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Sample records for protein diet restriction

  1. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the liver response in young pigs to a high-fat diet (containing 25% animal fat) and diet restriction (equivalent to 60% of maintenance) using differential proteome analysis. The objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents...... to a high-fat diet and diet restriction-induced BW loss. The high-fat diet increased (P high-fat diet had normal glucose tolerance and liver lipid content despite a general increase (P ...-density lipoprotein decreased (P high-fat diet in young pigs is similar to that of humans in terms of increased fatty acid oxidation whereas the liver response to diet restriction is similar to humans...

  2. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  3. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein restriction in chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECHTEN, JEKT; NAUTA, J; HOP, WCJ; de Jong, MCJ; REITSMABIERENS, WCC; VANAMSTEL, SLBP; VANACKER, KJ; NOORDZIJ, CM; WOLFF, ED

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a protein restricted diet on renal function and growth of children with chronic renal failure. In a multicentre prospective study 56 children (aged 2-18 years) with chronic renal failure were randomly assigned to the protein restricted (0.8-1.1

  5. Diet as a system: an observational study investigating a multi-choice system of moderately restricted low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Nazha, Marta; Capizzi, Irene; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Consiglio, Valentina; Mongilardi, Elena; Bilocati, Marilisa; Avagnina, Paolo; Versino, Elisabetta

    2016-12-07

    There is no single, gold-standard, low-protein diet (LPD) for CKD patients; the best compliance is probably obtained by personalization. This study tests the hypothesis that a multiple choice diet network allows patients to attain a good compliance level, and that, in an open-choice system, overall results are not dependent upon the specific diet, but upon the clinical characteristics of the patients. Observational study: Three LPD options were offered to all patients with severe or rapidly progressive CKD: vegan diets supplemented with alpha-ketoacids and essential aminoacids; protein-free food in substitution of normal bread and pasta; other (traditional, vegan non supplemented and tailored). Dialysis-free follow-up and survival were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves according to diet, comorbidity and age. Compliance and metabolic control were estimated in 147 subjects on diet at March 2015, with recent complete data, prescribed protein intake 0.6 g/Kg/day. Protein intake was assessed by Maroni Mitch formula. Four hundreds and forty nine patients followed a LPD in December, 2007- March, 2015 (90% moderately restricted LPDs, 0.6 g/Kg/day of protein, 10% at lower targets); age (median 70 (19-97)) and comorbidity (Charlson index: 7) characterized our population as being in line with the usual CKD European population. Median e-GFR at start of the diet was 20 mL/min, 33.2% of the patients were diabetics. Baseline data differ significantly across diets: protein-free schemas are preferred by older, high-comorbidity patients (median age 76 years, Charlson index 8, GFR 20.5 mL/min, Proteinuria: 0.3 g/day), supplemented vegan diets by younger patients with lower GFR and higher proteinuria (median age 65 years, Charlson index 6, GFR 18.9 mL/min; Proteinuria: 1.2 g/day); other diets are chosen by an intermediate population (median age 71 years, Charlson index 6; GFR 22.5 mL/min; Proteinuria: 0.9 g/day); (p <0.001 for age, Charlson index, proteinuria, GFR

  6. Mammary sensitivity to protein restriction and re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, M G; Jessop, N S; Oldham, J D

    1996-09-01

    The present study tested the influence of protein undernutrition and re-alimentation on mammary gland size and secretory cell activity in lactating rats. During gestation, female Sprague-Dawley rats were offered a high-protein diet (215 g crude protein (N x 6.25; CP)/kg DM; H); litters were standardized to twelve pups at parturition. During lactation, two diets were offered ad libitum, diet H and a low-protein diet (90 g CP/kg DM; L). Lactational dietary treatments were the supply ad libitum of either diet H (HHH) or diet L (LLL) for the first 12 d of lactation, or diet L transferring to diet H on either day 6 (LHH) or 9 (LLH) of lactation. On days 1, 6, 9 and 12 of lactation, rats from each group (n > or = 6) were used to estimate mammary dry mass, fat, protein, DNA and RNA; the activities of lactose synthetase (EC 2.4.1.22) enzyme and Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) were also measured. Rats offered a diet considered protein sufficient (H) from day 1 of lactation showed a decrease in mammary dry mass and fat but an increase in DNA, RNA and protein on day 6, after which there was no further change, except for mammary protein which continued to increase. However, rats offered diet L showed a steady loss in mammary mass and fat throughout the 12 d lactation period and no change in mammary DNA, RNA or protein. Rats previously protein restricted for either the first 6 or 9 d of lactation had their mammary dry mass and mammary fat loss halted and showed a rapid increase in mammary DNA, RNA and protein on re-alimentation. Lactose production in group HHH, as measured by lactose synthetase activity, was similar on days 1 and 6 of lactation, after which a significant increase was seen. Protein-restricted rats showed no change in lactose synthetase activity during the 12 d experimental period. Changing from diet L to diet H led to a significant increase in lactose synthetase activity to levels comparable with those offered diet H from day 1. These results show that rats

  7. Effect of restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lichuan; Li, Zi; Qin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the restricted protein diet (low or very low protein diet) supplemented with keto analogues in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CBM and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to April 2015. Clinical trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven random control trials, one cross-over trial and one non-randomized concurrent control trial were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The changes of eGFR, BUN, Scr, albumin, PTH, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus and nutrition indexes (BMI, lean body mass and mid-arm muscular circumference) before and after treatment were analyzed. The meta-analysis results indicated that, comparing with normal protein diet, low protein diet (LPD) or very low protein diet (vLPD) supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could significantly prevent the deterioration of eGFR (P diet supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could delay the progression of CKD effectively without causing malnutrition.

  8. Unlimited energy, restricted carbohydrate diet improves lipid parameters in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Brian S; Bailes, James R

    2008-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a leading health concern. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited energy diet for weight reduction in elementary school-aged children. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have looked at the effect of this diet on lipid profiles in elementary school-aged children. Therefore, the objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, unlimited energy diet on lipid profiles in obese children 6 to 12 years of age. Overweight children (body mass index >97%) referred to our obesity clinic were treated with a restricted-carbohydrate (unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. Weight, height, body mass index, and fasting lipid profiles were obtained at baseline and at 10 weeks on each patient. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in our study, with a total of 18 patients returning for our 10 week follow-up (67%). The study group included 10 males and 8 females, with an age range of 6 to 12 years. Both total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed a significant reduction; 24.2 (P = 0.018) and 56.9 (P = 0.015) mg/dL, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides in elementary school-aged children after 10 weeks of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. We suggest that this diet may decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. Long-term studies will be needed to substantiate these data.

  9. The effect of protein restriction on the progression of renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, B.U.; Becker, G.J.; Whitworth, J.A.; Charlwood, R.A.; Kincaid-Smith, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary protein intake may be an important determinant of the rate of decline in renal function in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. We conducted a prospective, randomized study of the efficacy of protein restriction in slowing the rate of progression of renal impairment. The study lasted 18 months and included 64 patients with serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 350 to 1000 micromol per liter. The patients were randomly assigned to follow either a regular diet or an isocaloric protein-restricted diet (0.4 g of protein per kilogram of the body weight per day). Blood-pressure levels and the balance between calcium and phosphate were similar in the two groups. End-stage renal failure developed in 9 of the 33 patients (27 percent) who followed the regular diet during the study, as compared with 2 of the 31 patients (6 percent) who followed the protein-restricted diet (P less than 0.05). The mean (+/- SE) glomerular filtration rate, as measured by the clearance of 51Cr bound to EDTA, fell from 0.25 +/- 0.03 to 0.10 +/- 0.05 ml per second (P less than 0.01) in the group on the regular diet, whereas it fell from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.20 +/- 0.05 ml per second (P not significant) in the group on the protein-restricted diet. We conclude that dietary protein restriction is effective in slowing the rate of progression of chronic renal failure

  10. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  11. A low-protein diet restricts albumin synthesis in nephrotic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, G A; Jones, H; Martin, V; Hutchison, F N

    1989-01-01

    High-protein diets increase albumin synthesis in rats with Heymann nephritis but albuminuria increases also, causing serum albumin concentration to be suppressed further than in nephrotic animals eating a low-protein diet. Experiments were designed to determine whether dietary protein augmentation directly stimulates albumin synthesis, or whether instead increased albumin synthesis is triggered by the decrease in serum albumin concentration. Evidence is presented that dietary protein augmenta...

  12. A randomized trial of energy-restricted high-protein versus high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Gavasso, Ilaria; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-09-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to weight loss produced by diets with different carbohydrate/protein ratio. The aim was to compare the long-term effects of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diet (HPD, HCD), combined with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In a randomized trial, 88 obese participants (mean age, 46.7; mean BMI, 45.6 kg m(-2) ) were enrolled in a 3-week inpatient and 48-week outpatient treatment, with continuous CBT during the study period. All subjects consumed a restricted diet (1,200 kcal day(-1) for women, 1,500 for men; 20% energy from fat, fat). HPD derived 34% energy from proteins, 46% from carbohydrates; HCD 17% from proteins, 64% from carbohydrates. The primary outcome was 1-year percent weight loss. Secondary outcomes were attrition rates and changes in cardiovascular risk factors and psychological profile. Attrition rates were similar between groups (25.6%). In the intention-to-treat analysis, weight loss averaged 15.0% in HPD and 13.3% in HCD at 1 year, without any difference throughout the study period. Both diets produced a similar improvement in secondary outcomes. The relative carbohydrate and protein content of the diet, when combined with intensive CBT, does not significantly affect attrition rate, weight loss and psychosocial outcome in patients with severe obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON, a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG (p0.05. The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (p<0.05 plasma concentration of methionine and threonine than the CON treatment. The level of some essential and functional amino acids (such as arginine, phenylalanine, histidine, glutamine etc. in plasma of the PR group was lower (p<0.05 than that of the CON group. Compared with CON group, BCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (p<0.01 and decreased urea concentration (p<0.01 in pig plasma indicating that the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization was increased. Compared with CON group, the small intestine of piglets fed PR diet showed villous atrophy, increasing of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs number (p<0.05 and declining of the immunoglobulin concentration, including jejunal immunoglobulin A (IgA (p = 0.04, secreted IgA (sIgA (p = 0.03 and immunoglobulin M (p = 0.08, and ileal IgA (p = 0.01 and immunoglobulin G (p = 0.08. The BCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (p<0.01, reversed the trend of an increasing IELs number. Notably, BCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal

  14. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  15. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD 100 dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-α and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 ±14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 ± 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMPα2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 ± 2.1 μmol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 ± 1.9 μmol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway

  16. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

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    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  17. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qiu

    Full Text Available Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24, nitrogen balance (n = 6, and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6 were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1 was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  18. [Suplemented restricted diet in old patients with chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplan, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    In last decades was confirmed remarkable increase in number of old patients with chronic kidney disease. Despide of developments in dialysis technology and kidney transplantation there is a growing number of old patients who are not suitable for these methods. Recently were published data showing long-term effect of protein restricted diet supplemented with keto amino acids in elderly. Based on our results obtained in re-analysis of 3 000 patients we can confirm also good compliance and low risk of malnutrition.Key words: chronic kidney disease - keto amino acids - old age - restricted diet.

  19. Effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat feeding on diet-induced thermogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellayah, Dyan; Dib, Lea; Anthony, Frederick W; Watkins, Adam J; Fleming, Tom P; Hanson, Mark A; Cagampang, Felino R

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal undernutrition followed by postweaning feeding of a high-fat diet results in obesity in the adult offspring. In this study, we investigated whether diet-induced thermogenesis is altered as a result of such nutritional mismatch. Female MF-1 mice were fed a normal protein (NP, 18% casein) or a protein-restricted (PR, 9% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both groups were fed either a high-fat diet (HF; 45% kcal fat) or standard chow (C, 7% kcal fat) to generate the NP/C, NP/HF, PR/C and PR/HF adult offspring groups (n = 7-11 per group). PR/C and NP/C offspring have similar body weights at 30 weeks of age. Postweaning HF feeding resulted in significantly heavier NP/HF offspring (P protein-1 and β-3 adrenergic receptor in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) compared with the NP/C mice (both at P diet during pregnancy and lactation, and the postweaning diet of the offspring, can attenuate diet-induced thermogenesis in the iBAT, resulting in the development of obesity in adulthood.

  20. Effect of restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Tang, Yi; Yang, Lichuan; Mi, Xuhua; Qin, Wei

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues when applied in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CBM and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to January 2017. Clinical trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Five randomized controlled trials were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Changes in serum albumin, PTH, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, hemoglobin, Kt/v and CRP before and after treatment were analyzed. Meta-analysis results indicated that, compared with normal protein diet, low-protein diet (LPD) supplemented with keto analogues (sLPD) could improve serum albumin (P diet supplemented with keto analogues (sLPD) may improve nutritional status and prevent hyperparathyroidism in ESRD patients. The current data were mainly obtained from short-term, single-center trails with small sample sizes and limited nutritional status indexes, indicating a need for further study.

  1. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  2. Increased Protein Consumption during the Day from an Energy-Restricted Diet Augments Satiety but Does Not Reduce Daily Fat or Carbohydrate Intake on a Free-Living Test Day in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Jess A; Maki, Kevin C; Leidy, Heather J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety. Methods: Seventeen overweight women [mean ± SEM age: 36 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 28.4 ± 0.1] completed a randomized, controlled-feeding crossover study. Participants were provided with the following ∼1250-kcal/d energy-restricted (-750-kcal/d deficit) diets, each for 6 d: HP [124 g protein/d; 60% from beef and 40% from plant sources (HP-BEEF)] or NP (48 g protein/d) that was protein-type matched (NP-BEEF) or unmatched [100% from plant-based sources (NP-PLANT)]. On day 6 of each diet period, participants completed a 12-h testing day containing repetitive appetite, satiety, and food-craving questionnaires. On day 7, the participants were asked to consume their protein requirement within each respective diet but were provided with a surplus of carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods to consume, ad libitum, at each eating occasion across the day. All outcomes reported were primary study outcomes. Results: The HP-BEEF diet reduced daily hunger by 16%, desire to eat by 15%, prospective food consumption by 14%, and fast-food cravings by 15% but increased daily fullness by 25% compared with the NP-BEEF and NP-PLANT diets (all P protein throughout the day did not reduce the energy consumed ad libitum from the fat- and carbohydrate-rich foods (HP-BEEF: 2000 ± 180 kcal/d; NP-BEEF: 2120 ± 190 kcal/d; NP-PLANT: 2070 ± 180 kcal/d). None of the outcomes differed

  3. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Keogh, Jennifer B; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter M

    2005-04-01

    When substituted for carbohydrate in an energy-reduced diet, dietary protein enhances fat loss in women. It is unknown whether the effect is due to increased protein or reduced carbohydrate. We compared the effects of 2 isocaloric diets that differed in protein and fat content on weight loss, lipids, appetite regulation, and energy expenditure after test meals. This was a parallel, randomized study in which subjects received either a low-fat, high-protein (LF-HP) diet (29 +/- 1% fat, 34 +/- 0.8% protein) or a high-fat, standard-protein (HF-SP) diet (45 +/- 0.6% fat, 18 +/- 0.3% protein) during 12 wk of energy restriction (6 +/- 0.1 MJ/d) and 4 wk of energy balance (7.4 +/- 0.3 MJ/d). Fifty-seven overweight and obese [mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 33.8 +/- 0.9] volunteers with insulin concentrations >12 mU/L completed the study. Weight loss (LF-HP group, 9.7 +/- 1.1 kg; HF-SP group, 10.2 +/- 1.4 kg; P = 0.78) and fat loss were not significantly different between diet groups even though the subjects desired less to eat after the LF-HP meal (P = 0.02). The decrease in resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between diet groups (LF-HP, -342 +/- 185 kJ/d; HF-SP, -349 +/- 220 kJ/d). The decrease in the thermic effect of feeding with weight loss was smaller in the LF-HP group than in the HF-SP group (-0.3 +/- 1.0% compared with -3.6 +/- 0.7%; P = 0.014). Glucose and insulin responses to test meals improved after weight loss (P loss and the improvements in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 diets, and neither diet had any detrimental effects on bone turnover or renal function.

  4. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  5. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

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    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  6. Can early protein restriction induce the development of binge eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechine, Madge Farias; Borba, Tássia Karin; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Lopes-de-Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that perinatal undernourishment is a factor for binge eating. At 52 days rats born from dams fed on 17% protein (Control) or 8% protein (Undernourished) were distributed into four groups, two of which continued to be fed ad libitum chow and two were submitted to three consecutive Restricted/Refeeding (R/R) cycles. According to the following schedule: Control Naïve (from mothers fed 17% protein/no restriction phase); Control Restricted (from mothers fed 17% protein/restriction phase); Undernourished Naïve (from mothers fed 8% protein/no restriction phase); and Undernourished Restricted (from mothers fed 8% protein/restriction phase). Each cycle consisted of a restriction phase (in the first four days 40% of the mean daily individual chow intake was offered for consumption), followed by a refeeding phase (4 days of chow ad libitum). After the three cycles, all animals were subjected to a feeding test (chow diet and palatable food ad libitum for 24h). During the feeding test, the Undernourished Restricted demonstrated rebound hyperphagia during 2, 4 and 6h. These results suggest the perinatal undernourishment cannot contribute to a binge eating phenotype. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

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    Franny Jongbloed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER; and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71% complied with the restricted and 13 (65% with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002, but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg. The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB and retinol binding protein (RBP. Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting.

  8. Use of Novel High-Protein Functional Food Products as Part of a Calorie-Restricted Diet to Reduce Insulin Resistance and Increase Lean Body Mass in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Carol S. Johnston

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day with a similar level of calorie restriction. Healthy adults (age 20–75 years; body mass index, 20–42 kg/m2 with raised triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratios were randomly assigned to the control group (CON: test foods prepared using gluten-free commercial pasta and cereal or to the high-protein group (HPR: test foods prepared using novel high-protein pasta and cereal both rich in wheat gluten. Mean weight loss did not differ between groups (−2.7 ± 2.6 and −3.2 ± 3.0 kg for CON (n = 11 and HPR (n = 10 respectively, p = 0.801; however, the 6-week change in fat-free mass (FFM differed significantly between groups (−0.5 ± 1.5 and +1.5 ± 3.8 kg for CON and HPR respectively, p = 0.008. IR improved in HPR vs. CON participants (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance [HOMAIR] change: −1.7 ± 1.4 and −0.7 ± 0.7 respectively; p = 0.020. The change in HOMA-IR was related to the change in FFM among participants (r = −0.511, p = 0.021. Thus, a high-protein diet using novel functional foods combined with modest calorie restriction was 140% more effective for reducing HOMA-IR in healthy adults compared to a lower protein, standard diet with an equal level of calorie restriction.

  9. Combination of recreational soccer and caloric restricted diet reduces markers of protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, M Vieira; Fukui, R; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2......D) patients. Objective: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Design, setting and subjects: Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated...... to the soccer+diet-group (SDG) or to the dietgroup (DG). The 40-min soccer sessions were held 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Results: Nineteen participants attended 100% of scheduled soccer sessions, and none suffered any injuries. The SDG group showed higher levels of growth hormone (GH), free fatty acids...

  10. Leucine Supplementation in a Chronically Protein-Restricted Diet Enhances Muscle Weight and Postprandial Protein Synthesis of Skeletal Muscle by Promoting the mTOR Pathway in Adult Rats

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    Bo Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Low protein intake causes a decrease in protein deposition in most animal tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether leucine supplementation would increase the synthesis rate of protein and muscle weight in adult rats, which chronically consume only 58.8% of their protein requirements. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three dietary treatments including a 20% casein diet (CON, a 10% casein + 0.44% alanine diet (R, and a 10% casein + 0.87% leucine diet (RL. After a 10 d dietary treatment, plasma amino acid levels were measured after feeding, the gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles were harvested and weighed, and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling proteins in skeletal muscle were measured. Regarding the plasma amino acid level, the RL group had the highest concentration of leucine (P < 0.05 and the lowest concentration of isoleucine (P < 0.05 among the three groups, and the CON group had a lower concentration of valine (P < 0.05 than the R and RL groups. Compared with the R and RL groups, the CON group diet significantly increased (P < 0.05 feed intake, protein synthesis rate, and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and decreased the weight of abdominal adipose. Compared with the R group, the RL group significantly increased in gastrocnemius muscle weight, protein synthesis rate, and phosphorylation of both ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E-BP1. In conclusion, when protein is chronically restricted in adult rat diets, leucine supplementation moderately improves body weight gain and increases muscle protein synthesis through mTOR activation.

  11. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  12. Food restriction followed by refeeding with a casein- or whey-based diet differentially affects the gut microbiota of pre-pubertal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Solnik, Hadas Isaac; Phillip, Moshe; Yaron, Sima; Shamir, Raanan; Pasmanic-Chor, Metsada; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days. Three different diets were used for refeeding: regular vegetarian protein chow or chow in which the sole source of protein was casein or whey. In the control group, the composition of the microbiota remained stable. Food restriction for 60 days led to a significant change in the gut microbiota at the phylum level, with a reduction in the abundance of Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Rats refed with the vegetarian protein diet had a different microbiota composition than rats refed the casein- or whey-based diet. Similarities in the bacterial population were found between rats refed vegetarian protein or a whey-based diet and control rats, and between rats refed a casein-based diet and rats on continued restriction. There was a significant strong correlation between the gut microbiota and growth parameters: humerus length, epiphyseal growth plate height, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin. In conclusion, the type of protein in the diet significantly affects the gut microbiota and, thereby, may affect animal's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Diet Restriction and Diet Complexity on Life History Strategies in Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Heather M; Durso, Andrew M; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Durham, Susan L; Mueller, Sarah D; French, Susannah S

    2016-11-01

    Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2). We evaluated (1) how diet restriction affected life history strategies and (2) how diet complexity affected recovery from diet restriction as measured at the end of phase 2 by body mass, snout-vent length, calculated body condition score, wound healing, tail regrowth, bacterial killing ability, oxidative stress, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Lizards without diet restriction allocated more energy to self-maintenance (i.e., maintaining higher body condition scores, healing wounds more quickly) than lizards with diet restriction. Lizards with diet restriction had higher plasma testosterone concentrations and larger increases in snout-vent lengths than those fed ad libitum, which may reflect allocations toward reproduction and somatic growth. A complex diet resulted in better body condition and faster tail regrowth than a simple diet, suggesting that a complex diet enhanced recovery from diet restriction, although long-term life history choices remained unaltered. Finally, lizards on a complex diet consumed substantially less food while maintaining higher body condition, suggesting that key nutrients may be lacking from a simple diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Protein restriction does not affect body temperature pattern in female mice.

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    Kato, Goro A; Shichijo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-10-30

    Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet. We assigned six non-pregnant female ICR mice to each group and recorded their body weights and core body temperatures for 4 weeks. Body weights in the C group increased, but those in the PR group remained steady or decreased. Mice in both groups did not show daily torpor, but most mice in a food-restricted group (n=6) supplied with 80% of the calories given to the C group exhibited decreased body weights and frequently displayed daily torpor. This suggests that protein restriction is not a trigger of daily torpor; torpid animals can conserve their internal energy, but torpor may not play a significant role in conserving internal protein. Thus, opportunistic daily torpor in mice may function in energy conservation rather than protein saving.

  15. Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2013-02-01

    To compare the effects of two low-fat, hypoenergetic diets differing in carbohydrate-to-protein ratio, on strength and aerobic capacity measures in overweight and obese men. In a parallel design, 56 men (age, 45.5 ± 8.7 years; BMI, 33.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a low-fat, energy-restricted diet (7,000 kJ/day) with either high protein (HP: protein/carbohydrate/fat % energy, 35:40:25) or standard protein (SP, 17:58:25). Body weight, body composition, muscle strength and aerobic capacity were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Forty-two participants completed the study (HP, n = 21; SP, n = 21). Both groups experienced similar reductions in body weight (HP, -10.7 ± 5.3 kg [-9.8%]; SP, -8.7 ± 3.5 kg [-8.4%]) and fat-free mass (HP, -2.8 ± 3.6 kg; SP, -3.2 ± 2.7 kg; P 0.14 time × group interaction). There was a trend for a greater reduction in fat mass in the HP diet group, (-7.7 ± 4.3 kg [-21.2%] vs. -5.4 ± 3.3 kg [-15.1%]; P diet effect (P ≤ 0.23 time × group interaction). In overweight and obese men, both a HP and SP diet reduced body weight and improved body composition with similar effects on strength and aerobic capacity.

  16. Low-protein diets in CKD: how can we achieve them? A narrative, pragmatic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Leone, Filomena; Capizzi, Irene; Daidola, Germana; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Avagnina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Low-protein diets (LPDs) have encountered various fortunes, and several questions remain open. No single study, including the famous Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, was conclusive and even if systematic reviews are in favour of protein restriction, at least in non-diabetic adults, implementation is lagging. LPDs are considered difficult, malnutrition is a threat and compliance is poor. LPDs have been reappraised in this era of reconsideration of dialysis indications and timing. The definition of a normal-adequate protein diet has shifted in the overall population from 1 to 1.2 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Vegan–vegetarian diets are increasingly widespread, thus setting the groundwork for easier integration of moderate protein restriction in Chronic Kidney Disease. There are four main moderately restricted LPDs (0.6 g/kg/day). Two of them require careful planning of quantity and quality of food: a ‘traditional’ one, with mixed proteins that works on the quantity and quality of food and a vegan one, which integrates grains and legumes. Two further options may be seen as a way to simplify LPDs while being on the safe side for malnutrition: adding supplements of essential amino and keto acids (various doses) allows an easier shift from omnivorous to vegan diets, while protein-free food intake allows for an increase in calories. Very-low-protein diets (vLPDs: 0.3 g/kg/day) combine both approaches and usually require higher doses of supplements. Moderately restricted LPDs may be adapted to virtually any cuisine and should be tailored to the patients' preferences, while vLPDs usually require trained, compliant patients; a broader offer of diet options may lead to more widespread use of LPDs, without competition among the various schemas. PMID:25713712

  17. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids in protein-restricted diets modulates the expression levels of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism associated regulators in the adipose tissue of growing pigs

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    Yinghui Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplemented in protein-restricted diets on the growth performance and the expression profile of amino acid transporters and energy metabolism related regulators in the white adipose tissue (WAT of different regional depots including dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA and abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA. A total of 24 crossbred barrows (7.40 ± 0.70 kg were randomly divided into 4 groups and were fed the following isocaloric diets for 33 days: 1 a recommended adequate protein diet (AP, 20% CP, as a positive control; 2 a low protein diet (LP, 17% CP; 3 the LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B, 17% CP to reach the same level of the AP diet group; 4 the LP diet supplemented with 2 times the amount of BCAA (LP + 2B, 17% CP. The daily gain and daily feed intake of the LP diet group were the lowest among all the treatments (P  0.05. Moreover, BCAA supplementation down-regulated the expression levels of amino acid transporters including L-type amino acid transporter 1 and sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 in DSA, but up-regulated the expression level of L-type amino acid transporter 4 in ASA (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase α was activated in the DSA of pigs fed LP diet and in the ASA of the pigs fed AP or LP + 2B diets (P < 0.05. The mRNA expression profile of the selected mitochondrial component and mitochondrial biogenesis associated regulators in DSA and ASA also responded differently to dietary BCAA supplementation. These results suggested that the growth performance of growing pigs fed protein restricted diets supplemented with BCAA could catch up to that of the pigs fed AP diets. The results also partly demonstrated that the regulation mechanisms of BCAA are different in the adipose tissues of different depots.

  18. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  19. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

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    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  1. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIver Cassandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1.

  2. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

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    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  3. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

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    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  5. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  6. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

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    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  7. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

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    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; pcyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic management of glioblastoma multiforme using standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet: Case Report

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    Servadei Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM has been difficult using standard therapy (radiation with temozolomide chemotherapy. The ketogenic diet is used commonly to treat refractory epilepsy in children and, when administered in restricted amounts, can also target energy metabolism in brain tumors. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with progressive memory loss, chronic headaches, nausea, and a right hemisphere multi-centric tumor seen with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Following incomplete surgical resection, the patient was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme expressing hypermethylation of the MGMT gene promoter. Methods Prior to initiation of the standard therapy, the patient conducted water-only therapeutic fasting and a restricted 4:1 (fat: carbohydrate + protein ketogenic diet that delivered about 600 kcal/day. The patient also received the restricted ketogenic diet concomitantly during the standard treatment period. The diet was supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Steroid medication (dexamethasone was removed during the course of the treatment. The patient was followed using MRI and positron emission tomography with fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG-PET. Results After two months treatment, the patient's body weight was reduced by about 20% and no discernable brain tumor tissue was detected using either FDG-PET or MRI imaging. Biomarker changes showed reduced levels of blood glucose and elevated levels of urinary ketones. MRI evidence of tumor recurrence was found 10 weeks after suspension of strict diet therapy. Conclusion This is the first report of confirmed GBM treated with standard therapy together with a restricted ketogenic diet. As rapid regression of GBM is rare in older patients following incomplete surgical resection and standard therapy alone, the response observed in this case could result in part from the action of the calorie restricted ketogenic diet. Further studies are needed

  9. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

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    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  10. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  11. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in insulin signaling and ATP sensitive potassium channel protein in hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetal rats.

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    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Gao, Hong; Jiao, Yisheng; Gu, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this "metabolic imprinting" phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and K(ATP) protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase p85α in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders.

  12. Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women.

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    Keogh, Jennifer B; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Clifton, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine after 52 weeks whether advice to follow a lower carbohydrate diet, either high in monounsaturated fat or low fat, high in protein had differential effects in a free-living community setting. Following weight loss on either a high monounsaturated fat, standard protein (HMF; 50 % fat, 20 % protein (67 g/d), 30 % carbohydrate) or a high protein, moderate fat (HP) (40 % protein (136 g/d), 30 % fat, 30 % carbohydrate) energy-restricted diet (6000 kJ/d) subjects were asked to maintain the same dietary pattern without intensive dietary counselling for the following 36 weeks. Overall weight loss was 6.2 (SD 7.3) kg (P loss at the end of the study were sex, age and reported percentage energy from protein (R2 0.22, P loss and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors with no adverse effects of a high monounsaturated fat diet.

  13. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  14. Low protein diet and chronic renal failure in Buddhist monks.

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    Sitprija, V; Suvanpha, R

    1983-08-13

    Clinical observations were made in five Buddhist monks with chronic renal failure on a low protein diet. These monks consumed only one meal and meditated three to four times a day. The estimated protein intake was from 15 to 19 g a day. Renal function remained stable over three years of observation. The general condition was satisfactory without any evidence of protein energy malnutrition. The data were compared with those of another group of patients who had a comparable degree of impairment of renal function but who consumed three meals a day of low protein diet. Protein intake was estimated to be from 25 to 30 g a day. These patients developed uraemia with severe renal failure and protein deficiency within three years. The findings support the role of protein restriction in maintenance of renal function in chronic renal failure and perhaps suggest a beneficial role for meditation.

  15. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

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    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  16. Iron-Restricted Diet Affects Brain Ferritin Levels, Dopamine Metabolism and Cellular Prion Protein in a Region-Specific Manner

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    Jessica M. V. Pino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary iron restriction on brain ferritin levels, dopamine metabolism, and the expression levels of PrPC and α-synuclein. To achieve this goal, C57BL/6 mice were fed with iron restricted diet (IR or with normal diet (CTL for 1 month. IR reduced iron and ferritin levels in liver. Ferritin reduction was also observed in the hippocampus. However, in the striatum of IR group, ferritin level was increased, suggesting that under iron-deficient condition, each brain area might acquire distinct capacity to store iron. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed only in hippocampus of IR group, where ferritin level was reduced. IR also generated discrete results regarding dopamine metabolism of distinct brain regions: in striatum, the level of dopamine metabolites (DOPAC and HVA was reduced; in prefrontal cortex, only HVA was increased along with the enhanced MAO-A activity; in hippocampus, no alterations were observed. PrPC levels were increased only in the striatum of IR group, where ferritin level was also increased. PrPC is known to play roles in iron uptake. Thus, the increase of PrPC in striatum of IR group might be related to the increased ferritin level. α-synuclein was not altered in any regions. Abnormal accumulation of ferritin, increased MAO-A activity or lipid peroxidation are molecular features observed in several neurological

  17. The protein type within a hypocaloric diet affects obesity-related inflammation: the RESMENA project.

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    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two energy-restricted, differing with regard to protein content, on the inflammation state of obese individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Ninety-six participants completed an 8-wk randomized intervention trial that compared the RESMENA diet (-30% energy, with 30% energy from protein) with a control diet (-30% energy, with 15% energy from protein) that was based on American Heart Association criteria. The mean body weight losses were 7.09 ± 0.82 kg and 6.73 ± 0.71 kg, respectively, with no differences seen between the groups. The endpoint inflammation score-which was based on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels-was significantly lower (P = 0.012) in the low-protein group (6.81 ± 2.32 versus 7.94 ± 1.94). The linear regression analyses revealed that total protein intake was positively associated with inflammation (P = 0.007) as well as with animal protein (P = 0.025) and meat protein (P = 0.015), but neither vegetable- nor fish-derived proteins were found to influence inflammatory status. Our results suggest that the type of protein consumed (more than the total protein consumed) within an energy-restricted diet influences the inflammation status associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment Of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With A Supplemented Low Protein Diet And A Supplemented Very Low Protein Diet

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    SV Subhramanyam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease were inconclusive and did confuse a lot of physicians about the dietary approach to CKD management. The study design was flawed and thus compromised the results and conclusions. Re-analysis of the MDRD study however clearly showed the benefits of dietary protein restriction and also more importantly an additional benefit by ketoanalogue supplementation in delaying progression of CKD. Despite the obvious benefits of protein restriction, concern has been raised recently especially patients on very low dietary protein (very-low-protein diets; VLPDs, which could lead to deterioration in the nutritional status of CKD patients. To address this particular issue of whether a sVLPD diet induces malnutrition the present study has been taken up 132 adult patients with Stage 3 to Stage 5 (Predialysis were initiated on a protein restricted ketoanalogue supplemented diet after informed consent and the necessary Institutional Ethics Committee approvals. Based on their affordability, 92 patients randomly were assigned to the sLPD group whereby they received 0.6 G/Kg BW of dietary proteins supplemented by ketoanalogues at a dosage of one tablet per 10 Kg body weight. 40 patients received 0.3 G/Kg BW supplemented by ketoanalogues at a dose of one tablet per 5 Kg body weight. Renolog® tablets manufactured by La Renon Healthcare Ltd, Ahmebabad, India were prescribed as the ketoanalogue supplements. Renal, Metabolic, Nutritional parameters and Anthropometric analysis were done in both groups at the start of the study and at the end of 6 months of follow up. The mean blood urea in the SLPD group showed a decrease from 81.17+_ 00 mg/dl to 74.45+_30.75 mg/dl (p0.05 at the end of six months indicating an improvement in renal function . The serum creatinine also showed a decrease from 3.52+_00 mg/dl to 3.30 +_1.63 mg/dl(p>0.05 in the SLPD group and a decrease from 3.74+_00 mg/dl to 3.55+_1.67

  19. Study of the evolution of the placenta and fetal pancreas in the pathophysiology of growth retardation intrauterine due to restricted maternal diet

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    Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth retard (IUGR continues to be a significant perinatology problem at the end of this century. The nature of the etiologic agent, the time when the attack occurred during pregnancy and its duration affect the type of IUGR. OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of fetal pancreas and placenta between the 18th and 21st day of pregnancy in rats submitted to maternal protein-calorie restriction. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial on laboratory animal. SAMPLE: Forty-one normoglycemic pregnant Wistar rats. INTERVENTION: Rats were divided into six experimental groups according to their access to food and date of cesarean section (18th or 21st day: control with free access to food; diet restricted to 25% introduced on 1st day of pregnancy; and diet restricted to 25% after the 3rd day of pregnancy. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Newborn weight, placenta weight, histopathological study (morphological histochemistry RESULTS: Maternal protein-calorie malnutrition caused intrauterine growth retard (IUGR after the 18th day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction did not interfere with the morphology of the fetal pancreas and the immunohistochemical study of the placenta showed that glycogen stores were decreased between the 18th and 21st day in the control group and in a diet restricted to 25% from the first day of pregnancy. Dietary restriction after the 3rd day of pregnancy led to low placental glycogen concentrations on the 18th day and disappearance on the 21st day. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiology of IUGR due to maternal protein-calorie restriction in rats is related to lower placental weight and low placental glycogen stores.

  20. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

  1. Restriction on an energy-dense diet improves markers of metabolic health and cellular aging in mice through decreasing hepatic mTOR activity.

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    Schloesser, Anke; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Rimbach, Gerald; Huebbe, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) on a normal low-fat diet improves metabolic health and may prolong life span. However, it is still uncertain whether restriction of an energy-dense, high-fat diet would also be beneficial and mitigate age-related processes. In the present study, we determined biomarkers of metabolic health, energy metabolism, and cellular aging in obesity-prone mice subjected to 30% DR on a high-fat diet for 6 months. Dietary-restricted mice had significantly lower body weights, less adipose tissue, lower energy expenditure, and altered substrate oxidation compared to their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Hepatic major urinary proteins (Mup) expression, which is linked to glucose and energy metabolism, and biomarkers of metabolic health, including insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, were likewise reduced in high-fat, dietary-restricted mice. Hallmarks of cellular senescence such as Lamp2a and Hsc70 that mediate chaperone-mediated autophagy were induced and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated upon high-fat DR. In contrast to DR applied in low-fat diets, anti-oxidant gene expression, proteasome activity, as well as 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation were not changed, suggesting that high-fat DR may attenuate some processes associated with cellular aging without the induction of cellular stress response or energy deprivation.

  2. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  3. Calorie restricted high protein diets downregulate lipogenesis and lower intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-...

  4. Low-protein diet for conservative management of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-04-01

    Recent data pose the question whether conservative management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by means of a low-protein diet can be a safe and effective means to avoid or defer transition to dialysis therapy without causing protein-energy wasting or cachexia. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the controlled clinical trials with adequate participants in each trial, providing rigorous contemporary evidence of the impact of a low-protein diet in the management of uraemia and its complications in patients with CKD. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and other sources for controlled trials on CKD to compare clinical management of CKD patients under various levels of dietary protein intake or to compare restricted protein intake with other interventions. Studies with similar patients, interventions, and outcomes were included in the meta-analyses. We identified 16 controlled trials of low-protein diet in CKD that met the stringent qualification criteria including having 30 or more participants. Compared with diets with protein intake of >0.8 g/kg/day, diets with restricted protein intake (disease, and a trend towards lower rates of all-cause death. In addition, very-low-protein diets (protein intake kidney function and reduction in the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Safety and adherence to a low-protein diet was not inferior to a normal protein diet, and there was no difference in the rate of malnutrition or protein-energy wasting. In this pooled analysis of moderate-size controlled trials, a low-protein diet appears to enhance the conservative management of non-dialysis-dependent CKD and may be considered as a potential option for CKD patients who wish to avoid or defer dialysis initiation and to slow down the progression of CKD, while the risk of protein-energy wasting and cachexia remains minimal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia

  5. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  6. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in sucrose-fed obese rats via two pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Fukaya, Makiko; Sato, Kazusa; Takei, Yuichiro; Sato, Tadatoshi; Sawada, Naoki; Amo, Kikuko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Arai, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism by which replacement of some dietary carbohydrates with protein during weight loss favors lipid metabolism remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on lipid metabolism in obese rats. High-sucrose-induced obese rats were assigned randomly to one of two energy-restricted dietary interventions: a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) or a high-protein diet (HPD). Lean rats of the same age were assigned as normal control. There was significantly greater improvement in fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia with the HPD diet relative to the CD diet. Expression of genes regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and involved in liver lipolysis and lipid utilitization, such as lipase and acyl-CoA oxidase, increased in obese rats fed the HPD. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between levels of FGF21 gene expression (regulated by glucagon/insulin balance) and increased triglyceride concentrations in liver from obese rats. Expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), regulated primarily by the dietary carbohydrate, was also markedly reduced in the HPD group (similar to plasma triglyceride levels in fasting animals) relative to the CD group. In conclusion, a hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia effectively relative to a carbohydrate diet. The two cellular pathways at work behind these benefits include stimulation of hepatic lipolysis and lipid utilization mediated by FGF21 and reduction of hepatic VLDL-TG production by SCD1 regulation.

  7. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  8. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  9. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Wener, Mark H; Campbell, Kristin L; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L; Bain, Carolyn E; Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-05-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction. ©2012 AACR

  10. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo; Chung, Woong Youn

    2015-07-01

    The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy.

  11. Chronic maternal low-protein diet in mice affects anxiety, night-time energy expenditure and sleep patterns, but not circadian rhythm in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decre...

  12. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some

  13. [Influence of non-sodium restricted diet with diuretics on plasma rennin, renal blood flow and in patients with cirrhotic ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-fang; Gu, Xi-bing; Zhu, Hong-ying; Yang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Dong; Yu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    To explore influence of sodium restricted diet and non-sodium restricted diet on plasma rennin (PRA), angiotensin II (All), ALD, renal blood flow (RBF) and subside of ascites in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Eighty cases of hepatitis B with cirrhotic ascites were randomly divided into sodium restricted diet group and non-sodium restricted diet group. 39 cases were in non-sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 6500-8000 mg daily; 41 cases were in sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 5000 mg daily. Both groups received diuretics furosemide and spironolactone. Blood sodium, urine sodium, PRA, AII, ALD, RBF ascites subsiding were compared after treatment. In non-sodium restricted diet group, blood sodium and urine sodium increased 10 days after treatment compared with those before treatment, and compared with those of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P Renal damage induced by low blood sodium after treatment was less in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P blood sodium, thus increasing excretion of urine sodium and diuretic effect. It can also decrease levels of PRA, AII and ALD, increase renal blood flow and prevent renal damage induced by low blood sodium and facilitate subsiding of ascites.

  14. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  15. Maternal protein restriction compromises myocardial contractility in the young adult rat by changing proteins involved in calcium handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belchior, Aucelia C S; Freire, David D; da Costa, Carlos P; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S; Dos Santos, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) during pregnancy is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in the offspring in adulthood. In this study we evaluated the cardiac function of young male rats born from mothers subjected to MPR during pregnancy, focusing on the myocardial mechanics and calcium-handling proteins. After weaning, rats received normal diet until 3 mo old, when the following parameters were assessed: arterial and left ventricular hemodynamics and in vitro cardiac contractility in isolated papillary muscles. The body weight was lower and arterial pressure higher in the MPR group compared with young adult offspring of female rats that received standard diet (controls); and left ventricle time derivatives increased in the MPR group. The force developed by the cardiac muscle was similar; but time to peak and relaxation time were longer, and the derivatives of force were depressed in the MPR. In addition, MPR group exhibited decreased post-pause potentiation of force, suggesting reduced reuptake function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Corroborating, the myocardial content of SERCA-2a and phosphorylated PLB-Ser16/total PLB ratio was decreased and sodium-calcium exchanger was increased in the MPR group. The contraction dependent on transsarcolemmal influx of calcium was higher in MPR if compared with the control group. In summary, young rats born from mothers subjected to protein restriction during pregnancy exhibit changes in the myocardial mechanics with altered expression of calcium-handling proteins, reinforcing the hypothesis that maternal malnutrition is related to increased cardiovascular risk in the offspring, not only for hypertension, but also cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Influence of various carbohydrates on the utilization of low protein diet by the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Akmal.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different dietary carbohydrates on food intake, body weight and nitrogen balance of adult rats fed 5 per cent protein diet ad-libitum for 14, 24, and 45 days or restricted to 70 per cent of their normal food intake for 10 and 31 days was studied. No significant difference in food intake and body weight on either of treatments was observed. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that rats fed ad-libitum or restricted diet having starch as a source of dietary carbohydrate utilized nitrogen more efficiently than sucrose fed animals. Possible explanations have been discussed. Regression equations were calculated and it was found from the regression lines that minimum calories and nitrogen intake to maintain nitrogen equilibrium under experimental conditions were 123 kcal and 270 mg N per kg 3/4/day on starch based diet compared with 136 kcal and 295 mg N per kg 3/4/day on sucrose diet respectively

  17. Reversal of clinical symptoms and radiographic abnormalities with protein restriction and ascorbic acid in alkaptonuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Kosztolanyi, G.Y.; Engelke, U.F.H.; Wevers, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    There is no definitive treatment protocol for alkaptonuria. A patient with alkaptonuria was treated with ascorbic acid (0.5 g/day) from the age of 4 years. He developed episodes of severe recurrent joint pain at 9.5 years of age after which a protein-restricted diet (1.3 g/kg/day) was started.

  18. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  19. Protein-restricted diets plus keto/amino acids--a valid therapeutic approach for chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Michel; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Chauveau, Philippe; Cupisti, Adamasco; Ecder, Tevfik; Fouque, Denis; Garneata, Liliana; Lin, Shanyan; Mitch, William E; Teplan, Vladimír; Zakar, Gábor; Yu, Xueqing

    2012-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly common, and there is an increasing awareness that every strategy should be used to avoid complications of CKD. Restriction of dietary protein intake has been a relevant part of the management of CKD for more than 100 years, but even today, the principal goal of protein-restricted regimens is to decrease the accumulation of nitrogen waste products, hydrogen ions, phosphates, and inorganic ions while maintaining an adequate nutritional status to avoid secondary problems such as metabolic acidosis, bone disease, and insulin resistance, as well as proteinuria and deterioration of renal function. This supplement focuses on recent experimental and clinical findings related to an optimized dietary management of predialysis, dialysis, and transplanted patients as an important aspect of patient care. Nutritional treatment strategies are linked toward ameliorating metabolic and endocrine disturbances, improving/maintaining nutritional status, as well as delaying the renal replacement initiation and improving outcomes in CKD patients. A final consensus states that dietary manipulations should be considered as one of the main approaches in the management program of CKD patients and that a reasonable number of patients with moderate or severe CKD benefit from dietary protein/phosphorus restriction. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

    2008-04-15

    Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome.

  1. Dietary carbohydrates impair the protective effect of protein restriction against diabetes in NZO mice used as a model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Thomas; Castaño-Martinez, Teresa; Werno, Martin W; Japtok, Lukasz; Baumeier, Christian; Jonas, Wenke; Kleuser, Burkhard; Schürmann, Annette

    2018-06-01

    Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mice were placed on high-fat diets that provided protein at control (16 kJ%; CON) or low (4 kJ%; low-protein/high-carbohydrate [LP/HC] or low-protein/high-fat [LP/HF]) levels. Protein restriction prevented the onset of hyperglycaemia and beta cell loss despite increased food intake and fat mass. The effect was seen only under conditions of a lower carbohydrate/fat ratio (LP/HF). When the carbohydrate/fat ratio was high (LP/HC), mice developed type 2 diabetes despite the robustly elevated hepatic FGF21 secretion and increased energy expenditure. Prevention of type 2 diabetes through protein restriction, without lowering food intake and body fat mass, is compromised by high dietary carbohydrates. Increased FGF21 levels and elevated energy expenditure do not protect against hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes per se.

  2. Histomorphometric evaluation of the testicular parenchyma of rats submitted to protein restriction during intrauterine and postnatal life

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, JESSICA; SILVA, ALLUANAN; SOUZA, SANDRA; MORAIS, ROSANA; MELO, ELIZABETH NEVES; MAIA, FREDERICO; JUNIOR, VALDEMIRO SILVA

    2017-01-01

    The critical period of development is highly susceptible to disorders. Environmental contaminants, stress, and poor nutrition may permanently affect structurally and functionally an organism during adulthood. Protein restriction in intrauterine and neonatal periods may impair testicular cells and reduce steroidogenic activity. The current study investigated the effect of low protein diet during intrauterine and postnatal life on testicular function in immature and adult rats. Pregnant Wistar ...

  3. Effect of a very low-protein diet on outcomes: long-term follow-up of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vandana; Kopple, Joel D; Wang, Xuelei; Beck, Gerald J; Collins, Allan J; Kusek, John W; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S; Sarnak, Mark J

    2009-02-01

    The long-term effect of a very low-protein diet on the progression of kidney disease is unknown. We examined the effect of a very low-protein diet on the development of kidney failure and death during long-term follow-up of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study. Long-term follow-up of study B of the MDRD Study (1989-1993). The MDRD Study examined the effects of dietary protein restriction and blood pressure control on progression of kidney disease. This analysis includes 255 trial participants with predominantly stage 4 nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. A low-protein diet (0.58 g/kg/d) versus a very low-protein diet (0.28 g/kg/d) supplemented with a mixture of essential keto acids and amino acids (0.28 g/kg/d). Kidney failure (initiation of dialysis therapy or transplantation) and all-cause mortality until December 31, 2000. Kidney failure developed in 227 (89%) participants, 79 (30.9%) died, and 244 (95.7%) reached the composite outcome of either kidney failure or death. Median duration of follow-up until kidney failure, death, or administrative censoring was 3.2 years, and median time to death was 10.6 years. In the low-protein group, 117 (90.7%) participants developed kidney failure, 30 (23.3%) died, and 124 (96.1%) reached the composite outcome. In the very low-protein group, 110 (87.3%) participants developed kidney failure, 49 (38.9%) died, and 120 (95.2%) reached the composite outcome. After adjustment for a priori-specified covariates, hazard ratios were 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 1.12) for kidney failure, 1.92 (95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 3.20) for death, and 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 1.18) for the composite outcome in the very low-protein diet group compared with the low-protein diet group. Lack of dietary protein measurements during follow-up. In long-term follow-up of the MDRD Study, assignment to a very low-protein diet did not delay progression to kidney failure, but appeared to increase the risk of

  4. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly D; Scheffler, Tracy L; Kasten, Steven C; Reinholt, Brad M; van Eyk, Gregory R; Escobar, Jeffery; Scheffler, Jason M; Gerrard, David E

    2013-01-01

    Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood) are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12), containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11) with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (Pblood glucose increased (Pblood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01), even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC) was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001). Chronic HED intake increased (PAUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  5. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  6. Excess of methyl donor in the perinatal period reduces postnatal leptin secretion in rat and interacts with the effect of protein content in diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Giudicelli

    Full Text Available Methionine, folic acid, betaine and choline interact in the one-carbon metabolism which provides methyl groups for methylation reactions. An optimal intake of these nutrients during pregnancy is required for successful completion of fetal development and evidence is growing that they could be involved in metabolic long-term programming. However, the biological pathways involved in the action of these nutrients are still poorly known. This study investigated the interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet during the preconceptual, pregnancy and lactation periods and the consequences on the rat offspring in the short and long term. Methyl donor supplementation reduced leptin secretion in offspring, whereas insulin levels were mostly affected by protein restriction. The joint effect of protein restriction and methyl donor excess strongly impaired postnatal growth in both gender and long term weight gain in male offspring only, without affecting food intake. In addition, rats born from protein restricted and methyl donor supplemented dams gained less weight when fed a hypercaloric diet. Methylation of the leptin gene promoter in adipose tissue was increased in methyl donor supplemented groups but not affected by protein restriction only. These results suggest that maternal methyl donor supplementation may influence energy homeostasis in a gender-dependent manner, without affecting food intake. Moreover, we showed that macronutrients and micronutrients in maternal diet interact to influence the programming of the offspring.

  7. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g -1 ·min -1 ) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring

  8. Maternal protein restriction affects gene expression and enzyme activity of intestinal disaccharidases in adult rat offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, D.F.; Pacheco, P.D.G.; Alvarenga, P.V.; Buratini, J. Jr; Castilho, A.C.S.; Lima, P.F.; Sartori, D.R.S.; Vicentini-Paulino, M.L.M. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-15

    This study investigated the consequences of intrauterine protein restriction on the gastrointestinal tract and particularly on the gene expression and activity of intestinal disaccharidases in the adult offspring. Wistar rat dams were fed isocaloric diets containing 6% protein (restricted, n = 8) or 17% protein (control, n = 8) throughout gestation. Male offspring (n = 5-8 in each group) were evaluated at 3 or 16 weeks of age. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy produced offspring with growth restriction from birth (5.7 ± 0.1 vs 6.3 ± 0.1 g; mean ± SE) to weaning (42.4 ± 1.3 vs 49.1 ± 1.6 g), although at 16 weeks of age their body weight was similar to control (421.7 ± 8.9 and 428.5 ± 8.5 g). Maternal protein restriction also increased lactase activity in the proximal (0.23 ± 0.02 vs 0.15 ± 0.02), medial (0.30 ± 0.06 vs 0.14 ± 0.01) and distal (0.43 ± 0.07 vs 0.07 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) small intestine, and mRNA lactase abundance in the proximal intestine (7.96 ± 1.11 vs 2.38 ± 0.47 relative units) of 3-week-old offspring rats. In addition, maternal protein restriction increased sucrase activity (1.20 ± 0.02 vs 0.91 ± 0.02 U·g{sup -1}·min{sup -1}) and sucrase mRNA abundance (4.48 ± 0.51 vs 1.95 ± 0.17 relative units) in the duodenum of 16-week-old rats. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that intrauterine protein restriction affects gene expression of intestinal enzymes in offspring.

  9. Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among Overweight and Obese Women: A Parallel Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the effects of high protein (HP diets on cardiovascular (CVD risk factors have reported contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effects of an HP diet on CVD risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP among overweight and obese women. In this randomized controlled trial, we recruited 60 overweight and obese women, aged 20–65, into an HP or energy-restricted control diet for three months (protein, carbohydrate, and fat: 25%, 45%, and 30% versus 15%, 55%, and 30%, resp.. Total protein was divided between animal and plant sources in a 1 : 1 ratio, and animal sources were distributed equally between meats and dairy products. Fasting blood samples, hs-CRP, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were assessed using standard guidelines. Percent change was significantly different between the two diet groups for weight (standard protein (SP: −3.90 ± 0.26 versus HP: −6.10 ± 0.34%; , resp. and waist circumference (SP: −3.03 ± 0.21 versus HP: −5.06 ± 0.28%; , resp.. Percent change of fasting blood glucose (FBG substantially decreased in the control group compared to the HP group (−9.13 ± 0.67 versus −4.93 ± 1.4%; P = 0.01, resp.. Total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP decreased both in the HP and in the control diet groups (P = 0.06, P = 0.07, and P = 0.09, resp.; however, the results were marginally significant. Serum levels of hs-CRP were reduced both in the control (−0.08 ± 0.11%, P = 0.06 and in the high protein groups (−0.04 ± 0.09%, P = 0.06. The energy-restricted HP diet resulted in more beneficial effects on weight loss and reduction of waist circumference. CVD risk factors may improve with HP diets among overweight and obese women. When using isoenergetic weight loss diets, total cholesterol, hs-CRP, and SBP were marginally significantly reduced, independent of dietary protein content

  10. Bowel preparation in CT colonography. Is diet restriction necessary? A randomised trial (DIETSAN)

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    Bellini, Davide; De Santis, Domenico; Caruso, Damiano; Rengo, Marco; Biondi, Tommaso; Laghi, Andrea [Rome Univ. ' ' Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology; I.C.O.T. Hospital, Latina (Italy); Ferrari, Riccardo [San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Emergency Radiology

    2018-01-15

    To investigate whether diet restriction affects quality of colon cleansing and patient tolerance during reduced bowel preparation for CT colonography (CTC). Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were enrolled in this pragmatic, single-centre, randomised trial. All patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio, blocks of ten) to receive a reduced bowel preparation and faecal tagging with (Diet-Restriction-Group [DR]) or without (No-Diet-Restriction-Group [NDR]) dietary restriction. Five readers performed a blinded subjective image analysis, by means of 4-point Likert-scales from 0 (highest score) to 3 (worst score). Endpoints were the quality of large bowel cleansing and tolerance to the assigned bowel preparation regimen. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (URomLSDBAL1). Ninety-five patients were randomly allocated to treatments (48 in NDR-group, 47 in DR-group). Both groups resulted in optimal colon cleansing. The mean residual stool (0.22, 95%CI 0.00-0.44) and fluid burden (0.39, 95%CI 0.25-0.53) scores for patients in DR-group were similar to those in patients in NDR-group (0.25, 95%CI 0.03-0.47 [p = 0.82] and 0.49, 95%CI 0.30-0.67 [p = 0.38], respectively). Tolerance was significantly better in NDR-group. A reduced bowel preparation in association with faecal tagging and without any dietary restriction demonstrated optimal colon cleansing effectiveness for CTC, providing better patient compliance compared with dietary restriction. (orig.)

  11. Bowel preparation in CT colonography. Is diet restriction necessary? A randomised trial (DIETSAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Davide; De Santis, Domenico; Caruso, Damiano; Rengo, Marco; Biondi, Tommaso; Laghi, Andrea; Ferrari, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether diet restriction affects quality of colon cleansing and patient tolerance during reduced bowel preparation for CT colonography (CTC). Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were enrolled in this pragmatic, single-centre, randomised trial. All patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio, blocks of ten) to receive a reduced bowel preparation and faecal tagging with (Diet-Restriction-Group [DR]) or without (No-Diet-Restriction-Group [NDR]) dietary restriction. Five readers performed a blinded subjective image analysis, by means of 4-point Likert-scales from 0 (highest score) to 3 (worst score). Endpoints were the quality of large bowel cleansing and tolerance to the assigned bowel preparation regimen. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (URomLSDBAL1). Ninety-five patients were randomly allocated to treatments (48 in NDR-group, 47 in DR-group). Both groups resulted in optimal colon cleansing. The mean residual stool (0.22, 95%CI 0.00-0.44) and fluid burden (0.39, 95%CI 0.25-0.53) scores for patients in DR-group were similar to those in patients in NDR-group (0.25, 95%CI 0.03-0.47 [p = 0.82] and 0.49, 95%CI 0.30-0.67 [p = 0.38], respectively). Tolerance was significantly better in NDR-group. A reduced bowel preparation in association with faecal tagging and without any dietary restriction demonstrated optimal colon cleansing effectiveness for CTC, providing better patient compliance compared with dietary restriction. (orig.)

  12. Small crumbled diet versus powdered diet in restricted feeding management of juvenile Nile tilapia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nacélio Oliveira-Segundo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The pellet size of the diet can affect both fish growth performance and the water quality of the rearing units. The present work assessed the effects of feeding juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. a small crumbled diet (SCD; 0.8 mm on water quality and growth performance. Fish were reared for six weeks in twenty 250-L polyethylene outdoor tanks at a density of 10 juveniles tank-1 (40 fish m-3. There were two feeding rates (standard and restricted and two types of artificial fish diet (powdered and SCD. The standard feeding rates were reduced by 30% for restricted feeding. The concentrations of free CO2, reactive phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite were higher in the full-fed tanks relative to the restricted-fed tanks. In the standard feeding rate groups, those tanks fed SCD had lower TAN and nitrite concentrations than tanks fed a powdered diet. The final body weight and specific growth rate of fish fed a restricted SCD were higher than the full-fed tanks. The higher levels of food waste in the powdered-diet tanks lead to impairment of fish growth performance.  

  13. Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attini, Rossella; Leone, Filomena; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Loi, Valentina; Colla, Loredana; Rossetti, Maura; Gerbino, Martina; Maxia, Stefania; Alemanno, Maria Grazia; Minelli, Fosca; Piccoli, Ettore; Versino, Elisabetta; Biolcati, Marilisa; Avagnina, Paolo; Pani, Antonello; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Todros, Tullia; Piccoli, Giorgina B

    2016-09-20

    Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison. January, 2000 to September, 2015: 36 on-diet pregnancies (31 singleton deliveries, 3 twin deliveries, 1 pregnancy termination, 1 miscarriage); 47 controls (42 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet is basically vegan; since occasional milk and yoghurt are allowed, we defined it vegan-vegetarian; protein intake (0.6-0.8 g/Kg/day), keto-acid supplementation, protein-unrestricted meals (1-3/week) are prescribed according to CKD stage and nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed as implemented on SPSS. Patients and controls were similar (p: ns) at baseline with regard to age (33 vs 33.5), referral week (7 vs 9), kidney function (CKD 3-5: 48.4 % vs 64.3 %); prevalence of hypertension (51.6 % vs 40.5 %) and proteinuria >3 g/24 h (16.1 % vs 12.2 %). There were more diabetic nephropathies in on-diet patients (on diet: 31.0 % vs controls 5.3 %; p 0.007 (Fisher)) while lupus nephropathies were non-significantly higher in controls (on diet: 10.3 % vs controls 23.7 %; p 0.28 (Fisher)). The incidence of preterm delivery was similar (vegan-vegetarian supplemented diet is confirmed as a safe option in the management of pregnant CKD patients.

  14. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

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    Silvestre R

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean ± s.e.m.: age 33.2 ± 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 ± 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 ± 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 ± 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during

  15. Low-protein diet does not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters in pregnant Wistar rats

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    M.A.V. Barros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive, biochemical, and hematological outcomes of pregnant rats exposed to protein restriction. Wistar rat dams were fed a control normal-protein (NP, 17% protein, n=8 or a low-protein (LP, 8% protein, n=14 diet from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy. On the 20th day, the clinical signs of toxicity were evaluated. The pregnant rats were then anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical-hematological analyses, and laparotomy was performed to evaluate reproductive parameters. No sign of toxicity, or differences (P>0.05 in body weight gain and biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, and total protein between NP and LP pregnant dams were observed. Similarly, hematological data, including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell distribution width (coefficient of variation, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, % lymphocytes, absolute lymphocyte count, platelet count, and mean platelet volume were similar (P>0.05 at the end of pregnancy. Reproductive parameters (the dam-offspring relationship, ovary mass, placenta mass, number of corpora lutea, implantation index, resorption index, and the pre- and post-implantation loss rates were also not different (P>0.05 between NP and LP pregnant dams. The present data showed that a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy did not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters and seems not to have any toxic effect on pregnant Wistar rats.

  16. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

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    Lee M Margolis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.

  17. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Wener, Mark H.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Mason, Caitlin E.; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L.; Bain, Carolyn E.; Thompson, Henry J.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N=118), aerobic exercise (225 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N=117), combined diet+exercise (N=117) or control (N=87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity and age. 438 (N=1 in diet+exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, p-value) 0.92mg/L (0.53–1.31, Pdiet and 0.87mg/L (0.51–1.23, Pdiet+exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34pg/ml (0.13–0.55, P=0.001) in the diet and 0.32pg/ml (0.15–0.49, Pdiet+exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31×109/L (0.09–0.54, P=0.006) in the diet and 0.30×109/L (0.09–0.50, P=0.005) in the diet+exercise groups. Diet and diet+exercise participants with ≥5% weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared to controls. The diet and diet+exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction. PMID:22549948

  18. Impact of diet restriction in the management of diabetes: evidences from preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Pawan; Bedi, Onkar; Rani, Monika

    2018-03-01

    The inappropriate dietary habits lead to the onset of age-related pathologies which include diabetes and cardiovascular ailments. Dietary restriction and nutritional therapy play an important role in the prevention of these chronic ailments. Preclinical research provides a basis for the therapeutic exploration of new dietary interventions for the clinical trials to potentiate the scientific management of diabetes and its related complications which further help in translating these nutritional improvements from bench to bedside. Within the same context, numerous therapeutically proved preclinical dietary interventions like high-fiber diet, caloric restriction, soy isoflavone-containing diets, etc., have shown the promising results for the management of diabetes and the associated complications. The focus of the present review is to highlight the various preclinical evidences of diet restriction for the management of diabetes and which will be helpful for enlightening the new ideas of nutritional therapy for future research exploration. In addition, some potential approaches are also discussed which are associated with various nutritional interventions to combat progressive diabetes and the associated disorders. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Effect of Feeding an Iodine-Restricted Diet in Cats with Spontaneous Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T Y; Bruyette, D S; Moore, G E; Scott-Moncrieff, J C

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive feeding of an iodine-restricted diet has been proposed as a method for controlling clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism in hyperthyroid cats. To determine the effect of feeding an iodine-restricted diet on TT4 concentrations and clinical signs in cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Forty-nine client-owned cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Retrospective case series. Hyperthyroid cats were exclusively fed a commercially available iodine-restricted diet. Clinical response was assessed by change in weight and heart rate and serum TT4, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine concentrations at various times during dietary management (21-60 days, 60-180 days). Serum TT4 normalized in 20/48 cats (42%) and 39/47 cats (83%) at 21-60 days and 61-180 days, respectively. Cats in which the TT4 concentrations were still above reference range at 21-60 days had a significantly higher starting TT4 than those that normalized their TT4 levels during the same time period (P = .038). Body weight did not significantly increase (P = .34) nor heart rate decrease (P = .64) during the study. There was a significant decrease in serum creatinine (P = .028). Cats in the low reference range for serum TT4 concentrations did not have a significant increase in body weight (P = .41) nor creatinine (P = .54) when compared to those with high reference range. Restricted-iodine diets were effective at maintaining serum TT4 concentrations within reference ranges for a majority of cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism over 1 year, although not all clinical signs of hyperthyroidism improved. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia C.L.; Adochio, Rebecca L.; Leitner, J. Wayne; Abeyta, Ian M.; Draznin, Boris; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective The cellular effects of restricting fat versus carbohydrate during a low-calorie diet are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine acute effects of energy and macronutrient restriction on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obesity. Materials/Methods Eighteen obese individuals without diabetes underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsy after: (a) 5 days of eucaloric diet (30% fat, 50% carbohydrate), and (b) 5 days of a 30% calorie-restricted diet, either low fat/high carbohydrate (LF/HC: 20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) or high-fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC: 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate). Results Weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were similar between groups after eucaloric diet. Weight loss was similar between groups after hypocaloric diet, 1.3 ± 1.3 kg (pdiet. Skeletal muscle of the LF/HC group had increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated Ser 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1, and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase activity. Conversely, insulin stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-1 was absent and serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased on HF/LC, with blunting of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity. Conclusion Acute caloric restriction with a LF/HC diet alters skeletal muscle insulin signalling in a way that improves insulin sensitivity, while acute caloric restriction with a HF/LC diet induces changes compatible with insulin resistance. In both cases, ex vivo changes in skeletal muscle insulin signalling appear prior to changes in whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:23174405

  1. Energy dense, protein restricted diet increases adiposity and perturbs metabolism in young, genetically lean pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Fisher

    Full Text Available Animal models of obesity and metabolic dysregulation during growth (or childhood are lacking. Our objective was to increase adiposity and induce metabolic syndrome in young, genetically lean pigs. Pre-pubertal female pigs, age 35 d, were fed a high-energy diet (HED; n = 12, containing 15% tallow, 35% refined sugars and 9.1-12.9% crude protein, or a control corn-based diet (n = 11 with 12.2-19.2% crude protein for 16 wk. Initially, HED pigs self-regulated energy intake similar to controls, but by wk 5, consumed more (P<0.001 energy per kg body weight. At wk 15, pigs were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; blood glucose increased (P<0.05 in control pigs and returned to baseline levels within 60 min. HED pigs were hyperglycemic at time 0, and blood glucose did not return to baseline (P = 0.01, even 4 h post-challenge. During OGTT, glucose area under the curve (AUC was higher and insulin AUC was lower in HED pigs compared to controls (P = 0.001. Chronic HED intake increased (P<0.05 subcutaneous, intramuscular, and perirenal fat deposition, and induced hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and low-density lipoprotein hypercholesterolemia. A subset of HED pigs (n = 7 was transitioned back to a control diet for an additional six weeks. These pigs were subjected to an additional OGTT at 22 wk. Glucose AUC and insulin AUC did not improve, supporting that dietary intervention was not sufficient to recover glucose tolerance or insulin production. These data suggest a HED may be used to increase adiposity and disrupt glucose homeostasis in young, growing pigs.

  2. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present...... in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority...... review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  3. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  4. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging

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    Zhuoran Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD or low-fat diet (LFD during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32 in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  5. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A; Kooistra, Susanne M; Reijne, Aaffien C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32) in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  6. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rodent malaria in rats exacerbated by milk protein, attenuated by low-protein vegetable diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorne, C.W. van; Eling, W.M.C.; Luyken, R.

    1998-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats were fed a purified, vegetable, low-protein diet containing 6% protein from maize gluten and 2% from soy protein isolate, or comparable diets in which maize gluten was replaced partly or completely by the equivalent amount of a milk protein concentrate. Diets with adequate

  8. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Glucose Disposal in the Gastrocnemius Muscles of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-01-01

    Gestational low-protein (LP) diet causes hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in adult offspring, but the mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the role of insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP-exposed female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed a control (20% protein) or an isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery. Normal diet was given to mothers after delivery and to pups after weaning until necropsy. Offspring were euthanized at 4 months, and gastrocnemius muscles were treated with insulin ex vivo for 30 minutes. Messenger RNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months. LP females were smaller at birth but showed rapid catchup growth by 4 weeks. Glucose tolerance test in LP offspring at 3 months showed elevated serum glucose levels (P insulin levels. In gastrocnemius muscles, LP rats showed reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 upon insulin stimulation due to the overexpression of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, but serine phosphorylation was unaffected. Furthermore, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)–3α, and GSK-3β was diminished in LP rats, and they displayed an increased basal phosphorylation (inactive form) of glycogen synthase. Our study shows that gestational protein restriction causes peripheral insulin resistance by a series of phosphorylation defects in skeletal muscle in a mechanism involving insulin receptor substrate 1, SHP-2, Akt, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase causing dysfunctional GSK-3 signaling and increased stored glycogen, leading to distorted glucose homeostasis. PMID:28324067

  9. Expression of renin-angiotensin system signalling compounds in maternal protein-restricted rats: effect on renal sodium excretion and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; Gontijo, José Antonio Rocha; Boer, Patrícia Aline

    2010-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction due to low maternal dietary protein during pregnancy is associated with retardation of foetal growth, renal alterations and adult hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a coordinated hormonal cascade in the control of cardiovascular, renal and adrenal function that governs body fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as arterial pressure. In the kidney, all the components of the renin-angiotensin system including angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors are expressed locally during nephrogenesis. Hence, we investigated whether low protein diet intake during pregnancy altered kidney and adrenal expression of AT1(R) and AT2(R) receptors, their pathways and if the modified expression of the RAS compounds occurs associated with changes in urinary sodium and in arterial blood pressure in sixteen-week-old males' offspring of the underfed group. The pregnancy dams were divided in two groups: with normal protein diet (pups named NP) (17% protein) or low protein diet (pups LP) (6% protein) during all pregnancy. The present data confirm a significant enhancement in arterial pressure in the LP group. Furthermore, the study showed a significantly decreased expression of RAS pathway protein and Ang II receptors in the kidney and an increased expression in the adrenal of LP rats. The detailed immunohistochemical analysis of RAS signalling proteins in the kidney confirm the immunoblotting results for both groups. The present investigation also showed a pronounced decrease in fractional urinary sodium excretion in maternal protein-restricted offspring, compared with the NP age-matched group. This occurred despite unchanged creatinine clearance. The current data led us to hypothesize that foetal undernutrition could be associated with decreased kidney expression of AT(R) resulting in the inability of renal tubules to handle the hydro-electrolyte balance, consequently causing arterial hypertension.

  10. Adherence to diet and fluid restriction of individuals on hemodialysis treatment and affecting factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Dilek; Kocaöz, Semra

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine adherence to diet and fluid restriction in hemodialysis-treated individuals and the affecting factors in Turkey. This descriptive study was conducted between 15 October 2010 and 15 January 2011 in subjects who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study from three dialysis centers in a city located in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. One hundred and twenty-one individuals treated with hemodialysis made up the study sample. The data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions and the Dialysis Diet and Fluid Non-adherence Questionnaire. The data were evaluated with percentage, median, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t-test in independent samples and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The authors found that 98.3% of the individuals experienced non-adherence to diet and 95.0% with fluid restriction. The authors found a weak and negative relationship between calcium levels and non-adherence to fluid restriction, a weak relationship between phosphorus levels and diet non-adherence frequency and degree and the fluid non-adherence frequency scores, and a moderate positive relationship between phosphorus levels and fluid restriction non-adherence degree scores (P < 0.05). Based on these results, regular training and information regarding diet and fluid restriction must be provided to individuals aged 21-35 years with no one in the family to help with their care, those who consumed salted food, or had interdialytic weight gain of 4.5 kg or more. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  11. A non-calorie-restricted low-carbohydrate diet is effective as an alternative therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Uchida, Junichi; Izumi, Hisa; Tsukamoto, Yoko; Inoue, Gaku; Watanabe, Yuichi; Irie, Junichiro; Yamada, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Although caloric restriction is a widely used intervention to reduce body weight and insulin resistance, many patients are unable to comply with such dietary therapy for long periods. The clinical effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets was recently described in a position statement of Diabetes UK and a scientific review conducted by the American Diabetes Association. However, randomised trials of dietary interventions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a non-calorie-restricted, low-carbohydrate diet in Japanese patients unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet. The enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive a conventional calorie-restricted diet or low-carbohydrate diet. The patients received consultations every two months from a registered dietician for six months. We compared the effects of the two dietary interventions on glycaemic control and metabolic profiles. The HbA1c levels decreased significantly from baseline to six months in the low-carbohydrate diet group (baseline 7.6±0.4%, six months 7.0±0.7%, p=0.03) but not in the calorie-restricted group (baseline 7.7±0.6%, six months 7.5±1.0%, n.s.), (between-group comparison, p=0.03). The patients in the former group also experienced improvements in their triglyceride levels, without experiencing any major adverse effects or a decline in the quality of life. Our findings suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet is effective in lowering the HbA1c and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet.

  12. RCT of a high-protein diet on hunger motivation and weight-loss in obese children: an extension and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Lauren C; Gately, Paul J; Radley, Duncan; Cooke, Carlton B; King, Roderick F G J; Hill, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the weight loss and hunger motivation effects of an energy-restricted high-protein (HP) diet in overweight and obese children. In total, 95 overweight and obese children attended an 8-week (maximum) program of physical activity, reduced-energy intake, and behavior change education. Children were randomly assigned to one of two isoenergetic diets (standard (SP): 15% protein; HP: 25% protein), based on individually estimated energy requirements. Anthropometry and body composition were assessed at the start and end of the program and appetite and mood ratings completed on the first 3 consecutive weekdays of each week children attended camp. The HP diet had no greater effect on weight loss, body composition, or changes in appetite or mood when compared to the SP diet. Overall, campers lost 5.2 +/- 3.0 kg in body weight and reduced their BMI standard deviation score (sds) by 0.25. Ratings of desire to eat increased significantly over the duration of the intervention, irrespective of diet. This is the third time we have reported an increase in hunger motivation in weight-loss campers and replicates our previous failure to block this with a higher protein diet. Further work is warranted into the management of hunger motivation as a result of negative energy balance.

  13. The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Mota, Claudia C; Rodriguez-Gaytan, Cinthya; Adjibade, Pauline; Mazroui, Rachid; Gálvez, Amanda; Granados, Omar; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-09-20

    Between 6% and 11% of the world's population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation.

  14. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  15. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  16. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  17. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta: Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidrih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77 % carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10 % protein. It is therefore oft en excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40 % dry matter without (plain high-protein pasta or with 3 % dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40 % of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  18. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  19. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  20. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and [3H]NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate

  1. Adiponectin,leptin: focus on low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids in chronic glomerulonephritis with hbv patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Shan; Li, Jialin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yu, Zanzhe; Wang, Qin; Xu, Weijia

    2012-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin come from adipose tissue, which can reflect patients' inflammation and status of lipid metabolism. Our study is aim to evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on nutrition and lipid metabolic disturbance in chronic glomeruloneph-ritis with HBV patients. 17 patients were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or low DPI (LP) group for 12 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) wasindividual...

  2. A low protein diet increases the hypoxic tolerance in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O(2 and analysed their survival. Chronic hypoxia reduced the average life span from 33.6 days to 6.3 days when flies were fed on a rich diet. A demographic analysis indicated that chronic hypoxia increased the slope of the mortality trajectory and not the short-term risk of death. Dietary restriction produced by food dilution, by yeast restriction, or by amino acid restriction partially reversed the deleterious action of hypoxia. It increased the life span of hypoxic flies up to seven days, which represented about 25% of the life time of an hypoxic fly. Maximum survival of hypoxic flies required only dietary sucrose, and it was insensitive to drugs such as rapamycin and resveratrol, which increase longevity of normoxic animals. The results thus uncover a new link between protein nutrition, nutrient signalling, and resistance to hypoxic stresses.

  3. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Chueh-Lien; Tsao, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, I-Shan; Chern, Yijuang; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17%) restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories) than in mice (~22%). We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein) for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein) for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378) in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25992839

  4. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  5. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  6. Recovery of insulin sensitivity and optimal body composition after rapid weight loss in obese dogs fed a high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Leriche, I; Chaix, G; Thorin, C; Burger, M; Nguyen, P

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% metabolizable energy, ME). First, postprandial plasma glucose and insulin kinetics were determined in steady-state overweight/obese Beagle dogs (28%-41% excess body weight) for an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% ME) and a commercial high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet (protein level, 24%ME) in obese dogs. Secondly, all the dogs were included in a weight loss programme. They were fed the high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet, and the energy allocation was gradually reduced until they reached their optimal body weight. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were evaluated before and after weight loss using a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and the deuterium oxide dilution technique respectively. For statistical analysis, linear mixed effect models were used with a significance level of 5%. Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were substantially lower with the high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet than the high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet. These differences can be explained mainly by the difference in carbohydrate content between the two diets. Energy restriction (35% lower energy intake than in the obese state) resulted in a 2.23 ± 0.05% loss in body weight/week, and the dogs reached their optimal body weight in 12-16 weeks. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in insulin sensitivity. The high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet allowed fat-free mass preservation despite a relatively high rate of weekly weight loss. The increase in insulin sensitivity indicated improved control of carbohydrate metabolism, possible due to weight loss and to the nature of the diet. Thus, a high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet is a good nutritional solution for managing the weight of overweight dogs. This diet may improve glycaemic control, which could be beneficial for preventing or

  7. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. © 2013.

  8. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat; Enkerlin, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  9. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  10. Dietary protein restriction for renal patients: don't forget protein-free foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Rossi, Andrea; Innocenti, Maurizio; Ricchiuti, Guido; Bozzoli, Laura; Sbragia, Giulietta; Meola, Mario; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) consists of pharmacological, nutritional, and psychological-social approaches. The dietary therapy of CKD, namely a low-protein low-phosphorus diet, plays a crucial role in contributing to delay the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to protect cardiovascular and nutritional status. The protein-free food products represent a very important tool for the implementation of a low-protein diet to ensure adequate energy supply, reducing the production of nitrogenous waste products. This survey included 100 consecutive CKD patients who were asked their opinion about the use of protein-free foods. Ninety-eight patients (98%) reported a regular daily intake of protein-free pasta (as macaroni, spaghetti, etc.), which was the preferred product consumed. Actually, the taste and texture of protein-free pasta were considered as "good" or "very good" by 70% of patients. Conversely, 43% of CKD patients perceived the taste and texture of protein-free bread as "bad" or "very bad", and 30% found it "acceptable". Therefore, the main concern for the implementation of low-protein diets is the use and palatability of the protein-free products, bread in particular. The use of these products may help in reducing protein, phosphorus, and sodium intake while supplying an adequate energy intake, which represents the basis for a nutritionally safe and successful dietary treatment of advanced CKD patients. Manufacturers and food technology should make more efforts to finding new solutions to improve the taste and texture of protein-free products. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta:
Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Sebastjan; Vidrih, Rajko

    2015-09-01

    Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77% carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10% protein. It is therefore often excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40% dry matter) without (plain high-protein pasta) or with 3% dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta) to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40% of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  12. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  13. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Cato, Louise E; Phillips, Stuart M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the effects of 16-week high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate (CHO) diets and exercise training (EXT) on body composition in men and women with overweight/obesity. One hundred and eleven participants (age 47 ± 6 years, body mass 90.9 ± 11.7 kg, BMI 33 ± 4 kg/m(2) , values mean ± SD) were randomly stratified to diets with either: high dairy protein, moderate CHO (40% CHO: 30% protein: 30% fat; ∼4 dairy servings); high dairy protein, high CHO (55%: 30%: 15%; ∼4 dairy servings); or control (55%: 15%: 30%; ∼1 dairy serving). Energy restriction (500 kcal/day) was achieved through diet (∼250 kcal/day) and EXT (∼250 kcal/day). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before, midway, and upon completion of the intervention. Eighty-nine (25 M/64 F) of 115 participants completed the 16-week intervention, losing 7.7 ± 3.2 kg fat mass (P exercise stimulus. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shibin; Jiang, Jinjin; Zhang, Guofu; Bu, Yongjun; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhao, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40) were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw); and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw) and caloric restriction (30%) partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight. We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30%) and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator) supplementation

  16. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibin Ding

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1 and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy.Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40 were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw; and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw and caloric restriction (30% partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight.We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30% and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator

  17. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in ob......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein....../day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P......-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men...

  18. The Effect of Protein Restriction in the In Vitro Metabolism of Albendazole in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaz, Kátia Roberta A; de O Cardoso, Josiane; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Oliveira, Regina V

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an in vitro investigation of the effect of protein restriction on the metabolism of albendazole (ABZ). This study was conducted using liver microsomal fractions obtained from Wistar rats. For the quantitative analysis, a multidimensional High Performance Liquid Chromatography (2D HPLC) method was fully validated for the determination of the ABZ metabolites: albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone and albendazole 2-aminesulfone. The target compounds were directly extracted using a C8-RAM-BSA column (5.0x0.46 cm i.d.) and analyzed on a chromatographic chiral column containing amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (150x4.6 mm i.d.). The in vitro biotransformation results showed that the protein restriction influenced the oxidative metabolism of ABZ. The production of R-(+)-ABZ-SO (1309 nmol/L) and S-(-)-ABZ-SO (1456 nmol/L) was higher in the control animals than in the animals fed with a diet containing 6% protein, which produced 778.7 nmol/L and 709.5 nmol/L for R-(+) and S-(-)-ABZ-SO enantiomers, respectively. These results were statistically inspected by Student´s t test and the results showed a significant difference between the two means (p0.05). Furthermore, animal nutritional condition could affect the pattern of ABZ sulphoxidation indicating that the protein nutrition affect primarily the formation of R-(+)-ABZSO and S-(-)-ABZ-SO enantiomers.

  19. L-Citrulline Supplementation Enhances Fetal Growth and Protein Synthesis in Rats with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Aurélie; Parnet, Patricia; Nowak, Christel; Tran, Nhat-Thang; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results from either maternal undernutrition or impaired placental blood flow, exposing offspring to increased perinatal mortality and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. l-Citrulline is a precursor of l-arginine and nitric oxide (NO), which regulates placental blood flow. Moreover, l-citrulline stimulates protein synthesis in other models of undernutrition. The aim of the study was to determine whether l-citrulline supplementation would enhance fetal growth in a model of IUGR induced by maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet. LP dams were randomly allocated to drink tap water either as such or supplemented with l-citrulline (2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), an isonitrogenous amount of l-arginine, or nonessential l-amino acids (NEAAs). On day 21 of gestation, dams received a 2-h infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-valine until fetuses were extracted by cesarean delivery. Isotope enrichments were measured in free amino acids and fetal muscle, liver, and placenta protein by GC-mass spectrometry. Fetal weight was ∼29% lower in the LP group (3.82 ± 0.06 g) than in the control group (5.41 ± 0.10 g) (P growth in a model of IUGR, and the effect may be mediated by enhanced fetal muscle protein synthesis and/or increased NO production. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Relationship between sleep pattern and efficacy of calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Giuditta; Dinu, Monica; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The association between the sleep pattern and the effectiveness of a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in people with overweight/obesity has been investigated in this study. Four hundred and three subjects were provided with a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet and followed for 9 months. Personal information, including sleep pattern, was obtained at the baseline. Body weight and composition were measured every 3 months. Poor sleepers reported to have significantly (p sleeping 6-8 or >8 h/day had an increased probability of losing fat mass than women who reported sleeping sleep pattern is necessary to maintain body weight and optimal body composition.

  1. High-protein diets and renal status in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, V. A.; Nebot, E.; García-del Moral, R.; Machado-Vílchez, M.; Porres, J. M.; Sánchez, C.; Aranda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: High-protein (HP) diets might affect renal status. We aimed to examine the effects of a HP diet on plasma, urinary and morphological renal parameters in rats. Material and methods: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 2 experimental groups with HP or normal-protein (NP) diets over 12 weeks. Results and discussion: Final body weight was a 10% lower in the HP group (p < 0.05) whereas we have not observed differences on food intake, carcass weight and muscle ashes conten...

  2. [The effects of a low-fat versus a low carbohydrate diet in obese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; González Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2009-02-21

    The aim of our study was to compare the effect of a high fat and a high protein diet vs a fat restricted diet on weight loss in obese patients. A population of 74 obesity non diabetic outpatients was analyzed in a prospective way. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat diet: 1500kcal/day, 52% carbohydrates, 20% proteins, 27% fats) with a distribution of fats and b) diet II (high fat and high protein diet: 1507kcal/day, 38% carbohydrates, 26% proteins, 36% fats). After three months with diet, weight, blood pressure, glucose, C reactive protein, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were evaluated. There were randomized 35 patients (4 males and 31 females) in the group I and 39 patients (6 males and 33 females) in diet group II. In group I, systolic pressure, BMI, weight, fat free mass, fat mass total body water, intracellular body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. In group II, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, systolic blood, BMI, weight, fat mass, total body water and waist circumference decreased significantly. Differences among averages of parameters before treatment with both diets were not detected. No differences were detected on weight loss between a fat-restricted diet and a high fat and high protein enhanced diet.

  3. The moderate essential amino acid restriction entailed by low-protein vegan diets may promote vascular health by stimulating FGF21 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-02-12

    The serum total and LDL cholesterol levels of long-term vegans tend to be very low. The characteristically low ratio of saturated to unsaturated fat in vegan diets, and the absence of cholesterol in such diets, clearly contribute to this effect. But there is reason to suspect that the quantity and composition of dietary protein also play a role in this regard. Vegan diets of moderate protein intake tend to be relatively low in certain essential amino acids, and as a result may increase hepatic activity of the kinase GCN2, which functions as a gauge of amino acid status. GCN2 activation boosts the liver's production of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a factor which favorably affects serum lipids and metabolic syndrome. The ability of FGF21 to decrease LDL cholesterol has now been traced to at least two mechanisms: a suppression of hepatocyte expression of sterol response element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which in turn leads to a reduction in cholesterol synthesis; and up-regulated expression of hepatocyte LDL receptors, reflecting inhibition of a mechanism that promotes proteasomal degradation of these receptors. In mice, the vascular benefits of FGF21 are also mediated by favorable effects on adipocyte function - most notably, increased adipocyte secretion of adiponectin, which directly exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the vasculature which complement the concurrent reduction in LDL particles in preventing or reversing atherosclerosis. If, as has been proposed, plant proteins preferentially stimulate glucagon secretion owing to their amino acid composition, this would represent an additional mechanism whereby plant protein promotes FGF21 activity, as glucagon acts on the liver to boost transcription of the FGF21 gene.

  4. Maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated to oxidative disruption at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Alves, José L; de Oliveira, Jéssica M D; Ferreira, Diorginis J S; Barros, Monique A de V; Nogueira, Viviane O; Alves, Débora S; Vidal, Hubert; Leandro, Carol G; Lagranha, Cláudia J; Pirola, Luciano; da Costa-Silva, João H

    2016-12-01

    Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation predisposes the adult offspring to sympathetic overactivity and arterial hypertension. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, dysregulation of the oxidative balance has been proposed as a putative trigger of neural-induced hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the oxidative status at transcriptional and functional levels in the medulla oblongata and maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension. Wistar rat dams were fed a control (normal protein; 17% protein) or a low protein ((Lp); 8% protein) diet during pregnancy and lactation, and male offspring was studied at 90 days of age. Direct measurements of baseline arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in awakened offspring. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutamatergic receptors (Grin1, Gria1 and Grm1) and GABA(A)-receptor-associated protein like 1 (Gabarapl1). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, CAT and SOD activities were examined in ventral and dorsal medulla. Lp rats exhibited higher ABP. The mRNA expression levels of SOD2, GPx and Gabarapl1 were down regulated in medullary tissue of Lp rats (Pmedulla. Taken together, our data suggest that maternal protein restriction induced-hypertension is associated with medullary oxidative dysfunction at transcriptional level and with impaired antioxidant capacity in the ventral medulla. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. The national cholesterol education program diet vs a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and monounsaturated fat: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aude, Y Wady; Agatston, Arthur S; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lieberman, Eric H; Marie Almon; Hansen, Melinda; Rojas, Gerardo; Lamas, Gervasio A; Hennekens, Charles H

    2004-10-25

    In the United States, obesity is a major clinical and public health problem causing diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, as well as increasing cardiovascular and total mortality. Dietary restrictions of calories and saturated fat are beneficial. However, it remains unclear whether replacement of saturated fat with carbohydrates (as in the US National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] diet) or protein and monounsaturated fat (as in our isocaloric modified low-carbohydrate [MLC] diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in protein, monounsaturated fat, and complex carbohydrates) is optimal. We randomized 60 participants (29 women and 31 men) to the NCEP or the MLC diet and evaluated them every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. They were aged 28 to 71 years (mean age, 44 years in the NCEP and 46 years in the MLC group). A total of 36% of participants from the NCEP group and 35% from the MLC group had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) greater than 27. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were blood lipid levels and waist-to-hip ratio. Weight loss was significantly greater in the MLC (13.6 lb) than in the NCEP group (7.5 lb), a difference of 6.1 lb (P = .02). There were no significant differences between the groups for total, low density, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or the proportion of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles. There were significantly favorable changes in all lipid levels within the MLC but not within the NCEP group. Waist-to-hip ratio was not significantly reduced between the groups (P = .27), but it significantly decreased within the MLC group (P = .009). Compared with the NCEP diet, the MLC diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in complex carbohydrates, protein, and monounsaturated fat, caused significantly greater weight loss over 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between the groups in

  6. Maternal low protein diet and postnatal high fat diet increases adipose imprinted gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal and postnatal diet can alter Igf2 gene expression and DNA methylation. To test whether maternal low protein and postnatal high fat (HF) diet result in alteration in Igf2 expression and obesity, we fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats 8% (LP) or 20% (NP) protein for 3 wk prior to breeding and...

  7. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Decreased in Rat Kidney Following Fetal Exposure to a Maternal Low-Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Engeham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with impaired renal development and age-related loss of renal function in the resulting offspring. Pregnant rats were fed either control or low-protein (LP diets, and kidneys from their male offspring were collected at 4, 13, or 16 weeks of age. Mitochondrial state 3 and state 4 respiratory rates were decreased by a third in the LP exposed adults. The reduction in mitochondrial function was not explained by complex IV deficiency or altered expression of the complex I subunits that are typically associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Similarly, there was no evidence that LP-exposure resulted in greater oxidative damage to the kidney, differential expression of ATP synthetase β-subunit, and ATP-ADP translocase 1. mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 2 was increased in adult rats exposed to LP in utero, but there was no evidence of differential expression at the protein level. Exposure to maternal undernutrition is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in kidneys of adult rats. In the absence of gross disturbances in respiratory chain protein expression, programming of coupling efficiency may explain the long-term impact of the maternal diet.

  8. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on the protein and energy metabolism of pigs from weaning to a live weight of 80 kg. FOur litters with four castrated male pigs in each litter were used. The litters were divided into two...... blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...... by inclusion level of BPM. Retention of energy was 620 (BP0), 696 (BP5), 613 (BP10) and 664 kJ/kg0.75 per day (BP15), the differences among diets being non-significant. The N-free respiratory quotient was similar on all diets. It was concluded that the overall protein and energy metabolism in growing pigs were...

  9. Protein turnover in acid maltase deficiency before and after treatment with a high protein diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Umpleby, A M; Wiles, C M; Trend, P S; Scobie, I N; Macleod, A F; Spencer, G T; Sonksen, P H

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acid maltase deficiency was treated with a high protein diet for 7 months. Protein turnover expressed in terms of lean body mass was shown to be increased in this patient before the diet but was markedly reduced following the diet. The patient improved clinically whilst on the diet both subjectively and in terms of mobility, breathing and reduced peripheral cyanosis at rest.

  10. Effect of resistance training and hypocaloric diets with different protein content on body composition and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Unciti, M; Martinez, J A; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E M; Grijalba, A; Ibañez, J

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle changes such as following a hypocaloric diet and regular physical exercise are recognized as effective non-pharmacological interventions to reduce body fat mass and prevent cardiovascular disease risk factors. To evaluate the interactions of a higher protein (HP) vs. a lower protein (LP) diet with or without a concomitant progressive resistance training program (RT) on body composition and lipoprotein profile in hypercholesterolemic obese women. Retrospective study derived from a 16-week randomized controlled-intervention clinical trial. Twenty five sedentary, obese (BMI: 30-40 kg/m²) women, aged 40-60 with hypercholesterolemia were assigned to a 4-arm trial using a 2 x 2 factorial design (Diet x Exercise). Prescribed diets had the same calorie restriction (-500 kcal/day), and were categorized according to protein content as: lower protein ( 22% daily energy intake, HP). Exercise comparisons involved habitual activity (control) vs. a 16-week supervised whole-body resistance training program (RT), two sessions/wk. A significant decrease in weight and waist circumference was observed in all groups. A significant decrease in LDL-C and Total-Cholesterol levels was observed only when a LP diet was combined with a RT program, the RT being the most determining factor. Interestingly, an interaction between diet and exercise was found concerning LDL-C values. In this study, resistance training plays a key role in improving LDL-C and Total-Cholesterol; however, a lower protein intake (< 22% of daily energy intake as proteins) was found to achieve a significantly greater reduction in LDL-C.

  11. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  12. Gestational Protein Restriction Impairs Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transport Mechanisms in Gastrocnemius Muscles of Adult Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Sathishkumar, Kunju; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes originates from various genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies showed that an adverse uterine environment such as that caused by a gestational low-protein (LP) diet can cause insulin resistance in adult offspring. The mechanism of insulin resistance induced by gestational protein restriction is not clearly understood. Our aim was to investigate the role of insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscles of gestational LP diet–exposed male offspring to understand their role in LP-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) or isocaloric LP (6%) diet from gestational day 4 until delivery and a normal diet after weaning. Only male offspring were used in this study. Glucose and insulin responses were assessed after a glucose tolerance test. mRNA and protein levels of molecules involved in insulin signaling were assessed at 4 months in gastrocnemius muscles. Muscles were incubated ex vivo with insulin to evaluate insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), Insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and AS160. LP diet-fed rats gained less weight than controls during pregnancy. Male pups from LP diet–fed mothers were smaller but exhibited catch-up growth. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were elevated in LP offspring when subjected to a glucose tolerance test; however, fasting levels were comparable. LP offspring showed increased expression of IR and AS160 in gastrocnemius muscles. Ex vivo treatment of muscles with insulin showed increased phosphorylation of IR (Tyr972) in controls, but LP rats showed higher basal phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr608, Tyr895, Ser307, and Ser318) and AS160 (Thr642) were defective in LP offspring. Further, glucose transporter type 4 translocation in LP offspring was also impaired. A gestational LP diet leads to insulin resistance in adult offspring by a mechanism involving inefficient insulin-induced IR, Insulin receptor

  13. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein-losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative care for over 1 month. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and stool alpha-1 antitrypsin indicated protein-losing enteropathy. Related symptoms were relieved after cessation of the ketogenic diet. Unexplained hypoalbuminemia combined with edema and diarrhea during ketogenic suggests the possibility of protein-losing enteropathy, and proper evaluation is recommended in order to expeditiously detect it and to act accordingly. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  14. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat, low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR, high-fat diet (HC, 60% fat, high-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (HR, high-fat diet with voluntary running exercise (HE, and high-fat diet with a combination of 30% calorie restriction and exercise (HRE. The impacts of the interventions were assessed by comprehensive metabolic analyses and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Endurance exercise significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity. CR dramatically prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. A combination of CR and endurance exercise further reduced obesity and insulin resistance under the condition of high-fat diet. CR and endurance exercise each potently suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissues with additive effects when combined, but the effects of diet and exercise interventions in the liver were moderate to minimal. Conclusions CR and endurance exercise share a potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

  15. Protein source in a high-protein diet modulates reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Jennifer L; Devassy, Jessay G; Wu, Yinghong; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    High-protein diets are being promoted to reduce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the effect of protein source in high-protein diets on reducing insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was examined. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided normal-protein (15% of energy) casein, high-protein (35% of energy) casein, high-protein soy, or high-protein mixed diets with animal and plant proteins. The high-protein mixed diet reduced area under the curve for insulin during glucose tolerance testing, fasting serum insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, homeostatic model assessment index, insulin to glucose ratio, and pancreatic islet cell area. The high-protein mixed and the high-protein soy diets reduced hepatic lipid concentrations, liver to body weight ratio, and hepatic steatosis rating. These improvements were observed despite no differences in body weight, feed intake, or adiposity among high-protein diet groups. The high-protein casein diet had minimal benefits. A high-protein mixed diet was the most effective for modulating reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of weight loss, indicating that the source of protein within a high-protein diet is critical for the management of these metabolic syndrome parameters. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein?losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative ca...

  18. A novel dietary restriction method for group-housed rats: weight gain and clinical chemistry characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Nevalainen, J I; Väisänen, S B; Mertanen, A M O; Mering, S M; Nevalainen, T O

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory rodents are usually fed ad libitum. Moderate dietary restriction decreases mortality and morbidity compared with ad libitum feeding. There are, however, problems in achieving dietary restriction. Traditional methods of restricted feeding may interfere with the diurnal rhythms of the animals and are not compatible with group-housing of rodents. We have invented a novel method, the diet board, for restricting the feed intake of laboratory rats. The use of the diet board moderately decreased weight gain of rats when compared with ad libitum-fed animals. The diet board retarded skeletal growth only minimally, whereas major differences were found in body fat depositions. Serum free fatty acid, triglyceride and cholesterol values were lower in diet-restricted rats, while the opposite was true for serum creatine kinase. There were no differences in total protein, albumin or alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, differences in interindividual variances in parameters were not detected between the groups; hence this study could not combine the diet board with reduction potential. The diet board provides mild to moderate dietary restriction for group-housed rats and is unlikely to interfere with the diurnal eating rhythm. The diet board can also be seen as a cage furniture item, dividing the open cage space and increasing the structural complexity of the environment. In conclusion, the diet board appears to possess refinement potential when compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction.

  19. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2009-05-21

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the effects of a high fat diet and of food restriction on sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist and a dopamine receptor antagonist. Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Food restriction (10 g/day) decreased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and raclopride-induced catalepsy without affecting sensitivity to quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Free access to a standard chow restored sensitivity to the behavioral effects of both drugs in rats that were previously food-restricted but not in rats that previously ate a high fat diet. These data confirm that food restriction can decrease sensitivity to behavioral effects of direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs, they provide evidence (i.e., no change in hypothermic effects) indicating that these changes are not due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, and they provide initial evidence showing enhanced sensitivity to behavioral effects of dopamine receptor drugs in rats eating a high fat diet. These changes in sensitivity of dopamine systems could be relevant to understanding the impact of nutrition on therapeutic and recreational drug use.

  20. The impact of maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy upon renal expression of angiotensin receptors and vasopressin-related aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornock Ruth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy is known to impact upon fetal development, growth and risk of disease in later life. It is of interest to understand how protein undernutrition influences the normal maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating renal haemodynamics and plasma volume during pregnancy, in the context of both normal and reduced plasma volume expansion. The study focused on expression of renal angiotensin receptors (ATR and vasopressin-related aquaporins (AQP, hypothesising that an alteration in the balance of these proteins would be associated with pregnancy per se and with compromised plasma volume expansion in rats fed a low-protein diet. Methods Female Wistar rats were mated and fed a control (18% casein or low-protein (9% casein diet during pregnancy. Animals were anaesthetised on days 5, 10, 15 and 20 of gestation (n = 8/group/time-point for determination of plasma volume using Evans Blue dye, prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues. Expression of the ATR subtypes and AQP2, 3 and 4 were assessed in maternal kidneys by PCR and western blotting. 24 non-pregnant Wistar rats underwent the same procedure at defined points of the oestrous cycle. Results As expected, pregnancy was associated with an increase in blood volume and haemodilution impacted upon red blood cell counts and haemoglobin concentrations. Expression of angiotensin II receptors and aquaporins 2, 3 and 4 was stable across all stages of the oestrus cycle. Interesting patterns of intra-renal protein expression were observed in response to pregnancy, including a significant down-regulation of AQP2. In contrast to previous literature and despite an apparent delay in blood volume expansion in low-protein fed rats, blood volume did not differ significantly between groups of pregnant animals. However, a significant down-regulation of AT2R protein expression was observed in low-protein fed animals

  1. Effects of Vitamin D Restricted Diet Administered during Perinatal and Postnatal Periods on the Penis of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes-Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D restricted diet on the Wistar rats offspring penis morphology. Mother rats received either standard diet (SC or vitamin D restricted (VitD diet. At birth, offspring were divided into SC/SC (from SC mothers, fed with SC diet and VitD/VitD (from VitD mothers, fed with VitD diet. After euthanasia the penises were processed for histomorphometric analysis. The VitD/VitD offspring displayed metabolic changes and reduction in the cross-sectional area of the penis, corpus cavernosum, tunica albuginea, and increased area of the corpus spongiosum. The connective tissue, smooth muscle, and cell proliferation percentages were greater in the corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum in the VitD/VitD offspring. The percentages of sinusoidal spaces and elastic fibers in the corpus cavernosum decreased. The elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum in the VitD/VitD offspring were reduced. Vitamin D restriction during perinatal and postnatal periods induced metabolic and structural changes and represented important risk factors for erectile dysfunction in the penis of the adult offspring. These findings suggest that vitamin D is an important micronutrient in maintaining the cytoarchitecture of the penis.

  2. A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

  3. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  4. Gestational Protein Restriction in Wistar Rats; Effect of Taurine Supplementation on Properties of Newborn Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Sandø-Pedersen, Sofie; Ørstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten

    2017-01-01

    Taurine ameliorates changes occurring in newborn skeletal muscle as a result of gestational protein restriction in C57BL/6 mice, but taurine supplementation effects may be exaggerated in C57BL/6 mice due to their inherent excessive taurinuria.We examined if maternal taurine supplementation could...... by taurine supplementation (LP-Tau). LP-Tau offspring had significantly lower birth weight compared to controls. Gene expression profiling revealed 895 significantly changed genes, mainly an LP-induced down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation. Taurine fully or partially rescued 32......% of these changes, but with no distinct pattern as to which genes were rescued.Skeletal muscle taurine content in LP-Tau offspring was increased, but no changes in mRNA levels of the taurine synthesis pathway were observed. Taurine transporter mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were increased by LP diet...

  5. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  6. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  7. Evaluation of yeast single cell protein (SCP) diets on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the possibility of replacing fishmeal with graded levels of yeast single cell protein (SCP; 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) in isonitrogenous feed formulations (30% protein) in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for a period of 12 weeks. The control diet had fishmeal as the primary protein ...

  8. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Wimmer, R D; McDonald, T J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2011-04-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4±0.8 and 3.8±0.3 sessions, respectively, pmotivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1±17), CR (74.7±8.4), and RC (65.9±11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5±7.5, plearning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes...... (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day...... for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...

  10. Ketogenic diet and astrocyte/neuron metabolic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vamecq Joseph; Maurois Pierre; Bac Pierre; Delplanque Bernadette; Pages Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an anticonvulsant diet enriched in fat. It provides the body with a minimal protein requirement and a restricted carbohydrate supply, the vast majority of calories (more than 80-90%) being given by fat. Though anticonvulsant activity of ketogenic diet has been well documented by a large number of experimental and clinical studies, underlying mechanisms still remain partially unclear. Astrocyte-neuron interactions, among which metabolic shuttles, may influence synaptic ac...

  11. DIGESTIBLE VALINE REQUIREMENTS IN LOW-PROTEIN DIETS FOR BROILERS CHICKS

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    GR Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible valine in diets with reduced crude protein on the performance, carcass yield and muscle fiber diameter of male broilers during the pre-starter (1 to 8 d of age, starter (9 to 21 d of age and grower phases (21 to 42 d of age. A total of 1,080 chickens in the pre-starter phase, 900 in the starter phase and 864 in the grower phase were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, consisting of a control positive diet (C+ and diets with 2 percentage points (p.p. reduction of crude protein level and five graded levels of digestible valine (Val, with six replicates of 30, 25 and 24 birds per experimental unit, respectively. The recommended level of TID Val in the low-protein diets for broilers in the pre-starter, starter and grower stages were 1.028; 0.905 and 0.789%, respectively. The reduction of 2 percentage points of the crude protein level in diets based on corn and soybean meal impaired (p ≤0.05 the feed conversion ratio in the starter and grower stages. Likewise, the reduced-protein diets decreased (p ≤0.05 muscle fiber diameter, but did not affect (p> 0.05 carcass and parts yields, or abdominal fat percentage at 42 days.

  12. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring.

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    Randy F Crossland

    Full Text Available Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP or a control protein (20% protein, C diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein and single-housed until 8-12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration, depression (tail suspension and forced swim test, sociability (three-chamber, repetitive (marble burying, learning and memory (fear conditioning, and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles. We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT. Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03, less energy expenditure (P = 0.004, less rearing activity (P = 0.04 and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03 compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01 but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02. There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  13. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  14. Identification of Differentially Abundant Proteins of Edwardsiella ictaluri during Iron Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep R Dumpala

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe intracellular bacterium that causes enteric septicemia in channel catfish. Iron is an essential inorganic nutrient of bacteria and is crucial for bacterial invasion. Reduced availability of iron by the host may cause significant stress for bacterial pathogens and is considered a signal that leads to significant alteration in virulence gene expression. However, the precise effect of iron-restriction on E. ictaluri protein abundance is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially abundant proteins of E. ictaluri during in vitro iron-restricted conditions. We applied two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE for determining differentially abundant proteins and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS for protein identification. Gene ontology and pathway-based functional modeling of differentially abundant proteins was also conducted. A total of 50 unique differentially abundant proteins at a minimum of 2-fold (p ≤ 0.05 difference in abundance due to iron-restriction were detected. The numbers of up- and down-regulated proteins were 37 and 13, respectively. We noted several proteins, including EsrB, LamB, MalM, MalE, FdaA, and TonB-dependent heme/hemoglobin receptor family proteins responded to iron restriction in E. ictaluri.

  15. [The role of balanced low-protein diet in inhibition of predialysis chronic kidney disease progression in patients with systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Iu S; Lysenko, L V; Milovanova, L Iu; Dobrosmyslov, I A

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-protein diet (LPD) balanced by addition of highly energetic mix and essential keto/amino acids on inhibition of renal failure in patients with systemic diseases with predialysis stages of chronic disease of the kidney (CDK). Forty six patients with stage III--IV of CDK in systemic diseases (33 SLE patients and 13 with systemic vasculitis) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 18 patients with CDK (10 with stage III and 8 with stage IV). They received LPD (0.6 g/kg/day) with addition of essential keto/amino acids for 24-48 months. Group 2 of 18 CDK patients with the same stages received the same diet but greater amount of vegetable protein (highly purified soya protein) to 0.3 g/kg/day in highly energetic nutrient mixture. Group 3--10 CDK patients (7 with stage III and 3 with stage IV) received free diet. Group 1 and 2 patients received LPD irrespective of the nutrient status assessed basing on anthropometric and other data. Protein consumption and caloric value were estimated by 3-day food diary. Before diet therapy, out of 46 examinees nutrient status was abnormal in 45.7% patients. Both variants of LPD were well tolerated and nutrient status was corrected while the rate of nutritive disorders in group 3 increased 1.5-fold (from 40 to 60%) with progression of renal failure. Intake of LPD diet for at least a year reduced glomerular filtration rate inhibition, especially in addition of highly energetic mixture. Early (predialysis) restriction of diet protein (0.6 g/kg/day) with addition of highly energetic mixture and essential keto/amino acids improves a nutritive status of CDK patients and inhibits GFR decline.

  16. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P 0.7, P < 0.05) with genes and metabolites generally regarded as being involved in disease pathogenesis, suggesting these bacteria may mediate the detrimental effects of HPDs on colonic health. Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  18. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  19. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3- 3 H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  20. Long-Term Effect of Mediterranean-Style Diet and Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Esposito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the effects of a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without calorie restriction, on biomarkers of aging and oxidative stress in overweight men. 192 men were randomly assigned to either a Mediterranean-style diet or a conventional diet. The intervention program was based on implementation of a Mediterranean dietary pattern in the overweight group (MED diet group, associated with calorie restriction and increased physical activity in the obese group (lifestyle group. Both groups were compared with participants in two matched control groups (advice groups. After 2 years, there was a significant difference in weight loss between groups, which was −14 kg (95% CI −20 to −8 in lifestyle groups and −2.0 kg (−4.4 to 0 in the advice groups, with a difference of −11.9 kg (CI −19 to −4.7 kg, <.001; moreover, there was a significant difference between groups at 2 years for insulin (=.04, 8-iso-PGF2α (=.037, glucose (=.04, and adiponectin (=.01. Prolonged adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, with or without caloric restriction, in overweight or obese men is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress, and improved insulin sensitivity.

  1. Pancreas and liver uptake of new radiolabeled incretins (GLP-1 and Exendin-4) in models of diet-induced and diet-restricted obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; Aparecida de Oliveira, Erica; Faintuch, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Radiolabeled GLP-1 and its analog Exendin-4, have been employed in diabetes and insulinoma. No protocol in conventional Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), and Diet-Restricted Obesity (DRO), has been identified. Aiming to assess pancreatic beta cell uptake in DIO and DRO, a protocol was designed. Methods: GLP-1-βAla-HYNIC and HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 were labeled with technetium-99m. Four Swiss mouse models were adopted: Controls (C), Alloxan Diabetes Controls (ADC), DIO and DRO. Biodistribution and ex-vivo planar imaging were documented. Results: Radiolabeling yield was in the range of 97% and both agents were hydrophilic. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) was 79.2 ± 8.2 mg/dl in C, 590.4 ± 23.3 mg/dl in ADC, 234.3 ± 66.7 mg/dl in DIO, and 96.6 ± 9.3 in DRO (p = 0.010). Biodistribution confirmed predominantly urinary excretion. DIO mice exhibited depressed uptake in liver and pancreas, for both radiomarkers, in the range of ADC. DRO only partially restored such values. 99m Tc-HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 demonstrated better results than GLP-1-βAla-HYNIC- 99m Tc. Conclusions: 1) Diet-induced obesity remarkably depressed beta cell uptake; 2) Restriction of obesity failed to normalize uptake, despite robust improvement of FBG; 3) HYNIC-βAla-Exendin-4 was the most useful marker; 4) Further studies are recommended in obesity and dieting, including bariatric surgery.

  2. Influence of catch up growth on spatial learning and memory in a mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition.IUGR was induced by 50% maternal caloric undernutrition throughout late gestation. During the suckling period, dams were either fed ad libitum or food restricted. The pups were divided into: Normal prenatal diet-Normal postnatal diet (NN, Restricted prenatal diet- Normal postnatal diet + catch up growth (RN+, Normal prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (NR and Restricted prenatal diet-Restricted postnatal diet (RR. At 4 weeks of age, memory was assessed via a water maze test. To evaluate synaptic function, 2 specific synaptic proteins (postsynaptic density-95 [PSD95], synaptophysin as well as insulin receptors (IR were tested by Western Blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serum insulin levels were also studied.The RN+ group presented a learning curve similar to the NN animals. The RR animals without CUG showed learning disabilities. PSD95 was lower in the RR group than in the NN and RN+ mice. In contrast, synaptophysin was similar in all groups. IR showed an inverse expression pattern to that of the PSD95. In conclusion, perinatal nutrition plays an important role in learning. CUG after a period of prenatal malnutrition seems to improve learning skills. The functional alterations observed might be related to lower PSD95 activity and a possible dysfunction in the hormone regulation of synaptic plasticity.

  3. Hypoenergetic diet-induced reductions in myofibrillar protein synthesis are restored with resistance training and balanced daily protein ingestion in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-05-01

    Strategies to enhance weight loss with a high fat-to-lean ratio in overweight/obese older adults are important since lean loss could exacerbate sarcopenia. We examined how dietary protein distribution affected muscle protein synthesis during energy balance (EB), energy restriction (ER), and energy restriction plus resistance training (ER + RT). A 4-wk ER diet was provided to overweight/obese older men (66 ± 4 yr, 31 ± 5 kg/m(2)) who were randomized to either a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein/meal × 4) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein/meal; n = 10/group) pattern. Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were measured during a 13-h primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine with BAL and SKEW pattern of protein intake in EB, after 2 wk ER, and after 2 wk ER + RT. Fed-state myofibrillar FSR was lower in ER than EB in both groups (P < 0.001), but was greater in BAL than SKEW (P = 0.014). In ER + RT, fed-state myofibrillar FSR increased above ER in both groups and in BAL was not different from EB (P = 0.903). In SKEW myofibrillar FSR remained lower than EB (P = 0.002) and lower than BAL (P = 0.006). Fed-state sarcoplasmic protein FSR was reduced similarly in ER and ER + RT compared with EB (P < 0.01) in both groups. During ER in overweight/obese older men a BAL consumption of protein stimulated the synthesis of muscle contractile proteins more effectively than traditional, SKEW distribution. Combining RT with a BAL protein distribution "rescued" the lower rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis during moderate ER. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of dietary restriction and hay inclusion in the diet of slow-growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P. Picoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary restriction and inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cv Coastal hays in the diets of ISA Label JA57 slow-growing male broilers on performance, gastrointestinal tract characteristics, and economic viability. A total of 272 broilers at 21 days old were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments, four replicates, and 17 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of ad libitum concentrated feed (control intake, feed restriction (80% of the control intake, and feed restrictions with supplementation of alfalfa hay (80% of the control intake+20% alfalfa or Bermudagrass hay (80% control intake+20% Bermuda. Dietary restriction, with and without hay inclusion, negatively affected (P<0.05 the weight gain of the birds; however, feed conversion was improved (P<0.05 for animals that underwent only restricted feeding, which also had the best economic indices. Birds subjected to dietary restriction and inclusion of hays showed changes (P<0.05 in the gastrointestinal organs and intestinal morphology.

  5. Nitrogen excretion in rats on a protein-free diet and during starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen balances (six days) were determined in male Wistar rats during feeding a diet with sufficient protein or a nearly protein-free diet (n = 2 x 24), and then during three days of starvation (n = 2 x 12). The objective was to evaluate the effect of protein withdrawal on minimum nitrogen...... excretion in urine (UN), corresponding to endogenous UN, during feeding and subsequent starvation periods. The rats fed the protein free-diet had almost the same excretion of urinary N during feeding and starvation (165 and 157 mg/kg W(0.75)), while it was 444 mg/kg W(0.75) in rats previously fed...... with protein, demonstrating a major influence of protein content in a diet on N excretion during starvation. Consequently, the impact of former protein supply on N losses during starvation ought to be considered when evaluating minimum N requirement necessary to sustain life....

  6. Treatment of chronic portal--systemic encephalopathy with vegetable and animal protein diets. A controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; Garcia Ramos, G; Ramos-Uribe, M H; Vargas, F; Villalobos, A; Ramos, C

    1982-12-01

    A controlled crossover clinical comparison of 40-g/day and 80-g/day vegetable protein diets vs a 40-g/day meat protein diet plus neomycin-milk of magnesia (as control therapy) was performed on 10 cirrhotic patients with mild chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy. The 40-g vegetable protein diet had a high fiber volume and contained low methionine and low aromatic amino acids. The 80-g vegetable protein diet was rich in branched-chain amino acids and fiber, with a similar content of sulfur-containing amino acids as compared to the 40-g meat protein diet. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done, including mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, electroencephalograms and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either vegetable protein diet or neomycin-milk of magnesia plus 40-g meat protein diet. A significant improvement in the number connection test times was observed during the 40-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) and during the 80-g vegetable protein diet (P less than 0.05) as compared to their previous 40-g meat protein--neomycin periods. In addition, during the period of 80-g vegetable protein diet, the patients showed a significant improvement in their electroencephalograms (P less than 0.05). The frequency of bowel movements significantly increased (P less than 0.05) during the 80-g vegetable protein diet period. During the 40-g vegetable protein diet, two cirrhotic--diabetic patients experienced hypoglycemia. Three patients complained of the voluminous 80-g vegetable protein diet. Patients with mild portal--systemic encephalopathy may be adequately controlled with vegetable protein diets as a single therapy.

  7. Protein-losing enteropathy as a rare complication of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Watanabe, Mio; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Shiihara, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy, but it can result in a variety of complications that sometimes limits its usefulness. Hypoproteinemia is one of the common adverse effects of this diet, although the underling mechanism is largely unknown except for the diet's reduced protein intake. Only one case of protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet has been reported. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl experienced fever for 5 days then suddenly developed convulsive seizures that subsequently evolved to severe refractory status epilepticus. After multiple antiepileptic drugs failed to improve the patient's condition, we introduced the ketogenic diet. Although her seizures diminished, her course was complicated by hypoproteinemia. An abdominal dynamic scintigraphy and colonoscopy findings indicated protein-losing enteropathy with nonspecific mucosal inflammation. Her nutritional status deteriorated; thus, we discontinued the ketogenic diet. Her nutritional status gradually improved, whereas her seizures increased. Hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet is common, but the underlying etiologies are not well understood. Abdominal dynamic scintigraphy could be valuable for clarifying the etiology of hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of Additive Effects of Resveratrol and Energy Restriction in the Treatment of Hepatic Steatosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rolo, Anabela P; Soeiro Teodoro, João; Palmeira, Carlos M; Portillo, María P

    2017-07-11

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the effect of resveratrol on liver steatosis in obese rats, to compare the effects induced by resveratrol and energy restriction and to research potential additive effects. Rats were initially fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for six weeks and then allocated in four experimental groups fed a standard diet: a control group, a resveratrol-treated group, an energy restricted group and a group submitted to energy restriction and treated with resveratrol. We measured liver triacylglycerols, transaminases, FAS, MTP, CPT1a, CS, COX, SDH and ATP synthase activities, FATP2/FATP5, DGAT2, PPARα, SIRT1, UCP2 protein expressions, ACC and AMPK phosphorylation and PGC1α deacetylation. Resveratrol reduced triacylglycerols compared with the controls, although this reduction was lower than that induced by energy restriction. The mechanisms of action were different. Both decreased protein expression of fatty acid transporters, thus suggesting reduced fatty acid uptake from blood stream and liver triacylglycerol delivery, but only energy restriction reduced the assembly. These results show that resveratrol is useful for liver steatosis treatment within a balanced diet, although its effectiveness is lower than that of energy restriction. However, resveratrol is unable to increase the reduction in triacylglycerol content induced by energy restriction.

  9. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  10. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  11. A high-protein diet enhances satiety without conditioned taste aversion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaïd, Ahmed; Tomé, Daniel; L'Heureux-Bourdon, Diane; Even, Patrick; Gietzen, Dorothy; Morens, Céline; Gaudichon, Claire; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Fromentin, Gilles

    2003-02-01

    In order to determine the respective roles of conditioned food aversion, satiety and palatability, we studied behavioral responses to a 50% total milk protein diet, compared with those to a normal protein diet containing 14% total milk protein. Different paradigms were employed, including meal pattern analysis, two-choice testing, flavor testing, a behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) and taste reactivity. Our experiments showed that only behavioral and food intake parameters were disturbed during the first day when an animal ate the high-protein (P50) diet, and that most parameters returned to baseline values as soon as the second day of P50. Rats adapted to P50 did not acquire a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) but exhibited satiety, and a normal BSS. The initial reduction in high-protein diet intake appeared to result from the lower palatability of the food combined with the satiety effect of the high-protein diet and the delay required for metabolic adaptation to the higher protein level.

  12. A comparative genotoxicity study of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T₃) in obese rats subjected to either calorie-restricted diet or hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress.

  13. A comparative genotoxicity study of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T₃ in obese rats subjected to either calorie-restricted diet or hyperthyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa De Sibio

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3 in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10 and obese (OB; n = 40. The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20 were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR, whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10, and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10 for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress.

  14. Low-protein diet induces, whereas high-protein diet reduces hepatic FGF21 production in mice, but glucose and not amino acids up-regulate FGF21 in cultured hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Even, Patrick C; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine; Piedcoq, Julien; Gaudichon, Claire; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila

    2016-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a polypeptide secreted by the liver and involved in several metabolic processes such as thermogenesis and lipid oxidation. The nutritional mechanisms controlling FGF21 production are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how dietary carbohydrates and proteins impact FGF21 production and how in turn, FGF21 is involved in the metabolic adaptation to changes in the carbohydrate and protein contents of the diet. For that purpose, we fed 25 male C57BL/6 mice diets composed of different protein and carbohydrate contents (normal-protein and carbohydrate diet (N=9, NPNC), low-protein high-carbohydrate diet (N=8, LPHC), high-protein low-carbohydrate diet (N=8, HPLC) for 3 weeks. We measured liver Fgf21 gene expression, synthesis and secretion as well as different parameters related to energy and glucose metabolism. We also investigated the direct role of amino acids and glucose in the control of Fgf21 gene expression in hepatocyte primary cultures (n=6). In vivo, FGF21 responds acutely to LPHC intake whereas under an HPLC diet, plasma FGF21 circulating levels are low in the fasted and refed states. In hepatocytes, Fgf21 expression was controlled by glucose but not amino acids. Both diets increased the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and ketogenesis was increased in fasted HPLC mice. The results presented suggest that dietary glucose, rather than amino acids, directly controls FGF21 secretion, and that FGF21 may be involved in the increased TEF response to LPHC. The effects of the HPLC diet on ketogenesis and TEF are probably controlled by other metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M; Pannell, Benjamin K; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

  16. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent-Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular diseases among men and women. Thus, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with heart healthy diet plan during weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of individuals with obesity. Methods: The experiment involved 40 adults with obesity (men, n = 21; women, n = 19 and was divided into two phases: (a 12-week high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1 and (b a 1-year (52-week weight loss maintenance comparing high-protein, intermittent-fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2. Body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control, 12 (weight loss, and 64 (12+52 week; weight loss maintenance.Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant with reductions in body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance was enhanced (p < 0.05. No sex-specific differences were observed. During phase 2, high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie group demonstrated less weight regain and percentage change in aortic pulse wave velocity than heart healthy group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high-protein, intermittent-fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with body weight loss and reduction in blood lipids. This diet also demonstrated a potential advantage in minimizing weight gain relapse as well as enhancing arterial compliance compared to the heart healthy diet in the long term.

  17. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  18. Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-10-01

    Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P high-protein diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Body macronutrient composition is predicted by lipid and not protein content of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatt, Joshua P; Hambly, Catherine; Heap, Elizabeth; Kramer, Anna; Moon, Fiona; Speakman, John R; Walling, Craig A

    2017-12-01

    Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ). Carbohydrate is relatively unimportant in the diet of predatory fish, facilitating the exploration of how dietary protein-to-lipid ratio affects their relative deposition in the body. We find a significant effect of lipid intake, rather than protein, on body protein:lipid ratio. Importantly, this was not a result of absorbing macronutrients in relation to their relative abundance in the diet, as the carcass protein:lipid ratios differed from those of the diets, with ratios usually lower in the body than in the diet. This indicates that individuals can moderate their utilization, or uptake, of ingested macronutrients to reach a target balance within the body. We found no effect of diet on swimming endurance, activity, or testes size. However, there was an effect of weight on testes size, with larger males having larger testes. Our results provide evidence for the adjustment of body protein:lipid ratio away from that of the diet. As dietary lipid intake was the key determinant of body composition, we suggest this occurs via metabolism of excess protein, which conflicts with the predictions of the protein leverage hypothesis. These results could imply that the conversion and excretion of protein is one of the causes of the survival costs associated with high-protein diets.

  20. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal versus vegetable protein sources in the diet on the development of behavior in laying hens. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with four diets, each containing one of four processed animal proteins

  1. Dairy-Rich Diets Augment Fat Loss on an Energy-Restricted Diet: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Zemel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week randomized controlled multi-center clinical trial was conducted in 106 overweight and obese adults. Diets were designed to produce a 2,093 kJ/day energy deficit with either low calcium (LC; ~600 mg/day, high calcium (HC; ~1,400 mg/day, or high dairy (HD; three dairy servings, diet totaling ~1,400 mg/day. Ninety-three subjects completed the trial, and 68 met all a priori weekly compliance criteria. Both HC and HD contained comparable levels of calcium, but HC was only ~30% as effective as HD in suppressing 1,25-(OH2D and exerted no significant effects on weight loss or body composition compared to LC. In the group that met compliance criteria, HD resulted in ~two-fold augmentation of fat loss compared to LC and HC (HD: -4.43 ± 0.53 kg; LC: -2.69 ± 0.0.53 kg; HC: -2.23 ± 0.73kg, p < 0.025; assessment of all completers and an intent-to-treat analysis produced similar trends. HD augmentated central (trunk fat loss (HD: -2.38 ± 0.30 kg; HC: -1.42 ± 0.30 kg; LC: -1.36 ± 0.42 kg, p < 0.05 and waist circumference (HD: -7.65 ± 0.75 cm; LC: -4.92 ± 0.74 cm; LC: -4.95 ± 1.05 cm, p < 0.025. Similar effects were noted among all subjects completing the study and in an intent-to-treat analysis. These data indicate that dairy-rich diets augment weight loss by targeting the fat compartment during energy restriction.

  2. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  3. Protein and energy metabolism in two lines of chickens selected for growth on high or low protein diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O; Sørensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Genetic adaptation was investigated in broilers selected for seven generations on a normal (A) or a low (B) protein diet. Protein and energy metabolism were studied in males from these selected lines fed on a diet of intermediate protein content. All selected birds retained more nitrogen than those...

  4. Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernandez, Lucia; Barquera, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have shown that protein-enriched diets can lead to greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MeS) than standard protein diets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased protein intake on weight loss in Mexican adults with MeS. Randomized controlled trial in 118 adults aged 47.4 ± 11.5 years and meeting the established criteria for MeS were randomized to prescribed hypocaloric diets (500 kcal less than resting metabolic rate) providing either 0.8 g/kg body weight (standard protein diet (SPD)) or 1.34 g/kg body weight (higher protein diet (HPD)) for 6 months. Body weight, waist circumference, percent body fat by bioimpedance analysis, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were measured at baseline, 3 months and at 6 months. There were 105 subjects (51 for SPD and 54 for HPD) who completed the trial. Overall weight loss was 5.1 ± 3.6 kg in the SPD group compared to 7.0 ± 3.7 kg in the in HPD group. Both groups lost a significant percent of centimeters of waist circumference (SPD -6.5 ± 2.6 cm and HPD -8.8 ± 2.6 cm). There was no statistical difference Except for the varying weight losses the two groups did not show any further differences overall. However in the subgroup judged to be adherent more than 75% of the time with the prescribed diets, there was a significant difference in mean weight loss (SPD -5.8% vs. HPD -9.5%) after adjusting for baseline BMI. Both groups demonstrated significant decreases in waist circumference, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and VLDL cholesterol, but there were no differences between the groups. There were no changes in blood tests for liver or renal function. There were no

  5. Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Campos-Nonato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have shown that protein-enriched diets can lead to greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MeS than standard protein diets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased protein intake on weight loss in Mexican adults with MeS. Methods: Randomized controlled trial in 118 adults aged 47.4 ± 11.5 years and meeting the established criteria for MeS were randomized to prescribed hypocaloric diets (500 kcal less than resting metabolic rate providing either 0.8 g/kg body weight (standard protein diet (SPD or 1.34 g/kg body weight (higher protein diet (HPD for 6 months. Body weight, waist circumference, percent body fat by bioimpedance analysis, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were measured at baseline, 3 months and at 6 months. Results: There were 105 subjects (51 for SPD and 54 for HPD who completed the trial. Overall weight loss was 5.1 ± 3.6 kg in the SPD group compared to 7.0 ± 3.7 kg in the in HPD group. Both groups lost a significant percent of centimeters of waist circumference (SPD -6.5 ± 2.6 cm and HPD -8.8 ± 2.6 cm. There was no statistical difference Except for the varying weight losses the two groups did not show any further differences overall. However in the subgroup judged to be adherent more than 75% of the time with the prescribed diets, there was a significant difference in mean weight loss (SPD -5.8% vs. HPD -9.5% after adjusting for baseline BMI. Both groups demonstrated significant decreases in waist circumference, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and VLDL cholesterol, but there were no differences between the groups. There were no changes in blood tests for

  6. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status and responses to lipopolysaccharide challenge in postnatal young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Kang, J H; Tan, Z L

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge of maternal malnutrition of ruminants and effects on development of the immune system of their offspring is lacking. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on immune status of their offspring at different ages. Sixty-three pregnant goats (local breed, Liuyang black goat, 22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were fed control (CON, ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), or 40% energy restricted (ER) diets from d 91 of gestation to parturition, after which all animals received an adequate diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma concentrations of complement components (C3, C4), C-reactive protein (CRP) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM), jejunum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) expression levels and morphology in the offspring were measured. Additionally, plasma concentration of complement and IL-6, and cytokines expression levels in gastrointestinal tract obtained at 6 wk from young goats were assessed under saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenging conditions. Maternal PR or ER decreased (P 0.05) plasma CRP concentration. The IL-10 mRNA expression of jejunum from PR kids was also less (P 0.05) in any plasma or tissue immune parameters among the 3 treatments. However, when given a LPS challenge, ER and PR kids had greater (P = 0.02) IL-6 concentration compared with CON kids. Our results suggest that both PR and ER during late gestation induced short-term as well as long-lasting alterations on immune responses in their offspring, which may make the animals more susceptible to a bacterial pathogen challenge. The present findings expand the existing knowledge in immunological mechanisms responsible for the development of disease in later life.

  7. A Comparative Genotoxicity Study of a Supraphysiological Dose of Triiodothyronine (T3) in Obese Rats Subjected to Either Calorie-Restricted Diet or Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress. PMID:23468891

  8. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

  9. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de, Lisette; Vries, de, Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a 8 wk completely controlled SFA-rich diet, a SFA-by-MUFA-replaced diet (MUFA diet) or a MED diet. Concentrations of 124 plasma proteins and PBMCs whole genome transcriptional profiles were assessed...

  10. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  11. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  12. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; Anton, Stephen D; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M; Bishop, Louise M; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S; Rood, Jennifer C; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L; Loria, Catherine M; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A

    2009-02-26

    The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize

  13. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S.; Rood, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. RESULTS At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of

  14. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Protein deficiency lowers resistance of Mormon crickets to the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B; Jaronski, S T

    Little is known about the effects of dietary macronutrients on the capacity of insects to ward off a fungal pathogen. Here we tested the hypothesis that Mormon crickets fed restricted protein diets have lower enzymatic assays of generalized immunity, slower rates of encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from infection by Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen. Beginning in the last nymphal instar, Mormon crickets were fed a high, intermediate, or low protein diet with correspondingly low, intermediate, or high carbohydrate proportions. After they eclosed to adult, we drew hemolymph, topically applied B. bassiana, maintained them on diet treatments, and measured mortality for 21 days. Mormon crickets fed high protein diets had higher prophenoloxidase titers, greater encapsulation response, and higher survivorship to Beauveria fungal infection than those on low protein diets. We replicated the study adding very high and very low protein diets to the treatments. A high protein diet increased phenoloxidase titers, and those fed the very high protein diet had more circulating prophenoloxidase. Mormon crickets fed the very low protein diet were the most susceptible to B. bassiana infection, but the more concentrated phenoloxidase and prophenoloxidase associated with the highest protein diets did not confer the greatest protection from the fungal pathogen as in the first replicate. We conclude that protein-restricted diets caused Mormon crickets to have lower phenoloxidase titers, slower encapsulation of foreign bodies, and greater mortality from B. bassiana infection than those fed high protein diets. These results support the nutrition-based dichotomy of migrating Mormon crickets, protein-deficient ones are more susceptible to pathogenic fungi whereas carbohydrate-deficient ones are more vulnerable to bacterial challenge. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Clinical trial experience with fat-restricted vs. carbohydrate-restricted weight-loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    It is unlikely that one diet is optimal for all overweight or obese persons. Both low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to induce weight loss and reduce obesity-related comorbidities. Low-carbohydrate diets cause greater short-term (up to 6 months) weight loss than low-fat diets, but the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of these diets has not been studied.

  17. Whole-body protein turnover response to short-term high-protein diets during weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Determine whole-body protein turnover responses to high protein diets during weight loss. Design: Thirty-nine adults (age, 21 ± 1 yr; VO2peak, 48 ± 1 ml'kg-1'min-1; body mass index, 25 ± 1 kg•m2) were randomized to diets providing protein at the recommend dietary allowance (RDA), 2X-RD...

  18. Critical differences between two low protein diet protocols in the programming of hypertension in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2000-01-01

    Maternal nutrition has been identified as a factor determining fetal growth and risk of adult disease. In rats, the feeding of a low protein diet during pregnancy retards fetal growth and induces hypertension in the resulting offspring. Rat models of low protein feeding have been extensively used to study the mechanisms that may link maternal nutrition with impaired fetal growth and later cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Low protein diets of differing composition used in different laboratories have yielded inconsistent data on the relationship between maternal protein intake and offsprings' blood pressure. Two separate low protein diet protocols were compared in terms of their ability to programme hypertension during fetal life. Pregnant rats were assigned to receive one of four diets. Two diets were obtained from a commercial supplier and provided casein at 22 or 9% by weight (H22, control; H9, low protein). The other two diets, manufactured in our own facility, provided 18% casein (S18, control) or 9% casein (S9, low protein) by weight. The diets differed principally in their overall fat content, fatty acid composition, methionine content and the source of carbohydrate. Feeding of the experimental diets commenced on the first day of pregnancy and continued until the rats delivered their litters. Following weaning all the offspring had blood pressure determined on a single occasion. Both low protein diets reduced maternal weight gain relative to their corresponding control diets. Despite this litter sizes were unaffected by the dietary protocols. Both low protein diets reduced birthweights of the pups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated in the offspring of rats fed a low protein S9 diet relative to all other groups (P work that differing low protein diet manipulations in rat pregnancy elicit different programming effects upon the developing cardiovasculature. The balance of protein and other nutrients may be a critical determinant of the long

  19. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of diet of Varying Protein concentrations on the Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in protein diet have been reported to result in alterations in calcium homeostasis in the body. Ca2+Mg2+ATPase is an ubiquitous enzyme important in calcium homeostasis in the body. The effect of varying protein diet on the activities of Ca2+ pump across cell membranes is however yet to be fully elucidated.

  1. Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Xie

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. The study aims to answer whether maternal undernutrition by protein restriction affects the ATM M1 or M2 phenotype under postnatal high fat diet in F1 offspring. Using a rat model of prenatal low protein (LP, 8% protein diet followed by a postnatal high fat energy diet (HE, 45% fat or low fat normal energy diet (NE, 10% fat for 12 weeks, we investigated the effects of these diets on adiposity, programming of the offspring ATM phenotype, and the associated inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Fat mass in newborn and 12-week old LP fed offspring was lower than that of normal protein (20%; NP fed offspring; however, the adipose tissue growth rate was higher compared to the NP fed offspring. While LP did not affect the number of CD68+ or CD206+ cells in adipose tissue of NE offspring, it attenuated the number of these cells in offspring fed HE. In offspring fed HE, LP offspring had a lower percentage of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs, whose abundancy was correlated with the size of the adipocytes. Noteworthy, similar to HE treatment, LP increased gene expression of IL-6 within ATMs. Two-way ANOVA showed an interaction of prenatal LP and postnatal HE on IL-6 and IL-1β transcription. Overall, both LP and HE diets impact ATM phenotype by affecting the ratio of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs and the expression of IL-6.

  2. Effect of diet protein quality on growth and protein synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalkar, D.V.; Mehta, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diet protein quality on albino rats was studied by feeding normal and opaque-2 maize. The weight gain in rats was 60 percent higher on opaque-2 maize as compared to those fed on normal maize. Rats converted 1.0 g of dietary opaque-2 maize to 0.226 g weight gain as compared to 0.131 g for normal maize. The protein content per liver was higher with opaque-2 maize diet suggesting a higher net protein synthesis in opaque-2 maize fed rat livers. In vitro 14 C-phenylalanine incorporation showed that polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rat livers were more efficient in protein synthesis than those from normal maize fed rat livers. Addition of poly-U resulted in more enhanced amino acid incorporation with polysomes from normal maize fed rats as compared to other group indicating greater limitation of mRNA in polysomes from normal maize fed rats. The total yield of liver polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rats was substantially higher. (author)

  3. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups

  4. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  5. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet on anthropometrics, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits in obese men displaying a high or a low satiety phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Tremblay, Angelo; Blundell, John E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Denis; Lamarche, Benoît; Drapeau, Vicky

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype. Both diets were consumed ad libitum. Changes in body weight, BMI, percent fat mass, waist circumference, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits were assessed following the intervention. Dropout rates were higher in the control diet (44·1 %) compared with the satiating diet (8·6 %). Decreases in body weight, BMI and waist circumference were significant in both groups, yet HSP individuals lost more body weight than LSP individuals (P=0·048). Decreases in % fat mass were greater in the satiating diet (LSP: -2·1 (sd 2·1) %; Pdiet (LSP: -1·1 (sd 2·5) % and HSP: -1·3 (sd 2·6) %) (P=0·034). Satiety responsiveness was markedly improved in the satiating diet, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Changes in dietary restraint (+3·3 (sd 2·9) to +7·2 (sd 5·5)), flexible control (+0·9 (sd 1·4) to +2·3 (sd 2·7)), rigid control (+2·2 (sd 1·5) to +2·5 (sd 2·8)), disinhibition (-2·8 (sd 3·7) to -3·2 (sd 2·6)) and susceptibility to hunger (-2·7 (sd 4·1) to -4·6 (sd 3·9)) were similar between the diets. Compared with the control diet, the satiating diet favoured adherence, decreased % fat mass and improved satiety responsiveness in both HSP and LSP individuals.

  7. Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Caamaño, Maria Del C; Martínez, Guadalupe; Gutiérrez, Jessica; García, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet. A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico. Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks. Changes in weight and body composition. One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects. After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was

  8. The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Fuller, Nicholas Robert; Zulet, María Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Caterson, Ian Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

  9. Alternative diets to the classical ketogenic diet-Can we be more liberal?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Maria J; Turner, Zahava; Magrath, Gwyneth

    2012-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, adequate protein, low-carbohydrate diet has been used since 1921 for the treatment of severe medically refractory epilepsy. In the past 15 years, the use of the KD has expanded enormously and a huge amount of clinical evidence of its efficacy is available....... The classical KD is however restrictive and therefore alternative more liberal varieties of the classical KD have been developed within the last 8 years. The purpose of this report is to summarise the principles and evidence of effectiveness of the alternative ketogenic diets: Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT......)-KD, modified Atkins diet (MAD) and low glycaemic index treatment (LGIT), compared to the classical KD. The clinical evidence to date suggests that the more liberal versions of the classical KD such as MCT KD, MAD and LGIT have an efficacy close to the classical KD; however, no RCT data are available for MAD...

  10. The effectiveness of vegetable protein diet for refeeding malnourished children recovering from shigella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, I.; Halliday, D.; Underwood, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Shigellosis is a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. A substantial proportion of children who survive develop secondary protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and become stunted. In a previous study at ICDDR, B using a high-protein (animal) diet with generous portions of selected micronutrients, we were able to show accelerated rates of catch-up in weight and length gain, i.e., to begin to reverse stunting. However, the dietary ingredients we used are costly and therefore the intervention is impractical. Therefore, the next step is to rest the hypothesis that stunting can also be reversed by carefully formulated diets based on affordable ingredients. To test this hypothesis, we will use rice-legum-based diets in which the amino acid patterns are complimentary, and will supplement the diet to increase intake of key micronutrients which affect linear growth. The effects of the experimental diet will be compared with those of a standard diet recommended by WHO/FAO and with those of the diet we used previously, which was based on animal products and provided 15% of energy as protein and more micronutrients than the standard refeeding diet. We will measure growth by standard means, but will add measurements of protein anabolism to learn whether this is an early predictor of length gain. 29 refs, 1 tab

  11. The effectiveness of vegetable protein diet for refeeding malnourished children recovering from shigella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, I.; Halliday, D.; Underwood, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Shigellosis is a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. A substantial proportion of children who survive develop secondary protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and become stunted. In a previous study at ICDDR,B using a high-protein (animal) diet with generous portions of selected micronutrients, we were able to show accelerated rates of catch-up in weight and length gain, i.e., to begin to reverse stunting. However, the dietary ingredients we used are costly and therefore the intervention is impractical. Therefore, the next step is to test the hypothesis that stunting can also be reversed by carefully formulated diets based on affordable ingredients. To test this hypothesis, we will use rice-legume-based diets in which the amino acid patterns are complimentary, and will supplement the diet to increase intake of key micronutrients which affect linear growth. The effect of the experimental diet will be compared with those of a standard diet recommended by WHO/FAO and with those of the diet we used previously, which was based on animal products and provided 15% of energy as protein and more micronutrients than the standard refeeding diet. We will measure growth by standard means, but will add measurements of protein anabolism to learn whether this is an early predictor of length gain. 29 refs, 3 tabs

  12. The effectiveness of vegetable protein diet for refeeding malnourished children recovering from shigella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, I [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDRB) (India); Halliday, D [Clinical Research Centre, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Underwood, L E [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Shigellosis is a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. A substantial proportion of children who survive develop secondary protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and become stunted. In a previous study at ICDDR,B using a high-protein (animal) diet with generous portions of selected micronutrients, we were able to show accelerated rates of catch-up in weight and length gain, i.e., to begin to reverse stunting. However, the dietary ingredients we used are costly and therefore the intervention is impractical. Therefore, the next step is to test the hypothesis that stunting can also be reversed by carefully formulated diets based on affordable ingredients. To test this hypothesis, we will use rice-legume-based diets in which the amino acid patterns are complimentary, and will supplement the diet to increase intake of key micronutrients which affect linear growth. The effect of the experimental diet will be compared with those of a standard diet recommended by WHO/FAO and with those of the diet we used previously, which was based on animal products and provided 15% of energy as protein and more micronutrients than the standard refeeding diet. We will measure growth by standard means, but will add measurements of protein anabolism to learn whether this is an early predictor of length gain. 29 refs, 3 tabs.

  13. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipo-Protein Emulsion Structure in the Diet Affects Protein Digestion Kinetics, Intestinal Mucosa Parameters and Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Le Feunteun, Steven; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion; Gaudichon, Claire; Blachier, François

    2018-01-01

    Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We test the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. Rats (n = 40) are fed for 3 weeks with two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and microstructure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingest a 15 N-labeled LFE or GCE test meal and are euthanized 0, 15 min, 1 h, and 5 h later. 15 N enrichment in intestinal contents and blood are measured. Gastric emptying, protein digestion kinetics, 15 N absorption, and incorporation in blood protein and urea are faster with LFE than GCE. At 15 min time point, LFE group shows higher increase in GIP portal levels than GCE. Three weeks of dietary adaptation leads to higher expression of cationic amino acid transporters in ileum of LFE compared to GCE. LFE diet raises cecal butyrate and isovalerate proportion relative to GCE, suggesting increased protein fermentation. LFE diet increases fecal Parabacteroides relative abundance but decreases Bifidobacterium, Sutterella, Parasutterella genera, and Clostridium cluster XIV abundance. Protein emulsion structure regulates digestion kinetics and gastrointestinal physiology, and could be targeted to improve food health value. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Short-term changes in lipoprotein subclasses and C-reactive protein levels of hypertriglyceridemic adults on low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoernell, Colene K; Tangney, Christy C; Rockway, Susie W

    2008-07-01

    Diets designed to promote weight loss and improve atherogenic lipid profiles traditionally include a reduction in total fat and, in particular, saturated fats. This study was designed to test the efficacy of a low-fat diet vs a carbohydrate (CHO)-restricted (low-CHO) diet in hypertriglyceridemic patients on lipid profile, weight loss, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and satiety. Twenty-eight hypertriglyceridemic subjects (based on fasting triacylglycerol [TG] levels exceeding 1.69 mmol/L) were randomized to either the low-CHO or low-fat diet for 8 weeks. Fasting bloods were acquired at weeks 0 and 8 and analyzed for lipids and hs-CRP. Body weight and other anthropometric measures were also obtained. Three random 24-hour food recalls were used to assess compliance during the trial and 2 recalls before randomization to permit individualized dietary education. A significant time-by-treatment interaction was observed (P = .045), wherein the small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 46% in the low-CHO-assigned subjects and increased by 36% for those assigned the low-fat plan. The observed decrease in TG (18%) among low-CHO subjects, in contrast to the 4% increase for low-fat group, was not significant, nor were there significant differences in hs-CRP, overall dietary compliance, satiety, or the magnitude of body weight loss between groups (low-CHO group, -3.8% vs low-fat group, -1.6%). Favorable reductions in small low-density lipoprotein concentrations after 8 weeks suggest that a moderately restricted carbohydrate diet (20% CHO as energy) can promote a less atherogenic lipid profile when compared to the low-fat diet.

  16. Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (INCA study) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, Lidy M.; Frankena, Klaas; Toorman, Jan; Savelkoul, Huub F.; Dubois, Anthony E.; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Haagen, Ton A.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of a restricted elimination diet in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have mainly been investigated in selected subgroups of patients. We aimed to investigate whether there is a connection between diet and behaviour in an unselected group of

  17. Effect of administration of high-protein diet in rats submitted to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Lima, Thiago; Ávila, Eudes Thiago Pereira; Fraga, Géssica Alves; de Souza Sena, Mariana; de Souza Dias, Arlyson Batista; de Almeida, Paula Caroline; Dos Santos Trombeta, Joice Cristina; Junior, Roberto Carlos Vieira; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Navalta, James Wilfred; Prestes, Jonato; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo

    2018-04-01

    Although there is limited evidence regarding the pathophysiological effects of a high-protein diet (HD), it is believed that this type of diet could overload the body and cause damage to the organs directly involved with protein metabolism and excretion. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of HD on biochemical and morphological parameters of rats that completed a resistance training protocol (RT; aquatic jump) for 8 weeks. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): sedentary normal protein diet (SN-14%), sedentary high-protein diet (SH-35%), trained normal protein diet (TN-14%), and trained high-protein diet (TH-35%). Biochemical, tissue, and morphological measurements were made. Kidney (1.91 ± 0.34) and liver weights (12.88 ± 1.42) were higher in the SH. Soleus muscle weight was higher in the SH (0.22 ± 0.03) when compared to all groups. Blood glucose (123.2 ± 1.8), triglycerides (128.5 ± 44.0), and HDL cholesterol levels (65.7 ± 20.9) were also higher in the SH compared with the other experimental groups. Exercise reduced urea levels in the trained groups TN and TH (31.0 ± 4.1 and 36.8 ± 6.6), respectively. Creatinine levels were lower in TH and SH groups (0.68 ± 0.12; 0.54 ± 0.19), respectively. HD negatively altered renal morphology in SH, but when associated with RT, the apparent damage was partially reversed. In addition, the aquatic jump protocol reversed the damage to the gastrocnemius muscle caused by the HD. A high-protein diet promoted negative metabolic and morphological changes, while RT was effective in reversing these deleterious effects.

  18. IFITM Proteins Restrict HIV-1 Infection by Antagonizing the Envelope Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyou Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM proteins have been recently shown to restrict HIV-1 and other viruses. Here, we provide evidence that IFITM proteins, particularly IFITM2 and IFITM3, specifically antagonize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env, thereby inhibiting viral infection. IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env in viral producer cells, leading to impaired Env processing and virion incorporation. Notably, the level of IFITM incorporation into HIV-1 virions does not strictly correlate with the extent of inhibition. Prolonged passage of HIV-1 in IFITM-expressing T lymphocytes leads to emergence of Env mutants that overcome IFITM restriction. The ability of IFITMs to inhibit cell-to-cell infection can be extended to HIV-1 primary isolates, HIV-2 and SIVs; however, the extent of inhibition appears to be virus-strain dependent. Overall, our study uncovers a mechanism by which IFITM proteins specifically antagonize HIV-1 Env to restrict HIV-1 infection and provides insight into the specialized role of IFITMs in HIV infection.

  19. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  1. Association of low-protein supplemented diets with fetal growth in pregnant women with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Leone, Filomena; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Ferraresi, Martina; Clari, Roberta; Ghiotto, Sara; Biolcati, Marilisa; Giuffrida, Domenica; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-05-01

    Women affected by CKD increasingly choose to get pregnant. Experience with low-protein diets is limited. The aim of this study was to review results obtained from pregnant women with CKD on supplemented vegan-vegetarian low-protein diets. This was a single-arm, open intervention study between 2000-2012 of a low-protein diet in pregnant patients with stages 3-5 CKD or severe proteinuria (>1 g/d in the first trimester or nephrotic at any time). Stages 3-5 CKD patients who were not on low-protein diets for clinical, psychologic, or logistic reasons served as controls. The setting was the Obstetrics-Nephrology Unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy. The treated group included 24 pregnancies--21 singleton deliveries, 1 twin pregnancy, 1 abortion, and 1 miscarriage. Additionally, there were 21 controls (16 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet was a vegan-vegetarian low-protein diet (0.6-0.8 g/kg per day) with keto-acid supplementation and 1-3 protein-unrestricted meals allowed per week. Treated patients and controls were comparable at baseline for median age (35 versus 34 years), referral week (7 versus 8), eGFR (59 versus 54 ml/min), and hypertension (43.5% versus 33.3%); median proteinuria was higher in patients on the low-protein diet (1.96 [0.1-6.3] versus 0.3 [0.1-2.0] g/d; Pdiet group. Incidence of small for gestational age babies was significantly lower in the diet group (3/21) versus controls (7/16; chi-squared test; P=0.05). Throughout follow-up (6 months to 10 years), hospitalization rates and prevalence of children below the third percentile were similar in both groups. Vegan-vegetarian supplemented low-protein diets in pregnant women with stages 3-5 CKD may reduce the likelihood of small for gestational age babies without detrimental effects on kidney function or proteinuria in the mother.

  2. Evaluation of behaviour in stabled draught horse foals fed diets with two protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, C; Guzzo, N; Normando, S; Bailoni, L; Mantovani, R

    2017-01-01

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the behaviour of Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) foals reared in semi-covered stables and fed two isoenergetic total mixed rations with different dietary protein levels (13.2% and 10.6% of CP on dry matter). The study was prompted by the restrictions for nitrate emissions in farms of the European Nitrate Directive. One suggested solution is to reduce dietary protein while maintaining normal performance and welfare, but there is a lack of literature in studies of horses. The behaviours of 20 foals of 437±60 kg of BW, aged 379±37 days and stabled in four pens by sex (S) and diet (D) were video recorded and analysed to build a suitable ethogram including 18 behaviours in six categories: ingestion, resting, maintenance, movement, social activities, other. The percentage of the daily time spent in each behavioural category and single behaviours was analysed via a single traits GLM including S, D and their interaction. Daily activity was consistent with existing literature: foals spent about 33% of the day in ingestion activities and 41% in resting, whereas social interactions constituted 8% of the time and individual maintenance draught breeds for foals in both dietary groups, a result that suggests the maintenance of well-being after dietary protein reduction. This result, together with the findings of a companion study showing no changes in growth performances of foals, showed that a reduction of CP in foal diet is reconcilable with the maintenance of performance and welfare.

  3. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks, Frank Martin; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent James; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy M; Leboff, Meryl Susan; Rood, Jennifer Evelyn; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS: We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guideli...

  4. Food intake and weight of lactating rats maintained on different protein-calorie diets, and pup growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.B. Cambraia

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels of protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14, B (N = 14, C (N = 9 and D (N = 9, were used. Diet A contained 16% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet B, 6% protein and 77% carbohydrate; diet C, 6% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet D, 16% protein and 56% carbohydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in groups B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carbohydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.

  5. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne; Wycherley, Thomas P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Woods, Stephen C; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-04-29

    Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an overview of the literature that explores the mechanisms of action after acute protein consumption and the clinical health outcomes after consumption of long-term, higher-protein diets. Several meta-analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also reported. In addition, a review of the acute feeding trials confirms a modest satiety effect, including greater perceived fullness and elevated satiety hormones after higher-protein meals but does not support an effect on energy intake at the next eating occasion. Although shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears to be the primary contributor to the discrepant findings because improvements in weight management were detected in those who adhered to the prescribed higher-protein regimen, whereas those who did not adhere to the diet had no marked improvements. Collectively, these data suggest that higher-protein diets that contain between 1.2 and 1.6 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 and potentially include meal-specific protein quantities of at least ∼25-30 g protein/meal provide

  6. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  7. Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: ...

  8. Can renal nutrition education improve adherence to a low-protein diet in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Barreto, Juliana Giglio; Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Bregman, Rachel; Cervante, Vicente Faria; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Avesani, Carla Maria

    2013-05-01

    Low adherence is frequently observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are following a low-protein diet. We have evaluated whether a specific nutrition education program motivates patients with CKD who do not yet receive dialysis to reduce their protein intake and whether such a program improves adherence to a low-protein diet over and above standard dietary counseling. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted at the CKD outpatient clinic at Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study included adult patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Patients were randomized to a normal counseling group (individualized dietary program: 0.6 to 0.75 g protein/kg/day or 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day for patients with diabetes and 25 to 35 kcal/kg/day with sodium restriction) or an intense counseling group (same dietary program plus nutrition education materials). The nutrition education material included 4 different actions to improve patient knowledge and understanding of the low-protein and low-sodium diet. Both groups were followed by means of individual monthly visits to the outpatient clinic for 4 months. We looked for a change in protein intake from baseline values as well as the adherence rate, assessed as a 20% decrease of the initial protein intake (by 24-hour food recall). Eighty-nine patients completed the study (normal counseling n = 46; intense counseling n = 43). The number of patients who adhered to a low-protein diet was high but did not differ between groups (in the last visit 69% vs. 48%; P = .48; intense vs. normal counseling, respectively). The reduction in protein intake from baseline values was greater for the intense counseling group compared with the normal counseling group (at the last visit, -20.7 g/day [-30.9%] vs. -10.5 g/day [-15.1%], intense vs. normal counseling, respectively; P = .04). An intense nutrition education program contributed to reducing protein intake in patients with

  9. Effects of Short-Term Carbohydrate Restrictive and Conventional Hypoenergetic Diets and Resistance Training on Strength Gains and Muscle Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Meirelles, Paulo S.C. Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoenergetic diets and resistance training (RT have been suggested to be important components of weight loss strategy programs; however, there is little evidence as to the chronic effects of different macronutrient compositions on strength performance and muscle mass with RT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of carbohydrate restrictive (CRD and conventional (CONV diets combined with RT on strength performance and muscle thicknesses in overweight and obese participants already involved in RT programs. Twenty-one volunteers engaged in an eight-week progressive RT program three times per week were assigned to a CRD (< 30 g carbohydrate; n = 12; 30.7 ± 3.9 km·m-2 or a CONV (30% energy deficit; 55%, 15% and 30% energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat, respectively; n=9; 27.7±2.5 km·m-2. Method: At baseline and week 8, the participants underwent body composition assessment by anthropometry, measurement of muscle thickness by ultrasound, and three strength tests using isotonic equipment. Both groups had similar reductions in body mass and fat mass as well as maintenance of fat-free mass. Muscle strength increased 14 ± 6% in the CRD group (p = 0.005 and 19 ± 9% in the CONV group (p = 0.028, with no significant differences between the groups. No significant differences were detected in muscle thicknesses within or between the groups. In conclusion, hypoenergetic diets combined with RT led to significant increases in muscle strength and were capable of maintaining muscle thicknesses in the upper and lower limbs of overweight and obese participants, regardless of the carbohydrate content of the diets.

  10. Vegetable versus animal protein diet in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy. A randomized cross-over comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G P; Marchesini, G; Fabbri, A; Rondelli, A; Bugianesi, E; Zoli, M; Pisi, E

    1993-05-01

    In a randomized cross-over comparison, the effects of a mainly vegetable protein diet were compared with an animal protein diet in eight patients with cirrhosis and chronic permanent encephalopathy, under optimum lactulose therapy. After a run-in period, patients were fed two equi-caloric, equi-nitrogenous diets for 7 days (71 g total proteins), containing either 50 g protein of animal origin or 50 g vegetable proteins. In the last 3 days of each period, nitrogen balance was significantly better during the vegetable protein diet (+0.2 (SD 1.4) g vs. -1.7 (2.4); P vegetable proteins, whereas insulin, plasma amino acids and ammonia were lower. The clinical grading of encephalopathy improved slightly on vegetable proteins, and psychometric tests improved significantly, but remained grossly abnormal. Compliance to dietary manipulation was good. The data prove that a mainly vegetable protein diet is worthwhile in cirrhotic patients with chronic encephalopathy under optimum lactulose therapy. Improved nitrogen balance may be related to more effective nitrogen use for protein synthesis, probably due to blunted hormonal response, and largely outweighs the effects on encephalopathy.

  11. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  12. The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle; Wright, Claire; Pegington, Mary; McMullan, Debbie; Mitchell, Ellen; Martin, Bronwen; Cutler, Roy G; Evans, Gareth; Whiteside, Sigrid; Maudsley, Stuart; Camandola, Simonetta; Wang, Rui; Carlson, Olga D; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P; Howell, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Intermittent energy restriction may result in greater improvements in insulin sensitivity and weight control than daily energy restriction (DER). We tested two intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction (IECR) regimens, including one which allowed ad libitum protein and fat (IECR+PF). Overweight women (n 115) aged 20 and 69 years with a family history of breast cancer were randomised to an overall 25 % energy restriction, either as an IECR (2500-2717 kJ/d, < 40 g carbohydrate/d for 2 d/week) or a 25 % DER (approximately 6000 kJ/d for 7 d/week) or an IECR+PF for a 3-month weight-loss period and 1 month of weight maintenance (IECR or IECR+PF for 1 d/week). Insulin resistance reduced with the IECR diets (mean - 0·34 (95% CI - 0·66, - 0·02) units) and the IECR+PF diet (mean - 0·38 (95% CI - 0·75, - 0·01) units). Reductions with the IECR diets were significantly greater compared with the DER diet (mean 0·2 (95% CI - 0·19, 0·66) μU/unit, P= 0·02). Both IECR groups had greater reductions in body fat compared with the DER group (IECR: mean - 3·7 (95% CI - 2·5, - 4·9) kg, P= 0·007; IECR+PF: mean - 3·7 (95% CI - 2·8, - 4·7) kg, P= 0·019; DER: mean - 2·0 (95% CI - 1·0, 3·0) kg). During the weight maintenance phase, 1 d of IECR or IECR+PF per week maintained the reductions in insulin resistance and weight. In the short term, IECR is superior to DER with respect to improved insulin sensitivity and body fat reduction. Longer-term studies into the safety and effectiveness of IECR diets are warranted.

  13. High-protein, low-fat, short-term diet results in less stress and fatigue than moderate-protein moderate-fat diet during weight loss in male weightlifters: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R; Zinn, Caryn; Rowlands, David S; Naidoo, Ruth; Cronin, John

    2015-04-01

    Athletes risk performance and muscle loss when dieting. Strategies to prevent losses are unclear. This study examined the effects of two diets on anthropometrics, strength, and stress in athletes. This double-blind crossover pilot study began with 14 resistance-trained males (20-43 yr) and incurred one dropout. Participants followed carbohydrate-matched, high-protein low-fat (HPLF) or moderate-protein moderate-fat (MPMF) diets of 60% habitual calories for 2 weeks. Protein intakes were 2.8g/kg and 1.6g/kg and mean fat intakes were 15.4% and 36.5% of calories, respectively. Isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and completion. The Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes (DALDA) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were completed daily. Outcomes were presented statistically as probability of clinical benefit, triviality, or harm with effect sizes (ES) and qualitative assessments. Differences of effect between diets on IMTP and anthropometrics were likely or almost certainly trivial, respectively. Worse than normal scores on DALDA part A, part B and the part A "diet" item were likely more harmful (ES 0.32, 0.4 and 0.65, respectively) during MPMF than HPLF. The POMS fatigue score was likely more harmful (ES 0.37) and the POMS total mood disturbance score (TMDS) was possibly more harmful (ES 0.29) during MPMF than HPLF. For the 2 weeks observed, strength and anthropometric differences were minimal while stress, fatigue, and diet-dissatisfaction were higher during MPMF. A HPLF diet during short-term weight loss may be more effective at mitigating mood disturbance, fatigue, diet dissatisfaction, and stress than a MPMF diet.

  14. Low-protein diets for chronic kidney disease patients: the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Cupisti, Adamasco; Locatelli, Francesco; Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Brunori, Giuliano; Cancarini, Giovanni; Caria, Stefania; De Nicola, Luca; Di Iorio, Biagio R; Di Micco, Lucia; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Garibotto, Giacomo; Mandreoli, Marcora; Minutolo, Roberto; Oldrizzi, Lamberto; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Torraca, Serena; Viola, Battista F

    2016-07-11

    Nutritional treatment has always represented a major feature of CKD management. Over the decades, the use of nutritional treatment in CKD patients has been marked by several goals. The first of these include the attainment of metabolic and fluid control together with the prevention and correction of signs, symptoms and complications of advanced CKD. The aim of this first stage is the prevention of malnutrition and a delay in the commencement of dialysis. Subsequently, nutritional manipulations have also been applied in association with other therapeutic interventions in an attempt to control several cardiovascular risk factors associated with CKD and to improve the patient's overall outcome. Over time and in reference to multiple aims, the modalities of nutritional treatment have been focused not only on protein intake but also on other nutrients. This paper describes the pathophysiological basis and rationale of nutritional treatment in CKD and also provides a report on extensive experience in the field of renal diets in Italy, with special attention given to approaches in clinical practice and management. Italian nephrologists have a longstanding tradition in implementing low protein diets in the treatment of CKD patients, with the principle objective of alleviating uremic symptoms, improving nutritional status and also a possibility of slowing down the progression of CKD or delaying the start of dialysis. A renewed interest in this field is based on the aim of implementing a wider nutritional therapy other than only reducing the protein intake, paying careful attention to factors such as energy intake, the quality of proteins and phosphate and sodium intakes, making today's low-protein diet program much more ambitious than previous. The motivation was the reduction in progression of renal insufficiency through reduction of proteinuria, a better control of blood pressure values and also through correction of metabolic acidosis. One major goal of the flexible and

  15. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay. Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05 increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05 and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05 higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  16. Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John C; Covarrubias, Anthony J; Zhao, Minghao; Yu, Xinxing; Gut, Philipp; Ng, Che-Ping; Huang, Yu; Haldar, Saptarsi; Verdin, Eric

    2017-09-05

    Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Glomerular cell death and inflammation with high-protein diet and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Rick L; LeBoeuf, Renee C; Saha, Sandeep A; Alpers, Charles E; Hudkins, Kelly L; Cooney, Sheryl K; Anderberg, Robert J; Tuttle, Katherine R

    2013-07-01

    Overfeeding amino acids (AAs) increases cellular exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a mechanism for protein intake to worsen diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study assessed receptor for AGE (RAGE)-mediated apoptosis and inflammation in glomerular cells exposed to metabolic stressors characteristic of high-protein diets and/or diabetes in vitro with proof-of-concept appraisal in vivo. Mouse podocytes and mesangial cells were cultured under control and metabolic stressor conditions: (i) no addition; (ii) increased AAs (4-6-fold>control); (iii) high glucose (HG, 30.5 mM); (iv) AA/HG combination; (v) AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, 300 µg/mL); (vi) BSA (300 µg/mL). RAGE was inhibited by blocking antibody. Diabetic (streptozotocin) and nondiabetic mice (C57BL/6J) consumed diets with protein calories of 20 or 40% (high) for 20 weeks. People with DKD and controls provided 24-h urine samples. In podocytes and mesangial cells, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL) increased in all metabolic stressor conditions. Both inflammatory mediator expression (real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: serum amyloid A, caspase-4, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and RAGE (immunostaining) also increased. RAGE inhibition prevented apoptosis and inflammation in podocytes. Among mice fed high protein, podocyte number (WT-1 immunostaining) decreased in the diabetic group, and only these diabetic mice developed albuminuria. Protein intake (urea nitrogen) correlated with AGE excretion (carboxymethyllysine) in people with DKD and controls. High-protein diet and/or diabetes-like conditions increased glomerular cell death and inflammation, responses mediated by RAGEs in podocytes. The concept that high-protein diets exacerbate early indicators of DKD is supported by data from mice and people.

  18. Impact of a moderately energy-restricted diet on energy metabolism and body composition in non-obese men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis-te Wierik, E.J.M.; Westerterp, K.R.; Berg, H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Since little information is available on the capacity of the non-obese to adapt to a moderate decrease in energy intake, the effect of a 10-week moderately energy-restricted diet (ER) on energy expenditure and body composition was studied. Design: A controlled intervention study. After a

  19. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed.

  20. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed. PMID:25221391

  1. Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Courteix, Daniel; Doré, Eric; Chapier, Robert; Roszyk, Laurence; Sapin, Vincent; Lesourd, Bruno

    2012-09-17

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein intake has been set at 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day for senior. To date, no consensus exists on the lower threshold intake (LTI = RDA/1.3) for the protein intake (PI) needed in senior patients ongoing both combined caloric restriction and physical activity treatment for metabolic syndrome. Considering that age, caloric restriction and exercise are three increasing factors of protein need, this study was dedicated to determine the minimal PI in this situation, through the determination of albuminemia that is the blood marker of protein homeostasis. Twenty eight subjects (19 M, 9 F, 61.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI 33.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) with metabolic syndrome completed a three-week residential programme (Day 0 to Day 21) controlled for nutrition (energy balance of -500 kcal/day) and physical activity (3.5 hours/day). Patients were randomly assigned in two groups: Normal-PI (NPI: 1.0 g/kg/day) and High-PI (HPI: 1.2 g/kg/day). Then, patients returned home and were followed for six months. Albuminemia was measured at D0, D21, D90 and D180. At baseline, PI was spontaneously 1.0 g/kg/day for both groups. Albuminemia was 40.6 g/l for NPI and 40.8 g/l for HPI. A marginal protein under-nutrition appeared in NPI with a decreased albuminemia at D90 below 35 g/l (34.3 versus 41.5 g/l for HPI, p treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis.

  2. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet induced thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence to support that a high-protein diet may promote weight loss and prevent weight (re)gain better than a low-protein diet, and that the effect is due to higher diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and increased satiety. However, data on the effect...... of different types of protein are limited. In the present study we compare the effect of whey, casein and milk on DIT and satiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventeen slightly overweight (29 ± 4 kg/m(2)) male subjects completed the study. The study had a randomized, crossover design, where the effect on 4 h...... for baseline values. There was no significant difference in effect on EE, protein oxidation or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Milk reduced subsequent EI more than isocaloric drinks containing only whey or casein. A small but significant increase in lipid oxidation was seen after casein compared with whey....

  3. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  4. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Judy; Humphrey, Maureen; MacKay, Mark; Boneh, Avihu

    2014-11-01

    Ketogenic diet is a structured effective treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Several reports have indicated poor linear growth in children on the diet but the mechanism of poor growth has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore whether the protein to energy ratio plays a role in linear growth of children on ketogenic diet. Data regarding growth and nutrition were, retrospectively, collected from the clinical histories of 35 children who were treated with ketogenic diet for at least 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Patients were stratified into groups according to periods of satisfactory or poor linear growth. Poor linear growth was associated with protein or caloric intake of <80% recommended daily intake, and with a protein-to-energy ratio consistently ≤1.4 g protein/100 kcal even when protein and caloric intakes were adequate. We recommend a protein-to-energy ratio of 1.5 g protein/100 kcal be prescribed to prevent growth retardation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Effects of Long-Term Protein Restriction on Meat Quality, Muscle Amino Acids, and Amino Acid Transporters in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Li, Yuying; Zhu, Xiaotong; Han, Hui; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Liu, Gang; Huang, Xingguo; Fang, Rejun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Kai; Sun, Liping; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2017-10-25

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of protein restriction from piglets to finishing pigs for 16 weeks on meat quality, muscle amino acids, and amino acid transporters. Thirty-nine piglets were randomly divided into three groups: a control (20-18-16% crude protein, CP) and two protein restricted groups (17-15-13% CP and 14-12-10% CP). The results showed that severe protein restriction (14-12-10% CP) inhibited feed intake and body weight, while moderate protein restriction (17-15-13% CP) had little effect on growth performance in pigs. Meat quality (i.e., pH, color traits, marbling, water-holding capacity, and shearing force) were tested, and the results exhibited that 14-12-10% CP treatment markedly improved muscle marbling score and increased yellowness (b*). pH value (45 min) was significantly higher in 17-15-13% CP group than that in other groups. In addition, protein restriction reduced muscle histone, arginine, valine, and isoleucine abundances and enhanced glycine and lysine concentrations compared with the control group, while the RT-PCR results showed that protein restriction downregulated amino acids transporters. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was inactivated in the moderate protein restricted group (17-15-13% CP), while severe protein restriction with dietary 14-12-10% CP markedly enhanced mTOR phosphorylation. In conclusion, long-term protein restriction affected meat quality and muscle amino acid metabolism in pigs, which might be associated with mTOR signaling pathway.

  6. 54Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets

  7. Management of multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy in EL mice with caloric restriction and the ketogenic diet: role of glucose and ketone bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantis John G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD was developed as an alternative to fasting for seizure management. While the mechanisms by which fasting and the KD inhibit seizures remain speculative, alterations in brain energy metabolism are likely involved. We previously showed that caloric restriction (CR inhibits seizure susceptibility by reducing blood glucose in the epileptic EL mouse, a natural model for human multifactorial idiopathic epilepsy. In this study, we compared the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant efficacy of the KD with that of CR in adult EL mice with active epilepsy. EL mice that experienced at least 15 recurrent complex partial seizures were fed either a standard diet unrestricted (SD-UR or restricted (SD-R, and either a KD unrestricted (KD-UR or restricted (KD-R. All mice were fasted for 14 hrs prior to diet initiation. A new experimental design was used where each mouse in the diet-restricted groups served as its own control to achieve a 20–23% body weight reduction. Seizure susceptibility, body weights, and the levels of plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate were measured once/week over a nine-week treatment period. Results Body weights and blood glucose levels remained high over the testing period in the SD-UR and the KD-UR groups, but were significantly (p Conclusions The results indicate that seizure susceptibility in EL mice is dependent on plasma glucose levels and that seizure control is more associated with the amount than with the origin of dietary calories. Also, CR underlies the antiepileptic and anticonvulsant action of the KD in EL mice. A transition from glucose to ketone bodies for energy is predicted to manage EL epileptic seizures through multiple integrated changes of inhibitory and excitatory neural systems.

  8. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengmeng; Zhu, Xingya; Wang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Guan, Wenxian

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies. Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction. Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI) of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34) relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer. Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  9. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lv

    Full Text Available The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies.Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction.Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34 relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer.Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  10. Protein and Amino Acid Restriction, Aging and Disease: from yeast to humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Suarez, Jorge A.; Longo, Valter D.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the effects of dietary restriction (DR) on longevity and health span in model organisms have been linked to reduced protein and amino acid (AA) intake and the stimulation of specific nutrient signaling pathways. Studies in yeast have shown that addition of serine, threonine, and valine in media promotes cellular sensitization and aging by activating different but connected pathways. Protein or essential AA restriction extends both lifespan and healthspan in rodent models. In humans, p...

  11. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  12. Dietary sodium restriction in the prophylaxis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: effects on the intake of other nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, B J; Steegers, E A; Jongsma, H W; Rijpkema, A L; Eskes, T K; Thomas, C M; Baadenhuysen, H; Hein, P R

    1995-07-01

    Dietary sodium restriction is used in the Netherlands in the prophylaxis of preeclampsia. To study the effects of long-term sodium restriction on the intake of other nutrients and the outcome of pregnancy, 68 healthy nulliparous pregnant women were randomly assigned to either a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/24 h) or an unrestricted diet. The diet was consumed between week 14 of gestation and delivery. The dietary intakes of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, and calcium were estimated with the dietary-history technique. A low-sodium diet reduced the intake of protein (by approximately 15 g/24 h), fat (by 20 g/24 h), and calcium (by 350 mg/24 h) and tended to decrease the energy intake (by approximately 0.7 MJ/24 h). The intakes of carbohydrate and potassium did not differ between the groups. The maternal weight gain was less in the low-sodium group (6.0 +/- 3.7 compared with 11.7 +/- 4.7 kg). Mean birth weight was not significantly different (3.2 +/- 0.5 compared with 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg).

  13. Lipo-protein emulsion structure in the diet affects protein digestion kinetics, intestinal mucosa parameters and microbiota composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Le Feunteun, Steven; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion

    2017-01-01

    SCOPE: Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. METHODS & RESULTS: Rats (n = 40) were fed for 3 weeks two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and micro-structure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingested a 15 N-labeled LFE or GCE te...

  14. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effects of calorie restriction and diet-induced obesity on murine colon carcinogenesis, growth and inflammatory factors, and microRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Olivo-Marston

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established colon cancer risk factor, while preventing or reversing obesity via a calorie restriction (CR diet regimen decreases colon cancer risk. Unfortunately, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood, hampering development of mechanism-based approaches for preventing obesity-related colon cancer. We tested the hypotheses that diet-induced obesity (DIO would increase (and CR would decrease colon tumorigenesis in the mouse azoxymethane (AOM model. In addition, we established that changes in inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and microRNAs are associated with these energy balance-colon cancer links, and thus represent mechanism-based targets for colon cancer prevention. Mice were injected with AOM once a week for 5 weeks and randomized to: 1 control diet; 2 30% CR diet; or 3 DIO diet. Mice were euthanized at week 5 (n = 12/group, 10 (n = 12/group, and 20 (n = 20/group after the last AOM injection. Colon tumors were counted, and cytokines, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3, adipokines, proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of microRNAs (miRs were measured. The DIO diet regimen induced an obese phenotype (∼36% body fat, while CR induced a lean phenotype (∼14% body fat; controls were intermediate (∼26% body fat. Relative to controls, DIO increased (and CR decreased the number of colon tumors (p = 0.01, cytokines (p<0.001, IGF-1 (p = 0.01, and proliferation (p<0.001. DIO decreased (and CR increased IGFBP-3 and apoptosis (p<0.001. miRs including mir-425, mir-196, mir-155, mir-150, mir-351, mir-16, let-7, mir34, and mir-138 were differentially expressed between the dietary groups. We conclude that the enhancing effects of DIO and suppressive effects of CR on colon carcinogenesis are associated with alterations in several biological pathways, including inflammation, IGF-1, and microRNAs.

  16. Diet-related restrictive parenting practices. Impact on dietary intake of 2-year-old children and interactions with child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Vries, N.K.de; Thijs, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between diet-related parenting practices, parental characteristics, child characteristics, and 2-year-old child's dietary intake. Cross-sectional data (N = 2578) originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Principal component analyses revealed two restrictive

  17. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  18. Effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in obese, premenopausal women without diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabchi, Abbas E; McDaniel, Kristin A; Wan, Jim Y; Tylavsky, Frances A; Jacovino, Crystal A; Sands, Chris W; Nyenwe, Ebenezer A; Stentz, Frankie B

    2013-07-01

    To study the effects of high-protein versus high-carbohydrate diets on various metabolic end points (glucoregulation, oxidative stress [dichlorofluorescein], lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde], proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6], adipokines, and resting energy expenditure [REE]) with high protein-low carbohydrate (HP) and high carbohydrate-low protein (HC) diets at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. We recruited obese, premenopausal women aged 20-50 years with no diabetes or prediabetes who were randomized to HC (55% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 15% protein) or HP (40% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 30% protein) diets for 6 months. The diets were provided in prepackaged food, which provided 500 kcal restrictions per day. The above metabolic end points were measured with HP and HC diet at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention. After 6 months of the HP versus HC diet (12 in each group), the following changes were significantly different by Wilcoxon rank sum test for the following parameters: dichlorofluorescein (-0.8 vs. -0.3 µmol/L, P vs. -0.2 μmol/L, P = 0.0004), C-reactive protein (-2.1 vs. -0.8 mg/L, P = 0.0003), E-selectin (-8.6 vs. -3.7 ng/mL, P = 0.0007), adiponectin (1,284 vs. 504 ng/mL, P = 0.0011), tumor necrosis factor-α (-1.8 vs. -0.9 pg/mL, P vs. -0.4 pg/mL, P vs. 0.16 mmol/L, P = 0.0002), REE (259 vs. 26 kcal, P vs. 0.9, P vs. 2.1, P < 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the significant advantages of a 6-month hypocaloric HP diet versus hypocaloric HC diet on markers of β-cell function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipokines in normal, obese females without diabetes.

  19. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  20. [Comparison of the effects of alpha-keto/ amino acid supplemented low protein diet and diabetes diet in patients with diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-yu; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Li-jun; Huang, Song-min; Zuo, Chuan; Zhong, Hui; Chen, Feng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate if a-keto/amino acid supplemented low protein diet can slow down the progression of diabetic nephrophathy in comparison with non-supplemented diabetes diet. A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study was conducted. Twenty three cases of type 2 diabetic nephropathy in IV stage were randomly divided into alpha-keto/amino acid supplemented diet group (trial group) and conventional diabetes diet group (control group), The treatment duration was 52 weeks. 24 h urine protein was measured at 0, 12, 20, 36 and 52 weeks. Before and after the 52 weeks treatment, all the patients received the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood glucose, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, as well as nutritional status. After the treatment for 20, 36, 52 weeks, mean 24 h urine protein decreased significantly in trial groups (P keto/amino acid can reduce proteinuria more effectively, while improve renal function and nutritional status in diabetic nephropathy patients with well-toleration.

  1. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus ( P proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  2. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC

  3. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and β-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Prevention and reversal of hepatic steatosis with a high-protein diet in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia C.; Comhair, Tine M.; Verheyen, Fons; Gaemers, Ingrid; Schaap, Frank G.; Houten, Sander M.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, S. Eleonore

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of NAFLD is steatosis of unknown etiology. We tested the effect of a high-protein (HP)(2) diet on diet-induced steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice with and without pre-existing fatty liver. Mice were fed all combinations of semisynthetic low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) and low-protein (LP) or

  5. Significant suppression of myocardial (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake using 24-h carbohydrate restriction and a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Ishihara, Keiichi; Suda, Masaya; Sakurai, Minoru

    2013-11-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a useful tool for evaluating inflammation. Because, myocardial-FDG uptake occurs with diverse physiology, it should be suppressed during evaluation of myocardial inflammation by FDG-PET/CT. Diets inducing fat-based metabolism, such as a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (LCHF), are used in uptake-suppression protocols. However, a complete suppression of myocardial-FDG uptake has not been established. Hence, we assessed the efficacy of 24-h carbohydrate restriction along with an LCHF diet compared to that of the conventional protocol in suppressing myocardial-FDG uptake and also compared fat and glucose metabolism between these protocols. Fourteen healthy volunteers agreed to undergo >24-h carbohydrate restriction (glucose, vs. 2.98 [1.76-6.43], p=0.001). Target-to-background ratios [myocardium-to-blood ratio (MBR), myocardium-to-lung ratio (MLR), and myocardium-to-liver ratio (MLvR)] were also significantly lower with the diet-preparation protocol [MBR: 0.75 (0.68-0.84) vs. 1.63 (0.98-4.09), pvs. 4.54 (2.53-12.78), p=0.004; MLvR: 0.48 (0.44-0.56) vs. 1.11 (0.63-2.32), p=0.002]. Only insulin levels were significantly different between the subjects in each protocol group (11.3 [6.2-15.1] vs. 3.9 [2.9-6.2]). Carbohydrate restriction together with an LCHF supplement administered 1h before FDG significantly suppressed myocardial-FDG uptake. FFAs and insulin might not directly affect myocardial-FDG uptake. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attractants in plant protein-based diets for the carnivorous largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Ana Maria Barretto de Menezes Sampaio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding attractants can improve acceptability of artificial diets by carnivorous fish fry and fingerlings, increasing intake of unpalatable feeds and improving growth rate, while reducing feeding time and feeding wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of levels of inclusion of different attractants in plant protein-based diets on the performance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Nine hundred juvenile largemouth bass (26.54 ± 1.53 g conditioned to accept dry, artificial feed were stocked in 60, 90-L polyethylene tanks (15 fish per group in a completely randomized design trial (n=3. Fish were fed two daily meals ad libitum at 7h00 and 17h00, for 13 days, with a diet (100% plant protein source containing either soluble fish protein - SFP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%; FisharonTM - FA (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12%; fish silage - FS (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0%; a positive control diet - pCD (10% fish meal and a negative control diet - nCD (basal diet without attractants. DL-methionine (98% and L-lysine (80% were added automatically by the formulation software to adjust available amino-acid profile of diets. Recorded performance data were: final weight, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diet FA0.02 presented the best growth rate, best weight gain and best feed conversion ratio. Fish fed diets containing FS as attractant presented the poorest performance.

  7. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  8. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Bonnie J; Seeley, Randy J; Daniels, Stephen R; D'Alessio, David A

    2003-04-01

    Untested alternative weight loss diets, such as very low carbohydrate diets, have unsubstantiated efficacy and the potential to adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we designed a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of a very low carbohydrate diet on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects were randomized to 6 months of either an ad libitum very low carbohydrate diet or a calorie-restricted diet with 30% of the calories as fat. Anthropometric and metabolic measures were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Fifty-three healthy, obese female volunteers (mean body mass index, 33.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized; 42 (79%) completed the trial. Women on both diets reduced calorie consumption by comparable amounts at 3 and 6 months. The very low carbohydrate diet group lost more weight (8.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.0 kg; P fat (4.8 +/- 0.67 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.75 kg; P low fat diet group. Mean levels of blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin were within normal ranges in both groups at baseline. Although all of these parameters improved over the course of the study, there were no differences observed between the two diet groups at 3 or 6 months. beta- Hydroxybutyrate increased significantly in the very low carbohydrate group at 3 months (P = 0.001). Based on these data, a very low carbohydrate diet is more effective than a low fat diet for short-term weight loss and, over 6 months, is not associated with deleterious effects on important cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

  9. A Comparison of the impact of family-centered and patient-centered education methods on attitude toward and adherence to diet and fluid restriction in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgari P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: One of the major issues in hemodialysis patients is adherence to diet and fluid restriction. In order to reduce the adverse consequences of the disease and improve quality of life, educating these patients is of great importance. Therefore, the present study was conducted in order to compare the impact of two methods of education (patient-centered and family–centered on attitude toward and adherence to diet and fluid restriction in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was performed on patients referred to the hemodialysis ward of hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during May to October 2012. Through purposive sampling method, 60 patients were selected and randomly assigned to two groups patient-centered (n = 30 and family-centered (n = 30. Patients’ attitude toward and adherence to diet regime and fluid restriction were assessed using a researcher-made self-report questionnaire in 3 stages (before the intervention, and 2 and 4 weeks after the intervention. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were approved. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16 and independent t-test, chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Before the intervention, the findings showed no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of adherence to diet and fluid restriction. In the second week after the intervention, mean adherence to diet in the family-centered group was significantly higher than the patient-centered group (P = 0.010. Moreover, at the end of the second (P = 0.001 and fourth weeks (P = 0.002, the attitude toward adherence to diet and fluid restriction was more positive in the family-centered group, in comparison to the patient-centered group. Conclusion: Family-centered education is more effective on patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Thus, it is recommended that family

  10. Chronic kidney disease progression: a retrospective analysis of 3-year adherence to a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, Felipe; Leal, Viviane de Oliveira; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2017-11-01

    The potential benefits and dangers of dietary protein restriction in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still controversial. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low protein diet (LPD) on the renal function in nondialysis CKD patients. A retrospective study was conducted from 321 nondialysis CKD patient's medical files (65.1 ± 12.7 yrs, 58.2% men). These patients received individualized dietary protein prescription (0.6-0.8 g protein/kg/day). Protein intake was evaluated by food diary and 24 h-food recall. Adherence to the LPD was considered when patients intake from 90 to 110% of the prescribed amount of protein. The patients were divided into 4 groups: (G1) adherent diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (n = 83); (G2) non-adherent DM patients (n = 106); (G3) adherent non-DM patients (n = 75); (G4) non-adherent non-DM patients (n = 57). Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Both groups of patients (DM and non-DM) that adhered to the LPD showed significant improvement in eGFR (G1: 38.7 ± 13.2 mL/min to 51.1 ± 17.0 mL/min (p patients, no differences in albumin and BMI were observed at the end of follow up. In non-adherent patients, eGFR significantly decreased in DM group (G2: 44.2 ± 18.5 mL/min to 38.2 ± 15.8 mL/min (p = 0.003)). According to multivariate analysis, annual changes in eGFR were not independent associated with age, gender, BMI, lipid profile, bicarbonate or smoking status. In summary, adherence to low protein diet could be able to improve serum creatinine and eGFR, well-known markers of renal function. However, prospective studies are needed to control confounders which affect renal function and CKD progression.

  11. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-07-30

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p 50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet.

  12. Evaluation of Hypocaloric Diet With Protein Supplementation in Middle-Aged Sarcopenic Obese Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Rosa; Marra, Maurizio; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Naccarato, Marianna; Contaldo, Franco; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was Hypocaloric diet plus placebo (A) and hypocaloric high-protein diet (1.2-1.4 g / kg body weight reference / day) (B). Anthropometric measurements, body composition, resting energy expenditure, handgrip test, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and SF-36 questionnaire were evaluated at baseline and after 4 months. Weight significantly decreased in both groups. Women with high-protein diet preserved lean body mass compared to low-calorie diet and improved significantly muscle strength; SPPB score did not change in both groups. SF-36 test showed a significant change for general health after 4 months in group B. In our study, sarcopenic obese patients with high-protein diet showed an improvement in muscle strength. Furthermore, dietary protein enrichment may represent a protection from the risk of sarcopenia following a hypocaloric diet. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  13. Bile Acids Increase Independently From Hypocaloric Restriction After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahansouz, Cyrus; Xu, Hongliang; Hertzel, Ann V; Serrot, Federico J; Kvalheim, Nicholas; Cole, Abigail; Abraham, Anasooya; Luthra, Girish; Ewing, Kristin; Leslie, Daniel B; Bernlohr, David A; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2016-12-01

    To measure changes in the composition of serum bile acids (BA) and the expression of Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) acutely after bariatric surgery or caloric restriction. Metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery occurs before substantial weight loss. BA are important metabolic regulators acting through the farnesoid X receptor and TGR5 receptor. The acute effects of surgery on BA and the TGR5 receptor in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) are unknown. A total of 27 obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or to hypocaloric diet (HC diet) restriction (NCT 1882036). A cohort of obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy was also recruited (n = 12) as a comparison. After vertical sleeve gastrectomy, the level of BA increased [total: 1.17 ± 1.56 μmol/L to 4.42 ± 3.92 μmol/L (P = 0.005); conjugated BA levels increased from 0.99 ± 1.42 μmol/L to 3.59 ± 3.70 μmol/L (P = 0.01) and unconjugated BA levels increased from 0.18 ± 0.24 μmol/L to 0.83 ± 0.70 μmol/L (P = 0.009)]. With RYGB, there was a trend toward increased BA [total: 1.37 ± 0.97 μmol/L to 3.26 ± 3.01 μmol/L (P = 0.07); conjugated: 1.06 ± 0.81 μmol/L to 2.99 ± 3.02 μmol/L (P = 0.06)]. After HC diet, the level of unconjugated BA decreased [0.92 ± 0.55 μmol/L to 0.32 ± 0.43 μmol/L (P = 0.05)]. The level of WAT TGR5 gene expression decreased after surgery, but not in HC diet. Protein levels did not change. The levels of serum BA increase after bariatric surgery independently from caloric restriction, whereas the level of WAT TGR5 protein is unaffected.

  14. Analysis of Select Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Proteins for Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HSV-1 gM Protein Potently Restricts HIV-1 by Preventing Intracellular Transport and Processing of Env gp160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpitiya Arachchige, Sachith; Henke, Wyatt; Pramanik, Ankita; Kalamvoki, Maria; Stephens, Edward B

    2018-01-15

    Virus-encoded proteins that impair or shut down specific host cell functions during replication can be used as probes to identify potential proteins/pathways used in the replication of viruses from other families. We screened nine proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for the ability to enhance or restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that several HSV-1 proteins (glycoprotein M [gM], US3, and UL24) potently restricted the replication of HIV-1. Unlike UL24 and US3, which reduced viral protein synthesis, we observed that gM restriction of HIV-1 occurred through interference with the processing and transport of gp160, resulting in a significantly reduced level of mature gp120/gp41 released from cells. Finally, we show that an HSV-1 gM mutant lacking the majority of the C-terminal domain (HA-gM[Δ345-473]) restricted neither gp160 processing nor the release of infectious virus. These studies identify proteins from heterologous viruses that can restrict viruses through novel pathways. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection of humans results in AIDS, characterized by the loss of CD4 + T cells and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Both HIV-1 and HSV-1 can infect astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the identification of HSV-1 proteins that directly restrict HIV-1 or interfere with pathways required for HIV-1 replication could lead to novel antiretroviral strategies. The results of this study show that select viral proteins from HSV-1 can potently restrict HIV-1. Further, our results indicate that the gM protein of HSV-1 restricts HIV-1 through a novel pathway by interfering with the processing of gp160 and its incorporation into virus maturing from the cell. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy...... protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene...... sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p

  16. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  17. Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Meyer, Timothy E; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O

    2007-06-01

    Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets. BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.

  18. Effect of a hyper-protein diet on Wistar rats development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... studied possible presence of anti milk-protein seric IgG induced by the .... when administrating long term hyper-protein diets for humans. Reactivity to the ... adipose tissue without major side effects in Wistar male rats. Am. J.

  19. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Graciene Conceição dos; Garcia, Edivaldo Antônio; Vieira Filho, Javer Alves; Molino, Andréa de Britto; Pelicia, Kleber; Berto, Daniella Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, eg...

  20. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Lira do Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  1. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Henkin, Yaakov; Shahar, Danit R; Witkow, Shula; Greenberg, Ilana; Golan, Rachel; Fraser, Drora; Bolotin, Arkady; Vardi, Hilel; Tangi-Rozental, Osnat; Zuk-Ramot, Rachel; Sarusi, Benjamin; Brickner, Dov; Schwartz, Ziva; Sheiner, Einat; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2008-07-17

    Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates. In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age, 52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non-restricted-calorie. The rate of adherence to a study diet was 95.4% at 1 year and 84.6% at 2 years. The Mediterranean-diet group consumed the largest amounts of dietary fiber and had the highest ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat (Pcarbohydrate group consumed the smallest amount of carbohydrates and the largest amounts of fat, protein, and cholesterol and had the highest percentage of participants with detectable urinary ketones (Ploss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (Plosses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively. The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group (P=0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than among those assigned to the low-fat diet (Pcarbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00160108.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  2. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  3. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (−9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23883680

  4. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  5. In vitro cellular adaptations of indicators of longevity in response to treatment with serum collected from humans on calorie restricted diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne S Allard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR produces several health benefits and increases lifespan in many species. Studies suggest that alternate-day fasting (ADF and exercise can also provide these benefits. Whether CR results in lifespan extension in humans is not known and a direct investigation is not feasible. However, phenotypes observed in CR animals when compared to ad libitum fed (AL animals, including increased stress resistance and changes in protein expression, can be simulated in cells cultured with media supplemented with blood serum from CR and AL animals. Two pilot studies were undertaken to examine the effects of ADF and CR on indicators of health and longevity in humans. In this study, we used sera collected from those studies to culture human hepatoma cells and assessed the effects on growth, stress resistance and gene expression. Cells cultured in serum collected at the end of the dieting period were compared to cells cultured in serum collected at baseline (before the dieting period. Cells cultured in serum from ADF participants, showed a 20% increase in Sirt1 protein which correlated with reduced triglyceride levels. ADF serum also induced a 9% decrease in proliferation and a 25% increase in heat resistance. Cells cultured in serum from CR participants induced an increase in Sirt1 protein levels by 17% and a 30% increase in PGC-1alpha mRNA levels. This first in vitro study utilizing human serum to examine effects on markers of health and longevity in cultured cells resulted in increased stress resistance and an up-regulation of genes proposed to be indicators of increased longevity. The use of this in vitro technique may be helpful for predicting the potential of CR, ADF and other dietary manipulations to affect markers of longevity in humans.

  6. Apoptosis induced by a low-carbohydrate and high-protein diet in rat livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Emília L; Xavier, Analucia R; Oliveira, Felipe L; Filho, Porphirio Js; Azeredo, Vilma B

    2016-06-14

    To determine whether high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diets can cause lesions in rat livers. We randomly divided 20 female Wistar rats into a control diet group and an experimental diet group. Animals in the control group received an AIN-93M diet, and animals in the experimental group received an Atkins-based diet (59.46% protein, 31.77% fat, and 8.77% carbohydrate). After 8 wk, the rats were anesthetized and exsanguinated for transaminases analysis, and their livers were removed for flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy studies. We expressed the data as mean ± standard deviation (SD) assuming unpaired and parametric data; we analyzed differences using the Student's t-test. Statistical significance was set at P diet group and 3.73% ± 0.50% for early apoptosis, 5.67% ± 0.72% for late apoptosis, and 3.82% ± 0.28% for non-apoptotic death in the control diet group. The mean percentage of early apoptosis was higher in the experimental diet group than in the control diet group. Immunohistochemistry for autophagy was negative in both groups. Sinusoidal dilation around the central vein and small hepatocytes was only observed in the experimental diet group, and fibrosis was not identified by hematoxylin-eosin or Trichrome Masson staining in either group. Eight weeks of an experimental diet resulted in cellular and histopathological lesions in rat livers. Apoptosis was our principal finding; elevated plasma transaminases demonstrate hepatic lesions.

  7. Effect of quality protein maize diet on liver integrity and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of quality protein maize (QPM) diet on the histology of the liver and on the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in albino wistar rats. The AST level in rats fed QPM diet was 57.4 ± 8.92U/L which compared favourably with that ...

  8. Effects of high-impact exercise on the physical properties of bones of ovariectomized rats fed to a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, R C; Yanagihara, G R; Macedo, A P; Yamanaka, J S; Shimano, A C; Tavares, J M R S; Issa, J P M

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high-impact physical exercise as a prophylactic and therapeutic means in osteopenic bones of rats submitted to ovariectomy and protein diet intake. A total of 64 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 8 each), being: OVX, ovx, standard diet and sedentary; OVXE, ovx, standard diet and jump; OVXP, ovx, high-protein diet and sedentary; and OVXEP, ovx, high-protein diet and jump; SH, sham, standard diet and sedentary; SHE, sham, standard diet and jump; SHP, sham, high-protein diet and sedentary; and SHEP, sham, high-protein diet and jump. OVX surgery consists of ovariectomy, and sham was the control surgery. The jumping protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week. The bone structure was evaluated by densitometry, mechanical tests, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. A high-protein diet resulted in increased bone mineral density (P = .049), but decreased maximal load (P = .026) and bone volume fraction (P = .023). The benefits of physical exercise were demonstrated by higher values of the maximal load in the trained groups compared to the sedentary groups (P high-protein diet (P = .005) and jump exercise (P = .017) resulted in lower immunostaining of osteopontin compared to the standard diet and sedentary groups, respectively. In this experimental model, it was concluded that ovariectomy and a high-fat diet can negatively affect bone tissue and the high-impact exercise was not enough to suppress the deleterious effects caused by the protein diet and ovariectomy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  10. Effects of a high protein diet on cognition and brain metabolism in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication observed in patients with liver disease. Patients who suffer from HE present neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular and behavioral symptoms. Animal models proposed to study HE resulting from cirrhosis mimic the clinical characteristics of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and require the administration of hepatotoxins such as thioacetamide (TAA). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a high protein diet on motor function, anxiety and memory processes in a model of cirrhosis induced by TAA administration. In addition, we used cytochrome c-oxidase (COx) histochemistry to assess the metabolic activity of the limbic system regions. Male rats were distributed into groups: control, animals with cirrhosis, Control rats receiving a high protein diet, and animals with cirrhosis receiving a high protein diet. Results showed preserved motor function and normal anxiety levels in all the groups. The animals with cirrhosis showed an impairment in active avoidance behavior and spatial memory, regardless of the diet they received. However, the animals with cirrhosis and a high protein diet showed longer escape latencies on the spatial memory task. The model of cirrhosis presented an under-activation of the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields and the medial part of the medial mammillary nucleus. The results suggest that a high protein intake worsens spatial memory deficits shown by the TAA-induced model of cirrhosis. However, high protein ingestion has no influence on the COx hypoactivity associated with the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calorie shifting diet versus calorie restriction diet: A comparative clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hossein Davoodi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The CSD diet was associated with a greater improvement in some anthropometric measures, Adherence was better among CSD subjects. Longer and larger studies are required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of CSD diet.

  12. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high...... estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate...

  13. Effect of low-protein diet on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezu, Uru; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Mio; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ueda, Shinichiro

    2013-05-28

    To evaluate the effect of low-protein diet on kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register and University Hospital Medical Information Network-Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) from inception to 10 December 2012. Internet searches were also carried out with general search engines (Google and Google Scholar). Randomised controlled trials that compared low-protein diet versus control diet and assessed the effects on kidney function, proteinuria, glycaemic control or nutritional status. The primary outcome was a change in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The secondary outcomes were changes in proteinuria, post-treatment value of glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and post-treatment value of serum albumin. The results were summarised as the mean difference for continuous outcomes and pooled by the random effects model. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted regarding patient characteristics, intervention period, methodological quality and assessment of diet compliance. The assessment of diet compliance was performed based on the actual protein intake ratio (APIR) of the low-protein diet group to the control group. We identified 13 randomised controlled trials enrolling 779 patients. A low-protein diet was associated with a significant improvement in GFR (5.82 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 95% CI 2.30 to 9.33, I(2)=92%; n=624). This effect was consistent across the subgroups of type of diabetes, stages of nephropathy and intervention period. However, GFR was improved only when diet compliance was fair (8.92, 95% CI 2.75 to 15.09, I(2)=92% for APIR <0.9 and 0.03, 95% CI -1.49 to 1.56, I(2)=90% for APIR ≥0.9). Proteinuria and serum albumin were not differed between the groups. HbA1c was slightly but significantly decreased in the low-protein diet

  14. Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Martens, Eveline A P; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-05-01

    Energy-restricted high-protein diets (HPDs) have shown favorable results for body weight (BW) management, yet studies differ in their outcomes depending on the dietary protein content. Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary protein content on BW loss-related variables during a 6-mo energy restriction with the use of diets containing protein at the level of requirement [normal-protein diet (NPD), 0.8 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)] and above (HPD, 1.2 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)). In overweight and obese participants (24 men and 48 women), BW, body composition, and metabolic responses were assessed before and after subsequent energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% of the original individual daily energy requirements. Protein intake was consistent in the NPD (0.8 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) and HPD (1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) groups throughout the study (P body fat mass similarly decreased in the NPD and HPD groups (P initial sparing effect of FFM and lowering of DBP.

  15. The Effect of Vegan Protein-Based Diets on Metabolic Parameters, Expressions of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Song, Jia; Chen, Yan; Ding, Qiang; Peng, Anfang; Mao, Limei

    2016-10-18

    Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein (SOY), and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM). Changes in metabolic parameters as well as the expressions of adiponectin and its receptors were identified. Compared to CAS diet, both SOY and GSM diets led to decreases in blood total cholesterol and triglycerides, but only GSM diet led to an increase in HDL-cholesterol; no marked difference was observed in blood glucose in all three groups; HOMA-IR was found lower only in SOY group. Among groups, the order of serum adiponectin level was found as GSM > SOY > CAS. Similar order pattern was also observed in expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue and AdipoR1 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Our results suggested for the first time that, besides SOY diet, GSM diet could also be a possible substitute of animal protein to prevent MetS.

  16. The Effect of Vegan Protein-Based Diets on Metabolic Parameters, Expressions of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet, soy protein (SOY, and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM. Changes in metabolic parameters as well as the expressions of adiponectin and its receptors were identified. Compared to CAS diet, both SOY and GSM diets led to decreases in blood total cholesterol and triglycerides, but only GSM diet led to an increase in HDL-cholesterol; no marked difference was observed in blood glucose in all three groups; HOMA-IR was found lower only in SOY group. Among groups, the order of serum adiponectin level was found as GSM > SOY > CAS. Similar order pattern was also observed in expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue and AdipoR1 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Our results suggested for the first time that, besides SOY diet, GSM diet could also be a possible substitute of animal protein to prevent MetS.

  17. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Michelle Manfrini [UNIFESP; Turcatto, Aline Patricia; Pereira, Rogerio Aparecido; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Goncalves, Lionel Segui; Almeida, Joyce Mayra Volpini de; Ellis, J. D.; De Jong, David

    2013-01-01

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in s...

  18. Consumption of milk-protein combined with green tea modulates diet-induced thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-08-01

    Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT)vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  19. Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, S; van Nieuwpoort, I C; van Bunderen, C C; de Ruiter, M B; Twisk, J W R; Deijen, J B; Veltman, D J; Drent, M L

    2016-11-01

    Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18 healthy postmenopausal women, with a body mass index of 30-35 kg m -2 . The first 2 weeks subjects were on an isocaloric diet and 4 weeks on a 1000 kcal restricted diet followed by 2 weeks on an isocaloric diet. Anthropometric and laboratory analyses were performed weekly during the isocaloric diet and three times a week during the caloric-restricted diet. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after the caloric restriction in four separate sessions (fasting or sated). Generalized Estimating Equations analysis was used for data analysis. A mean weight loss of 4.2±0.5 kg (4.8%) and a 4.2±0.4 cm decline in waist circumference were achieved. In the first week of caloric restriction, triglyceride, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels as well as systolic blood pressure decreased and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 levels increased. During and after weight loss, a significant increase in ghrelin levels was observed. Before weight loss, increased activation of the right amygdala was seen in response to food stimuli, and free fatty acids and glucose correlated with activity in various areas involved in food reward processing. After weight loss, fasting ghrelin and sated leptin levels correlated with activity in these areas. Already in the first week of caloric restriction in obese postmenopausal women, various favourable metabolic changes occur before clinically relevant weight loss is achieved. Activity in the amygdala region and correlations of metabolic factors with activity in brain areas involved in food reward processing differ substantially before and after weight loss.

  20. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dokkum, W; Wesstra, A; Luyken, R; Hermus, R J

    1986-09-01

    1. Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of vegetable origin). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper as well as various bowel function indices were investigated during each dietary period. 2. Neither the HA diet nor the HV diet changed the retention of the minerals considerably. Only Fe balance decreased significantly on the HV diet. 3. Substituting the HV diet for the HA diet resulted in significant increases in faecal wet weight (17 g/d), defaecation frequency (0.12 stools/d), faecal volatile fatty acids (2.6 mmol/d) and a decrease in faecal bile acids (128 mumol/d). 4. It is concluded that a HV diet, rather than a HA diet is to be recommended with respect to bowel function, whereas the HV diet does not necessarily have a significant influence on mineral retention.

  1. Basal and β-Adrenergic Cardiomyocytes Contractility Dysfunction Induced by Dietary Protein Restriction is Associated with Downregulation of SERCA2a Expression and Disturbance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Regulation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete R. Penitente

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms responsible for the cardiac dysfunction associated with dietary protein restriction (PR are poorly understood. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of PR on calcium kinetics, basal and β-adrenergic contractility in murine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Methods: After breastfeeding male Fisher rats were distributed into a control group (CG, n = 20 and a protein-restricted group (PRG, n = 20, receiving isocaloric diets for 35 days containing 15% and 6% protein, respectively. Biometric and hemodynamic variables were measured. After euthanasia left ventricles (LV were collected for histopathological evaluation, SERCA2a expression, cardiomyocytes contractility and Ca2+sparks analysis. Results: PRG animals showed reduced general growth, increased heart rate and arterial pressure. These animals presented extracellular matrix expansion and disorganization, cardiomyocytes hypotrophy, reduced amplitudes of shortening and maximum velocity of contraction and relaxation at baseline and after β-adrenergic stimulation. Reduced SERCA2a expression as well as higher frequency and lower amplitude of Ca2+sparks were observed in PRG cardiomyocytes. Conclusion: The observations reveal that protein restriction induces marked myocardial morphofunctional damage. The pathological changes of cardiomyocyte mechanics suggest the potential involvement of the β-adrenergic system, which is possibly associated with changes in SERCA2a expression and disturbances in Ca2+ intracellular kinetics.

  2. Effect of short-term low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiming; Long, Quan; Shao, Chunhai; Fan, Hong; Yuan, Li; Huang, Bihong; Gu, Yong; Lin, Shanyan; Hao, Chuanming; Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Forty MHD patients with uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or normal DPI (NP) group for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the sLP group was shifted to NP for another 8 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) was individualized with total caloric intake 30-35 kcal/kg/day, protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day and phosphate intake of 500 mg/day. Keto acids were supplied in a dosage of 12 pills per day. Calcium phosphorous metabolism index and nutritional index (serum albumin, total protein, somatometric measurements, 3-day diaries and Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) were recorded. C-reactive protein, CO(2) combining power and Kt/V were measured to evaluate the inflammation, metabolic acidosis and dialysis adequacy, respectively. Serum phosphorus level and calcium-phosphate product were significantly decreased at the end of the first 8 weeks in the sLP group compared to the basal value and the NP group (p keto acids could decrease hyperphosphatemia and calcium-phosphate product, while keeping stable nutritional status among MHD patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  4. Evaluation of potential sources of proteins in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, E; Henrichfreise, B

    1994-01-01

    7 diets were prepared containing as their only source of protein one of the following feeds: fish meal, casein, hydrolyzed feather meal, grieves, wheat gluten, maize gluten, soybean meal. Crystalline amino acids were supplemented except in cases of fish meal and casein to prevent specific amino acid deficiencies. Concentrations of N x 6.25 ranged between 436 and 457 g/kg dry matter (DM). Cr2O3 was added to each diet for indirect determination of digestibilities. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 rainbow trout of an average initial weight of 60 g. After 66 feeding days, all trout were killed and used for whole body analyses. Due to severely reduced intake, trout fed the casein based diet gained only about half as much weight as trout fed the fish meal based diet, though at the same fed conversion ratio of 1.0 kg gain per kg dietary DM. Gains on the other diets ranged between these two treatments with poorer feed conversion ratios. Digestibilities of crude protein of fish meal, casein, hydrolyzed feather meal, grieves, wheat gluten, maize gluten and soybean meal were: 86, 98, 67, 81, 97, 87, and 94%, respectively. The corresponding contents of digestible energy were: 21.2, 21.8, 15.4, 16.5, 19.6, 18.3, and 14.4 Mj/kg DM. Efficiency of utilization of digestible energy ranged between 43 and 54%, that of digestible crude protein between 32 and 41%.

  5. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu D. Enyidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1 to feed 4 (F4. The treatment diets were included 25% (F1, 15% (F2, 5% (F3 and 0% (F4 green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02 for 25% algal meal diet (F1 and highest (2.98 ± 0.01 for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22 and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09. The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01 and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59. Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets.

  7. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M; de Graaf, C; de Groot, C P G M; van Rossum, C T M; Kok, F J

    2006-01-01

    Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). Fasting serum leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite levels were measured during a 4-day diet containing 36% of the estimated energy requirements. Appetite levels were assessed with a 10-point Likert scale, reflecting hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective consumption and total appetite. After the 4-day energy deficit, fasting leptin concentrations decreased by 39.4% (95% CI: -43.6; -34.9%). This decline was associated with an increase in fasting hunger (r = -0.42; P < 0.01), desire to eat (r = -0.39; P < 0.05) and total appetite (r = -0.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between fasting leptin concentrations and fasting appetite levels became stronger during the energy restriction period (for total appetite: day 0 r = -0.15, P = 0.32; day 2 r = -0.31, P =< 0.05; day 4 r = -0.41, P < 0.01). The acute proportional reduction in fasting leptin after 4-day energy restriction is associated with an increase in self-perceived appetite. Additionally, the inverse association between proportional fasting leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite response becomes stronger as energy restriction is prolonged. These findings suggest that leptin has an instrumental role in restoring energy balance in humans through the expression of appetite.

  8. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia : effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Vidgen, E.; Augustin, L.S.A.; Erk, van M.; Geelen, A.; Parker, T.; Faulkner, D.; Vuksan, V.; Josse, R.G.; Leiter, L.A.; Connelly, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein have not been assessed despite much recent interest in the effect of soy proteins in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein (specifically, wheat gluten) on serum

  9. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein....../sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our...... findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue...

  11. Cellular Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Is an Important Dengue Virus Restriction Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, Federico; Damonte, Elsa B.; Garc?a, Cybele C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral defense is based on cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and, thus, active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are discrete nuclear foci that contain several cellular proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral responses against a number of viruses. Accumulating reports have shown the importance of PML as a DNA virus restriction factor and how these pathogens evade this antiviral activity....

  12. [Acute and persistent antiproteinuric effect of a low-protein diet in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, B R; Cucciniello, E; Martino, R; Frallicciardi, A; Tortoriello, R; Struzziero, G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-proteinuric effect of a very-low-protein diet supplemented with essential amino acids and keto analogs in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease and proteinuria already treated with both ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers. The study was a prospective randomized controlled cross-over trial comparing a very-low-protein diet (VLpD) and a low-protein diet (LpD). We enrolled 32 consecutive patients between June 2000 and June 2005. They were randomized to receive a VpLD (group A) or an LpD (group B) for 6 months; thereafter, patients of both groups were switched to the other diet (group A to LpD; group B to VpLD) for a further 6 months. Finally, all patients were randomized again within each group to receive either LpD or VLpD and were followed for another year. The VLpD group showed a significant reduction of urinary protein excretion during the diet period, with a nadir at the fourth month of treatment; the amount of urinary protein reduction was about 58%. Serum advanced glycation end products (AGE) significantly decreased in 10 patients (5 of group A, 5 of group B; -18% and -19%, respectively) during VLpD. Univariate analysis showed that proteinuria correlated indirectly with VpLD and directly with AGE. This study demonstrates that in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease and severe proteinuria, a VLpD reduces both proteinuria and serum AGE, even in the presence of complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system.

  13. Thyroid function in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the thyroid and pituitary hormone levels in post-weaning rats whose dams were fed a low-protein diet during suckling (21 days. The dams and pups were divided into 2 groups: a control group fed a diet containing 22% protein that supplies the necessary amount of protein for the rat and is the usual content of protein in most commercial rat chow, and a diet group fed a low-protein (8% diet in which the protein was substituted by an isocaloric amount of starch. After weaning all dams and pups received the 22% protein diet. Two hours before sacrifice of pups aged 21, 30 and 60 days, a tracer dose (0.6 µCi of 125I was injected (ip into each animal. Blood and thyroid glands of pups were collected for the determination of serum T4, T3 and TSH and radioiodine uptake. Low protein diet caused a slight decrease in radioiodine uptake at 21 days, and a significant decrease in T3 levels (128 ± 14 vs 74 ± 9 ng/dl, P<0.05, while T4 levels did not change and TSH was increased slightly. At 30 days, T3 and TSH did not change while there was a significant increase in both T4 levels (4.8 ± 0.3 vs 6.1 ± 0.2 µg/dl, P<0.05 and in radioiodine uptake levels (0.34 ± 0.02 vs 0.50 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. At 60 days serum T3, T4 and TSH levels were normal, but radioiodine uptake was still significantly increased (0.33 ± 0.02 vs 0.41 ± 0.03%/mg thyroid, P<0.05. Thus, it seems that protein malnutrition of the dams during suckling causes hypothyroidism in the pups at 21 days that has a compensatory mechanism increasing thyroid function after refeeding with a 22% protein diet. The radioiodine uptake still remained altered at 60 days, when all the hormonal serum levels returned to the normal values, suggesting a permanent change in the thyroid function

  14. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-02-28

    Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD). Treatments were conducted for 1 week after feeding high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The effects of treatments on high fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance in rats of MS were examined. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and protein kinase B (PKB) in rats serum and liver were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After a week's intervention by dietary restriction, dietary restriction incorporated with exercise or MLD, compared with HFD rats, the relative weight of liver and fat, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, insulin, were significantly decreased (p exercise treatment exhibit effects in alleviating high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance, which are possibly due to the down-regulation of TNF-α, leptin and PKB.

  15. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-06-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue, affecting pathways related to metabolism and inflammation. Analysis of fecal bacterial DNA using the Mouse Intestinal Tract Chip revealed significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in relation to host age and dietary fat content, but not the protein/sucrose ratio. Accordingly, dietary fat rather than the protein/sucrose ratio or adiposity is a major driver shaping the gut microbiota, whereas the effect of a high-fat diet on survival is dependent on the protein/sucrose ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose

  18. Evaluation of Hypocaloric Diet With Protein Supplementation in Middle-Aged Sarcopenic Obese Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sammarco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. Methods: We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was Results: Weight significantly decreased in both groups. Women with high-protein diet preserved lean body mass compared to low-calorie diet and improved significantly muscle strength; SPPB score did not change in both groups. SF-36 test showed a significant change for general health after 4 months in group B. Conclusions: In our study, sarcopenic obese patients with high-protein diet showed an improvement in muscle strength. Furthermore, dietary protein enrichment may represent a protection from the risk of sarcopenia following a hypocaloric diet.

  19. Urinary excretion of 15N during intraportal infusion of 15N-ammonia in chickens fed low or high protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Yutaka; Koh, Katsuki; Takahashi, Akira; Sumiya, Ryuta

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine time courses of 15 N in urinary ammonia and total N when 15 N-labeled ammonium acetate was continuously infused for 1 hour into chickens fed a 5 or 20 % protein diet. 15 N-enrichment of urinary nitrogen in the two dietary groups increased sharply in ammonia for the first 20 minutes and to a less extent linearly in total N for the first 30 minutes, and then gradually in both ammonia and total N. Through the ammonia infusion, the 15 N-enrichment of urinary ammonia was higher in the chickens fed the low protein diet than in those fed the high protein diet; both of them were higher than 15 N-enrichments of urinary N, which were almost the same in the two dietary groups. The urinary total N from the infused ammonia rose linearly for the first 40 minutes but thereafter did not rise further in the two dietary groups, whereas the endogenous urinary total N tended to decrease a little in the chichens fed the high protein diet but unchanged in those fed the low protein diet. The urinary ammonia from the infused ammonia increased sharply for the first 20 minutes, then linearly but at a lower rate in the chickens fed the high protein diet, whereas that in the chickens fed the low protein diet rose linearly throughout ammonia infusion. In contrast, the endogenous urinary ammonia showed no change in the chickens fed the high protein diet while it showed a tendency to increase a little in these fed the low protein diet. These results indicate that the increased urinary ammonia and total N during ammonia infusion are derived mostly from the infused ammonia in chickens fed 5 and 20% protein diets. (author)

  20. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  1. Colony Diet Influences Ant Worker Foraging and Attendance of Myrmecophilous Lycaenid Caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pohl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Foraging animals regulate their intake of macronutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins. However, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients can be constrained by the nutrient content of available food sources. Compensatory foraging is a method to adjust nutrient intake under restricted nutrient availability by preferentially exploiting food sources that contain limiting nutrients. Here we studied the potential for compensatory foraging in the dolichoderine ant Iridomyrmex mayri, which is commonly found in associations with caterpillars of the obligatorily ant-associated lycaenid butterfly Jalmenus evagoras. The caterpillars receive protection against predators and parasites, and reward the ants with nutritional secretions from specialized exocrine glands. These secretions contain a mixture of sugars and free amino acids, particularly serine. We tested the influence of nutrient-deficient diets on foraging patterns in I. mayri by recording the intake of test solutions containing single types of macronutrients during food preference tests. We also investigated the level of ant attendance on fifth instar J. evagoras caterpillars to evaluate how changes in diet influenced ant tending of caterpillars and foraging on their secretions. Foragers on a protein diet compensated for the nutritional deficit by increasing the intake of test solutions that contained sucrose, compared to their counterparts on a non-restricted diet. Ants on a sugar diet, however, did not show a corresponding increased consumption of test solutions containing the amino acid serine. Additionally, compared with their counterparts on a mixed diet, ants on limited nutrient diets showed an increase in the number of caterpillar-tending workers, suggesting that the caterpillars’ secretions are suitable to compensate for the ants’ nutritional deficit.

  2. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Snelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood–brain barrier (BBB is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  3. Development and bioefficacy study of plant-based proteins diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, lactic acids fermentation, malting, plant protein. INTRODUCTION ..... Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) grow on diets devoid of ... and Fatty Acid Profiles of the Fillets of Channel. Catfish Reared on ...

  4. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of vegetable origin). Retention of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper as well as various bowel function indices were investigated during each dietary period. Neither the HA d...

  5. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  6. Effect of an advanced glycation end product-restricted diet and exercise on metabolic parameters in adult overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Rodríguez-Soto, Juana María Dolores; Uribarri, Jaime; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco José; Cai, Weijingi; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of a low advanced glycation end product (AGEs) diet, exercise, and a combination of both on circulating AGE levels as well as on plasma lipids and anthropometric parameters. Forty-three overweight or obese men (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m(2)), 30 to 55 y, participated in a 12-wk study and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: low AGE diet, exercise with habitual food intake, or exercise plus low AGE diet. Exercise was for 45 min at 65% to 75% of their maximum heart rate three times a week. We measured somatometric variables (BMI and waist circumference), blood glucose, lipids, and serum AGEs (N(ε)-[Carboxymethyl]Lysine [CML] and methylglyoxal [MG]) at baseline and at 12 wk. Exercise alone was associated with decreased somatometric variables; the low AGE diet had the same effects and decreased serum CML and MG and when combined with exercise reproduced all these effects, but also decreased triacylglycerols and increased high-density lipoprotein. Correlation analysis showed that both changes of CML and MG correlated with changes in dietary AGEs (P diet reduces serum AGE and indices of body fat. The addition of exercise to the restricted diet has the same effects but also improves lipid profile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

  8. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J Marie

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ∼12 days, starting at 3-4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz-induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A. R.; Toubro, S.; Bülow, J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat......-reduced diets. DESIGN: Randomized 6 months dietary intervention study comparing two controlled ad libitum diets with 30 energy (E%) fat content: high-protein (HP; 25 E%) or low-protein, (LP, 12 E% protein). All food was provided by self-selection in a shop at the department, and high compliance to the diet...... composition was confirmed by measurements of urinary nitrogen excretion. SUBJECTS: 65 healthy, overweight and obese (25protein intake changed from 91.1 g/d to a 6 months intervention average of 70.4 g/d (P

  10. Maternal high-fat diet and offspring expression levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, S A; Cagampang, F R; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-12-01

    Studies suggest that bone growth and development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) including osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, periostin, and growth-arrest specific- protein 6, in both bone and vascular development. We have examined whether there are alterations in these VKDPs in bone and vascular tissue from offspring of mothers subjected to a nutritional challenge: a high-fat diet during pregnancy and postnatally, using 6-week-old mouse offspring. Bone site-specific and sex-specific differences across femoral and vertebral bone in male and female offspring were observed. Overall a high-fat maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex-specific differences and tissue-specific differences were observed in VKDP levels in aorta tissue from high-fat diet-fed female offspring from high-fat diet-fed mothers displaying increased levels of Gas6 and Ggcx compared with those of female controls. In contrast, differences were seen in VKDP levels in femoral bone of female offspring with lower expression levels of Mgp in offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet compared with those of controls. We observed a significant correlation in Mgp expression levels within the femur to measures of bone structure of the femur and vertebra, particularly in the male offspring cohort. In summary, the current study has highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  11. Effects of energetic restriction diet on butyrylcholinesterase in obese women from southern Brazil - A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Willian Dos; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Saliba, Louise Farah; Schenknecht, Caroline Schovanz; Scaraboto, Débora; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen R; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2017-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity has been associated with obesity, lipid concentrations, and CHE2 locus phenotypes. This, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an energetic restriction diet intervention on anthropometrical and biochemical variables and on absolute and relative BChE activity in CHE2 C5+ and CHE2 C5- individuals. One hundred eleven premenopausal obese women from Southern Brazil participated in an energetic restriction diet intervention (deficit of 2500 kJ/day) for 8 weeks. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after the intervention. Plasma BChE activity was measured, and BChE bands in plasma and CHE2 locus phenotypes were detected by electrophoresis. The dietetic intervention decreased anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as absolute BChE activity and relative activity of the G4 band. The CHE2 C5+ phenotype presented a different effect when compared with the CHE2 C5- phenotype. The CHE2 C5+ phenotype showed an effect in absolute BChE activity and in the relative activity of the G4 form, maintaining higher BChE activity regardless of the metabolic changes. In our study, 8 weeks was not sufficient time to lower the body mass index to normal, but it was enough to significantly reduce the absolute BChE activity, which became similar to the levels in nonobese individuals. CHE2 C5+ individuals were resistant to the decrease in BChE activity compared to CHE2 C5- individuals. This shows that the diet did not affect the CHE2 and G4 fraction complex and that the products of the CHE2 locus in association with BChE have a role in energy metabolism, maintaining high levels of enzymatic activity even after dietary intervention.

  12. Adjusting diet with sapropterin in phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Anita; Ahring, Kirsten; Dokoupil, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    others are able to relax the diet to some extent. Care is required when altering the phenylalanine-restricted diet, as this may have unintended nutritional consequences and must be undertaken with caution. New clinical protocols are required for managing any dietary change while maintaining control......The usual treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Following this diet is challenging, and long-term adherence (and hence metabolic control) is commonly poor. Patients with PKU (usually, but not exclusively, with a relatively mild form of the disorder) who...... and new questions in the dietary management of these patients. Initially, patients and carers must understand clearly the likely benefits (and limitations) of sapropterin therapy. A minority of patients who respond to sapropterin are able to discontinue the phenylalanine-restricted diet completely, while...

  13. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebiyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6 kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM, canola meal (CM or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS that were either adequate (19% or marginal (15% in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.

  14. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional composition of the dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. Thirty obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the following hypocaloric treatments (8 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet), prescribing 4 weekly different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood biochemical and inflammatory marker concentrations as well as dietary intake were measured at baseline and after the nutritional intervention. The L-diet achieved a greater body weight loss, when compared to the C-diet (-7.8 ± 2.9% vs. -5.3 ± 2.7%; p = 0.024). Total and LDL cholesterol levels and systolic BP were improved only when consuming the L-diet (p diet also resulted in a significant higher reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement C3 (C3) concentrations (p diet values. Interestingly, the reduction in the concentrations of CRP and C3 remained significantly higher to L-diet group, after adjusting by weight loss (p diet group, independent from weight loss (p hypocaloric diet resulted in a specific reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as CRP and C3 and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and BP) in overweight/ obese subjects, which were in some cases independent from weight loss.

  15. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age 26.3±3.9 yr; height 178.5±8.4 cm; and average years of training 8.9±3.4 yr. In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months. Body composition was assessed via the Bod Pod®. Each subject provided approximately 100–168 daily dietary self-reports. During the subjects’ normal eating phase, they consumed (mean ± SD 29.94±5.65 kcals/kg/day and 2.51±0.69 g/kg/day of protein. This significantly increased (p<0.05 during the high protein phase to 34.37±5.88 kcals/kg/day and 3.32±0.87 g/kg/day of protein. Our investigation discovered that, in resistance-trained men that consumed a high protein diet (~2.51–3.32 g/kg/d for one year, there were no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function. In addition, despite the total increase in energy intake during the high protein phase, subjects did not experience an increase in fat mass.

  16. Effects of long-term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of genes of steroidogenic pathway and small heat-shock proteins in rat testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, F; Atli, M O; Guzeloglu, A; Kayis, S A; Yildirim, M E; Kurar, E; Yilmaz, R; Aydilek, N

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of long-term heat stress and dietary restriction on the expression of certain genes involving in steroidogenic pathway and small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) in rat testis. Sprague Dawley rats (n = 24) were equally divided into four groups. Group I and II were kept at an ambient temperature of 22°C, while Groups III and IV were reared at 38°C for 9 weeks. Feed was freely available for Group I and Group III, while Group II and Group IV were fed 60% of the diet consumed by their ad libitum counterparts. At the end of 9 weeks, testicles were collected under euthanasia. Total RNA was isolated from testis tissue samples. Expression profiles of the genes encoding androgen-binding protein, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, androgen receptor, luteinising hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cyclooxygenase-2 and sHSP genes were assessed at mRNA levels using qPCR. Long-term heat stress decreased the expression of StAR and HspB10 genes while dietary restriction upregulated StAR gene expression. The results suggested that long-term heat stress negatively affected the expression of StAR and HspB10 genes and the dietary restriction was able to reverse negative effect of heat stress on the expression of StAR gene in rat testis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  18. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  19. Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Cheong, Jin Young; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, In Ho

    2017-12-01

    Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4-9 and weeks 0-9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P diet compared with those fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets. Pigs fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets had higher (P diet. Pigs fed PROFOS diet had reduced (P diets. These data indicate that reducing dietary CP concentrations impaired growth performance, decreased ATTD of CP and reduced ammonia emissions. Supplementation of protease in low CP diet improved growth performance and increased ATTD of CP. Dietary supplementation with protease and FOS in low CP diet improved growth performance, increased ATTD of CP and decreased fecal ammonia emission. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N; Cassidy, T W; Heyler, K S; Lapierre, H; Varga, G A; de Veth, M J; Patton, R A; Parys, C

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Lys, Met, and specifically His on dairy cow performance. The experiment was conducted for 12 wk with 48 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by DIM and milk yield and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets, based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage: control, MP-adequate diet (ADMP; MP balance: +9 g/d); MP-deficient diet (DMP; MP balance: -317 g/d); DMP supplemented with RPLys (AminoShure-L, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY) and RPMet (Mepron; Evonik Industries AG, Hanau, Germany; DMPLM); and DMPLM supplemented with an experimental RPHis preparation (DMPLMH). The analyzed crude protein content of the ADMP and DMP diets was 15.7 and 13.5 to 13.6%, respectively. The apparent total-tract digestibility of all measured nutrients, plasma urea-N, and urinary N excretion were decreased by the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake was greater for the DMP diets compared with ADMP. Compared with ADMP, dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be lower for DMP, but was similar for DMPLM and DMPLMH (24.5, 23.0, 23.7, and 24.3 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield was decreased by DMP (35.2 kg/d), but was similar to ADMP (38.8 kg/d) for DMPLM and DMPLMH (36.9 and 38.5kg/d, respectively), paralleling the trend in DMI. The National Research Council 2001model underpredicted milk yield of the DMP cows by an average (±SE) of 10.3 ± 0.75 kg/d. Milk fat and true protein content did not differ among treatments, but milk protein yield was increased by DMPLM and DMPLMH compared with DMP and was not different from ADMP. Plasma essential amino acids (AA), Lys, and His were lower for DMP compared with ADMP. Supplementation of the DMP diets with RP AA increased plasma Lys, Met, and His. In conclusion, MP deficiency, approximately 15% below the National Research Council requirements from 2001, decreased

  1. Characterisation of Atherogenic Effects of Low Carbohydrate, High Protein Diet (LCHP) in ApoE/LDLR-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, R B; Johann, C; Czyżyńska, I; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Drahun, A; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Gajda, M; Mateuszuk, Ł; Wrobel, T P; Baranska, M; Wybrańska, I; Jezkova, K; Nachtigal, P; Chlopicki, S

    2015-08-01

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein diet represents a popular strategy to achieve weight loss. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of low carbohydrate, high protein diet (LCHP) on atherosclerotic plaque development in brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in apoE/LDLR-/- mice and to elucidate mechanisms of proatherogenic effects of LCHP diet. Atherosclerosis plaques in brachiocephalic artery (BCA) as well as in aortic roots, lipoprotein profile, inflammation biomarkers, expression of SREBP-1 in the liver as well as mortality were analyzed in Control diet (AIN-93G) or LCHP (Low Carbohydrate High Protein) diet fed mice. Area of atherosclerotic plaques in aortic roots or BCA from LCHP diet fed mice was substantially increased as compared to mice fed control diet and was characterized by increased lipids and cholesterol contents (ORO staining, FT-IR analysis), increased macrophage infiltration (MOMA-2) and activity of MMPs (zymography). Pro-atherogenic phenotype of LCHP fed apoE/LDLR-/- mice was associated with increased plasma total cholesterol concentration, and in LDL and VLDL fractions, increased TG contents in VLDL, and a modest increase in plasma urea. LCHP diet increased SCD-1 index, activated SREBP-1 transcription factor in the liver and triggered acute phase response as evidence by an increased plasma concentration of haptoglobin, CRP or AGP. Finally, in long-term experiment survival of apoE/LDLR-/- mice fed LCHP diet was substantially reduced as compared to their counterparts fed control diet suggesting overall detrimental effects of LCHP diet on health. The pro-atherogenic effect of LCHP diet in apoE/LDLR-/- mice is associated with profound increase in LDL and VLDL cholesterol, VLDL triglicerides, liver SREBP-1 upregulation, and systemic inflammation.

  2. One-year effectiveness of two hypocaloric diets with different protein/carbohydrate ratios in weight loss and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja Fernández, A; Vidal Casariego, A; Cano Rodríguez, I; Ballesteros Pomar, Ma D

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of weight loss may be influenced by the distribution of macronutrients in the diet and insulin sensitivity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the longterm effect of two hypocaloric diets with different protein/carbohydrate ratios in overweight and obese individuals either with insulin resistance (IR) or without insulin resistance (IS). Prospective, randomized, clinical intervention study. Forty patients were classified as IR/IS after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and then randomized to a diet with either 40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat (diet A) or 55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat (diet B). After one year of follow-up there was no difference in weight loss between diets A and B in each group, but the IS group maintained weight loss better than the IR group [-5.7 (3.9) vs. -0.6 (4.1); P = 0.04]. No differences were found in either Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) or other metabolic glucose parameters except lower insulin at 120 minutes with diet A [21.40 (8.30) vs. 71.40 (17.11); P = 0.02]. The hypocaloric diets with different protein/carbohydrate ratios produced similar changes in weight. Insulin resistance may play a negative role in maintaining weight loss.

  3. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  4. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  5. Effect of modest caloric restriction on oxidative stress in women, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, Maciej S; Hongu, Nobuko; Acra, Sari; Wang, Li; Warolin, Joshua; Roberts, L Jackson

    2012-01-01

    It is not established to what extent caloric intake must be reduced to lower oxidative stress in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of short-term, moderate caloric restriction on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese premenopausal women. Randomized trial comparison of 25% caloric restriction (CR) or control diet in 40 overweight or obese women (body mass index 32±5.8 kg/m(2)) observed for 28 days and followed for the next 90 days. Weight, anthropometry, validated markers of oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostane) and inflammation (C-reactive protein), adipokines, hormones, lipids, interleukins, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, during the intervention, and at follow-up. Baseline median F(2)-isoprostane concentration (57.0, IQR = 40.5-79.5) in the CR group was 1.75-fold above average range for normal weight women (32.5 pg/ml). After starting of the caloric restriction diet, F(2)-isoprostane levels fell rapidly in the CR group, reaching statistical difference from the control group by day 5 (median 33.5, IQR = 26.0-48.0, Prestriction diet. Three months after resuming a habitual diet, concentrations of F(2)-isoprostane returned to baseline elevated levels in ∼80% of the women. Oxidative stress can be rapidly reduced and sustained through a modest reduction in caloric intake suggesting potential health benefits in overweight and obese women. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00808275.

  6. Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essah, P A; Levy, J R; Sistrun, S N; Kelly, S M; Nestler, J E

    2010-08-01

    To compare the effects of weight loss by an energy-restricted low-fat diet vs low-carbohydrate diet on serum peptide YY (PYY) levels. 8-Week prospective study of 30 obese adults (mean age: 42.8+/-2.0 years, mean body mass index 35.5+/-0.6 kg m(-2)). After 8 weeks, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost substantially more weight than those on the low-fat diet (5.8 vs 0.99 kg, Plow-fat or low-carbohydrate diet likely represents a compensatory response to maintain energy homeostasis and contributes to difficulty in weight loss during energy-restricted diets.

  7. Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets.

  8. Nutritive utilization of protein and digestive utilization of fat in two commercial diets designed for clinical enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alférez, M J; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; López-Aliaga, I

    1990-01-01

    The digestive and metabolic utilization of protein (50% lactoalbumin + 50% casein) and fat (43.0% butter, 29.5% olive oil, 14.7% soy oil, 9.8% MCT and 3.0% lecithin) provided by two commercial diets used in clinical enteral nutrition (normoproteic, 16.1% protein and 20.8% fat, and hyperproteic, 23.1% protein and 14.9% fat), was studied in adult rats (mean body weight 180 g). The diet containing the greater amount of protein improved the digestive utilization of nitrogen, and although nitrogen retention was optimal, it failed to rise further when the dietary protein supply was increased. The digestive utilization of fat in both diets was excellent.

  9. A leucine-supplemented diet improved protein content of skeletal muscle in young tumor-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes-Marcondes M.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia induces host protein wastage but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Branched-chain amino acids play a regulatory role in the modulation of both protein synthesis and degradation in host tissues. Leucine, an important amino acid in skeletal muscle, is higher oxidized in tumor-bearing animals. A leucine-supplemented diet was used to analyze the effects of Walker 256 tumor growth on body composition in young weanling Wistar rats divided into two main dietary groups: normal diet (N, 18% protein and leucine-rich diet (L, 15% protein plus 3% leucine, which were further subdivided into control (N or L or tumor-bearing (W or LW subgroups. After 12 days, the animals were sacrificed and their carcass analyzed. The tumor-bearing groups showed a decrease in body weight and fat content. Lean carcass mass was lower in the W and LW groups (W = 19.9 ± 0.6, LW = 23.1 ± 1.0 g vs N = 29.4 ± 1.3, L = 28.1 ± 1.9 g, P < 0.05. Tumor weight was similar in both tumor-bearing groups fed either diet. Western blot analysis showed that myosin protein content in gastrocnemius muscle was reduced in tumor-bearing animals (W = 0.234 ± 0.033 vs LW = 0.598 ± 0.036, N = 0.623 ± 0.062, L = 0.697 ± 0.065 arbitrary intensity, P < 0.05. Despite accelerated tumor growth, LW animals exhibited a smaller reduction in lean carcass mass and muscle myosin maintenance, suggesting that excess leucine in the diet could counteract, at least in part, the high host protein wasting in weanling tumor-bearing rats.

  10. Effect of low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    Hypoproteic diets are most often discussed for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who do not receive dialysis. A very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues of essential amino acids (keto-diet) proved effective in ameliorating metabolic disturbances of advanced CKD and delaying the initiation of dialysis without deleterious effects on nutritional status. Several recent studies report that the keto-diet could also slow down the rate of decline in renal function, with better outcomes after the initiation of dialysis. Results of a single-center randomized controlled trial addressing the rate of CKD progression revealed a 57% slower decline in renal function with the keto-diet compared with a conventional low-protein diet (LPD). The keto-diet allowed the safe management of selected patients with stage 4-5 CKD, delaying dialysis for almost 1 year, with a major impact on patient quality of life and health expenditures. Therefore, the keto-diet could be a link in the integrated care model. Careful selection of patients, nutritional monitoring, and dietary counseling are required. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary whey proteins shield murine cecal microbiota from extensive disarray caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coker Robert H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess adipose tissue and sarcopenia presents a multifaceted clinical challenge that promotes morbidity and mortality in the obese, elderly population. Unfortunately, the mortality risks of muscle loss may outweigh the potential benefits of weight loss in the elderly. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of whey protein and essential amino acids towards the preservation of lean tissue, even under the conditions of strict bedrest in the elderly. Methods In the context of caloric restriction-based weight loss, we hypothesized that a similar formulation given as a meal replacement (EAAMR would foster the retention of lean tissue through an increase in the skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR. We also proposed that EAAMR would promote the preferential loss of adipose tissue through the increased energy cost of skeletal muscle FSR. We recruited and randomized 12 elderly individuals to an 8 week, caloric restriction diet utilizing equivalent caloric meal replacements (800 kcal/day: 1 EAAMR or a 2 competitive meal replacement (CMR in conjunction with 400 kcal of solid food that totaled 1200 kcal/day designed to induce 7% weight loss. Combined with weekly measurements of total body weight and body composition, we also measured the acute change in the skeletal muscle FSR to EAAMR and CMR. Results By design, both groups lost ~7% of total body weight. While EAAMR did not promote a significant preservation of lean tissue, the reduction in adipose tissue was greater in EAAMR compared to CMR. Interestingly, these results corresponded to an increase in the acute skeletal muscle protein FSR. Conclusion The provision of EAAMR during caloric restriction-induced weight loss promotes the preferential reduction of adipose tissue and the modest loss of lean tissue in the elderly population.

  13. Changes in the Total Fecal Bacterial Population in Individual Horses Maintained on a Restricted Diet Over 6 Weeks

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    Kirsty Dougal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve mature (aged 5–16 years horses and ponies of mixed breed and type were fed restricted (1.25% BM Dry matter quantities of one of two fiber based diets formulated to be iso-caloric. Diet 1 comprised of 0.8% body mass (BM of chaff based complete feed plus 0.45% BM low energy grass hay (the same hay used for both diets. Diet 2 comprised 0.1% BM of a nutrient balancer plus 1.15% BM grass hay. Fecal samples were collected at week 10 and week 16. DNA was extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the bacterial microbiome of the horse. The two most abundant phyla found in both diets and sampling periods were the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. There was a clear reduction in Bacteroidetes with a concordant increase in Firmicutes over time. There was a limited degree of stability within the bacterial community of the hindgut of horses, with 65% of bacteria retained, over a 6 week period whilst on a uniform diet. The presence of a core community defined by being present in all samples (each animal/diet combination included in the study and being present at 0.1% relative abundance (or greater was identified. In total 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified that fit the definition of core making up 21–28% of the total sequences recovered. As with total population the most abundant phyla were the Bacteroidetes followed by the Firmicutes, however there was no obvious shift in phyla due to period. Indeed, when the relative abundance of OTUs was examined across diets and periods there was no significant effect of diet or period alone or in combination on the relative abundance of the core OTUs.

  14. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Conceição Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.

  15. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  16. A randomized controlled pilot study into the effects of a restricted elimination diet on family structure in families with ADHD and ODD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, L.M.; Steijn, van D.J.; Frankena, K.; Toorman, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Rommelse, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural improvements of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) following a restricted elimination diet (RED), may be due to concurrent changes in family environment. Methods: Twenty-four children with ADHD, were randomized to either

  17. Effects of weight loss with a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition, voluntary physical activity, and fecal microbiota of obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

  18. [Effect of Individualized Low-protein Diet Intervention on Renal Function of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mi-mi; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Ying-li

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether individualized low-protein diet intervention for patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)could improve the general condition,slow the deterioration of renal function,and delay the time of entering dialysis. Forty CKD inpatients between July 2011 and July 2012 were randomly given with normal or individualized low-protein diet for six months according to random number table after signing informed consent. The levels of urine protein and biochemical indexes of renal function were measured at baseline and at the end of dietary intervention for six months, respectively. The baseline urine protein level,renal function,and biochemical indexes were not significantly different between these two groups. The diastolic blood pressure,protein intake,blood urea nitrogen,uric acid, potassium, phosphorus, C-reaction protein,24-hour urea nitrogen,and urine protein after six months were significantly lower than those at baseline,that is,(101.70 ± 15.78)mmHg vs.(91.75 ±15.52) mmHg,(63.87 ± 24.70)g/d vs.(50.02 ± 14.07)g/d,(20.01 ± 7.69)mmol/L vs.(15.11 ± 4.90) mmol/L,(362.75 ± 84.56)Μmol/L vs.(302.20 ± 8.48)Μmol/L,(5.22 ± 0.75)mmol/L vs.(4.79±0.36) mmol/L,(2.07 ± 0.68) mmol/L vs.(1.57 ± 0.41) mmol/L,1.19 [0.65,4.17] mg/L vs. 0.74 [0.38,1.33] mg/L,70.6 [8.70,101.18] mmol/L vs. 16.93 [3.23,72.27] mmol/L,1.00 [0.30,1.00] g/d vs. 0.15 [0,0.83] g/d (all Pprotein diet group. The difference was statistically significant (Pprotein producing was prealbumin (r=0.924, Pprotein, and hemoglobin in six months in the individualized low-protein diet group were significantly better than those in the normal low protein-diet group (Pprotein diet intervention may have definite curative effectiveness in CKD patients. It can markedly improve the patients' condition,slow down the deterio-ration of renal function,and increase serum prealbumin levels that may reduce the generation of urine protein. It is worthy of wider clinical application.

  19. Anti-Restriction Protein, KlcAHS, Promotes Dissemination of Carbapenem Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC has emerged and spread throughout the world. A retrospective analysis was performed on carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated at our teaching hospital during the period 2009–2010, when the initial outbreak occurred. To determine the mechanism(s that underlies the increased infectivity exhibited by KPC, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST was conducted. A series of plasmids was also extracted, sequenced and analyzed. Concurrently, the complete sequences of blaKPC−2-harboring plasmids deposited in GenBank were summarized and aligned. The blaKPC−2 and KlcAHS genes in the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were examined. E. coli strains, carrying different Type I Restriction and Modification (RM systems, were selected to study the interaction between RM systems, anti-RM systems and horizontal gene transfer (HGT. The ST11 clone predominated among 102 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, all harbored the blaKPC−2 gene; 98% contained the KlcAHS gene. KlcAHS was one of the core genes in the backbone region of most blaKPC−2 carrying plasmids. Type I RM systems in the host bacteria reduced the rate of pHS10842 plasmid transformation by 30- to 40-fold. Presence of the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, on the other hand, increased transformation efficiency by 3- to 6-fold. These results indicate that RM systems can significantly restrict HGT. In contrast, KlcAHS can disrupt the RM systems and promote HGT by transformation. These findings suggest that the anti-restriction protein, KlcAHS, represents a novel mechanism that facilitates the increased transfer of blaKPC-2 and KlcAHS-carrying plasmids among K. pneumoniae strains.

  20. The success of dietary protein restriction in alkaptonuria patients is age-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, V.; Carbasius Weber, E. C.; de Klerk, J. B.; Bakker, H. D.; Smit, G. P.; Huijbers, W. A.; Duran, M.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is characterized by an increased urinary excretion of homogentisic acid, pigmentation of cartilage and connective tissues, and ultimately the development of inflammatory arthropathy. Various diets low in protein have been designed to decrease homogentisic acid excretion and to prevent

  1. Effects of high protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: The benefits of high protein diets for sparing lean body mass and sustaining skeletal muscle protein metabolism during short-term weight loss in normal-weight adults are not well described. Objective: Determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein intake on body compos...

  2. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  3. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  4. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de Lisette; Vries, de Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a

  5. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  6. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  7. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugander Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group. At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004 and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001. The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007 and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007. In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets

  8. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  9. Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates - A Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursel, Rick; Martens, Eveline A P; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hamer, Henrike M; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Luc J C; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2015-01-01

    Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake. A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d) or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d) energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat) for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y) were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Pprotein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Psynthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Pprotein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low vs high protein diet (0.042±0.01 vs 0.045±0.01%/h;P = 0.620). In the overnight fasted state, adaptation to a low-protein intake (0.4 g/kg/d) does not result in a more negative whole-body protein balance and

  10. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd 2+ , in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd 2+ exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd 2+ did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd 2+ induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta

  11. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  12. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  13. The effect of energy restriction on satiation an satiety in obese and lean men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate how time-blinded obese and lean men compensate for a 3-day energy-restrictive diet. Methods: Subjects were randomly put on a three-day energy-restrictive (ER) (67% energy restriction) and a three-day energy-balanced (EB) diet, with a washout period of one month. Both diets were

  14. [Comparison between hypo- and hyperglucidic diets on protein sparing in major visceral surgery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillard, B; Bourdois, M; Freysz, M; Baguet, G; Laurin, S; Chalmond, B; Desgres, J; Ahouangbevi, A

    1981-01-01

    The authors compare the protein sparing effect of two diets, exclusively intravenous, including the same protein intake, but a different caloric intake, 21 calories/gm nitrogen for diet "A" (20 cases); 138 calories/gm nitrogen for diet "B" (20 cases). This has been observed during the six post-operative days of major visceral surgery: oesophagectomy, total gastrectomy, colic or rectocolic exeresis, sequestrectomy for acute pancreatitis, lots having been drawn for the diets. Daily nitrogen balances have been made and plasmatic and urinary levels of amino-acids have been measured before surgery and on the third and fifth post-operative days. Statistical exploitation is done by variance analysis (linear model of three factors) with a 99% confidence ratio: 1) Patient factor has no influence whatsoever on cumulative nitrogen balance. 2) Time factor arises only on the fourth post-operative day and only in the hypocaloric diet, leading to catabolism. 3) Metabolic condition is determinant. On no cancerous disease, superiority of hypercaloric diet is well demonstrated. On cancerous disease, nitrogen loss is only significantly different on 4th and 5th post-operative day: hypercaloric diet gives a better nitrogen balance.

  15. The efficacy of a high protein/low glycemic index diet intervention in non-obese patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Astrup, Arne

    2018-01-01

    intervention consisted of a high protein and low GI diet whilst the control group continued habitual diet. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients in the diet and 34 in the control group completed the study. The diet group reduced their energy intake by ~20% and had high dietary compliance. Intake of fatty fish doubled......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: EFFORT Asthma study is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effects of diet and exercise in non-obese, untrained patients with asthma. We here present results from a subgroup of participants in the diet and control group to assess the feasibility of a high...... protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet and the effects on body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Of the 149 subjects who were included in the study, 76 subjects (30 males) were randomized into either a diet group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 38) and included in the present analysis. The 8 week...

  16. Comparison of several artificial diets with different protein sources for massal rearing of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mauro S.; Parra, Jose R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The development of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima) was compared among four artificial diets with different protein sources based on biological characteristics and fertility life table in order to have the insect available throughout the year for research in different areas. All diets with variable protein sources (D1= bean, yeast, wheat germ, soybean protein and casein; D2= corn flour, wheat germ, and yeast; D3= soybean protein, and wheat germ; D4= bean, yeast and wheat germ) allowed the insect to developed at 27 +- 2 deg C; RH 65 +- 10% and 14 h photophase. In all diets the insect presented four instars with several other similar biological characteristics. Since diet D2 (corn flour, wheat germ and yeast) provided the lowest development time, the highest viability, a high value of finite ratio of increase (ll), besides being of low cost and easy preparation, it can be considered as the most adequate for laboratory rearing of E. aurantiana. Balanced nutrients showed more important than the nutritional value of the components of the diet for this insect which is, for the first time, fed on artificial diet. (author)

  17. Differences in postprandial hemodynamic response on a high protein versus a high carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several intervention trials have shown that diet composition affects blood pressure (BP). In this study we focused on postprandial hemodynamic changes on a high carbohydrate versus a high protein diet. Design and Method: In this randomized double-blind parallel group study, 53 adult

  18. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood.

  19. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Tous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary crude protein (CP reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each: four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids. The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05, final weight (p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.05 and average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05 in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01 and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  20. A 7-day high protein hypocaloric diet promotes cellular metabolic adaptations and attenuates lean mass loss in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Furber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial quantity and density are associated with increased oxidative metabolism. It has been demonstrated that a hypocaloric high fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC diet can up-regulate transcriptional markers of mitochondrial biogenesis; this was yet to be explored in vivo subsequent to a high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC diet. Thus the aims of the study were to explore such diets on transcriptional markers or mitochondrial biogenesis, body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Forty-five healthy male participants were randomly assigned one of four intervention diets: eucaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-EM, hypocaloric high protein low carbohydrate (PRO-ER, eucaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-EM or hypocaloric high carbohydrate (CHO-ER. The macronutrient ratio of the high protein diet and high carbohydrate diets was 40:30:30% and 10:60:30% (PRO:CHO:FAT respectively. Energy intake for the hypocaloric diets were calculated to match resting metabolic rate. Participants visited the laboratory on 3 occasions each separated by 7 days. On each visit body composition, resting metabolic rate and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis was collected. Prior to visit 1 and 2 habitual diet was consumed which was used as a control, between visit 2 and 3 the intervention diet was consumed continuously for 7-days. No group × time effect was observed, however in the PRO-ER group a significant increase in AMPK, PGC-1α, SIRT1 and SIRT3 mRNA expression was observed post diet intervention groups (p < 0.05. No change was observed in any of the transcriptional markers in the other 3 groups. Despite ∼30% reduction in calorie intake no difference in lean mass (LM loss was observed between the PRO-ER and CHO-EM groups. The results from this study suggest that a 7-day a high protein low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet increased AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC-1 α mRNA expression at rest, and also suggest that increased dietary protein may attenuate LM mass

  1. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  2. Effect of omnivorous and vegan diets with different protein and carbohydrate content on growth and metabolism of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Morlacchini, Mauro; Crippa, Luca; Capraro, Jessica; Paganini, Beatrice; Gallo, Antonio; Rossi, Filippo

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe, in a rat animal model, the short and medium term effects of vegan (VEG) or omnivorous (OMNI) diets with different energy partition between nutrients (zone or classic). Six different diets were administered, for 72 days to 120 growing male Sprague-Dawley rats: (i) VEG zone diet; (ii) VEG classic diet; (iii) OMNI zone diet; (iv) OMNI classic diet; (v) OMNI zone diet with added fibre and (vi) OMNI classic diet with added fibre. Zone diets (high protein and low carbohydrates), resulted in better growth , feed efficiency, lower blood glucose and insulin responses. VEG diets have lowered cholesterol blood level. Histopathological analysis evidenced no damage to liver and kidney tissue by the intake of any of the diet types. Further longer animal and human duration studies should be performed to exclude detrimental effect of higher protein diet.

  3. The clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in treatment of dogs with intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, H; Yoshioka, R; Kagawa, Y; Watari, T

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL), a type of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels within the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary fat restriction previously has been proposed as an effective treatment for dogs with PLE, but limited objective clinical data are available on the efficacy of this treatment. To investigate the clinical efficacy of dietary fat restriction in dogs with IL that were unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or showed relapse of clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the prednisolone dosage was decreased. Twenty-four dogs with IL. Retrospective study. Body weight, clinical activity score, and hematologic and biochemical variables were compared before and 1 and 2 months after treatment. Furthermore, the data were compared between the group fed only an ultra low-fat (ULF) diet and the group fed ULF and a low-fat (LF) diet. Nineteen of 24 (79%) dogs responded satisfactorily to dietary fat restriction, and the prednisolone dosage could be decreased. Clinical activity score was significantly decreased after dietary treatment compared with before treatment. In addition, albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were significantly increased after dietary fat restriction. At 2 months posttreatment, the ALB concentrations in the ULF group were significantly higher than that of the ULF + LF group. Dietary fat restriction appears to be an effective treatment in dogs with IL that are unresponsive to prednisolone treatment or that have recurrent clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia when the dosage of prednisolone is decreased. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Effects of protein-calorie restriction on mechanical function of hypertrophied cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cicogna

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food restriction (FR on hypertrophied cardiac muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Isolated papillary muscle preparations of the left ventricle (LV of 60-day-old SHR and of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were studied. The rats were fed either an unrestricted diet or FR diet (50% of the intake of the control diet for 30 days. The mechanical function of the muscles was evaluated through monitoring isometric and isotonic contractions. RESULTS: FR caused: 1 reduction in the body weight and LV weight of SHR and WKY rats; 2 increase in the time to peak shortening and the time to peak developed tension (DT in the hypertrophied myocardium of the SHR; 3 diverging changes in the mechanical function of the normal cardiac muscles of WKY rats with reduction in maximum velocity of isotonic shortening and of the time for DT to decrease 50% of its maximum value, and increase of the resting tension and of the rate of tension decline. CONCLUSION: Short-term FR causes prolongation of the contraction time of hypertrophied muscles and paradoxal changes in mechanical performance of normal cardiac fibers, with worsening of the shortening indices and of the resting tension, and improvement of the isometric relaxation.

  5. Effects of a high-protein/low carbohydrate versus a standard hypocaloric diet on adipocytokine levels and insulin resistance in obese patients along 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Aller, Rocio; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Bachiller, Rosario; Romero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Recent dietary trials and observational studies have focused on the effects of diet on health outcomes such as improvement in levels of surrogate biomarkers. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in weight, adipocytokines levels and insulin resistance after a high-protein/low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet vs. a standard hypocaloric diet during an intervention of 9 months. 331 obese subjects were randomly allocated to one of two diets for a period of 9 months. Diet HP (n=168) (high-protein hypocaloric diet) consisted in a diet of 1050 cal/day, 33% of carbohydrates, 33% of fats and 34% of proteins. Diet S (n=163) (standard protein hypocaloric diet) consisted in a diet of 1093 cal/day, 53% carbohydrates, 27%fats, and 20% proteins. With the diets HP and S, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin and HOMA decreased. The decrease at 9 months of (BMI: -2.6±1.3kg/m(2) vs. -2.1±1.2kg/m(2):pdiet HP than Diet S. With both diets, leptin levels decreased. A high-protein/low carbohydrate hypocaloric diet shows a higher weight loss, insulin and HOMA-R decreased after 9 months than a standard hypocaloric diet. The improvement in adipokine levels was similar with both diets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Yeast single cell protein in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Key word: microbial protein, Oreochromis niloticus, feeding, cost benefit, aquaculture. ... most aqua feeds, is an important ingredient in aqua- culture diets. Though it has ... Such alternatives must satisfy the nutritional needs of the fish species ...

  7. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  8. Diet-induced obesity alters protein synthesis: Tissue-specific effects in fasted vs. fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Stephanie R.; Gilge, Danielle A.; Steiber, Alison L.; Previs, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of obesity on protein dynamics is not clearly understood. We have designed experiments to test the hypothesis that obesity impairs the stimulation of tissue-specific protein synthesis following nutrient ingestion. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into two groups: group 1 (control, n = 16) were fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and group 2 (experimental, n = 16) were fed a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet ad libitum for 9 weeks. On the experiment day, all mice were fasted for 6 h...

  9. 6-tips diet: a simplified dietary approach in patients with chronic renal disease. A clinical randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Antonio; Riccio, Eleonora; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Caputo, Donatella Luciana; Mozzillo, Giusi; Amato, Marco; Andreucci, Michele; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Sabbatini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The beneficial effects of dietary restriction of proteins in chronic kidney disease are widely recognized; however, poor compliance to prescribed low-protein diets (LPD) may limit their effectiveness. To help patients to adhere to the dietary prescriptions, interventions as education programmes and dietary counselling are critical, but it is also important to develop simple and attractive approaches to the LPD, especially when dietitians are not available. Therefore, we elaborated a simplified and easy to manage dietary approach consisting of 6 tips (6-tip diet, 6-TD) which could replace the standard, non-individualized LPD in Nephrology Units where dietary counselling is not available; hence, our working hypothesis was to evaluate the effects of such diet vs a standard moderately protein-restricted diet on metabolic parameters and patients' adherence. In this randomized trial, 57 CKD patients stage 3b-5 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive the 6-TD (Group 6-TD) or a LPD containing 0.8 g/kg/day of proteins (Group LPD) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the effects of the two different diets on the main "metabolic" parameters and on patients' adherence (registration number NCT01865526). Both dietary regimens were associated with a progressive reduction in protein intake and urinary urea excretion compared to baseline, although the decrease was more pronounced in Group 6-TD. Effects on serum levels of urea nitrogen and urinary phosphate excretion were greater in Group 6-TD. Plasma levels of phosphate, bicarbonate and PTH, and urinary NaCl excretion remained stable in both groups throughout the study. 44 % of LPD patients were adherent to the dietary prescription vs 70 % of Group 6-TD. A simplified diet, consisting of 6 clear points easily managed by CKD patients, produced beneficial effects either on the metabolic profile of renal disease and on patients' adherence to the dietary plan, when compared to a standard LPD.

  10. Costs and Outcomes over 36 Years of Patients with Phenylketonuria Who Do and Do Not Remain on a Phenylalanine-Restricted Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J. F.; Bai, J. J.; Taylor, R. R.; Sladkevicius, E.; Lee, P. J.; Lachmann, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To quantify the costs and consequences of managing phenylketonuria (PKU) in the UK and to estimate the potential implications to the UK's National Health Service (NHS) of keeping patients on a phenylalanine-restricted diet for life. Methods: A computer-based model was constructed depicting the management of PKU patients over the first…

  11. An observational study of sequential protein-sparing, very low-calorie ketogenic diet (Oloproteic diet) and hypocaloric Mediterranean-like diet for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Luigi; Castaldo, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the hypo-MD was responsible for a re-increase in blood lipids and glucose tolerance parameters. Changes in visceral adiposity and glucose control-related variables were more consistent in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, in these patients the hypo-MD did not result in a consistent re-increase in glucose control-related variables. A dietary program consisting in a ketogenic regimen followed by a balanced MD appeared to be feasible and efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Biochemical responses to dietary α-linolenic acid restriction proceed differently among brain regions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Daisuke; Yasui, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2011-08-01

    Previously, we noted that the dietary restriction of α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) for 4 weeks after weaning brought about significant decreases in the BDNF content and p38 MAPK activity in the striatum of mice, but not in the other regions of the brain, compared with an ALA- and linoleic acid (LNA, n-6)-adequate diet. In this study, we examined whether a prolonged dietary manipulation induces biochemical changes in other regions of the brain as well. Mice were fed a safflower oil (SAF) diet (ALA-restricted, LNA-adequate) or a perilla oil (PER) diet (containing adequate amounts of ALA and LNA) for 8 weeks from weaning. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) contents and p38 MAPK activities in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus were significantly lower in the SAF group. The BDNF contents and protein kinase C (PKC) activities in the cerebral cortex as well as in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, were significantly lower in the SAF group. These data indicate that the biochemical changes induced by the dietary restriction of ALA have a time lag in the striatum and cortex, suggesting that the signal is transmitted through decreased p38 MAPK activity and BDNF content and ultimately decreased PKC activity.

  13. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets--a systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, P M; Condo, D; Keogh, J B

    2014-03-01

    Meta analysis of short term trials indicates that a higher protein, lower carbohydrate weight loss diet enhances fat mass loss and limits lean mass loss compared with a normal protein weight loss diet. Whether this benefit persists long term is not clear. We selected weight loss studies in adults with at least a 12 month follow up in which a higher percentage protein/lower carbohydrate diet was either planned or would be expected for either weight loss or weight maintenance. Studies were selected regardless of the success of the advice but difference in absolute and percentage protein intake at 12 months was used as a moderator in the analysis. Data was analysed using Comprehensive Meta analysis V2 using a random effects analysis. As many as 32 studies with 3492 individuals were analysed with data on fat and lean mass, glucose and insulin from 18 to 22 studies and lipids from 28 studies. A recommendation to consume a lower carbohydrate, higher protein diet in mostly short term intensive interventions with long term follow up was associated with better weight and fat loss but the effect size was small-standardised means of 0.14 and 0.22, p = 0.008 and p fat mass (0.9 vs. 0.3 kg). Fasting triglyceride and insulin were also lower with high protein diets with effect sizes of 0.17 and 0.22, p = 0.003 and p = 0.042 respectively. Other lipids and glucose were not different. The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence and Outcomes of the Low and Very Low Protein Diets in Chronic Diabetic Kidney Disease – A Debate that Needs Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoru Ileana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Brenner`s theory of the „workload” in the remnant nephrons, due to the largely available access to the dialysis facilities, many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD were given low-protein diets (LPDs apparently with great success. Four main diets are today accepted for achieving a balanced intake of 0.6 g protein/kg/day diet and together with a very low-protein diet of 0.3 g protein/kg/day with keto-analogues and amino-acids supplementation, known as keto-diet, are recommended in specific situations. Still, some questions have debatable answers and are waiting for more conclusive studies: are low and very low-protein diets (VLPDs really effective in diabetic CKD?; which LPD should be given? and what strategy should be used in order to get maximum compliance and best outcomes?

  15. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  16. The use of a formula-based ketogenic diet in children with refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD is a nonpharmacologic treatment that has been used for refractory epilepsy since 1921. The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet, which is calculated and weighed for each individual patient. Introducing and maintaining the diet for a long time remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated the acceptability, tolerance, and efficacy of a formula-based KD in 10 children with refractory epilepsy. The ketogenic formula tested herein caused only mild KD-related adverse events and adequate adherence. Moreover, 60% of patients had more than 50% seizure frequency reduction and 10% were seizure-free.

  17. Effects of a high plant protein diet on the somatotropic system and cholecystokinin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevrøy, Ernst M; El-Mowafi, Adel; Taylor, Richard; Norberg, Birgitta; Espe, Marit

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the endocrine signalling from dietary plant protein on somatotropic system and gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), two iso-amino acid diets based on either high plant or high fish meal protein were fed to Atlantic salmon. Salmon with an average starting weight of 641+/-23 g (N=180), were fed a fish meal (FM) based diet (containing 40% FM) or diets mainly consisting of blended plant proteins (PP) containing only 13% marine protein, of which only 5% was FM for 3 months. mRNA levels of target genes GH, GH-R, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGF-IR in addition to CCK-L, were studied in brain, hepatic tissue and fast muscle, and circulating levels of IGF-I in plasma of Atlantic salmon were measured. We detected reduced feed intake resulting in lower growth, weight gain and muscle protein accretion in salmon fed plant protein compared to a diet based on fish meal. There were no significant effects on the regulation of the target genes in brain or in hepatic tissues, but a trend of down-regulation of IGF-I was detected in fast muscle. Lower feed intake, and therefore lower intake of the indispensable amino acids, may have resulted in lower pituitary GH and lower IGF-I mRNA levels in muscle tissues. This, together with higher protein catabolism, may be the main cause of the reduced growth of salmon fed plant protein diet. There were no signalling effects detected either by the minor differences of the diets on mRNA levels of GH, GH-R, IGF-IR, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, CCK or plasma protein IGF-I.

  18. Children's diets (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet of children is the proper amount of fat. Children under two years of age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added ...

  19. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  2. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  3. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  4. The nutritive value of quality protein maize in the diets of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments, each lasting 6 weeks, were conducted to evaluate quality protein maize (QPM) as a feed gredient for broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, either normal hybrid maize (NM) or QPM was used as the sole source of protein and amino acids, and the diets were balanced for vitamins and minerals by the addition of ...

  5. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho.

  6. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Alan A; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P; Arciero, Paul J; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M; Bannock, Laurent; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit. The higher the baseline body fat level, the more aggressively the caloric deficit may be imposed. Slower rates of weight loss can better preserve lean mass (LM) in leaner subjects. 4) Diets focused primarily on accruing LM are driven by a sustained caloric surplus to facilitate anabolic processes and support increasing resistance-training demands. The composition and magnitude of the surplus, as well as training status of the subjects can influence the nature of the gains. 5) A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition. 6) Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations may result in improved body composition. Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg FFM) may be required to maximize muscle retention in lean, resistance-trained subjects under hypocaloric conditions. Emerging research on very high protein intakes (>3 g/kg) has demonstrated that the known thermic, satiating, and LM-preserving effects of dietary protein might be amplified in resistance-training subjects. 7) The collective body of intermittent caloric restriction research demonstrates no significant advantage over daily caloric restriction for improving body composition. 8) The long-term success of a diet depends upon compliance and suppression or

  7. A high-grain diet alters the omasal epithelial structure and expression of tight junction proteins in a goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Hua; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Wei-Yun; Mao, Sheng-Yong

    2014-07-01

    The omasal epithelial barrier plays important roles in maintaining nutrient absorption and immune homeostasis in ruminants. However, little information is currently available about the changes in omasal epithelial barrier function at the structural and molecular levels during feeding of a high-grain (HG) diet. Ten male goats were randomly assigned to two groups, fed either a hay diet (0% grain; n = 5) or HG diet (65% grain; n = 5). Changes in omasal epithelial structure and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins were determined via electron microscopy and Western blot analysis. After 7 weeks on each diet, omasal contents in the HG group showed significantly lower pH (P diet showed profound alterations in omasal epithelial structure and TJ proteins, corresponding to depression of thickness of total epithelia, stratum granulosum, and the sum of the stratum spinosum and stratum basale, marked epithelial cellular damage, erosion of intercellular junctions and down-regulation in expression of the TJ proteins, claudin-4 and occludin. The study demonstrates that feeding a HG diet is associated with omasal epithelial cellular damage and changes in expression of TJ proteins. These research findings provide an insight into the possible significance of diet on the omasal epithelial barrier in ruminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M Poplawski

    Full Text Available Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita and Type 2 (db/db diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to as