently, inhibit the oligomerization and reduce the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein.

  6. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, ER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology and Biotechnology October 2012/ Vol. 96, No.2 Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase ER James a,c & WH van Zyl b & PJ van Zyl c & JF Görgens..., Pretoria 0001, South Africa Abstract This study demonstrates the potential of Aspergillus niger as a candidate expression system for virus- like particle production using gene fusion. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) production, targeted...

  7. Induction of Boosted Immune Response in Mice by Leptospiral Surface Proteins Expressed in Fusion with DnaK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Atzingen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21, rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95, and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.

  8. Bioinformatic analysis of patient-derived ASPS gene expressions and ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript levels identify potential therapeutic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Covell

    Full Text Available Gene expression data, collected from ASPS tumors of seven different patients and from one immortalized ASPS cell line (ASPS-1, was analyzed jointly with patient ASPL-TFE3 (t(X;17(p11;q25 fusion transcript data to identify disease-specific pathways and their component genes. Data analysis of the pooled patient and ASPS-1 gene expression data, using conventional clustering methods, revealed a relatively small set of pathways and genes characterizing the biology of ASPS. These results could be largely recapitulated using only the gene expression data collected from patient tumor samples. The concordance between expression measures derived from ASPS-1 and both pooled and individual patient tumor data provided a rationale for extending the analysis to include patient ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript data. A novel linear model was exploited to link gene expressions to fusion transcript data and used to identify a small set of ASPS-specific pathways and their gene expression. Cellular pathways that appear aberrantly regulated in response to the t(X;17(p11;q25 translocation include the cell cycle and cell adhesion. The identification of pathways and gene subsets characteristic of ASPS support current therapeutic strategies that target the FLT1 and MET, while also proposing additional targeting of genes found in pathways involved in the cell cycle (CHK1, cell adhesion (ARHGD1A, cell division (CDC6, control of meiosis (RAD51L3 and mitosis (BIRC5, and chemokine-related protein tyrosine kinase activity (CCL4.

  9. Analysis of nuclear export using photoactivatable GFP fusion proteins and interspecies heterokaryons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Ivanova, Iordanka A; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we review protocols for the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors and nuclear proteins, using two different approaches. The first involves the use of photoactivatable forms of the protein of interest by fusion to photoactivatable green fluorescent protein to follow its movement out of the nucleus by live-cell confocal microscopy. This methodology allows for the kinetic characterization of protein movements as well as measurement of steady-state levels. In a second procedure to assess the ability of a nuclear protein to move into and out of the nucleus, we describe the use of interspecies heterokaryon assays, which provide a measurement of steady-state distribution. These technologies are directly applicable to the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic movements not only of transcription factors, but also other nuclear proteins.

  10. Biochemistry and biophysics of HIV-1 gp41 - membrane interactions and implications for HIV-1 envelope protein mediated viral-cell fusion and fusion inhibitor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lifeng; Gochin, Miriam; Liu, Keliang

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the pathogen of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), causes ~2 millions death every year and still defies an effective vaccine. HIV-1 infects host cells through envelope protein - mediated virus-cell fusion. The transmembrane subunit of envelope protein, gp41, is the molecular machinery which facilitates fusion. Its ectodomain contains several distinguishing functional domains, fusion peptide (FP), Nterminal heptad repeat (NHR), C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) and membrane proximal extracellular region (MPER). During the fusion process, FP inserts into the host cell membrane, and an extended gp41 prehairpin conformation bridges the viral and cell membranes through MPER and FP respectively. Subsequent conformational change of the unstable prehairpin results in a coiled-coil 6-helix bundle (6HB) structure formed between NHR and CHR. The energetics of 6HB formation drives membrane apposition and fusion. Drugs targeting gp41 functional domains to prevent 6HB formation inhibit HIV-1 infection. T20 (enfuvirtide, Fuzeon) was approved by the US FDA in 2003 as the first fusion inhibitor. It is a 36-residue peptide from the gp41 CHR, and it inhibits 6HB formation by targeting NHR and lipids. Development of new fusion inhibitors, especially small molecule drugs, is encouraged to overcome the shortcomings of T20 as a peptide drug. Hydrophobic characteristics and membrane association are critical for gp41 function and mechanism of action. Research in gp41-membrane interactions, using peptides corresponding to specific functional domains, or constructs including several interactive domains, are reviewed here to get a better understanding of gp41 mediated virus-cell fusion that can inform or guide the design of new HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

  11. Aberrant chimeric RNA GOLM1-MAK10 encoding a secreted fusion protein as a molecular signature for human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Lin, Wan; Kannan, Kalpana; Luo, Liming; Li, Jing; Chao, Pei-Wen; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yu-Ping; Gu, Jiang; Yen, Laising

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that chimeric RNAs may exert a novel layer of cellular complexity that contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression, and could be utilized as molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To date yet no fusion chimeric RNAs have been identified in esophageal cancer, the 6th most frequent cause of cancer death in the world. While analyzing the expression of 32 recurrent cancer chimeric RNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) from patients and cancer cell lines, we identified GOLM1-MAK10, as a highly cancer-enriched chimeric RNA in ESCC. In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of the chimera is largely restricted to cancer cells in patient tumors, and nearly undetectable in non-neoplastic esophageal tissue from normal subjects. The aberrant chimera closely correlated with histologic differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chimera GOLM1-MAK10 encodes a secreted fusion protein. Mechanistic studies reveal that GOLM1-MAK10 is likely derived from transcription read-through/splicing rather than being generated from a fusion gene. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism involved in ESCC and provide a novel potential target for future therapies. The secreted fusion protein translated from GOLM1-MAK10 could also serve as a unique protein signature detectable by standard non-invasive assays. These observations are critical as there is no clinically useful molecular signature available for detecting this deadly disease or monitoring the treatment response. PMID:24243830

  12. Purification method for recombinant proteins based on a fusion between the target protein and the C-terminus of calmodulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer-Vukasinovic, Vesna; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) was used as an affinity tail to facilitate the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was used as a model target protein. The protein GFP was fused to the C-terminus of CaM, and a factor Xa cleavage site was introduced between the two proteins. A CaM-GFP fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and purified on a phenothiazine-derivatized silica column. CaM binds to the phenothiazine on the column in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion and it was, therefore, used as an affinity tail for the purification of GFP. The fusion protein bound to the affinity column was then subjected to a proteolytic digestion with factor Xa. Pure GFP was eluted with a Ca(2+)-containing buffer, while CaM was eluted later with a buffer containing the Ca(2+)-chelating agent EGTA. The purity of the isolated GFP was verified by SDS-PAGE, and the fluorescence properties of the purified GFP were characterized.

  13. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  15. Immunogenicity of nuclear-encoded LTB:ST fusion protein from Escherichia coli expressed in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Soria-Guerra, Ruth E; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Herrera-Díaz, Areli; Korban, Schuyler S; Alpuche-Solís, Ángel G

    2011-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in infants and for travelers. Inclusion of a heat-stable (ST) toxin into vaccine formulations is mandatory as most ETEC strains can produce both heat-labile (LT) and ST enterotoxins. In this study, a genetic fusion gene encoding for an LTB:ST protein has been constructed and transferred into tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying the LTB:ST gene are then subjected to GM1-ELISA revealing that the LTB:ST has assembled into pentamers and displays antigenic determinants from both LTB and ST. Protein accumulation of up to 0.05% total soluble protein is detected. Subsequently, mucosal and systemic humoral responses are elicited in mice orally dosed with transgenic tobacco leaves. This has suggested that the plant-derived LTB:ST is immunogenic via the oral route. These findings are critical for the development of a plant-based vaccine capable of eliciting broader protection against ETEC and targeting both LTB and ST. Features of this platform in comparison to transplastomic approaches are discussed.

  16. Characterization of a Cellulomonas fimi exoglucanase/xylanase-endoglucanase gene fusion which improves microbial degradation of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duedu, Kwabena O; French, Christopher E

    2016-11-01

    Effective degradation of cellulose requires multiple classes of enzyme working together. However, naturally occurring cellulases with multiple catalytic domains seem to be rather rare in known cellulose-degrading organisms. A fusion protein made from Cellulomonas fimi exo- and endo- glucanases, Cex and CenA which improves breakdown of cellulose is described. A homologous carbohydrate binding module (CBM-2) present in both glucanases was fused to give a fusion protein CxnA. CxnA or unfused constructs (Cex+CenA, Cex, or CenA) were expressed in Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii. The latter recombinant strains were cultured at the expense of cellulose filter paper. The expressed CxnA had both exo- and endo- glucanase activities. It was also exported to the supernatant as were the non-fused proteins. In addition, the hybrid CBM from the fusion could bind to microcrystalline cellulose. Growth of C. freundii expressing CxnA was superior to that of cells expressing the unfused proteins. Physical degradation of filter paper was also faster with the cells expressing fusion protein than the other constructs. Our results show that fusion proteins with multiple catalytic domains can improve the efficiency of cellulose degradation. Such fusion proteins could potentially substitute cloning of multiple enzymes as well as improving product yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly efficient retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons by a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with fusion glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyabi Hirano

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy techniques to introduce transgenes that promote neuronal survival and protection provides effective therapeutic approaches for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Intramuscular injection of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors, as well as lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G, permits gene delivery into motor neurons in animal models for motor neuron diseases. Recently, we developed a vector with highly efficient retrograde gene transfer (HiRet by pseudotyping a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-based vector with fusion glycoprotein B type (FuG-B or a variant of FuG-B (FuG-B2, in which the cytoplasmic domain of RV-G was replaced by the corresponding part of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G. We have also developed another vector showing neuron-specific retrograde gene transfer (NeuRet with fusion glycoprotein C type, in which the short C-terminal segment of the extracellular domain and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of RV-G was substituted with the corresponding regions of VSV-G. These two vectors afford the high efficiency of retrograde gene transfer into different neuronal populations in the brain. Here we investigated the efficiency of the HiRet (with FuG-B2 and NeuRet vectors for retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain in mice after intramuscular injection and compared it with the efficiency of the RV-G pseudotype of the HIV-1-based vector. The main highlight of our results is that the HiRet vector shows the most efficient retrograde gene transfer into both spinal cord and hindbrain motor neurons, offering its promising use as a gene therapeutic approach for the treatment of motor neuron diseases.

  18. Blood-brain barrier drug delivery of IgG fusion proteins with a transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2015-02-01

    Biologic drugs are large molecules that do not cross the blood- brain barrier (BBB). Brain penetration is possible following the re-engineering of the biologic drug as an IgG fusion protein. The IgG domain is a MAb against an endogenous BBB receptor such as the transferrin receptor (TfR). The TfRMAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused biologic drug into the brain via receptor-mediated transport on the endogenous BBB TfR. This review discusses TfR isoforms, models of BBB transport of transferrin and TfRMAbs, and the genetic engineering of TfRMAb fusion proteins, including BBB penetrating IgG-neurotrophins, IgG-decoy receptors, IgG-lysosomal enzyme therapeutics and IgG-avidin fusion proteins, as well as BBB transport of bispecific antibodies formed by fusion of a therapeutic antibody to a TfRMAb targeting antibody. Also discussed are quantitative aspects of the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of TfRMAb fusion proteins, as compared to the brain uptake of small molecules, and therapeutic applications of TfRMAb fusion proteins in mouse models of neural disease, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and lysosomal storage disorders. The review covers the engineering of TfRMAb-avidin fusion proteins for BBB targeted delivery of biotinylated peptide radiopharmaceuticals, low-affinity TfRMAb Trojan horses and the safety pharmacology of chronic administration of TfRMAb fusion proteins. The BBB delivery of biologic drugs is possible following re-engineering as a fusion protein with a molecular Trojan horse such as a TfRMAb. The efficacy of this technology will be determined by the outcome of future clinical trials.

  19. Cloning and characterization of an insecticidal crystal protein gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The sequence of the cloned crystal protein gene showed almost complete homology with a mosquitocidal toxin gene from Bacillus .... diet or by topical application on food substrates as .... has very high similarity (99.74%) at DNA level with.

  20. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of the Structural Topology and Lipid Interactions of a Viral Fusion Protein Chimera Containing the Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Myungwoon; Liao, Shu-Yu; Hong, Mei

    2016-12-13

    The fusion peptide (FP) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins play important roles during virus-cell membrane fusion, by inducing membrane curvature and transient dehydration. The structure of the water-soluble ectodomain of viral fusion proteins has been extensively studied crystallographically, but the structures of the FP and TMD bound to phospholipid membranes are not well understood. We recently investigated the conformations and lipid interactions of the separate FP and TMD peptides of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein F using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. These studies provide structural information about the two domains when they are spatially well separated in the fusion process. To investigate how these two domains are structured relative to each other in the postfusion state, when the ectodomain forms a six-helix bundle that is thought to force the FP and TMD together in the membrane, we have now expressed and purified a chimera of the FP and TMD, connected by a Gly-Lys linker, and measured the chemical shifts and interdomain contacts of the protein in several lipid membranes. The FP-TMD chimera exhibits α-helical chemical shifts in all the membranes examined and does not cause strong curvature of lamellar membranes or membranes with negative spontaneous curvature. These properties differ qualitatively from those of the separate peptides, indicating that the FP and TMD interact with each other in the lipid membrane. However, no 13 C- 13 C cross peaks are observed in two-dimensional correlation spectra, suggesting that the two helices are not tightly associated. These results suggest that the ectodomain six-helix bundle does not propagate into the membrane to the two hydrophobic termini. However, the loosely associated FP and TMD helices are found to generate significant negative Gaussian curvature to membranes that possess spontaneous positive curvature, consistent with the notion that the FP-TMD assembly may

  2. Protein-free transfection of CHO host cells with an IgG-fusion protein: selection and characterization of stable high producers and comparison to conventionally transfected clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattenmayer, Christine; Loeschel, Martina; Schriebl, Kornelia; Steinfellner, Willibald; Sterovsky, Thomas; Trummer, Evelyn; Vorauer-Uhl, Karola; Müller, Dethardt; Katinger, Hermann; Kunert, Renate

    2007-04-15

    In order to improve the current techniques of cell cultivation in the absence of serum, we have developed a protein-free transfection protocol for CHO cells, based on the Nucleofector technology. After starting with a heterogeneous pool of primary transfectants which express the fusion protein EpoFc, we isolated single clones and compared them with parallel clones generated by lipofection in serum-dependent cultivation. Our intensive characterization program was based on determination of specific productivity (q(p)) and analysis of genetic parameters. In two nucleofection experiments, transfection with 5 microg of DNA resulted in best productivities of the primary cell pools. After subcloning, the q(p) could be raised up to 27 pg x cells(-1) x day(-1). While the serum-dependent transfectants exhibited specific productivities up to 57 pg x cells(-1) x day(-1) in serum-dependent cultivation, a significant decrease that resulted in the range of q(p) of the protein-free transfectants was observed after switching to protein-free conditions. Investigation of genetic parameters revealed higher mRNA levels and gene copy numbers (GCN) for the protein-free adapted serum-dependent transfectants. Therefore, we assume that problems during protein-free adaptation (PFA) lead to a less efficient translation machinery after serum deprivation. We describe the generation of stable-producing recombinant CHO clones by protein-free transfection of a protein-free adapted host cell line, which reduces the risk of adverse clonal changes after PFA. The main advantage of this approach is the earlier predictability of clone behavior, which makes the generation of production clones by protein-free transfection, a viable and highly efficient strategy for recombinant cell line development. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Protein-Protein Interaction Network and Gene Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunkyu; Kim, Seok; Yi, Gwan-Su; Park, Jinah

    Evolution of computer technologies makes it possible to access a large amount and various kinds of biological data via internet such as DNA sequences, proteomics data and information discovered about them. It is expected that the combination of various data could help researchers find further knowledge about them. Roles of a visualization system are to invoke human abilities to integrate information and to recognize certain patterns in the data. Thus, when the various kinds of data are examined and analyzed manually, an effective visualization system is an essential part. One instance of these integrated visualizations can be combination of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and Gene Ontology (GO) which could help enhance the analysis of PPI network. We introduce a simple but comprehensive visualization system that integrates GO and PPI data where GO and PPI graphs are visualized side-by-side and supports quick reference functions between them. Furthermore, the proposed system provides several interactive visualization methods for efficiently analyzing the PPI network and GO directedacyclic- graph such as context-based browsing and common ancestors finding.

  4. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  5. Determination of the topology of endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins using redox-sensitive green-fluorescence protein fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maria; Birk, Julia; Egert, Aurélie; Odermatt, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are involved in a wide array of essential cellular functions. Identification of the topology of membrane proteins can provide significant insight into their mechanisms of action and biological roles. This is particularly important for membrane enzymes, since their topology determines the subcellular site where a biochemical reaction takes place and the dependence on luminal or cytosolic co-factor pools and substrates. The methods currently available for the determination of topology of proteins are rather laborious and require post-lysis or post-fixation manipulation of cells. In this work, we have developed a simple method for defining intracellular localization and topology of ER membrane proteins in living cells, based on the fusion of the respective protein with redox-sensitive green-fluorescent protein (roGFP). We validated the method and demonstrated that roGFP fusion proteins constitute a reliable tool for the study of ER membrane protein topology, using as control microsomal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) proteins whose topology has been resolved, and comparing with an independent approach. We then implemented this method to determine the membrane topology of six microsomal members of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) family. The results revealed a luminal orientation of the catalytic site for three enzymes, i.e. 17β-HSD6, 7 and 12. Knowledge of the intracellular location of the catalytic site of these enzymes will enable future studies on their biological functions and on the role of the luminal co-factor pool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A recombinant fusion protein-based, fluorescent protease assay for high throughput-compatible substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Beáta; Gazda, Lívia; Tóth, Ferenc; Miczi, Márió; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2018-01-01

    In connection with the intensive investigation of proteases, several methods have been developed for analysis of the substrate specificity. Due to the great number of proteases and the expected target molecules to be analyzed, time- and cost-efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are preferred. Here we describe the development and application of a separation-based HTS-compatible fluorescent protease assay, which is based on the use of recombinant fusion proteins as substrates of proteases. The protein substrates used in this assay consists of N-terminal (hexahistidine and maltose binding protein) fusion tags, cleavage sequences of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) and HIV-1 proteases, and a C-terminal fluorescent protein (mApple or mTurquoise2). The assay is based on the fluorimetric detection of the fluorescent proteins, which are released from the magnetic bead-attached substrates by the proteolytic cleavage. The protease assay has been applied for activity measurements of TEV and HIV-1 proteases to test the suitability of the system for enzyme kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, and determination of pH optimum. We also found that denatured fluorescent proteins can be renatured after SDS-PAGE of denaturing conditions, but showed differences in their renaturation abilities. After in-gel renaturation both substrates and cleavage products can be identified by in-gel UV detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fusion and retrotransposition events in the evolution of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis neurotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Lazarus, Nimrod; Gur, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Sea anemones are sessile predators that use a variety of toxins to paralyze prey and foe. Among these toxins, Types I, II and III are short peptides that affect voltage-gated sodium channels. Anemonia viridis is the only sea anemone species that produces both Types I and III neurotoxin. Although the two toxin types are unrelated in sequence and three-dimensional structure, cloning and comparative analysis of their loci revealed a highly similar sequence at the 5' region, which encodes a signal peptide. This similarity was likely generated by gene fusion and could be advantageous in transcript stability and intracellular trafficking and secretion. In addition, these analyses identified the processed pseudogenes of the two gene families in the genome of A. viridis, probably resulting from retrotransposition events. As presence of processed pseudogenes in the genome requires transcription in germ-line cells, we analyzed oocyte-rich ovaries and found that indeed they contain Types I and III transcripts. This result raises questions regarding the role of toxin transcripts in these tissues. Overall, the retrotransposition and gene fusion events suggest that the genes of both Types I and III neurotoxins evolved in a similar fashion and share a partial common ancestry.

  8. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins for treatment of cancer: engineering cytokines for improved efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Patricia A; Morrison, Sherie L; Timmerman, John M

    2014-10-01

    The true potential of cytokine therapies in cancer treatment is limited by the inability to deliver optimal concentrations into tumor sites due to dose-limiting systemic toxicities. To maximize the efficacy of cytokine therapy, recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins have been constructed by a number of groups to harness the tumor-targeting ability of monoclonal antibodies. The aim is to guide cytokines specifically to tumor sites where they might stimulate more optimal anti-tumor immune responses while avoiding the systemic toxicities of free cytokine therapy. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins containing interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-21, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and interferons (IFNs) α, β, and γ have been constructed and have shown anti-tumor activity in preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. Future priorities for development of this technology include optimization of tumor targeting, bioactivity of the fused cytokine, and choice of appropriate agents for combination therapies. This review is intended to serve as a framework for engineering an ideal antibody-cytokine fusion protein, focusing on previously developed constructs and their clinical trial results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human dynamin-related protein 1 GTPase-GED fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinglmayr, Eva; Wenger, Julia; Mayr, Sandra; Bossy-Wetzel, Ella; Puehringer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization and initial diffraction analysis of human Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are reported. The mechano-enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 plays an important role in mitochondrial fission and is implicated in cell physiology. Dysregulation of Drp1 is associated with abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and neuronal damage. Drp1 shares structural and functional similarities with dynamin 1 with respect to domain organization, ability to self-assemble into spiral-like oligomers and GTP-cycle-dependent membrane scission. Structural studies of human dynamin-1 have greatly improved the understanding of this prototypical member of the dynamin superfamily. However, high-resolution structural information for full-length human Drp1 covering the GTPase domain, the middle domain and the GTPase effector domain (GED) is still lacking. In order to obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic activity, a nucleotide-free GTPase-GED fusion protein of human Drp1 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Initial X-ray diffraction experiments yielded data to 2.67 Å resolution. The hexagonal-shaped crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.59, b = 151.65, c = 43.53 Å, one molecule per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 42%. Expression of selenomethionine-labelled protein is currently in progress. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the Drp1 GTPase-GED fusion protein are presented, which form a basis for more detailed structural and biophysical analysis

  10. Expression and activity analysis of a new fusion protein targeting ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Manman; Chang, Weiqin; Wang, Dingding; Cui, Manhua; Lin, Yang; Wu, Shuying; Xu, Tianmin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new therapeutic drug to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)17-34-kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and recombinant human uPA17-34-KPI (rhuPA17-34-KPI) in P. pastoris was expressed. In the present study, the DNA sequences that encode uPA 17-34 amino acids were created according to the native amino acids sequence and inserted into the KPI-pPICZαC vector, which was constructed. Then, uPA17‑34-KPI-pPICZαC was transformed into P. pastoris X-33, and rhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed by induction of methanol. The bioactivities of a recombinant fusion protein were detected with trypsin inhibition analysis, and the inhibitory effects on the growth of ovarian cancer cells were identified using the TUNEL assay, in vitro wound‑healing assay and Matrigel model analysis. The results of the DNA sequence analysis of the recombinant vector uPA17-34-KPI‑pPICZα demonstrated that the DNA‑encoding human uPA 17-34 amino acids, 285-288 amino acids of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and 1-57 amino acids of KPI were correctly inserted into the pPICZαC vector. Following induction by methonal, the fusion protein with a molecular weight of 8.8 kDa was observed using SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. RhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed in P. pastoris with a yield of 50 mg/l in a 50-ml tube. The recombinant fusion protein was able to inhibit the activity of trypsin, inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, and inhibit the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. By considering uPA17-34 amino acid specific binding uPAR as the targeted part of fusion protein and utilizing the serine protease inhibitor activity of KPI, it was found that the recombinant fusion protein uPA17-34-KPI inhibited the invasion and metastasis of ovarian tumors, and may therefore be regarded as effective in targeted treatment.

  11. Regulation of human protein S gene (PROS1) transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Cornelia de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the transcriptional regulation of the gene for anticoagulant plasma Protein S, PROS1. Protein S is a cofactor for Protein C in the Protein C anticoagulant pathway. The coagulation cascade is negatively regulated by this pathway through inactivation of

  12. Cloning and expression of gene encoding P23 protein from Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thi Bich Lan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We cloned the cp23 gene coding P23 (glycoprotein from Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. The coding region of cp23 gene from C. parvum is 99% similar with cp23 gene deposited in NCBI (accession number: U34390. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the cp23 gene in E. coli BL21 StarTM (DE3 produced polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 37, 40 and 49 kDa. These molecules may be non-glycosylated or glycosylated P23 fusion polypeptides. Recombinant P23 protein purified by GST (glutathione S-transferase affinity chromatography can be used as an antigen for C. parvum antibody production as well as to develop diagnostic kit for C. parvum.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein L37 is encoded by duplicate genes that are differentially expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, J; Santangelo, G M

    1994-06-01

    A duplicate copy of the RPL37A gene (encoding ribosomal protein L37) was cloned and sequenced. The coding region of RPL37B is very similar to that of RPL37A, with only one conservative amino-acid difference. However, the intron and flanking sequences of the two genes are extremely dissimilar. Disruption experiments indicate that the two loci are not functionally equivalent: disruption of RPL37B was insignificant, but disruption of RPL37A severely impaired the growth rate of the cell. When both RPL37 loci are disrupted, the cell is unable to grow at all, indicating that rpL37 is an essential protein. The functional disparity between the two RPL37 loci could be explained by differential gene expression. The results of two experiments support this idea: gene fusion of RPL37A to a reporter gene resulted in six-fold higher mRNA levels than was generated by the same reporter gene fused to RPL37B, and a modest increase in gene dosage of RPL37B overcame the lack of a functional RPL37A gene.

  14. Analysis of antigenic cross-reactivity between subgroup C avian pneumovirus and human metapneumovirus by using recombinant fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L; Sabara, M I; Li, Y

    2009-10-01

    Avian pneumovirus subgroup C (APV/C) has recently been reported to be more closely related to human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as determined by sequence analysis. To examine the antigenic relationship between APV/C and hMPV, the APV/C fusion (F) gene was cloned and expressed as an uncleaved glycoprotein in a baculovirus system. The reactivity of the APV/C F protein with antibodies against APV subgroups A, B, C, and hMPV was examined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the expressed APV/C F protein was not only recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies but also by antibodies raised against hMPV. Previously expressed recombinant hMPV F protein also reacted with APV/C-specific antibodies, suggesting that there was significant antigenic cross-reactivity and a potential evolutionary relationship between hMPV and APV/C. Interestingly, the recombinant F proteins from APV/C and hMPV were not recognized by polyclonal antibodies specific to APV subgroups A and B.

  15. A phycocyanin·phellandrene synthase fusion enhances recombinant protein expression and β-phellandrene (monoterpene) hydrocarbons production in Synechocystis (cyanobacteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formighieri, Cinzia; Melis, Anastasios

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria can be exploited as photosynthetic platforms for heterologous generation of terpene hydrocarbons with industrial applications. Transformation of Synechocystis and heterologous expression of the β-phellandrene synthase (PHLS) gene alone is necessary and sufficient to confer to Synechocystis the ability to divert intermediate terpenoid metabolites and to generate the monoterpene β-phellandrene during photosynthesis. However, terpene synthases, including the PHLS, have a slow Kcat (low Vmax) necessitating high levels of enzyme concentration to enable meaningful rates and yield of product formation. Here, a novel approach was applied to increase the PHLS protein expression alleviating limitations in the rate and yield of β-phellandrene product generation. Different PHLS fusion constructs were generated with the Synechocystis endogenous cpcB sequence, encoding for the abundant in cyanobacteria phycocyanin β-subunit, expressed under the native cpc operon promoter. In one of these constructs, the CpcB·PHLS fusion protein accumulated to levels approaching 20% of the total cellular protein, i.e., substantially higher than expressing the PHLS protein alone under the same endogenous cpc promoter. The CpcB·PHLS fusion protein retained the activity of the PHLS enzyme and catalyzed β-phellandrene synthesis, yielding an average of 3.2 mg product g(-1) dry cell weight (dcw) versus the 0.03 mg g(-1)dcw measured with low-expressing constructs, i.e., a 100-fold yield improvement. In conclusion, the terpene synthase fusion-protein approach is promising, as, in this case, it substantially increased the amount of the PHLS in cyanobacteria, and commensurately improved rates and yield of β-phellandrene hydrocarbons production in these photosynthetic microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Construction and application of prokaryotic expression system of Leptospira interrogans lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-jiao; Yan, Jie; Mao, Ya-fei; Li, Shu-ping; Luo, Yi-hui; Li, Li-wei

    2005-01-01

    To construct lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene and its prokaryotic expression system and to determine frequencies of carrying and expression of lipL32 and lipL41 genes in L.interrogans wild strains and specific antibody levels in sera from leptospirosis patients. lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene was constructed using linking primer PCR method and the prokaryotic expression system of the fusion gene done with routine techniques. SDS-PAGE was used to examine expression of the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1. Immunogenicity of rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1 was identified by Western blot. PCR and MAT were performed to detect carrying and expression of lipL32 and lipL41 genes in 97 wild L.interrogans strains. Antibodies against products of lipL32 and lipL41 genes in serum samples from 228 leptospirosis patients were detected by ELISA method. The homogeneity of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequence of lipL32/1-lipL41/1 fusion gene were 99.9 % and 99.8 % in comparison with the reported sequences. Expression output of the target recombinant protein rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1, mainly present in inclusion body, accounted for 10 % of the total bacterial proteins. Both the rabbit antisera against rLipL32/1 and rLipL41/1 could combine to rLipL32/1-rLipL41/1. 97.9 % and 87.6 % of the L.interrogans wild strains had lipL32 and lipL41 genes, respectively. 95.9 % and 84.5 % of the wild strains were positive for MAT with titers of 1:4 - 1:128 using rabbit anti-rLipL32s or anti-rLipL41s sera, respectively. 94.7 % - 97.4 % of the patients'serum samples were positive for rLipL32s antibodies, while 78.5 % - 84.6 % of them were rLipL41s antibodies detectable. lipL32/1-jlipL41/1 fusion gene and its prokaryotic expression system were successfully constructed. The expressed fusion protein had qualified immunogenicity. Both the lipL32 and lipL41 genes are extensively carried and frequently expressed by different serogroups of L.interrogans, and their expression products exhibit cross-antigenicity.

  17. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Sarah A.; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A)+ RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A)+ RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors. PMID:27613868

  18. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Sarah A; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2016-10-28

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A) + RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A) + RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; van Munster, E.B.; Vischer, N.O.; Gadella, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region

  20. Functional role of the cytoplasmic tail domain of the major envelope fusion protein of group II baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, M.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    F proteins from baculovirus nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) group II members are the major budded virus (BV) viral envelope fusion proteins. They undergo furin-like proteolysis processing in order to be functional. F proteins from different baculovirus species have a long cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD),

  1. The destructive effect of botulinum neurotoxins on the SNARE protein: SNAP-25 and synaptic membrane fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic exocytosis requires the assembly of syntaxin 1A and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane and synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP2 on the vesicular membrane to bridge the two opposite membranes. It is believed that the three SNARE proteins assemble in steps along the dynamic assembly pathway. The C-terminus of SNAP-25 is known to be the target of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A and BoNT/E that block neurotransmitters release in vivo. In this study, we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the SNAP-25 C-terminus in binary and ternary SNARE complexes. The fluorescence lipid mixing assay shows that the C-terminal of SNAP-25 is essential for membrane fusion, and that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants cleaved by BoNT/A and BoNT/E display different inhibition effects on membrane fusion: SNAP-25E (Δ26 abolishes the fusion activity of the SNARE complex, while SNAP-25A (Δ9 loses most of its function, although it can still form a SDS-resistant SNARE complex as the wild-type SNAP-25. CW-EPR spectra validate the unstable structures of the SNARE complex formed by SNAP-25 mutants. We propose that the truncated SNAP-25 mutants will disrupt the assembly of the SNARE core complex, and then inhibit the synaptic membrane fusion accordingly.

  2. Inner-membrane proteins PMI/TMEM11 regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis independently of the DRP1/MFN fission/fusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Thomas; Macchi, Marc; Arnauné-Pelloquin, Laetitia; Poidevin, Mickael; Maillet, Frédéric; Richard, Fabrice; Fatmi, Ahmed; Belenguer, Pascale; Royet, Julien

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that can change in number and morphology during cell cycle, development or in response to extracellular stimuli. These morphological dynamics are controlled by a tight balance between two antagonistic pathways that promote fusion and fission. Genetic approaches have identified a cohort of conserved proteins that form the core of mitochondrial remodelling machineries. Mitofusins (MFNs) and OPA1 proteins are dynamin-related GTPases that are required for outer- and inner-mitochondrial membrane fusion respectively whereas dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is the master regulator of mitochondrial fission. We demonstrate here that the Drosophila PMI gene and its human orthologue TMEM11 encode mitochondrial inner-membrane proteins that regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis. PMI-mutant cells contain a highly condensed mitochondrial network, suggesting that PMI has either a pro-fission or an anti-fusion function. Surprisingly, however, epistatic experiments indicate that PMI shapes the mitochondria through a mechanism that is independent of drp1 and mfn. This shows that mitochondrial networks can be shaped in higher eukaryotes by at least two separate pathways: one PMI-dependent and one DRP1/MFN-dependent.

  3. Construction and use of a Cupriavidus necator H16 soluble hydrogenase promoter (PSH fusion to gfp (green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-Erdene Jugder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2. Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni–Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches. A PSH promoter-gfp fusion was successfully constructed and inducible GFP expression driven by the PSH promoter under de-repressing conditions in heterotrophic growth media was demonstrated in the recombinant C. necator H16 cells. Here we report the first successful fluorescent reporter system to study PSH promoter activity in C. necator H16. The fusion construct allowed for the design of a simple screening assay to evaluate PSH activity. Furthermore, the constructed reporter system can serve as a model to develop a rapid fluorescent based reporter for subsequent small-scale process optimisation experiments for SH expression.

  4. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    can be expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as a fusion with Trichoderma reesei hydrophobins HFBI, HFBII, or HFBIV. Transferrin-HFBIV was further expressed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells. Both partners of the fusion protein retained their functionality; the hydrophobin moiety enabled migration...... to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization...

  5. Matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus blocks autophagosome fusion with lysosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gannagé, Monique; Dormann, Dorothee; Albrecht, Randy

    2009-01-01

    Influenza A virus is an important human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality every year and threatening the human population with epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of this virus to develop strategies to control its pathogenicity. Here, we...... demonstrate that influenza A virus inhibits macroautophagy, a cellular process known to be manipulated by diverse pathogens. Influenza A virus infection causes accumulation of autophagosomes by blocking their fusion with lysosomes, and one viral protein, matrix protein 2, is necessary and sufficient...... for this inhibition of autophagosome degradation. Macroautophagy inhibition by matrix protein 2 compromises survival of influenza virus-infected cells but does not influence viral replication. We propose that influenza A virus, which also encodes proapoptotic proteins, is able to determine the death of its host cell...

  6. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP) is an estrogen induced egg yolk and white protein. Eggs from hens which have a splice mutation in RCP gene fail to hatch, indicating an absolute requirement of RCP for the transport of riboflavin to the oocyte. In order to understand the mechanism of regulation of this gene by ...

  7. Protection against California 2002 NDV strain afforded by adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing Fusion or Hemagglutination-neuraminidase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vectored vaccines expressing the combination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes generally have better clinical protection against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) than when either the F and HN genes are expressed alone. Interestingly, the protection induced by F is usually bet...

  8. A compact, multifunctional fusion module directs cholesterol-dependent homomultimerization and syncytiogenic efficiency of reovirus p10 FAST proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Key

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The homologous p10 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST proteins of the avian (ARV and Nelson Bay (NBV reoviruses are the smallest known viral membrane fusion proteins, and are virulence determinants of the fusogenic reoviruses. The small size of FAST proteins is incompatible with the paradigmatic membrane fusion pathway proposed for enveloped viral fusion proteins. Understanding how these diminutive viral fusogens mediate the complex process of membrane fusion is therefore of considerable interest, from both the pathogenesis and mechanism-of-action perspectives. Using chimeric ARV/NBV p10 constructs, the 36-40-residue ectodomain was identified as the major determinant of the differing fusion efficiencies of these homologous p10 proteins. Extensive mutagenic analysis determined the ectodomain comprises two distinct, essential functional motifs. Syncytiogenesis assays, thiol-specific surface biotinylation, and liposome lipid mixing assays identified an ∼25-residue, N-terminal motif that dictates formation of a cystine loop fusion peptide in both ARV and NBV p10. Surface immunofluorescence staining, FRET analysis and cholesterol depletion/repletion studies determined the cystine loop motif is connected through a two-residue linker to a 13-residue membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER. The MPER constitutes a second, independent motif governing reversible, cholesterol-dependent assembly of p10 multimers in the plasma membrane. Results further indicate that: (1 ARV and NBV homomultimers segregate to distinct, cholesterol-dependent microdomains in the plasma membrane; (2 p10 homomultimerization and cholesterol-dependent microdomain localization are co-dependent; and (3 the four juxtamembrane MPER residues present in the multimerization motif dictate species-specific microdomain association and homomultimerization. The p10 ectodomain therefore constitutes a remarkably compact, multifunctional fusion module that directs syncytiogenic

  9. Chemotropism and Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa Relies on the Formation of Distinct Protein Complexes by HAM-5 and a Novel Protein HAM-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Fischer, Monika S; Do, Hung P; Starr, Trevor L; Glass, N Louise

    2016-05-01

    In filamentous fungi, communication is essential for the formation of an interconnected, multinucleate, syncytial network, which is constructed via hyphal fusion or fusion of germinated asexual spores (germlings). Anastomosis in filamentous fungi is comparable to other somatic cell fusion events resulting in syncytia, including myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation, macrophage fusion, and fusion of trophoblasts during placental development. In Neurospora crassa, fusion of genetically identical germlings is a highly dynamic and regulated process that requires components of a MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. The kinase pathway components (NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2) and the scaffold protein HAM-5 are recruited to hyphae and germling tips undergoing chemotropic interactions. The MAK-2/HAM-5 protein complex shows dynamic oscillation to hyphae/germling tips during chemotropic interactions, and which is out-of-phase to the dynamic localization of SOFT, which is a scaffold protein for components of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway. In this study, we functionally characterize HAM-5 by generating ham-5 truncation constructs and show that the N-terminal half of HAM-5 was essential for function. This region is required for MAK-2 and MEK-2 interaction and for correct cellular localization of HAM-5 to "fusion puncta." The localization of HAM-5 to puncta was not perturbed in 21 different fusion mutants, nor did these puncta colocalize with components of the secretory pathway. We also identified HAM-14 as a novel member of the HAM-5/MAK-2 pathway by mining MAK-2 phosphoproteomics data. HAM-14 was essential for germling fusion, but not for hyphal fusion. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation data indicate that HAM-14 interacts with MAK-2 and MEK-2 and may be involved in recruiting MAK-2 (and MEK-2) to complexes containing HAM-5. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. CRISPR/Cas9 Engineering of Adult Mouse Liver Demonstrates That the Dnajb1-Prkaca Gene Fusion Is Sufficient to Induce Tumors Resembling Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelholm, Lars H; Riaz, Anjum; Serra, Denise; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Johansen, Jens V; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Hansen, Steen H; Niola, Francesco; Frödin, Morten

    2017-12-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a primary liver cancer that predominantly affects children and young adults with no underlying liver disease. A somatic, 400 Kb deletion on chromosome 19 that fuses part of the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 gene (DNAJB1) to the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha gene (PRKACA) has been repeatedly identified in patients with FL-HCC. However, the DNAJB1-PRKACA gene fusion has not been shown to induce liver tumorigenesis. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to delete in mice the syntenic region on chromosome 8 to create a Dnajb1-Prkaca fusion and monitored the mice for liver tumor development. We delivered CRISPR/Cas9 vectors designed to juxtapose exon 1 of Dnajb1 with exon 2 of Prkaca to create the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion associated with FL-HCC, or control Cas9 vector, via hydrodynamic tail vein injection to livers of 8-week-old female FVB/N mice. These mice did not have any other engineered genetic alterations and were not exposed to liver toxins or carcinogens. Liver tissues were collected 14 months after delivery; genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR to detect the Dnajb1-Prkaca fusion, and tissues were characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, RNA sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing. Livers from 12 of the 15 mice given the vectors to induce the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion, but none of the 11 mice given the control vector, developed neoplasms. The tumors contained the Dnajb1-Prkaca gene fusion and had histologic and cytologic features of human FL-HCCs: large polygonal cells with granular, eosinophilic, and mitochondria-rich cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, and markers of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In comparing expression levels of genes between the mouse tumor and non-tumor liver cells, we identified changes similar to those detected in human FL-HCC, which included genes that affect cell cycle and mitosis regulation. Genomic analysis of mouse neoplasms induced by

  11. Interactions involved in pH protection of the alphavirus fusion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Whitney; Kielian, Margaret, E-mail: margaret.kielian@einstein.yu.edu

    2015-12-15

    The alphavirus membrane protein E1 mediates low pH-triggered fusion of the viral and endosome membranes during virus entry. During virus biogenesis E1 associates as a heterodimer with the transmembrane protein p62. Late in the secretory pathway, cellular furin cleaves p62 to the mature E2 protein and a peripheral protein E3. E3 remains bound to E2 at low pH, stabilizing the heterodimer and thus protecting E1 from the acidic pH of the secretory pathway. Release of E3 at neutral pH then primes the virus for fusion during entry. Here we used site-directed mutagenesis and revertant analysis to define residues important for the interactions at the E3–E2 interface. Our data identified a key residue, E2 W235, which was required for E1 pH protection and alphavirus production. Our data also suggest additional residues on E3 and E2 that affect their interacting surfaces and thus influence the pH protection of E1 during alphavirus exit.

  12. Protein Sub-Nuclear Localization Based on Effective Fusion Representations and Dimension Reduction Algorithm LDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective representation of a protein sequence plays a crucial role in protein sub-nuclear localization. The existing representations, such as dipeptide composition (DipC, pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM, are insufficient to represent protein sequence due to their single perspectives. Thus, this paper proposes two fusion feature representations of DipPSSM and PseAAPSSM to integrate PSSM with DipC and PseAAC, respectively. When constructing each fusion representation, we introduce the balance factors to value the importance of its components. The optimal values of the balance factors are sought by genetic algorithm. Due to the high dimensionality of the proposed representations, linear discriminant analysis (LDA is used to find its important low dimensional structure, which is essential for classification and location prediction. The numerical experiments on two public datasets with KNN classifier and cross-validation tests showed that in terms of the common indexes of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and MCC, the proposed fusing representations outperform the traditional representations in protein sub-nuclear localization, and the representation treated by LDA outperforms the untreated one.

  13. Resolution of Disulfide Heterogeneity in Nogo Receptor 1 Fusion Proteins by Molecular Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Weinreb; D Wen; F Qian; C Wildes; E Garber; L Walus; M Jung; J Wang; J Relton; et al.

    2011-12-31

    NgRI (Nogo-66 receptor) is part of a signalling complex that inhibits axon regeneration in the central nervous system. Truncated soluble versions of NgRI have been used successfully to promote axon regeneration in animal models of spinal-cord injury, raising interest in this protein as a potential therapeutic target. The LRR (leucine-rich repeat) regions in NgRI are flanked by N- and C-terminal disulfide-containing 'cap' domains (LRRNT and LRRCT respectively). In the present work we show that, although functionally active, the NgRI(310)-Fc fusion protein contains mislinked and heterogeneous disulfide patterns in the LRRCT domain, and we report the generation of a series of variant molecules specifically designed to prevent this heterogeneity. Using these variants we explored the effects of modifying the NgRI truncation site or the spacing between the NgRI and Fc domains, or replacing cysteines within the NgRI or IgG hinge regions. One variant, which incorporates replacements of Cys{sup 266} and Cys{sup 309} with alanine residues, completely eliminated disulfide scrambling while maintaining functional in vitro and in vivo efficacy. This modified NgRI-Fc molecule represents a significantly improved candidate for further pharmaceutical development, and may serve as a useful model for the optimization of other IgG fusion proteins made from LRR proteins.

  14. Protein Sub-Nuclear Localization Based on Effective Fusion Representations and Dimension Reduction Algorithm LDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunfang; Liu, Shuhui

    2015-12-19

    An effective representation of a protein sequence plays a crucial role in protein sub-nuclear localization. The existing representations, such as dipeptide composition (DipC), pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM), are insufficient to represent protein sequence due to their single perspectives. Thus, this paper proposes two fusion feature representations of DipPSSM and PseAAPSSM to integrate PSSM with DipC and PseAAC, respectively. When constructing each fusion representation, we introduce the balance factors to value the importance of its components. The optimal values of the balance factors are sought by genetic algorithm. Due to the high dimensionality of the proposed representations, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to find its important low dimensional structure, which is essential for classification and location prediction. The numerical experiments on two public datasets with KNN classifier and cross-validation tests showed that in terms of the common indexes of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and MCC, the proposed fusing representations outperform the traditional representations in protein sub-nuclear localization, and the representation treated by LDA outperforms the untreated one.

  15. Operon Gene Order Is Optimized for Ordered Protein Complex Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan N.; Bergendahl, L. Therese; Marsh, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The assembly of heteromeric protein complexes is an inherently stochastic process in which multiple genes are expressed separately into proteins, which must then somehow find each other within the cell. Here, we considered one of the ways by which prokaryotic organisms have attempted to maximize the efficiency of protein complex assembly: the organization of subunit-encoding genes into operons. Using structure-based assembly predictions, we show that operon gene order has been optimized to match the order in which protein subunits assemble. Exceptions to this are almost entirely highly expressed proteins for which assembly is less stochastic and for which precisely ordered translation offers less benefit. Overall, these results show that ordered protein complex assembly pathways are of significant biological importance and represent a major evolutionary constraint on operon gene organization. PMID:26804901

  16. The relationship among gene expression, the evolution of gene dosage, and the rate of protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Gout

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of selective constraints affecting genes is a major issue in biology. It is well established that gene expression level is a major determinant of the rate of protein evolution, but the reasons for this relationship remain highly debated. Here we demonstrate that gene expression is also a major determinant of the evolution of gene dosage: the rate of gene losses after whole genome duplications in the Paramecium lineage is negatively correlated to the level of gene expression, and this relationship is not a byproduct of other factors known to affect the fate of gene duplicates. This indicates that changes in gene dosage are generally more deleterious for highly expressed genes. This rule also holds for other taxa: in yeast, we find a clear relationship between gene expression level and the fitness impact of reduction in gene dosage. To explain these observations, we propose a model based on the fact that the optimal expression level of a gene corresponds to a trade-off between the benefit and cost of its expression. This COSTEX model predicts that selective pressure against mutations changing gene expression level or affecting the encoded protein should on average be stronger in highly expressed genes and hence that both the frequency of gene loss and the rate of protein evolution should correlate negatively with gene expression. Thus, the COSTEX model provides a simple and common explanation for the general relationship observed between the level of gene expression and the different facets of gene evolution.

  17. Evolution by Pervasive Gene Fusion in Antibiotic Resistance and Antibiotic Synthesizing Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Coleman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic (tree-based approaches to understanding evolutionary history are unable to incorporate convergent evolutionary events where two genes merge into one. In this study, as exemplars of what can be achieved when a tree is not assumed a priori, we have analysed the evolutionary histories of polyketide synthase genes and antibiotic resistance genes and have shown that their history is replete with convergent events as well as divergent events. We demonstrate that the overall histories of these genes more closely resembles the remodelling that might be seen with the children’s toy Lego, than the standard model of the phylogenetic tree. This work demonstrates further that genes can act as public goods, available for re-use and incorporation into other genetic goods.

  18. Gene composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-04-21

    To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis-match specific endonuclease

  19. Gene Composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mixon Mark

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene

  20. Once for All: A Novel Robust System for Co-expression of Multiple Chimeric Fluorescent Fusion Proteins in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitao Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins have been employed as a powerful tool to reveal the subcellular localizations and dynamics of proteins in living cells. Co-expression of a fluorescent fusion protein with well-known organelle markers in the same cell is especially useful in revealing its spatial and temporal functions of the protein in question. However, the conventional methods for co-expressing multiple fluorescent tagged proteins in plants have the drawbacks of low expression efficiency, variations in the expression level and time-consuming genetic crossing. Here, we have developed a novel robust system that allows for high-efficient co-expression of multiple chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins in plants in a time-saving fashion. This system takes advantage of employing a single expression vector which consists of multiple semi-independent expressing cassettes for the protein co-expression thereby overcoming the limitations of using multiple independent expressing plasmids. In addition, it is a highly manipulable DNA assembly system, in which modification and recombination of DNA molecules are easily achieved through an optimized one-step assembly reaction. By employing this effective system, we demonstrated that co-expression of two chimeric fluorescent fusion reporter proteins of vacuolar sorting receptor and secretory carrier membrane protein gave rise to their perspective subcellular localizations in plants via both transient expression and stable transformation. Thus, we believed that this technical advance represents a promising approach for multi-color-protein co-expression in plant cells.

  1. Prm3p is a pheromone-induced peripheral nuclear envelope protein required for yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu; Tobery, Cynthia E; Rose, Mark D

    2009-05-01

    Nuclear membrane fusion is the last step in the mating pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We adapted a bioinformatics approach to identify putative pheromone-induced membrane proteins potentially required for nuclear membrane fusion. One protein, Prm3p, was found to be required for nuclear membrane fusion; disruption of PRM3 caused a strong bilateral defect, in which nuclear congression was completed but fusion did not occur. Prm3p was localized to the nuclear envelope in pheromone-responding cells, with significant colocalization with the spindle pole body in zygotes. A previous report, using a truncated protein, claimed that Prm3p is localized to the inner nuclear envelope. Based on biochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and live cell microscopy, we find that functional Prm3p is a peripheral membrane protein exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the outer nuclear envelope. In support of this, mutations in a putative nuclear localization sequence had no effect on full-length protein function or localization. In contrast, point mutations and deletions in the highly conserved hydrophobic carboxy-terminal domain disrupted both protein function and localization. Genetic analysis, colocalization, and biochemical experiments indicate that Prm3p interacts directly with Kar5p, suggesting that nuclear membrane fusion is mediated by a protein complex.

  2. Automatically identifying gene/protein terms in MEDLINE abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Wilbur, W John

    2002-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques are used to extract information automatically from computer-readable literature. In biology, the identification of terms corresponding to biological substances (e.g., genes and proteins) is a necessary step that precedes the application of other NLP systems that extract biological information (e.g., protein-protein interactions, gene regulation events, and biochemical pathways). We have developed GPmarkup (for "gene/protein-full name mark up"), a software system that automatically identifies gene/protein terms (i.e., symbols or full names) in MEDLINE abstracts. As a part of marking up process, we also generated automatically a knowledge source of paired gene/protein symbols and full names (e.g., LARD for lymphocyte associated receptor of death) from MEDLINE. We found that many of the pairs in our knowledge source do not appear in the current GenBank database. Therefore our methods may also be used for automatic lexicon generation. GPmarkup has 73% recall and 93% precision in identifying and marking up gene/protein terms in MEDLINE abstracts. A random sample of gene/protein symbols and full names and a sample set of marked up abstracts can be viewed at http://www.cpmc.columbia.edu/homepages/yuh9001/GPmarkup/. Contact. hy52@columbia.edu. Voice: 212-939-7028; fax: 212-666-0140.

  3. Detection of 22 common leukemic fusion genes using a single-step multiplex qRT-PCR-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiaodong; Wang, Xianwei; Zhang, Lina; Chen, Zhenzhu; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Jieying; Fan, Ruihua; Song, Yongping

    2017-07-25

    Fusion genes generated from chromosomal translocation play an important role in hematological malignancies. Detection of fusion genes currently employ use of either conventional RT-PCR methods or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), where both methods involve tedious methodologies and require prior characterization of chromosomal translocation events as determined by cytogenetic analysis. In this study, we describe a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)-based multi-fusion gene screening method with the capacity to detect 22 fusion genes commonly found in leukemia. This method does not require pre-characterization of gene translocation events, thereby facilitating immediate diagnosis and therapeutic management. We performed fluorescent qRT-PCR (F-qRT-PCR) using a commercially-available multi-fusion gene detection kit on a patient cohort of 345 individuals comprising 108 cases diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for initial evaluation; remaining patients within the cohort were assayed for confirmatory diagnosis. Results obtained by F-qRT-PCR were compared alongside patient analysis by cytogenetic characterization. Gene translocations detected by F-qRT-PCR in AML cases were diagnosed in 69.4% of the patient cohort, which was comparatively similar to 68.5% as diagnosed by cytogenetic analysis, thereby demonstrating 99.1% concordance. Overall gene fusion was detected in 53.7% of the overall patient population by F-qRT-PCR, 52.9% by cytogenetic prediction in leukemia, and 9.1% in non-leukemia patients by both methods. The overall concordance rate was calculated to be 99.0%. Fusion genes were detected by F-qRT-PCR in 97.3% of patients with CML, followed by 69.4% with AML, 33.3% with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 9.1% with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and 0% with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We describe the use of a F-qRT-PCR-based multi-fusion gene screening method as an efficient one-step diagnostic procedure as an

  4. Enhancing potency of siRNA targeting fusion genes by optimization outside of target sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Kseniya; Seo, Young-Eun; Tietjen, Gregory T; Cui, Jiajia; Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark

    2015-12-01

    Canonical siRNA design algorithms have become remarkably effective at predicting favorable binding regions within a target mRNA, but in some cases (e.g., a fusion junction site) region choice is restricted. In these instances, alternative approaches are necessary to obtain a highly potent silencing molecule. Here we focus on strategies for rational optimization of two siRNAs that target the junction sites of fusion oncogenes BCR-ABL and TMPRSS2-ERG. We demonstrate that modifying the termini of these siRNAs with a terminal G-U wobble pair or a carefully selected pair of terminal asymmetry-enhancing mismatches can result in an increase in potency at low doses. Importantly, we observed that improvements in silencing at the mRNA level do not necessarily translate to reductions in protein level and/or cell death. Decline in protein level is also heavily influenced by targeted protein half-life, and delivery vehicle toxicity can confound measures of cell death due to silencing. Therefore, for BCR-ABL, which has a long protein half-life that is difficult to overcome using siRNA, we also developed a nontoxic transfection vector: poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) nanoparticles that release siRNA over many days. We show that this system can achieve effective killing of leukemic cells. These findings provide insights into the implications of siRNA sequence for potency and suggest strategies for the design of more effective therapeutic siRNA molecules. Furthermore, this work points to the importance of integrating studies of siRNA design and delivery, while heeding and addressing potential limitations such as restricted targetable mRNA regions, long protein half-lives, and nonspecific toxicities.

  5. A single amino acid substitution modulates low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of GP64 protein in Autographa californica and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedroviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Hayato; Ikeda, Motoko; Kobayashi, Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that budded viruses of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enter the cell cytoplasm but do not migrate into the nuclei of non-permissive Sf9 cells that support a high titer of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) multiplication. Here we show, using the syncytium formation assay, that low-pH-triggered membrane fusion of BmNPV GP64 protein (Bm-GP64) is significantly lower than that of AcMNPV GP64 protein (Ac-GP64). Mutational analyses of GP64 proteins revealed that a single amino acid substitution between Ac-GP64 H155 and Bm-GP64 Y153 can have significant positive or negative effects on membrane fusion activity. Studies using bacmid-based GP64 recombinant AcMNPV harboring point-mutated ac-gp64 and bm-gp64 genes showed that Ac-GP64 H155Y and Bm-GP64 Y153H substitutions decreased and increased, respectively, the multiplication and cell-to-cell spread of progeny viruses. These results indicate that Ac-GP64 H155 facilitates the low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction between virus envelopes and endosomal membranes.

  6. NUTM1 Gene Fusions Characterize a Subset of Undifferentiated Soft Tissue and Visceral Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brendan C; Sung, Yun-Shao; Rosenblum, Marc K; Reuter, Victor E; Harb, Mohammed; Wunder, Jay S; Swanson, David; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2018-05-01

    NUT midline carcinoma is an aggressive tumor that occurs mainly in the head and neck and, less frequently, the mediastinum and lung. Following identification of an index case of a NUTM1 fusion positive undifferentiated soft tissue tumor, we interrogated additional cases of primary undifferentiated soft tissue and visceral tumors for NUTM1 abnormalities. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and results validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes. Six patients were identified: mean age of 42 years (range, 3 to 71 y); equal sex distribution; and, tumors involved the extremity soft tissues (N=2), kidney (N=2), stomach, and brain. On systemic work-up at presentation all patients lacked a distant primary tumor. Morphologically, the tumors were heterogenous, with undifferentiated round-epithelioid-rhabdoid cells arranged in solid sheets, nests, and cords. Mitotic activity was generally brisk. Four cases expressed pancytokeratin, but in only 2 cases was this diffuse. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated the following fusions: BRD4-NUTM1 (3 cases), BRD3-NUTM1, MXD1-NUTM1, and BCORL1-NUTM1. Independent testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of NUTM1 and partner gene rearrangement. This study establishes that NUT-associated tumors transgress the midline and account for a subset of primitive neoplasms occurring in soft tissue and viscera. Tumors harboring NUTM1 gene fusions are presumably underrecognized, and the extent to which they account for undifferentiated mesenchymal, neuroendocrine, and/or epithelial neoplasms is unclear. Moreover, the relationship, if any, between NUT-associated tumors in soft tissue and/or viscera, and conventional NUT carcinoma, remains to be elucidated.

  7. Trans-activation function of a 3' truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shinako; Koike, Katsuro

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3' end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product

  8. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin–myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek [Research Institute for Basic Science, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Junhong [School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Woo, E-mail: jwchoi@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Heukseok-dong, Dongjak-gu, 35 Baekbeom-ro (Sinsu-dong), Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed the fusion protein-based biofilm on the inorganic surface. • For making the fusion protein, the recombinant azurin and the myoglobin was conjugated by the native chemical ligation method. • The developed fusion protein shows unique electrochemical property. • The proposed fusion protein biofilm appears to be a good method for dual-level biomemory device. - Abstract: In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin–myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV–vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development.

  9. Fusion protein-based biofilm fabrication composed of recombinant azurin–myoglobin for dual-level biomemory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taek; Chung, Yong-Ho; Yoon, Jinho; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed the fusion protein-based biofilm on the inorganic surface. • For making the fusion protein, the recombinant azurin and the myoglobin was conjugated by the native chemical ligation method. • The developed fusion protein shows unique electrochemical property. • The proposed fusion protein biofilm appears to be a good method for dual-level biomemory device. - Abstract: In the present study, a fusion protein-based biofilm composed of a recombinant azurin–myoglobin (Azu-Myo) has been developed and confirmed its original electrochemical property for dual-level biomemory device application. For this purpose, the azurin was modified with cysteine residues for direct immobilization and conjugation. Then, the recombinant azurin was conjugated with the myoglobin via a sulfo-SMCC bifunctional linker using the chemical ligation method (CLM). The SDS-PAGE and UV–vis spectroscopy were performed to examine the fusion protein conjugates. The prepared Azu-Myo fusion protein was self-assembled onto Au substrate for the biofilm fabrication. Then, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to confirm the immobilization and the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was carried out to the surface analysis. Also, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) was carried out to observe an electrochemical property of fabricated biofilm. As a result, the two pair of redox potential values was obtained for dual-level biomemory device application. Then, the dual-level biomemory function was verified by the multi-potential chronoamperometry (MPCA). The results indicate a new fabrication method and material combination for advances in bioelectronic device development

  10. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Henri R.; Laitinen, Olli H.; Uotila, Sanna T.H.; Kulmala, Minna; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2005-01-01

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches

  11. Production of Hev b5 as a fluorescent biotin-binding tripartite fusion protein in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Henri R; Laitinen, Olli H; Uotila, Sanna T H; Kulmala, Minna; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kulomaa, Markku S

    2005-10-14

    The presented green fluorescent protein and streptavidin core-based tripartite fusion system provides a simple and efficient way for the production of proteins fused to it in insect cells. This fusion protein forms a unique tag, which serves as a multipurpose device enabling easy optimization of production, one-step purification via streptavidin-biotin interaction, and visualization of the fusion protein during downstream processing and in applications. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful production, purification, and detection of a natural rubber latex allergen Hev b5 with this system. We also describe the production of another NRL allergen with the system, Hev b1, which formed large aggregates and gave small yields in purification. The aggregates were detected at early steps by microscopical inspection of the infected insect cells producing this protein. Therefore, this fusion system can also be utilized as a fast indicator of the solubility of the expressed fusion proteins and may therefore be extremely useful in high-throughput expression approaches.

  12. Self-Assembly of Spider Silk-Fusion Proteins Comprising Enzymatic and Fluorescence Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Martin; Mohrand, Madeleine; Scheibel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) was genetically fused either with esterase 2 (EST2) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusions EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) were spectroscopically investigated and showed native structures of EST and GFP. The structural integrity was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of EST and the fluorescence of GFP. The spider silk moiety retained its intrinsically unstructured conformation in solution and the self-assembly into either nanofibrils or nanoparticles could be controlled by the concentration of phosphate. Particles, however, showed significantly lower activity of the EST and GFP domains likely caused by a steric hindrance. However, upon self-assembly of EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) into fibrils the protein activities were retained. In general, the fusion of globular enzymes with the spider silk domain allows the generation of fibrous biomaterials with catalytic or light emitting properties.

  13. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

  14. HUWE1 and TRIP12 Collaborate in Degradation of Ubiquitin-Fusion Proteins and Misframed Ubiquitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben G; Steinhauer, Cornelia; Lees, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells an uncleavable ubiquitin moiety conjugated to the N-terminus of a protein signals the degradation of the fusion protein via the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. In yeast the molecular mechanism of the UFD pathway has been well characterized...... in degradation of the UFD substrate Ub(G76V)-YFP. The most significant hits from the screen were the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HUWE1, as well as PSMD7 and PSMD14 that encode proteasome subunits. Accordingly, knock down of HUWE1 led to an increase in the steady state level and a retarded degradation of the UFD...... substrate. Knock down of HUWE1 also led to a stabilization of the physiological UFD substrate UBB(+1). Precipitation experiments revealed that HUWE1 is associated with both the Ub(G76V)-YFP substrate and the 26S proteasome, indicating that it functions late in the UFD pathway. Double knock down of HUWE1...

  15. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Anna M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called diabodies, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  16. Engineering of a Potent Recombinant Lectin-Toxin Fusion Protein to Eliminate Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Hiroaki; Saito, Sayoko

    2017-07-10

    The use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in regenerative medicine is hindered by their tumorigenic potential. Previously, we developed a recombinant lectin-toxin fusion protein of the hPSC-specific lectin rBC2LCN, which has a 23 kDa catalytic domain (domain III) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rBC2LCN-PE23). This fusion protein could selectively eliminate hPSCs following its addition to the cell culture medium. Here we conjugated rBC2LCN lectin with a 38 kDa domain of exotoxin A containing domains Ib and II in addition to domain III (PE38). The developed rBC2LCN-PE38 fusion protein could eliminate 50% of 201B7 hPSCs at a concentration of 0.003 μg/mL (24 h incubation), representing an approximately 556-fold higher activity than rBC2LCN-PE23. Little or no effect on human fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells, and hiPSC-derived hepatocytes was observed at concentrations lower than 1 μg/mL. Finally, we demonstrate that rBC2LCN-PE38 selectively eliminates hiPSCs from a mixed culture of hiPSCs and hiPSC-derived hepatocytes. Since rBC2LCN-PE38 can be prepared from soluble fractions of E. coli culture at a yield of 9 mg/L, rBC2LCN-PE38 represents a practical reagent to remove human pluripotent stem cells residing in cultured cells destined for transplantation.

  17. A Maltose-Binding Protein Fusion Construct Yields a Robust Crystallography Platform for MCL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Clifton

    Full Text Available Crystallization of a maltose-binding protein MCL1 fusion has yielded a robust crystallography platform that generated the first apo MCL1 crystal structure, as well as five ligand-bound structures. The ability to obtain fragment-bound structures advances structure-based drug design efforts that, despite considerable effort, had previously been intractable by crystallography. In the ligand-independent crystal form we identify inhibitor binding modes not observed in earlier crystallographic systems. This MBP-MCL1 construct dramatically improves the structural understanding of well-validated MCL1 ligands, and will likely catalyze the structure-based optimization of high affinity MCL1 inhibitors.

  18. Genes2Networks: connecting lists of gene symbols using mammalian protein interactions databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Avi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, mammalian protein-protein interaction network databases have been developed. The interactions in these databases are either extracted manually from low-throughput experimental biomedical research literature, extracted automatically from literature using techniques such as natural language processing (NLP, generated experimentally using high-throughput methods such as yeast-2-hybrid screens, or interactions are predicted using an assortment of computational approaches. Genes or proteins identified as significantly changing in proteomic experiments, or identified as susceptibility disease genes in genomic studies, can be placed in the context of protein interaction networks in order to assign these genes and proteins to pathways and protein complexes. Results Genes2Networks is a software system that integrates the content of ten mammalian interaction network datasets. Filtering techniques to prune low-confidence interactions were implemented. Genes2Networks is delivered as a web-based service using AJAX. The system can be used to extract relevant subnetworks created from "seed" lists of human Entrez gene symbols. The output includes a dynamic linkable three color web-based network map, with a statistical analysis report that identifies significant intermediate nodes used to connect the seed list. Conclusion Genes2Networks is powerful web-based software that can help experimental biologists to interpret lists of genes and proteins such as those commonly produced through genomic and proteomic experiments, as well as lists of genes and proteins associated with disease processes. This system can be used to find relationships between genes and proteins from seed lists, and predict additional genes or proteins that may play key roles in common pathways or protein complexes.

  19. Novel cancer gene variants and gene fusions of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) reveal their molecular diversity conserved in the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaeyun; Jang, Kiwon; Ju, Jung Min; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Sae Byul; Ko, Beom Seok; Son, Byung Ho; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei Yeon; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Singh, Shree Ram; Chang, Suhwan

    2018-04-20

    Despite the improved 5-year survival rate of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenge due to lack of effective targeted therapy and higher recurrence and metastasis than other subtypes. To identify novel druggable targets and to understand its unique biology, we tried to implement 24 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of TNBC. The overall success rate of PDX implantation was 45%, much higher than estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed conserved ER/PR/Her2 negativity (with two exceptions) between the original and PDX tumors. Genomic analysis of 10 primary tumor-PDX pairs with Ion AmpliSeq CCP revealed high degree of variant conservation (85.0% to 96.9%) between primary and PDXs. Further analysis showed 44 rare variants with a predicted high impact in 36 genes including Trp53, Pten, Notch1, and Col1a1. Among them, we confirmed frequent Notch1 variant. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of 24 PDXs revealed 594 gene fusions, of which 163 were in-frame, including AZGP1-GJC3 and NF1-AARSD1. Finally, western blot analysis of oncogenic signaling proteins supporting molecular diversity of TNBC PDXs. Overall, our report provides a molecular basis for the usefulness of the TNBC PDX model in preclinical study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Novel gene fusion of PRCC-MITF defines a new member of MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathological analysis and detection of the gene fusion by RNA sequencing and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Ye, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xuan; Li, Rui; Shi, Shan-Shan; Fang, Ru; Zhang, Ru-Song; Ma, Heng-Hui; Lu, Zhen-Feng; Shen, Qin; Bao, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2018-04-01

    MITF, TFE3, TFEB and TFEC belong to the same microphthalmia-associated transcription factor family (MiT). Two transcription factors in this family have been identified in two unusual types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): Xp11 translocation RCC harbouring TFE3 gene fusions and t(6;11) RCC harbouring a MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion. The 2016 World Health Organisation classification of renal neoplasia grouped these two neoplasms together under the category of MiT family translocation RCC. RCCs associated with the other two MiT family members, MITF and TFEC, have rarely been reported. Herein, we identify a case of MITF translocation RCC with the novel PRCC-MITF gene fusion by RNA sequencing. Histological examination of the present tumour showed typical features of MiT family translocation RCCs, overlapping with Xp11 translocation RCC and t(6;11) RCC. However, this tumour showed negative results in TFE3 and TFEB immunochemistry and split fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) assays. The other MiT family members, MITF and TFEC, were tested further immunochemically and also showed negative results. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of a PRCC-MITF gene fusion: a fusion of PRCC exon 5 to MITF exon 4. We then developed FISH assays covering MITF break-apart probes and PRCC-MITF fusion probes to detect the MITF gene rearrangement. This study both proves the recurring existence of MITF translocation RCC and expands the genotype spectrum of MiT family translocation RCCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  2. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leon, Alberto J.; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S.H.; Farooqui, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development

  3. A mature and fusogenic form of the Nipah virus fusion protein requires proteolytic processing by cathepsin L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pager, Cara Theresia; Craft, Willie Warren; Patch, Jared; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The Nipah virus fusion (F) protein is proteolytically processed to F 1 + F 2 subunits. We demonstrate here that cathepsin L is involved in this important maturation event. Cathepsin inhibitors ablated cleavage of Nipah F. Proteolytic processing of Nipah F and fusion activity was dramatically reduced in cathepsin L shRNA-expressing Vero cells. Additionally, Nipah virus F-mediated fusion was inhibited in cathepsin L-deficient cells, but coexpression of cathepsin L restored fusion activity. Both purified cathepsin L and B could cleave immunopurified Nipah F protein, but only cathepsin L produced products of the correct size. Our results suggest that endosomal cathepsins can cleave Nipah F, but that cathepsin L specifically converts Nipah F to a mature and fusogenic form

  4. HUWE1 and TRIP12 collaborate in degradation of ubiquitin-fusion proteins and misframed ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben G Poulsen

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells an uncleavable ubiquitin moiety conjugated to the N-terminus of a protein signals the degradation of the fusion protein via the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin fusion degradation (UFD pathway. In yeast the molecular mechanism of the UFD pathway has been well characterized. Recently the human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIP12 was connected with the UFD pathway, but little is otherwise known about this system in mammalian cells. In the present work, we utilized high-throughput imaging on cells transfected with a targeted siRNA library to identify components involved in degradation of the UFD substrate Ub(G76V-YFP. The most significant hits from the screen were the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HUWE1, as well as PSMD7 and PSMD14 that encode proteasome subunits. Accordingly, knock down of HUWE1 led to an increase in the steady state level and a retarded degradation of the UFD substrate. Knock down of HUWE1 also led to a stabilization of the physiological UFD substrate UBB(+1. Precipitation experiments revealed that HUWE1 is associated with both the Ub(G76V-YFP substrate and the 26S proteasome, indicating that it functions late in the UFD pathway. Double knock down of HUWE1 and TRIP12 resulted in an additive stabilization of the substrate, suggesting that HUWE1 and TRIP12 function in parallel during UFD. However, even when both HUWE1 and TRIP12 are downregulated, ubiquitylation of the UFD substrate was still apparent, revealing functional redundancy between HUWE1, TRIP12 and yet other ubiquitin-protein ligases.

  5. De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Dong Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes.

  6. De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes. PMID:22102831

  7. Single chain Fc-dimer-human growth hormone fusion protein for improved drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Hsuan-Yao; Tong, Shanshan; Okamoto, Curtis T; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Zaro, Jennica L

    2017-02-01

    Fc fusion protein technology has been successfully used to generate long-acting forms of several protein therapeutics. In this study, a novel Fc-based drug carrier, single chain Fc-dimer (sc(Fc) 2 ), was designed to contain two Fc domains recombinantly linked via a flexible linker. Since the Fc dimeric structure is maintained through the flexible linker, the hinge region was omitted to further stabilize it against proteolysis and reduce FcγR-related effector functions. The resultant sc(Fc) 2 candidate preserved the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binding. sc(Fc) 2 -mediated delivery was then evaluated using a therapeutic protein with a short plasma half-life, human growth hormone (hGH), as the protein drug cargo. This novel carrier protein showed a prolonged in vivo half-life and increased hGH-mediated bioactivity compared to the traditional Fc-based drug carrier. sc(Fc) 2 technology has the potential to greatly advance and expand the use of Fc-technology for improving the pharmacokinetics and bioactivity of protein therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Horizontal transmission of malignancy: in-vivo fusion of human lymphomas with hamster stroma produces tumors retaining human genes and lymphoid pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available We report the in-vivo fusion of two Hodgkin lymphomas with golden hamster cheek pouch cells, resulting in serially-transplanted (over 5-6 years GW-532 and GW-584 heterosynkaryon tumor cells displaying both human and hamster DNA (by FISH, lymphoma-like morphology, aggressive metastasis, and retention of 7 human genes (CD74, CXCR4, CD19, CD20, CD71, CD79b, and VIM out of 24 tested by PCR. The prevalence of B-cell restricted genes (CD19, CD20, and CD79b suggests that this uniform population may be the clonal initiating (malignant cells of Hodgkin lymphoma, despite their not showing translation to their respective proteins by immunohistochemical analysis. This is believed to be the first report of in-vivo cell-cell fusion of human lymphoma and rodent host cells, and may be a method to disclose genes regulating both organoid and metastasis signatures, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of tumor DNA to adjacent stromal cells may be implicated in tumor heterogeneity and progression. The B-cell gene signature of the hybrid xenografts suggests that Hodgkin lymphoma, or its initiating cells, is a B-cell malignancy.

  9. Direct regulation of E-cadherin by targeted histone methylation of TALE-SET fusion protein in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Jae-Hye; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Jeon, Seong Kook; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Kun-Hyang; Kim, Yong-Sam; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2015-09-15

    TALE-nuclease chimeras (TALENs) can bind to and cleave specific genomic loci and, are used to engineer gene knockouts and additions. Recently, instead of using the FokI domain, epigenetically active domains, such as TET1 and LSD1, have been combined with TAL effector domains to regulate targeted gene expression via DNA and histone demethylation. However, studies of histone methylation in the TALE system have not been performed. Therefore, in this study, we established a novel targeted regulation system with a TAL effector domain and a histone methylation domain. To construct a TALE-methylation fusion protein, we combined a TAL effector domain containing an E-Box region to act as a Snail binding site and the SET domain of EHMT 2 to allow for histone methylation. The constructed TALE-SET module (TSET) repressed the expression of E-cadherin via by increasing H3K9 dimethylation. Moreover, the cells that overexpressed TSET showed increased cell migration and invasion. This is the first phenotype-based study of targeted histone methylation by the TALE module, and this new system can be applied in new cancer therapies to reduce side effects.

  10. Structural and kinetic analysis of the unnatural fusion protein 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase::stilbene synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yechun; Yi, Hankuil; Wang, Melissa; Yu, Oliver; Jez, Joseph M. (WU); (Danforth)

    2012-10-24

    To increase the biochemical efficiency of biosynthetic systems, metabolic engineers have explored different approaches for organizing enzymes, including the generation of unnatural fusion proteins. Previous work aimed at improving the biosynthesis of resveratrol, a stilbene associated a range of health-promoting activities, in yeast used an unnatural engineered fusion protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (At4CL1) and Vitis vinifera (grape) stilbene synthase (VvSTS) to increase resveratrol levels 15-fold relative to yeast expressing the individual enzymes. Here we present the crystallographic and biochemical analysis of the 4CL::STS fusion protein. Determination of the X-ray crystal structure of 4CL::STS provides the first molecular view of an artificial didomain adenylation/ketosynthase fusion protein. Comparison of the steady-state kinetic properties of At4CL1, VvSTS, and 4CL::STS demonstrates that the fusion protein improves catalytic efficiency of either reaction less than 3-fold. Structural and kinetic analysis suggests that colocalization of the two enzyme active sites within 70 {angstrom} of each other provides the basis for enhanced in vivo synthesis of resveratrol.

  11. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression, purification and characterization of hepatitis B virus X protein BH3-like motif-linker-Bcl-xL fusion protein for structural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kusunoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx is a multifunctional protein that interacts directly with many host proteins. For example, HBx interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, through its BH3-like motif, which leads to elevated cytosolic calcium levels, efficient viral DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. To facilitate sample preparation and perform detailed structural characterization of the complex between HBx and Bcl-xL, we designed and purified a recombinant HBx BH3-like motif-linker-Bcl-xL fusion protein produced in E. coli. The fusion protein was characterized by size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the fusion protein is a monomer in aqueous solution, forms a stable intramolecular complex, and likely retains the native conformation of the complex between Bcl-xL and the HBx BH3-like motif. Furthermore, the HBx BH3-like motif of the intramolecular complex forms an α-helix. These observations indicate that the fusion protein should facilitate structural studies aimed at understanding the interaction between HBx and Bcl-xL at the atomic level.

  13. Human antibody recognition of antigenic site IV on Pneumovirus fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Jarrod J; Binshtein, Elad; Human, Stacey; Fong, Rachel H; Alvarado, Gabriela; Doranz, Benjamin J; Moore, Martin L; Ohi, Melanie D; Crowe, James E

    2018-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of children by two years of age. The RSV fusion (F) protein is a primary target of human antibodies, and it has several antigenic regions capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies. Antigenic site IV is preserved in both the pre-fusion and post-fusion conformations of RSV F. Antibodies to antigenic site IV have been described that bind and neutralize both RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). To explore the diversity of binding modes at antigenic site IV, we generated a panel of four new human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and competition-binding suggested the mAbs bind at antigenic site IV. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that binding and neutralization of two mAbs (3M3 and 6F18) depended on arginine (R) residue R429. We discovered two R429-independent mAbs (17E10 and 2N6) at this site that neutralized an RSV R429A mutant strain, and one of these mAbs (17E10) neutralized both RSV and hMPV. To determine the mechanism of cross-reactivity, we performed competition-binding, recombinant protein mutagenesis, peptide binding, and electron microscopy experiments. It was determined that the human cross-reactive mAb 17E10 binds to RSV F with a binding pose similar to 101F, which may be indicative of cross-reactivity with hMPV F. The data presented provide new concepts in RSV immune recognition and vaccine design, as we describe the novel idea that binding pose may influence mAb cross-reactivity between RSV and hMPV. Characterization of the site IV epitope bound by human antibodies may inform the design of a pan-Pneumovirus vaccine.

  14. The pharmacological efficacy of the anti-IL17 scFv and sTNFR1 bispecific fusion protein in inflammation mouse stimulated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbi; Zhang, Teng; Cao, Hongxue; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Shaojuan; Jing, Xiaohui; Song, Liying; Liu, Yunye; Che, Ruixiang; Liu, Xin; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2017-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Recently, our study found that a bispecific fusion protein treatment can ameliorate the lung injury induced by LPS. However, the molecular mechanisms which bispecific fusion protein ameliorates acute lung injury remain unclear. In this study, we found that the bispecific fusion protein treatment inhibited the nuclear transcription of NF-κB in confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, the bispecific fusion protein exert protective effects in the cell model of ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via inhibiting the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and mediate inflammation. Moreover, the treatment of the bispecific fusion protein show its efficacy in animal models stimulated by LPS, the results of real-time PCR and ELISA demonstrate that bispecific fusion protein treatment effectively inhibited the over-expression of inflammatory cytokines(tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 17). In addition, LPS-challenged mice exhibited significant lung injury characterized by the deterioration of histopathology, which was meliorated by bispecific fusion protein treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that bispecific fusion protein treatment ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through reducing inflammatory cytokines and lung inflammation, which may be associated with the decreased the nuclear transcription of NF-κB. The bispecific fusion protein may be useful as a novel therapy to treat ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering a pharmacologically superior form of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor by fusion with gelatin-like-protein polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Shan; Wen, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Yi-Liang; Wang, Ye-Fei; Fan, Min; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lin-Fu

    2010-03-01

    The plasma half-life of therapeutic proteins is a critical factor in many clinical applications. Therefore, new strategies to prolong plasma half-life of long-acting peptides and protein drugs are in high demand. Here, we designed an artificial gelatin-like protein (GLK) and fused this hydrophilic GLK polymer to granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to generate a chimeric GLK/G-CSF fusion protein. The genetically engineered recombinant GLK/G-CSF (rGLK/G-CSF) fusion protein was purified from Pichia pastoris. In vitro studies demonstrated that rGLK/G-CSF possessed an enlarged hydrodynamic radius, improved thermal stability and retained full bioactivity compared to unfused G-CSF. Following a single subcutaneous administration to rats, the rGLK/G-CSF fusion protein displayed a slower plasma clearance rate and stimulated greater and longer lasting increases in circulating white blood cells than G-CSF. Our findings indicate that fusion with this artificial, hydrophilic, GLK polymer provides many advantages in the construction of a potent hematopoietic factor with extended plasma half-life. This approach could be easily applied to other therapeutic proteins and have important clinical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Construction of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain expressing a fusion protein of Omp22 and HpaA from Helicobacter pylori for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongguang; Duan, Guangcai; Shi, Qingfeng; Chen, Shuaiyin; Fan, Qingtang; Sun, Nan; Xi, Yuanlin

    2016-11-01

    To develop orally administrated anti-Helicobacter pylori vaccination, a Lactococcus lactis strain was genetically constructed for fusion expression of H. pylori protective antigens HpaA and Omp22. The fusion gene of omp22 and hpaA with an adapter encoding three glycines was cloned from a plasmid pMAL-c2x-omp22-hpaA into Escherichia coli MC1061 and L. lactis NZ3900 successively using a shutter vector pNZ8110. Expression of the fusion gene in L. lactis was induced with nisin resulting in production of proteins with molecular weights of 50 and 28 kDa. Both of them were immunoreactive with mouse anti-H. pylori sera as determined via western blotting. Oral vaccination of BALB/c mice using the L. lactis strain carrying pNZ8110-omp22-hpaA elicited significant systematic humoral immune response (P lactis with immunogenicity. This is a considerable step towards H. pylori vaccines.

  17. A synthetic cadmium metallothionein gene (PMCd1syn) of Paramecium species: expression, purification and characteristics of metallothionein protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Saira; Shuja, Rukhsana N; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2013-02-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal binding proteins that are rich in cysteine residues constituting 10-30 % of the total protein, and in which the thiol groups bind to the metal ions. The increasing amount of metal ions in the medium have shown increased production of MTs by different organisms such as bacteria, protozoa and mammals like humans. PMCd1 is the first gene ever discovered in Paramecium, a ciliated protozoan, that could produce this MT in response to cadmium. In this study the PMCd1syn gene has been cloned in pET41a expression vector and expressed in an Escherichia coli BL21-codonplus strain for the first time. Since the gene PMCd1 amplified from Paramecium contained 10 codons, which could act as stop codons during expression in E. coli, this gene of 612 bps was synthesized to substitute these (stop) codons for the Paramecium sp. specific amino acids. For stability of the expressed protein, glutathione-S-transferase gene was fused with PMCd1syn gene and coexpressed. The cells expressing PMCd1syn demonstrated increased accumulation of cadmium. This is the first report of cadmium MT protein expressed from Paramecium species, particularly from synthetic MT gene (PMCd1syn). This fusion protein, the molecular weight of which has been confirmed to be 53.03 kDa with MALDI analysis, is rich in cysteine residues, and has been shown for the first time in this ciliate to bind to and sequester Cd(2+)-ions.

  18. Identifying Growth Conditions for Nicotiana benthimiana Resulting in Predictable Gene Expression of Promoter-Gus Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, V.; Barton, K.; Longhurst, A.

    2012-12-01

    Revoluta (Rev) is a transcription factor that establishes leaf polarity inArabidopsis thaliana. Through previous work in Dr. Barton's Lab, it is known that Revoluta binds to the ZPR3 promoter, thus activating the ZPR3 gene product inArabidopsis thaliana. Using this knowledge, two separate DNA constructs were made, one carrying revgene and in the other, the ZPR3 promoter fussed with the GUS gene. When inoculated in Nicotiana benthimiana (tobacco), the pMDC32 plasmid produces the Rev protein. Rev binds to the ZPR3 promoter thereby activating the transcription of the GUS gene, which can only be expressed in the presence of Rev. When GUS protein comes in contact with X-Gluc it produce the blue stain seen (See Figure 1). In the past, variability has been seen of GUS expression on tobacco therefore we hypothesized that changing the growing conditions and leaf age might improve how well it's expressed.

  19. Major cancer protein amplifies global gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists may have discovered why a protein called MYC can provoke a variety of cancers. Like many proteins associated with cancer, MYC helps regulate cell growth. A new study carried out by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and colleagues

  20. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  1. Dynamic in vivo imaging and cell tracking using a histone fluorescent protein fusion in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Virginia E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in optical imaging modalities and the continued evolution of genetically-encoded fluorescent proteins are coming together to facilitate the study of cell behavior at high resolution in living organisms. As a result, imaging using autofluorescent protein reporters is gaining popularity in mouse transgenic and targeted mutagenesis applications. Results We have used embryonic stem cell-mediated transgenesis to label cells at sub-cellular resolution in vivo, and to evaluate fusion of a human histone protein to green fluorescent protein for ubiquitous fluorescent labeling of nucleosomes in mice. To this end we have generated embryonic stem cells and a corresponding strain of mice that is viable and fertile and exhibits widespread chromatin-localized reporter expression. High levels of transgene expression are maintained in a constitutive manner. Viability and fertility of homozygous transgenic animals demonstrates that this reporter is developmentally neutral and does not interfere with mitosis or meiosis. Conclusions Using various optical imaging modalities including wide-field, spinning disc confocal, and laser scanning confocal and multiphoton excitation microscopy, we can identify cells in various stages of the cell cycle. We can identify cells in interphase, cells undergoing mitosis or cell death. We demonstrate that this histone fusion reporter allows the direct visualization of active chromatin in situ. Since this reporter segments three-dimensional space, it permits the visualization of individual cells within a population, and so facilitates tracking cell position over time. It is therefore attractive for use in multidimensional studies of in vivo cell behavior and cell fate.

  2. Efficient Knock-in of a Point Mutation in Porcine Fibroblasts Using the CRISPR/Cas9-GMNN Fusion Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Max; Kraft, Theresia; Brenner, Bernhard; Petersen, Björn; Niemann, Heiner; Montag, Judith

    2018-06-13

    During CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing, site-specific double strand breaks are introduced and repaired either unspecific by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or sequence dependent by homology directed repair (HDR). Whereas NHEJ-based generation of gene knock-out is widely performed, the HDR-based knock-in of specific mutations remains a bottleneck. Especially in primary cell lines that are essential for the generation of cell culture and animal models of inherited human diseases, knock-in efficacy is insufficient and needs significant improvement. Here, we tested two different approaches to increase the knock-in frequency of a specific point mutation into the MYH7 -gene in porcine fetal fibroblasts. We added a small molecule inhibitor of NHEJ, SCR7 (5,6-bis((E)-benzylideneamino)-2-mercaptopyrimidin-4-ol), during genome editing and screened cell cultures for the point mutation. However, this approach did not yield increased knock-in rates. In an alternative approach, we fused humanized Cas9 (hCas9) to the N-terminal peptide of the Geminin gene ( GMNN ). The fusion protein is degraded in NHEJ-dominated cell cycle phases, which should increase HDR-rates. Using hCas9- GMNN and point mutation-specific real time PCR screening, we found a two-fold increase in genome edited cell cultures. This increase of HDR by hCas9- GMNN provides a promising way to enrich specific knock-in in porcine fibroblast cultures for somatic cloning approaches.

  3. Lack of a synergistic effect of a non-viral ALS gene therapy based on BDNF and a TTC fusion molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases. Neurotrophic factors have been widely tested to counteract neurodegenerative conditions, despite their unspecific neuronal access. The non-toxic C-terminal fragment of the tetanus toxin (TTC heavy chain has been studied not only as a carrier molecule to the CNS but also as a neuroprotective agent. Because the neurotrophic effects of BDNF have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, the question addressed in this work is whether a fusion molecule of BDNF-TTC may have a synergistic effect and enhance the neuroprotective properties of TTC alone in a mouse model of ALS. Methods Recombinant plasmid constructs (pCMV-TTC and pCMV-BDNF-TTC were injected into the quadriceps femoris and triceps brachialis muscles of SOD1G93A transgenic mice at 8 weeks of age. The hanging wire and rotarod tests were performed to assess motor coordination, strength and balance. Electrophysiological tests, morphological assays of spinal cord sections of L2 and L4 segments, and gene and protein expression analyses were performed. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis test was used for comparisons of survival. Multiple comparisons of data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Treatment with the fusion-molecule BDNF-TTC and with TTC alone significantly delayed the onset of symptoms and functional deficits of SOD1G93A mice. Muscle innervation was partially preserved with these treatments, and the number of surviving motoneurons in L2 spinal cord segment was increased particularly by the fusion protein induction. Inhibition of pro-apoptotic protein targets (caspase-3 and Bax and significant phosphorylation of Akt and ERK were also found in the spinal cord of treated mice. Conclusions Significant improvements in behavioral and electrophysiological results, motoneuron survival and anti-apoptotic/survival-activated pathways were observed with

  4. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  5. Origins of gene, genetic code, protein and life

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    have concluded that newly-born genes are products of nonstop frames (NSF) ... research to determine tertiary structures of proteins such ... the present earth, is favourable for new genes to arise, if ..... NGG) in the universal genetic code table, cannot satisfy ..... which has been proposed to explain the development of life on.

  6. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns that e...... in the nucleolus....

  7. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  8. Ranking candidate disease genes from gene expression and protein interaction: a Katz-centrality based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available Many diseases have complex genetic causes, where a set of alleles can affect the propensity of getting the disease. The identification of such disease genes is important to understand the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of pathogenesis, improve diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and aid in drug discovery. Current genetic studies typically identify chromosomal regions associated specific diseases. But picking out an unknown disease gene from hundreds of candidates located on the same genomic interval is still challenging. In this study, we propose an approach to prioritize candidate genes by integrating data of gene expression level, protein-protein interaction strength and known disease genes. Our method is based only on two, simple, biologically motivated assumptions--that a gene is a good disease-gene candidate if it is differentially expressed in cases and controls, or that it is close to other disease-gene candidates in its protein interaction network. We tested our method on 40 diseases in 58 gene expression datasets of the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database. On these datasets our method is able to predict unknown disease genes as well as identifying pleiotropic genes involved in the physiological cellular processes of many diseases. Our study not only provides an effective algorithm for prioritizing candidate disease genes but is also a way to discover phenotypic interdependency, cooccurrence and shared pathophysiology between different disorders.

  9. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html

  10. Characterization of Chlamydia MurC-Ddl, a fusion protein exhibiting D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase activity involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and D-cycloserine sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Andrea J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2005-07-01

    Recent characterization of chlamydial genes encoding functional peptidoglycan (PG)-synthesis proteins suggests that the Chlamydiaceae possess the ability to synthesize PG yet biochemical evidence for the synthesis of PG has yet to be demonstrated. The presence of D-amino acids in PG is a hallmark of bacteria. Chlamydiaceae do not appear to encode amino acid racemases however, a D-alanyl-D-alanine (D-Ala-D-Ala) ligase homologue (Ddl) is encoded in the genome. Thus, we undertook a genetics-based approach to demonstrate and characterize the D-Ala-D-Ala ligase activity of chlamydial Ddl, a protein encoded as a fusion with MurC. The full-length murC-ddl fusion gene from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was cloned and placed under the control of the arabinose-inducible ara promoter and transformed into a D-Ala-D-Ala ligase auxotroph of Escherichia coli possessing deletions of both the ddlA and ddlB genes. Viability of the E. coliDeltaddlADeltaddlB mutant in the absence of exogenous D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide became dependent on the expression of the chlamydial murC-ddl thus demonstrating functional ligase activity. Domain mapping of the full-length fusion protein and site-directed mutagenesis of the MurC domain revealed that the structure of the full fusion protein but not MurC enzymatic activity was required for ligase activity in vivo. Recombinant MurC-Ddl exhibited substrate specificity for D-Ala. Chlamydia growth is inhibited by D-cycloserine (DCS) and in vitro analysis provided evidence for the chlamydial MurC-Ddl as the target for DCS sensitivity. In vivo sensitivity to DCS could be reversed by addition of exogenous D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Ala. Together, these findings further support our hypothesis that PG is synthesized by members of the Chlamydiaceae family and suggest that D-amino acids, specifically D-Ala, are present in chlamydial PG.

  11. Disease candidate gene identification and prioritization using protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronow Bruce J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most of the current disease candidate gene identification and prioritization methods depend on functional annotations, the coverage of the gene functional annotations is a limiting factor. In the current study, we describe a candidate gene prioritization method that is entirely based on protein-protein interaction network (PPIN analyses. Results For the first time, extended versions of the PageRank and HITS algorithms, and the K-Step Markov method are applied to prioritize disease candidate genes in a training-test schema. Using a list of known disease-related genes from our earlier study as a training set ("seeds", and the rest of the known genes as a test list, we perform large-scale cross validation to rank the candidate genes and also evaluate and compare the performance of our approach. Under appropriate settings – for example, a back probability of 0.3 for PageRank with Priors and HITS with Priors, and step size 6 for K-Step Markov method – the three methods achieved a comparable AUC value, suggesting a similar performance. Conclusion Even though network-based methods are generally not as effective as integrated functional annotation-based methods for disease candidate gene prioritization, in a one-to-one comparison, PPIN-based candidate gene prioritization performs better than all other gene features or annotations. Additionally, we demonstrate that methods used for studying both social and Web networks can be successfully used for disease candidate gene prioritization.

  12. Prediction of human protein function according to Gene Ontology categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    developed a method for prediction of protein function for a subset of classes from the Gene Ontology classification scheme. This subset includes several pharmaceutically interesting categories-transcription factors, receptors, ion channels, stress and immune response proteins, hormones and growth factors...

  13. Identification and cloning of two insecticidal protein genes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely applied type of microbial pesticide due to its high specificity and environmental safety. The activity of Bt is largely attributed to the insecticidal crystal protein encoded by the cry genes. Different insecticidal crystal proteins of Bt have different bioactivity against distinct agricultural ...

  14. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S protein is necessary for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and cell-cell fusion but not interaction with M protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, Corrin E.; Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause mild disease in humans. However, the recently emerged coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) is the most pathogenic human coronavirus discovered to date. The SARS-CoV spike (S) protein mediates virus entry by binding cellular receptors and inducing fusion between the viral envelope and the host cell membrane. Coronavirus S proteins are palmitoylated, which may affect function. Here, we created a non-palmitoylated SARS-CoV S protein by mutating all nine cytoplasmic cysteine residues. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S was required for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and for cell-cell fusion. Surprisingly, however, palmitoylation of S was not required for interaction with SARS-CoV M protein. This contrasts with the requirement for palmitoylation of mouse hepatitis virus S protein for interaction with M protein and may point to important differences in assembly and infectivity of these two coronaviruses.

  15. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of cancer cell-specific nanomedicines targeted via phage fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Gillespie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Active tumor targeting of nanomedicines has recently shown significant improvements in the therapeutic activity of currently existing drug delivery systems, such as liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx/Lipodox. Previously, we have shown that isolated pVIII major coat proteins of the fd tet filamentous phage vector, containing cancer cell-specific peptide fusions at their N terminus, can be used as active targeting ligands in a liposomal doxorubicin delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show a novel major coat protein isolation procedure in 2-propanol that allows spontaneous incorporation of the hydrophobic protein core into preformed liposomal doxorubicin with minimal damage or drug loss while still retaining the targeting ligand exposed for cell-specific targeting. Using a panel of 12 structurally unique ligands with specificity towards breast, lung, and/or pancreatic cancer, we showed the feasibility of pVIII major coat proteins to significantly increase the throughput of targeting ligand screening in a common nanomedicine core. Phage protein-modified Lipodox samples showed an average doxorubicin recovery of 82.8% across all samples with 100% of protein incorporation in the correct orientation (N-terminus exposed. Following cytotoxicity screening in a doxorubicin-sensitive breast cancer line (MCF-7, three major groups of ligands were identified. Ligands showing the most improved cytotoxicity included: DMPGTVLP, ANGRPSMT, VNGRAEAP, and ANDVYLD showing a 25-fold improvement (p < 0.05 in toxicity. Similarly DGQYLGSQ, ETYNQPYL, and GSSEQLYL ligands with specificity towards a doxorubicin-insensitive pancreatic cancer line (PANC-1 showed significant increases in toxicity (2-fold; p < 0.05. Thus, we demonstrated proof-of-concept that pVIII major coat proteins can be screened in significantly higher throughput to identify novel ligands displaying improved therapeutic activity in a desired cancer phenotype.

  16. Design of Recombinant Stem Cell Factor macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Fusion Proteins and their Biological Activity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuelang; Zhan, Chenyang; Zang, Yuhui; Qin, Junchuan

    2005-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) can act in synergistic way to promote the growth of mononuclear phagocytes. SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were designed on the computer using the Homology and Biopolymer modules of the software packages InsightII. Several existing crystal structures were used as templates to generate models of the complexes of receptor with fusion protein. The structure rationality of the fusion protein incorporated a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed on InsightII system. Then, a suitable peptide GGGGSGGGGSGG was chosen for the fusion protein. Two recombinant SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were generated by construction of a plasmid in which the coding regions of human SCF (1-165aa) and M-CSF (1-149aa) cDNA were connected by this linker peptide coding sequence followed by subsequent expression in insect cell. The results of Western blot and activity analysis showed that these two recombinant fusion proteins existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of 84 KD under non-reducing conditions and a monomer of 42 KD at reducing condition. The results of cell proliferation assays showed that each fusion protein induced a dose-dependent proliferative response. At equimolar concentration, SCF/M-CSF was about 20 times more potent than the standard monomeric SCF in stimulating TF-1 cell line growth, while M-CSF/SCF was 10 times of monomeric SCF. No activity difference of M-CSF/SCF or SCF/M-CSF to M-CSF (at same molar) was found in stimulating the HL-60 cell linear growth. The synergistic effect of SCF and M-CSF moieties in the fusion proteins was demonstrated by the result of clonogenic assay performed with human bone mononuclear, in which both SCF/M-CSF and M-CSF/SCF induced much higher number of CFU-M than equimolar amount of SCF or M-CSF or that of two cytokines mixture.

  17. Purification of cold-shock-like proteins from Stigmatella aurantiaca - molecular cloning and characterization of the cspA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, I; Leclerque, A; Plaga, W

    1999-09-01

    Prominent low-molecular-weight proteins were isolated from vegetative cells of the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca and were found to be members of the cold-shock protein family. A first gene of this family (cspA) was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a protein of 68 amino acid residues that displays up to 71% sequence identity with other bacterial cold-shock(-like) proteins. A cysteine residue within the RNP-2 motif is a peculiarity of Stigmatella CspA. A cspA::(Deltatrp-lacZ) fusion gene construct was introduced into Stigmatella by electroporation, a method that has not been used previously for this strain. Analysis of the resultant transformants revealed that cspA transcription occurs at high levels during vegetative growth at 20 and 32 degrees C, and during fruiting body formation.

  18. Analysis of gene and protein name synonyms in Entrez Gene and UniProtKB resources

    KAUST Repository

    Arkasosy, Basil

    2013-05-11

    Ambiguity in texts is a well-known problem: words can carry several meanings, and hence, can be read and interpreted differently. This is also true in the biological literature; names of biological concepts, such as genes and proteins, might be ambiguous, referring in some cases to more than one gene or one protein, or in others, to both genes and proteins at the same time. Public biological databases give a very useful insight about genes and proteins information, including their names. In this study, we made a thorough analysis of the nomenclatures of genes and proteins in two data sources and for six different species. We developed an automated process that parses, extracts, processes and stores information available in two major biological databases: Entrez Gene and UniProtKB. We analysed gene and protein synonyms, their types, frequencies, and the ambiguities within a species, in between data sources and cross-species. We found that at least 40% of the cross-species ambiguities are caused by names that are already ambiguous within the species. Our study shows that from the six species we analysed (Homo Sapiens, Mus Musculus, Arabidopsis Thaliana, Oryza Sativa, Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas Fluorescens), rice (Oriza Sativa) has the best naming model in Entrez Gene database, with low ambiguities between data sources and cross-species.

  19. Optimization of proximity ligation assay (PLA) for detection of protein interactions and fusion proteins in non-adherent cells: application to pre-B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaize, Lydie; Jakobczyk, Hélène; Rio, Anne-Gaëlle; Gandemer, Virginie; Troadec, Marie-Bérengère

    2017-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities, including chromosomal translocations, are described for many hematological malignancies. From the clinical perspective, detection of chromosomal abnormalities is relevant not only for diagnostic and treatment purposes but also for prognostic risk assessment. From the translational research perspective, the identification of fusion proteins and protein interactions has allowed crucial breakthroughs in understanding the pathogenesis of malignancies and consequently major achievements in targeted therapy. We describe the optimization of the Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) to ascertain the presence of fusion proteins, and protein interactions in non-adherent pre-B cells. PLA is an innovative method of protein-protein colocalization detection by molecular biology that combines the advantages of microscopy with the advantages of molecular biology precision, enabling detection of protein proximity theoretically ranging from 0 to 40 nm. We propose an optimized PLA procedure. We overcome the issue of maintaining non-adherent hematological cells by traditional cytocentrifugation and optimized buffers, by changing incubation times, and modifying washing steps. Further, we provide convincing negative and positive controls, and demonstrate that optimized PLA procedure is sensitive to total protein level. The optimized PLA procedure allows the detection of fusion proteins and protein interactions on non-adherent cells. The optimized PLA procedure described here can be readily applied to various non-adherent hematological cells, from cell lines to patients' cells. The optimized PLA protocol enables detection of fusion proteins and their subcellular expression, and protein interactions in non-adherent cells. Therefore, the optimized PLA protocol provides a new tool that can be adopted in a wide range of applications in the biological field.

  20. Electrostatic Architecture of the Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) Core Fusion Protein Illustrates a Carboxyl-Carboxylate pH Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan D; Soto-Montoya, Hazel; Korpela, Markus K; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2015-07-24

    Segment 5, ORF 1 of the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) genome, encodes for the ISAV F protein, which is responsible for viral-host endosomal membrane fusion during a productive ISAV infection. The entry machinery of ISAV is composed of a complex of the ISAV F and ISAV hemagglutinin esterase (HE) proteins in an unknown stoichiometry prior to receptor engagement by ISAV HE. Following binding of the receptor to ISAV HE, dissociation of the ISAV F protein from HE, and subsequent endocytosis, the ISAV F protein resolves into a fusion-competent oligomeric state. Here, we present a 2.1 Å crystal structure of the fusion core of the ISAV F protein determined at low pH. This structure has allowed us to unambiguously demonstrate that the ISAV entry machinery exhibits typical class I viral fusion protein architecture. Furthermore, we have determined stabilizing factors that accommodate the pH-dependent mode of ISAV transmission, and our structure has allowed the identification of a central coil that is conserved across numerous and varied post-fusion viral glycoprotein structures. We then discuss a mechanistic model of ISAV fusion that parallels the paramyxoviral class I fusion strategy wherein attachment and fusion are relegated to separate proteins in a similar fashion to ISAV fusion. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Prokaryotic expression of chicken interferon-γ fusion protein and its effect on expression of poultry heat shock protein 70 under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Yinglin; Qin, Feiyue; Guan, Xueting; Xu, Wei; Xu, Liangmei

    2017-06-01

    Interferons have attracted considerable attention due to their vital roles in the host immune response and low induction of antibiotic resistance. In this study, total RNA was extracted from spleen cells of chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine, and the full-length chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The full complementary DNA sequence of the ChIFN-γ gene was 495 bp long and was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pProEX™HT b . The plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and the expression of ChIFN-γ was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot results showed the expressed fusion protein had a molecular weight of approximately 18 kDa and was recognized by an anti-His mAb. Moreover, ChIFN-γ was found to demonstrate anti-viral activity in vitro. To test the in vivo function of ChIFN-γ in broilers under heat stress, a total of 100 broilers were randomly assigned to either a control group or a treated group, in which they were hypodermically injected with recombinant ChIFN-γ. Results demonstrated ChIFN-γ affects the messenger RNA expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the heart and lung tissues, and decreases the concentration of HSP70 in serum. Therefore, we conclude recombinant ChIFN-γ can reduce heat stress to some extent in vivo. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Incorporation of albumin fusion proteins into fibrin clots in vitro and in vivo: comparison of different fusion motifs recognized by factor XIIIa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheffield William P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transglutaminase activated factor XIII (FXIIIa acts to strengthen pathological fibrin clots and to slow their dissolution, in part by crosslinking active α2-antiplasmin (α2AP to fibrin. We previously reported that a yeast-derived recombinant fusion protein comprising α2AP residues 13-42 linked to human serum albumin (HSA weakened in vitro clots but failed to become specifically incorporated into in vivo clots. In this study, our aims were to improve both the stability and clot localization of the HSA fusion protein by replacing α2AP residues 13-42 with shorter sequences recognized more effectively by FXIIIa. Results Expression plasmids were prepared encoding recombinant HSA with the following N-terminal 23 residue extensions: H6NQEQVSPLTLLAG4Y (designated XL1; H6DQMMLPWAVTLG4Y (XL2; H6WQHKIDLPYNGAG4Y (XL3; and their 17 residue non-His-tagged equivalents (XL4, XL5, and XL6. The HSA moiety of XL4- to XL6-HSA proteins was C-terminally His-tagged. All chimerae were efficiently secreted from transformed Pichia pastoris yeast except XL3-HSA, and following nickel chelate affinity purification were found to be intact by amino acid sequencing, as was an N-terminally His-tagged version of α2AP(13-42-HSA. Of the proteins tested, XL5-HSA was cross-linked to biotin pentylamine (BPA most rapidly by FXIIIa, and was the most effective competitor of α2AP crosslinking not only to BPA but also to plasma fibrin clots. In the mouse ferric chloride vena cava thrombosis model, radiolabeled XL5-HSA was retained in the clot to a greater extent than recombinant HSA. In the rabbit jugular vein stasis thrombosis model, XL5-HSA was also retained in the clot, in a urea-insensitive manner indicative of crosslinking to fibrin, to a greater extent than recombinant HSA. Conclusions Fusion protein XL5-HSA (DQMMLPWAVTLG4Y-HSAH6 was found to be more active as a substrate for FXIIIa-mediated transamidation than seven other candidate fusion proteins in

  3. [Expression and activity determination of recombinant capsid protein VP2 gene of enterovirus type 71].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Liu, Guohua; Hu, Xiaoning; Du, Yanhua; Li, Xingle; Xu, Yuling; Chen, Haomin; Xu, Bianli

    2014-04-01

    To clone and express the recombinant capsid protein VP2 of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and to identify the immune activity of expressed protein in order to build a basis for the investigation work of vaccine and diagnostic antigen. VP2 gene of EV71 was amplified by PCR, and then was cut by restriction enzyme and inserted into expression vector pMAL-c2X. The positive recombinants were transferred into E.coli TB1, the genetically engineered bacteria including pMAL-c2X-VP2 plasmids were induced by isopropyl thiogalactoside ( IPTG) , and the expression products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting method. EV71 IgM antibody detection method by ELISA was set up, and the sensitivity and specificity of this method was assessed; 60 neutralizing antibody positive serum samples from hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients were determined, of which 52 samples were positive and 8 samples were negative; a total of 88 acute phase serum samples of HFMD patients diagnosed in clinical were also detected. VP2 gene of 762 bp was obtained by PCR, the gene segment inserted into the recombinant vector was identified using restriction enzyme digestion. The recombinant vector could express a specific about 71 500 fusion protein in E.coli by SDS-PAGE. The purified recombinant protein of EV71-VP2 can react with the serum of HFMD patients to produce a specific band by western blotting. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 87% and 83%, respectively. Of the 88 acute phase serum samples from children with HFMD, 48 samples (55%) were positive by the ELISA assay. VP2 gene of EV71 has been cloned and a prokaryotic high expression system for VP2 gene was successfully constructed in the present study. The recombination EV71-VP2 has well antigenicity, which could be useful for developing diagnose reagent or vaccine of EV71.

  4. Oral Administration of Recombinant Saccharomyces boulardii Expressing Ovalbumin-CPE Fusion Protein Induces Antibody Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherpour, Ghasem; Ghasemi, Hosnie; Zand, Bahare; Zarei, Najmeh; Roohvand, Farzin; Ardakani, Esmat M; Azizi, Mohammad; Khalaj, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii , a subspecies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , is a well-known eukaryotic probiotic with many benefits for human health. In the present study, a recombinant strain of S. boulardii was prepared to use as a potential oral vaccine delivery vehicle. In this sense, a ura3 auxotroph strain of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 (known as S. cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926, Yomogi ® ) was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology. Then a gene construct encoding a highly immunogenic protein, ovalbumin (OVA), was prepared and transformed into the ura3 - S. boulardii . To facilitate the transport of the recombinant immunogen across the intestinal barrier, a claudin-targeting sequence from Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) was added to the C-terminus of the expression cassette. The recombinant S. boulardii strain expressing the OVA-CPE fusion protein was then administered orally to a group of mice, and serum IgG and fecal IgA levels were evaluated by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that anti-OVA IgG in serum significantly increased in test group ( P boulardii or PBS), and the fecal IgA titer was significantly higher in test group ( P boulardii strain expressing the similar construct lacking C-terminal CPE was also administered orally. The result showed an increased level of serum IgG in group receiving yeasts expressing the CPE negative construct compared to control groups; however, the fecal IgA levels did not increase significantly. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the yeast S. boulardii , as a delivery vehicle with possible immunomodulatory effects, and c-CPE, as a targeting tag, synergistically assist to stimulate systemic and local immunity. This proposed recombinant S. boulardii system might be useful in the expression of other antigenic peptides, making it as a promising tool for oral delivery of vaccines or therapeutic proteins.

  5. A plasmid toolkit for cloning chimeric cDNAs encoding customized fusion proteins into any Gateway destination expression vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Valuable clone collections encoding the complete ORFeomes for some model organisms have been constructed following the completion of their genome sequencing projects. These libraries are based on Gateway cloning technology, which facilitates the study of protein function by simplifying the subcloning of open reading frames (ORF) into any suitable destination vector. The expression of proteins of interest as fusions with functional modules is a frequent approach in their initial functional characterization. A limited number of Gateway destination expression vectors allow the construction of fusion proteins from ORFeome-derived sequences, but they are restricted to the possibilities offered by their inbuilt functional modules and their pre-defined model organism-specificity. Thus, the availability of cloning systems that overcome these limitations would be highly advantageous. Results We present a versatile cloning toolkit for constructing fully-customizable three-part fusion proteins based on the MultiSite Gateway cloning system. The fusion protein components are encoded in the three plasmids integral to the kit. These can recombine with any purposely-engineered destination vector that uses a heterologous promoter external to the Gateway cassette, leading to the in-frame cloning of an ORF of interest flanked by two functional modules. In contrast to previous systems, a third part becomes available for peptide-encoding as it no longer needs to contain a promoter, resulting in an increased number of possible fusion combinations. We have constructed the kit’s component plasmids and demonstrate its functionality by providing proof-of-principle data on the expression of prototype fluorescent fusions in transiently-transfected cells. Conclusions We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome

  6. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  7. Ribosomal protein gene knockdown causes developmental defects in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Uechi

    Full Text Available The ribosomal proteins (RPs form the majority of cellular proteins and are mandatory for cellular growth. RP genes have been linked, either directly or indirectly, to various diseases in humans. Mutations in RP genes are also associated with tissue-specific phenotypes, suggesting a possible role in organ development during early embryogenesis. However, it is not yet known how mutations in a particular RP gene result in specific cellular changes, or how RP genes might contribute to human diseases. The development of animal models with defects in RP genes will be essential for studying these questions. In this study, we knocked down 21 RP genes in zebrafish by using morpholino antisense oligos to inhibit their translation. Of these 21, knockdown of 19 RPs resulted in the development of morphants with obvious deformities. Although mutations in RP genes, like other housekeeping genes, would be expected to result in nonspecific developmental defects with widespread phenotypes, we found that knockdown of some RP genes resulted in phenotypes specific to each gene, with varying degrees of abnormality in the brain, body trunk, eyes, and ears at about 25 hours post fertilization. We focused further on the organogenesis of the brain. Each knocked-down gene that affected the morphogenesis of the brain produced a different pattern of abnormality. Among the 7 RP genes whose knockdown produced severe brain phenotypes, 3 human orthologs are located within chromosomal regions that have been linked to brain-associated diseases, suggesting a possible involvement of RP genes in brain or neurological diseases. The RP gene knockdown system developed in this study could be a powerful tool for studying the roles of ribosomes in human diseases.

  8. Using the 2A Protein Coexpression System: Multicistronic 2A Vectors Expressing Gene(s) of Interest and Reporter Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Garry A; Ryan, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    To date, a huge range of different proteins-many with cotranslational and posttranslational subcellular localization signals-have been coexpressed together with various reporter proteins in vitro and in vivo using 2A peptides. The pros and cons of 2A co-expression technology are considered below, followed by a simple example of a "how to" protocol to concatenate multiple genes of interest, together with a reporter gene, into a single gene linked via 2As for easy identification or selection of transduced cells.

  9. Fusion of ZMYND8 and RELA genes in acute erythroid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Micci, Francesca; Thorsen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Acute erythroid leukemia was diagnosed in a 4-month-old boy. Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow (BM) cells showed a t(11;20)(p11;q11) translocation. RNA extracted from the BM was sequenced and analyzed for fusion transcripts using the software FusionMap. A ZMYND8-RELA fusion was ranked first. RT...

  10. Flow cytometric immunobead assay for fast and easy detection of PML-RARA fusion proteins for the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.A. Dekking (E. H A); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); A. Varro (Andras); H. Wai; S. Böttcher (Stephan); M. Kneba (Michael); E. Sonneveld (Edwin); A. Koning; N. Boeckx; N. Van Poecke; P. Lucio (Paulo); A. Mendonça; L. Sedek (Lukasz); T. Szczepanski (Tomasz); T. Kalina (Tomas); V. Kanderová (V.); P.G. Hoogeveen (Patricia); J. Flores-Montero (Juan); C. Chillón (Carmen); A. Orfao (Alberto); J.M.M. Almeida (Julia); P.A.S. Evans; C. Cullen; A.L. Noordijk; P.M. Vermeulen (P.); M.T. de Man (M.); E.P. Dixon (Eric); W.M. Comans-Bitter; J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe PML-RARA fusion protein is found in approximately 97% of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). APL can be associated with life-threatening bleeding complications when undiagnosed and not treated expeditiously. The PML-RARA fusion protein arrests maturation of myeloid

  11. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  12. Differentially expressed genes in iron-induced prion protein conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Eun-hee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) to the protease-resistant isoform is the key event in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Increased iron in prion-related disease has been observed due to the prion protein-ferritin complex. Additionally, the accumulation and conversion of recombinant PrP (rPrP) is specifically derived from Fe(III) but not Fe(II). Fe(III)-mediated PK-resistant PrP (PrP res ) conversion occurs within a complex cellular environment rather than via direct contact between rPrP and Fe(III). In this study, differentially expressed genes correlated with prion degeneration by Fe(III) were identified using Affymetrix microarrays. Following Fe(III) treatment, 97 genes were differentially expressed, including 85 upregulated genes and 12 downregulated genes (≥1.5-fold change in expression). However, Fe(II) treatment produced moderate alterations in gene expression without inducing dramatic alterations in gene expression profiles. Moreover, functional grouping of identified genes indicated that the differentially regulated genes were highly associated with cell growth, cell maintenance, and intra- and extracellular transport. These findings showed that Fe(III) may influence the expression of genes involved in PrP folding by redox mechanisms. The identification of genes with altered expression patterns in neural cells may provide insights into PrP conversion mechanisms during the development and progression of prion-related diseases. - Highlights: • Differential genes correlated with prion degeneration by Fe(III) were identified. • Genes were identified in cell proliferation and intra- and extracellular transport. • In PrP degeneration, redox related genes were suggested. • Cbr2, Rsad2, Slc40a1, Amph and Mvd were expressed significantly.

  13. Association of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion with clinical characteristics and outcomes: results from a population-based study of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Liesel M; Cox, Michael E; Ostrander, Elaine A; Stanford, Janet L; Huntsman, David G; Agalliu, Ilir; Johnson, Karynn; Miller, Melinda A; Kwon, Erika M; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Fazli, Ladan; Rajput, Ashish B; Gleave, Martin E

    2008-01-01

    The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in prostate tumors has recently been associated with an aggressive phenotype, as well as recurrence and death from prostate cancer. These associations suggest the hypothesis that the gene fusion may be used as a prognostic indicator for prostate cancer. In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were used to assess TMPRSS2-ERG fusion status in a group of 214 prostate cancer cases from two population-based studies. The FISH assays were designed to detect both fusion type (deletion vs. translocation) and the number of fusion copies (single vs. multiple). Genotyping of four ERG and one TMPRSS2 SNPs using germline DNA was also performed in a sample of the cases (n = 127). Of the 214 tumors scored for the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, 64.5% were negative and 35.5% were positive for the fusion. Cases with the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion did not exhibit reduced prostate cancer survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.22–3.93), nor was there a significant difference in cause-specific survival when stratifying by translocation or deletion (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.23–3.12) or by the number of retained fusion copies (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.45–3.34). However, evidence for reduced prostate cancer-specific survival was apparent in those cases whose tumor had multiple copies of the fusion. The variant T allele of the TMPRSS2 SNP, rs12329760, was positively associated with TMPRSS2-ERG fusion by translocation (p = 0.05) and with multiple copies of the gene fusion (p = 0.03). If replicated, the results presented here may provide insight into the mechanism by which the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion arises and also contribute to diagnostic evaluations for determining the subset of men who will go on to develop metastatic prostate cancer

  14. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Caruso, Nadia; Bossio, Sabrina; Pellicanò, Mariavaleria; De Stefano, Laura; Franzese, Stefania; Palummo, Angela; Abbadessa, Vincenzo; Lucia, Eugenio; Gentile, Massimo; Vigna, Ernesto; Caracciolo, Clementina; Agostino, Antolino; Galimberti, Sara; Levato, Luciano; Stagno, Fabio; Molica, Stefano; Martino, Bruno; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Morabito, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR) genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i) CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii) follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1) when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1–10%, and (iii) rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients. PMID:26111048

  15. Flow Cytometric Immunobead Assay for Detection of BCR-ABL1 Fusion Proteins in Chronic Myleoid Leukemia: Comparison with FISH and PCR Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grazia Recchia

    Full Text Available Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML is characterized by a balanced translocation juxtaposing the Abelson (ABL and breakpoint cluster region (BCR genes. The resulting BCR-ABL1 oncogene leads to increased proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Successful treatment of CML has been accompanied by steady improvements in our capacity to accurately and sensitively monitor therapy response. Currently, measurement of BCR-ABL1 mRNA transcript levels by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR defines critical response endpoints. An antibody-based technique for BCR-ABL1 protein recognition could be an attractive alternative to RQ-PCR. To date, there have been no studies evaluating whether flow-cytometry based assays could be of clinical utility in evaluating residual disease in CML patients. Here we describe a flow-cytometry assay that detects the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion proteins in CML lysates to determine the applicability, reliability, and specificity of this method for both diagnosis and monitoring of CML patients for initial response to therapy. We show that: i CML can be properly diagnosed at onset, (ii follow-up assessments show detectable fusion protein (i.e. relative mean fluorescent intensity, rMFI%>1 when BCR-ABL1IS transcripts are between 1-10%, and (iii rMFI% levels predict CCyR as defined by FISH analysis. Overall, the FCBA assay is a rapid technique, fully translatable to the routine management of CML patients.

  16. LRRK2 phosphorylates pre-synaptic N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion (NSF) protein enhancing its ATPase activity and SNARE complex disassembling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Elisa; Gonnelli, Adriano; Cirnaru, Maria-Daniela; Marte, Antonella; Plotegher, Nicoletta; Russo, Isabella; Civiero, Laura; Cogo, Susanna; Carrion, Maria Perèz; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni; Greggio, Elisa

    2016-01-13

    Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson's disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the presynaptic site, LRRK2 associates with synaptic vesicles through interaction with a panel of presynaptic proteins. Here, we show that LRRK2 kinase activity influences the dynamics of synaptic vesicle fusion. We therefore investigated whether LRRK2 phosphorylates component(s) of the exo/endocytosis machinery. We have previously observed that LRRK2 interacts with NSF, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase that couples ATP hydrolysis to the disassembling of SNARE proteins allowing them to enter another fusion cycle during synaptic exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that NSF is a substrate of LRRK2 kinase activity. LRRK2 phosphorylates full-length NSF at threonine 645 in the ATP binding pocket of D2 domain. Functionally, NSF phosphorylated by LRRK2 displays enhanced ATPase activity and increased rate of SNARE complex disassembling. Substitution of threonine 645 with alanine abrogates LRRK2-mediated increased ATPase activity. Given that the most common Parkinson's disease LRRK2 G2019S mutation displays increased kinase activity, our results suggest that mutant LRRK2 may impair synaptic vesicle dynamics via aberrant phosphorylation of NSF.

  17. Induction of polyploidy by nuclear fusion mechanism upon decreased expression of the nuclear envelope protein LAP2β in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Shirley Oren; Simon, Amos J; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Shaklai, Sigal; Paz-Yaacov, Nurit; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Trakhtenbrot, Luba

    2014-01-28

    Polyploidy has been recognized for many years as an important hallmark of cancer cells. Polyploid cells can arise through cell fusion, endoreplication and abortive cell cycle. The inner nuclear membrane protein LAP2β plays key roles in nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly during mitosis, initiation of replication and transcriptional repression. Here we studied the function of LAP2β in the maintenance of cell ploidy state, a role which has not yet been assigned to this protein. By knocking down the expression of LAP2β, using both viral and non-viral RNAi approaches in osteosarcoma derived U2OS cells, we detected enlarged nuclear size, nearly doubling of DNA content and chromosomal duplications, as analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and spectral karyotyping methodologies. Spectral karyotyping analyses revealed that near-hexaploid karyotypes of LAP2β knocked down cells consisted of not only seven duplicated chromosomal markers, as could be anticipated by genome duplication mechanism, but also of four single chromosomal markers. Furthermore, spectral karyotyping analysis revealed that both of two near-triploid U2OS sub-clones contained the seven markers that were duplicated in LAP2β knocked down cells, whereas the four single chromosomal markers were detected only in one of them. Gene expression profiling of LAP2β knocked down cells revealed that up to a third of the genes exhibiting significant changes in their expression are involved in cancer progression. Our results suggest that nuclear fusion mechanism underlies the polyploidization induction upon LAP2β reduced expression. Our study implies on a novel role of LAP2β in the maintenance of cell ploidy status. LAP2β depleted U2OS cells can serve as a model to investigate polyploidy and aneuploidy formation by nuclear fusion mechanism and its involvement in cancerogenesis.

  18. The TEL-AML1 fusion protein of acute lymphoblastic leukemia modulates IRF3 activity during early B-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laurentiis, A; Hiscott, J; Alcalay, M

    2015-12-03

    The t(12;21) translocation is the most common genetic rearrangement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and gives rise to the TEL-AML1 fusion gene. Many studies on TEL-AML1 describe specific properties of the fusion protein, but a thorough understanding of its function is lacking. We exploited a pluripotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell line, EML1, and generated a cell line (EML-TA) stably expressing the TEL-AML1 fusion protein. EML1 cells differentiate to mature B-cells following treatment with IL7; whereas EML-TA display an impaired differentiation capacity and remain blocked at an early stage of maturation. Global gene expression profiling of EML1 cells at different stages of B-lymphoid differentiation, compared with EML-TA, identified the interferon (IFN)α/β pathway as a primary target of repression by TEL-AML1. In particular, expression and phosphorylation of interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was decreased in EML-TA cells; strikingly, stable expression of IRF3 restored the capacity of EML-TA cells to differentiate into mature B-cells. Similarly, IRF3 silencing in EML1 cells by siRNA was sufficient to block B-lymphoid differentiation. The ability of TEL-AML1 to block B-cell differentiation and downregulate the IRF3-IFNα/β pathway was confirmed in mouse and human primary hematopoietic precursor cells (Lin- and CD34+ cells, respectively), and in a patient-derived cell line expressing TEL-AML1 (REH). Furthermore, treatment of TEL-AML1 expressing cells with IFNα/β was sufficient to overcome the maturation block. Our data provide new insight on TEL-AML1 function and may offer a new therapeutic opportunity for B-ALL.

  19. Two active molecular phenotypes of the tachykinin NK1 receptor revealed by G-protein fusions and mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Hastrup, H; Raffetseder, U

    2001-01-01

    The NK1 neurokinin receptor presents two non-ideal binding phenomena, two-component binding curves for all agonists and significant differences between agonist affinity determined by homologous versus heterologous competition binding. Whole cell binding with fusion proteins constructed between ei...

  20. Glioma stem cells targeted by oncolytic virus carrying endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene and the expression of its exogenous gene in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guidong; Su, Wei; Jin, Guishan; Xu, Fujian; Hao, Shuyu; Guan, Fangxia; Jia, William; Liu, Fusheng

    2011-05-16

    The development of the cancer stem cell (CSCs) niche theory has provided a new target for the treatment of gliomas. Gene therapy using oncolytic viral vectors has shown great potential for the therapeutic targeting of CSCs. To explore whether a viral vector carrying an exogenous Endo-Angio fusion gene (VAE) can infect and kill glioma stem cells (GSCs), as well as inhibit their vascular niche in vitro, we have collected surgical specimens of human high-grade glioma (world health organization, WHO Classes III-VI) from which we isolated and cultured GSCs under conditions originally designed for the selective expansion of neural stem cells. Our results demonstrate the following: (1) Four lines of GSCs (isolated from 20 surgical specimens) could grow in suspension, were multipotent, had the ability to self-renew and expressed the neural stem cell markers, CD133 and nestin. (2) VAE could infect GSCs and significantly inhibit their viability. (3) The Endo-Angio fusion gene was expressed in GSCs 48 h after VAE infection and could inhibit the proliferation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). (4) Residual viable cells lose the ability of self-renewal and adherent differentiation. In conclusion, VAE can significantly inhibit the activity of GSCs in vitro and the expression of exogenous Endo-Angio fusion gene can inhibit HBMEC proliferation. VAE can be used as a novel virus-gene therapy strategy for glioma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  2. Fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr dissociates from HIV-1 core after viral fusion and rapidly enters the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Sood, Chetan; Shi, Jiong; Nawaz, Fatima; Aiken, Christopher; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-10-29

    HIV-1 Vpr is recruited into virions during assembly and appears to remain associated with the viral core after the reverse transcription and uncoating steps of entry. This feature has prompted the use of fluorescently labeled Vpr to visualize viral particles and to follow trafficking of post-fusion HIV-1 cores in the cytoplasm. Here, we tracked single pseudovirus entry and fusion and observed that fluorescently tagged Vpr gradually dissociates from post-fusion viral cores over the course of several minutes and accumulates in the nucleus. Kinetics measurements showed that fluorescent Vpr released from the cores very rapidly entered the cell nucleus. More than 10,000 Vpr molecules can be delivered into the cell nucleus within 45 min of infection by HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein. The fraction of Vpr from cell-bound viruses that accumulated in the nucleus was proportional to the extent of virus-cell fusion and was fully blocked by viral fusion inhibitors. Entry of virus-derived Vpr into the nucleus occurred independently of envelope glycoproteins or target cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy revealed two forms of nuclear Vpr-monomers and very large complexes, likely involving host factors. The kinetics of viral Vpr entering the nucleus after fusion was not affected by point mutations in the capsid protein that alter the stability of the viral core. The independence of Vpr shedding of capsid stability and its relatively rapid dissociation from post-fusion cores suggest that this process may precede capsid uncoating, which appears to occur on a slower time scale. Our results thus demonstrate that a bulk of fluorescently labeled Vpr incorporated into HIV-1 particles is released shortly after fusion. Future studies will address the question whether the quick and efficient nuclear delivery of Vpr derived from incoming viruses can regulate subsequent steps of HIV-1 infection.

  3. Molecular dynamics analysis of conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein during the initial steps of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-García, Fernando; Mendieta-Moreno, Jesús Ignacio; Mendieta, Jesús; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Initial conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein is caused only by mechanical forces. ► HRA region undergoes a structural change from a beta + alpha conformation to an extended coil and then to an all-alpha conformation. ► HRS domains of F protein form three single α-helices prior to generation of the coiled coil. -- Abstract: The fusion of paramyxovirus to the cell membrane is mediated by fusion protein (F protein) present in the virus envelope, which undergoes a dramatic conformational change during the process. Unlike hemagglutinin in orthomyxovirus, this change is not mediated by an alteration of environmental pH, and its cause remains unknown. Steered molecular dynamics analysis leads us to suggest that the conformational modification is mediated only by stretching mechanical forces once the transmembrane fusion peptide of the protein is anchored to the cell membrane. Such elongating forces will generate major secondary structure rearrangement in the heptad repeat A region of the F protein; from β-sheet conformation to an elongated coil and then spontaneously to an α-helix. In addition, it is proposed that the heptad repeat A region adopts a final three-helix coiled coil and that this structure appears after the formation of individual helices in each monomer.

  4. Use of galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2018-04-03

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  5. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2017-03-21

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  6. Integrated cell and process engineering for improved transient production of a "difficult-to-express" fusion protein by CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Yusuf B; Estes, Scott D; Alves, Christina S; Sinacore, Marty S; James, David C

    2015-12-01

    Based on an optimized electroporation protocol, we designed a rapid, milliliter-scale diagnostic transient production assay to identify limitations in the ability of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a model "difficult-to-express" homodimeric Fc-fusion protein, Sp35Fc, that exhibited very low volumetric titer and intracellular formation of disulfide-bonded oligomeric aggregates post-transfection. As expression of Sp35Fc induced an unfolded protein response in transfected host cells, we utilized the transient assay to compare, in parallel, multiple functionally diverse strategies to engineer intracellular processing of Sp35Fc in order to increase production and reduce aggregation as two discrete design objectives. Specifically, we compared the effect of (i) co-expression of ER-resident molecular chaperones (BiP, PDI, CypB) or active forms of UPR transactivators (ATF6c, XBP1s) at varying recombinant gene load, (ii) addition of small molecules known to act as chemical chaperones (PBA, DMSO, glycerol, betaine, TMAO) or modulate UPR signaling (PERK inhibitor GSK2606414) at varying concentration, (iii) a reduction in culture temperature to 32°C. Using this information, we designed a biphasic, Sp35Fc-specific transient manufacturing process mediated by lipofection that utilized CypB co-expression at an optimal Sp35Fc:CypB gene ratio of 5:1 to initially maximize transfected cell proliferation, followed by addition of a combination of PBA (0.5 mM) and glycerol (1% v/v) at the onset of stationary phase to maximize cell specific production and eliminate Sp35Fc aggregation. Using this optimal, engineered process transient Sp35Fc production was significantly increased sixfold over a 12 day production process with no evidence of disulfide-bonded aggregates. Finally, transient production in clonally derived sub-populations (derived from parental CHO host) screened for a heritably improved capability to produce Sp35Fc was also significantly improved by the optimized

  7. Development of RNA-FISH Assay for Detection of Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 Fusion Genes in FFPE Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kurobe

    Full Text Available Oncogenic FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and FGFR3 mutations are target candidates for small molecule inhibitors in bladder cancer (BC. Because FGFR3 and TACC3 genes are located very closely on chromosome 4p16.3, detection of the fusion by DNA-FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization is not a feasible option. In this study, we developed a novel RNA-FISH assay using branched DNA probe to detect FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE human BC samples.The RNA-FISH assay was developed and validated using a mouse xenograft model with human BC cell lines. Next, we assessed the consistency of the RNA-FISH assay using 104 human BC samples. In this study, primary BC tissues were stored as frozen and FFPE tissues. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were independently detected in FFPE sections by the RNA-FISH assay and in frozen tissues by RT-PCR. We also analyzed the presence of FGFR3 mutations by targeted sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from deparaffinized FFPE sections.FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts were identified by RNA-FISH and RT-PCR in mouse xenograft FFPE tissues using the human BC cell lines RT112 and RT4. These cell lines have been reported to be fusion-positive. Signals for FGFR3-TACC3 fusions by RNA-FISH were positive in 2/60 (3% of non-muscle-invasive BC (NMIBC and 2/44 (5% muscle-invasive BC (MIBC patients. The results of RT-PCR of all 104 patients were identical to those of RNA-FISH. FGFR3 mutations were detected in 27/60 (45% NMIBC and 8/44 (18% MIBC patients. Except for one NMIBC patient, FGFR3 mutation and FGFR3-TACC3 fusion were mutually exclusive.We developed an RNA-FISH assay for detection of the FGFR3-TACC3 fusion in FFPE samples of human BC tissues. Screening for not only FGFR3 mutations, but also for FGFR3-TACC3 fusion transcripts has the potential to identify additional patients that can be treated with FGFR inhibitors.

  8. A Novel Approach to Reinstating Tolerance in Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis Using a Targeted Fusion Protein, mCTA1–T146

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Consonni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reinstating tissue-specific tolerance has attracted much attention as a means to treat autoimmune diseases. However, despite promising results in rodent models of autoimmune diseases, no established tolerogenic therapy is clinically available yet. In the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG model several protocols have been reported that induce tolerance against the prime disease-associated antigen, the acetylcholine receptor (AChR at the neuromuscular junction. Using the whole AChR, the extracellular part or peptides derived from the receptor, investigators have reported variable success with their treatments, though, usually relatively large amounts of antigen has been required. Hence, there is a need for better formulations and strategies to improve on the efficacy of the tolerance-inducing therapies. Here, we report on a novel targeted fusion protein carrying the immunodominant peptide from AChR, mCTA1–T146, which given intranasally in repeated microgram doses strongly suppressed induction as well as ongoing EAMG disease in mice. The results corroborate our previous findings, using the same fusion protein approach, in the collagen-induced arthritis model showing dramatic suppressive effects on Th1 and Th17 autoaggressive CD4 T cells and upregulated regulatory T cell activities with enhanced IL10 production. A suppressive gene signature with upregulated expression of mRNA for TGFβ, IL10, IL27, and Foxp3 was clearly detectable in lymph node and spleen following intranasal treatment with mCTA1–T146. Amelioration of EAMG disease was accompanied by reduced loss of muscle AChR and lower levels of anti-AChR serum antibodies. We believe this targeted highly effective fusion protein mCTA1–T146 is a promising candidate for clinical evaluation in myasthenia gravis patients.

  9. Controlled chondrogenesis from adipose-derived stem cells by recombinant transforming growth factor-β3 fusion protein in peptide scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Dan, Yang; Yang, Shu-hua; Liu, Guo-hui; Shao, Zeng-wu; Yang, Cao; Xiao, Bao-jun; Liu, Xiangmei; Wu, Shuilin; Zhang, Tainjin; Chu, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are promising for cartilage repair due to their easy accessibility and chondrogenic potential. Although chondrogenesis of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mediated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is well established in vitro, clinical tissue engineering requires effective and controlled delivery of TGF-β in vivo. In this work, a self-assembled peptide scaffold was employed to construct cartilages in vivo through the chondrogenesis from ADSCs controlled by recombinant fusion protein LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 that was transfected by lentiviral vectors. During this course, the addition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can trigger the release of mTGF-β3 from the recombinant fusion protein of LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 in the combined scaffolds, thus stimulating the differentiation of ADSCs into chondrogenesis. The specific expression of cartilage genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The expression of chondrocytic markers was obviously upregulated to a higher level compared to the one by commonly used TGF-β3 alone. After 3 weeks of in vitro culturing, the hybrids with differentiated chondrogenesis were then injected subcutaneously into nude mice and retrieved after 4 weeks of culturing in vivo. Histological analysis also confirmed that the recombinant fusion protein was more effective for the formation of cartilage matrix than the cases either with TGF-β3 alone or without LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that controlled local delivery of the LAP-MMP-mTGF-β3 constructs can accelerate differentiation of ADSCs into the cartilage in vivo, which indicates the great potential of this hybrid in rapid therapy of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Novel Candidate Genes Related to Apoptosis from a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoman Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD that occurs in multicellular organisms. This process of normal cell death is required to maintain the balance of homeostasis. In addition, some diseases, such as obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, can be cured through apoptosis, which produces few side effects. An effective comprehension of the mechanisms underlying apoptosis will be helpful to prevent and treat some diseases. The identification of genes related to apoptosis is essential to uncover its underlying mechanisms. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify novel candidate genes related to apoptosis. First, protein-protein interaction information was used to construct a weighted graph. Second, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the graph to search for new candidate genes. Finally, the obtained genes were filtered by a permutation test. As a result, 26 genes were obtained, and we discuss their likelihood of being novel apoptosis-related genes by collecting evidence from published literature.

  11. Expression of an IRF-3 fusion protein and mouse estrogen receptor, inhibits hepatitis C viral replication in RIG-I-deficient Huh 7.5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF-3 plays a central role in the induction of interferon (IFN production and succeeding interferon-stimulated genes (ISG expression en route for restraining hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Here, we established a stable Huh7.5-IRF3ER cell line expressing a fusion protein of IRF-3 and mouse estrogen receptor (ER to examine IFN production and anti-HCV effects of IRF-3 in retinoic acid inducible-gene-I (RIG-I deficient Huh 7.5 cells. Homodimerization of the IRF-3ER fusion protein was detected by Western blotting after treatment with the estrogen receptor agonist 4-hydrotamoxifen (4-HT in Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells. Expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, and their inhibitory effects on HCV replication were demonstrated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Peak expression of IFN-α and IFN-β was achieved 24-hours post 4-HT treatment, coinciding with the appearance of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT proteins. Additionally, HCV viral replication declined in time-dependent fashion. In previous studies, a novel IFN-mediated pathway regulating expression of 1-8U and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M (hnRNP M inhibited HCV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES-dependent translation. When expression of ISGs such as 1-8U and hnRNP M were measured in 4-HT-treated Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells, both genes were positively regulated by activation of the IRF-3ER fusion protein. In conclusion, the anti-HCV effects of IRF-3ER homodimerization inhibited HCV RNA replication as well as HCV IRES-dependent translation in Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells. The results of this study indicate that IRF-3ER homodimerization is a key step to restore IFN expression in Huh7.5-IRF3ER cells and in achieving its anti-HCV effects.

  12. Gene design, fusion technology and TEV cleavage conditions influence the purification of oxidized disulphide-rich venom peptides in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Turchetto, Jeremy; Saez, Natalie J; Peysson, Fanny; Ramond, Laurie; Duhoo, Yoan; Blémont, Marilyne; Fernandes, Vânia O; Gama, Luís T; Ferreira, Luís M A; Guerreiro, Catarina I P I; Gilles, Nicolas; Darbon, Hervé; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2017-01-17

    Animal venoms are large, complex libraries of bioactive, disulphide-rich peptides. These peptides, and their novel biological activities, are of increasing pharmacological and therapeutic importance. However, recombinant expression of venom peptides in Escherichia coli remains difficult due to the significant number of cysteine residues requiring effective post-translational processing. There is also an urgent need to develop high-throughput recombinant protocols applicable to the production of reticulated peptides to enable efficient screening of their drug potential. Here, a comprehensive study was developed to investigate how synthetic gene design, choice of fusion tag, compartment of expression, tag removal conditions and protease recognition site affect levels of solubility of oxidized venom peptides produced in E. coli. The data revealed that expression of venom peptides imposes significant pressure on cysteine codon selection. DsbC was the best fusion tag for venom peptide expression, in particular when the fusion was directed to the bacterial periplasm. While the redox activity of DsbC was not essential to maximize expression of recombinant fusion proteins, redox activity did lead to higher levels of correctly folded target peptides. With the exception of proline, the canonical TEV protease recognition site tolerated all other residues at its C-terminus, confirming that no non-native residues, which might affect activity, need to be incorporated at the N-terminus of recombinant peptides for tag removal. This study reveals that E. coli is a convenient heterologous host for the expression of soluble and functional venom peptides. Using the optimal construct design, a large and diverse range of animal venom peptides were produced in the µM scale. These results open up new possibilities for the high-throughput production of recombinant disulphide-rich peptides in E. coli.

  13. Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene: an oncolytic virus superior to dl1520 (ONYX-015) for human head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysome, James R; Wang, Pengju; Alusi, Ghassan; Briat, Arnaud; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Wang, Jiwei; Bhakta, Vipul; Fodor, Istvan; Lemoine, Nick R; Wang, Yaohe

    2011-09-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy represents a promising strategy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with dl1520 (ONYX-015) the most widely used oncolytic adenovirus in clinical trials. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus as well as a vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene (VVhEA) as a novel therapy for HNSCC and to compare them with dl1520. The potency and replication of the Lister strain and VVhEA and the expression and function of the fusion protein were determined in human HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the efficacy of VVhEA was compared with dl1520 in vivo in a human HNSCC model. The Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was more effective than the adenovirus against all HNSCC cell lines tested in vitro. Although the potency of VVhEA was attenuated in vitro, the expression and function of the endostatin-angiostatin fusion protein was confirmed in HNSCC models both in vitro and in vivo. This novel vaccinia virus (VVhEA) demonstrated superior antitumor potency in vivo compared with both dl1520 and the control vaccinia virus. This study suggests that the Lister strain vaccinia virus armed with an endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene may be a potential therapeutic agent for HNSCC.

  14. Different sets of ER-resident J-proteins regulate distinct polar nuclear-membrane fusion events in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masaya; Endo, Toshiya; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Angiosperm female gametophytes contain a central cell with two polar nuclei. In many species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, the polar nuclei fuse during female gametogenesis. We previously showed that BiP, an Hsp70 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), was essential for membrane fusion during female gametogenesis. Hsp70 function requires partner proteins for full activity. J-domain containing proteins (J-proteins) are the major Hsp70 functional partners. A. thaliana ER contains three soluble J-proteins, AtERdj3A, AtERdj3B, and AtP58(IPK). Here, we analyzed mutants of these proteins and determined that double-mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A or AtERdj3B were defective in polar nuclear fusion. Electron microscopy analysis identified that polar nuclei were in close contact, but no membrane fusion occurred in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3A. The polar nuclear outer membrane appeared to be connected via the ER remaining at the inner unfused membrane in mutant ovules lacking AtP58(IPK) and AtERdj3B. These results indicate that ER-resident J-proteins, AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3A and AtP58(IPK)/AtERdj3B, function at distinct steps of polar nuclear-membrane fusion. Similar to the bip1 bip2 double mutant female gametophytes, the aterdj3a atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the outer polar nuclear membrane displayed aberrant endosperm proliferation after fertilization with wild-type pollen. However, endosperm proliferated normally after fertilization of the aterdj3b atp58(ipk) double mutant female gametophytes defective in fusion of the inner membrane. Our results indicate that the polar nuclear fusion defect itself does not cause an endosperm proliferation defect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Protein targeting in the analysis of learning and memory: a potential alternative to gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, R; Williams, S P; Cairns, B; Van Bruggen, N; Moran, P; Shih, A; Caras, I; Sauer, H; Phillips, H S; Winslow, J W

    1998-11-01

    Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells offers unprecedented precision with which one may manipulate single genes and investigate the in vivo effects of defined mutations in the mouse. Geneticists argue that this technique abrogates the lack of highly specific pharmacological tools in the study of brain function and behavior. However, by now it has become clear that gene targeting has some limitations too. One problem is spatial and temporal specificity of the generated mutation, which may appear in multiple b