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Sample records for prosthetic graft infections

  1. Graft-Sparing Strategy for Thoracic Prosthetic Graft Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kakii, Bunpachi; Furui, Masato

    2018-04-01

     Thoracic prosthetic graft infection is a rare but serious complication with no standard management. We reported our surgical experience on graft-sparing strategy for thoracic prosthetic graft infection.  This study included patients who underwent graft-sparing surgery for thoracic prosthetic graft infection at Matsubara Tokushukai Hospital in Japan from January 2000 to October 2017.  There were 17 patients included in the analyses, with a mean age at surgery of 71.0 ± 10.5 years; 11 were men. In-hospital mortality was observed in five patients (29.4%).  Graft-sparing surgery for thoracic prosthetic graft infection is an alternative option particularly for early graft infection after hemiarch replacement. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Salmonella Typhimurium gastroenteritis leading to chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  4. Prosthetic vascular graft infection and prosthetic joint infection caused by Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonares, Michael J; Vaisman, Alon; Sharkawy, Abdu

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is infrequently isolated from clinical specimens, and if isolated, more likely represents colonization or contamination rather than infection. Despite this, there are dozens of case reports which describe clinically significant P. stutzeri infections at variable sites. A 69-year-old man had a P. stutzeri infection of a prosthetic vascular graft infection, which he received in Panama City. He was successfully treated with a single antipseudomonal agent for 6 weeks and the removal of the infected vascular graft. A 70-year-old man had a P. stutzeri infection of a prosthetic joint, which was successfully treated with a single anti-pseudomonal agent for 6 weeks. There is only one other documented case of a prosthetic vascular graft infection secondary to P. stutzeri . There are 5 documented cases of P. stutzeri prosthetic joint infections. The previous cases were treated with antibiotics and variably, source control with the removal of prosthetic material. Most cases of P. stutzeri infection are due to exposure in health care settings. Immunocompromised states such as HIV or hematological and solid tumor malignancies are risk factors for P. stutzeri infection. Infections caused by P. stutzeri are far less frequent and less fatal than those caused by P. aeruginosa. The etiology of a P. stutzeri infection could be exposure to soil and water, but also contaminated material in the health care setting or an immunocompromised state. Iatrogenic infections that are secondary to health care tourism are a potential cause of fever in the returned traveler.

  5. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  6. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections

  7. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  8. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2016-12-01

    There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012-2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3 ± 8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. Methods A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Results Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012–2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3±8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. Conclusion This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. PMID:26896286

  10. 111 In-labeled leukocytes in the detection of prosthetic vascular graft infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.R.; Boyd, C.M.; Read, R.C.; Thompson, B.W.; Barnes, R.W.; Shah, H.R.; Balachandran, S.; Ferris, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Making a clinical diagnosis of infection in prosthetic vascular grafts is difficult but when undiagnosed, this condition has a high mortality rate. Using Indium-111-labeled white-blood cells, 30 scans were performed in 21 patients suspected of having a prosthetic graft infection. The diagnosis of infected graft was confirmed by surgery in all cases, and lack of infection was established by resolution of symptoms with conservative therapy. Twenty-four hour scans of autologous Indium-111 leukocytes were obtained, and correlative CT studies were done in 11 cases. There were 13 infected grafts at surgery (purulent material present), and scans were positive in all (100% sensitivity); of 17 scans, there were 15 true negatives and two false positives (88% specificity). Using the criteria of gas or fluid around the graft, the sensitivity of CT was only 37% in a small subset of these patients. One-half of the cases in which infection was suspected clinically had no infection and had negative scans. Various types of grafts and graft materials were used, and there was no correlation with presence or absence of infection on the basis of the type of graft. Extragraft infection sites were found in five patients. In conclusion, use of Indium-111 leukocytes has been found to be an accurate and valuable diagnostic method for evaluation of suspected prosthetic vascular graft infection, and to have higher diagnostic accuracy than CT

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

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    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection

  13. Exophiala (Wangiella dermatitidis Prosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis and Prosthetic Graft Infection in an Immune Competent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S. Berger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exophiala (Wangiella dermatitidis is an emerging dematiaceous fungus associated with high mortality rates and is a rare cause of endocarditis. We describe the first case of E. dermatitidis endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve and aortic graft in an immune competent patient with no clear risk factors of hematological acquisition.

  14. F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scanning in Diagnosing Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Pol, Robert A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI) is a severe complication after vascular surgery. CT-scan is considered the diagnostic tool of choice in advanced VPGI. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections.

  15. 99mTc-leukocyte scintigraphy in prosthetic vascular graft infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorne, M.; Laitinen, J.; Lehtonen, J.; Toivio, I.; Mokka, R.; Soini, I.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leukocytes for the detection of prosthetic vascular graft infection. 51 scans were recorded in 19 patients with suspected vascular graft infection and 8 control patients. Three-phase scanning was used at 0.5, 3-6 and 18-24 h. 13 vascular graft infections (10 early, 3 late) were found. 12 of these healed with antibiotics and only one patient with late infection had to be reoperated. None of them died during the follow-up period. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 96%. 99m Tc-leukocyte scintigraphy seems a useful tool to detect vascular graft infection and to differentiate it from infections elsewhere. The results suggest that the incidence of vascular graft infection may be greater, and the mortality rate lower, than supposed before. (orig.) [de

  16. Prosthetic vascular graft infection through a median sternotomy: a multicentre review †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tatsuya; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Okita, Yutaka; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Nishimura, Kunihiro

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the treatment outcomes of thoracic prosthetic graft infection. A retrospective chart review was conducted at six hospitals and included the records of 68 patients treated for postoperative prosthetic vascular graft infection (mean age: 62.3 ± 15.1, male 51) from January 2000 to December 2013. The number of patients and the locations of the treated infections were as follows: 13 for aortic root, 16 for ascending aorta, 35 for aortic arch and 4 for aortic root to arch. In-hospital infection occurred in 43 patients and after discharge in 25. The mean follow-up time was 2.0 ± 2.3 years. The follow-up rate was 94.1%. The most commonly isolated micro-organism was Staphylococcus aureus (72.1%). Rereplacement of infectious graft was performed in 18 patients (Dacron graft in 12, homograft in 4 and rifampicin-bonded Dacron graft in 2). The overall hospital mortality rate was 35.3% (24/68). The mortality rate among the patients with graft rereplacement was 33.3% (6/18), with pedicled muscle flaps or pedicled omental flaps to cover the graft 25.9% (7/27), with irrigation 55.0% (11/20) and on antibiotic therapy only 0% (0/3). Our multivariate analysis demonstrated that the risk factors of hospital death increased in the absence of pedicled flaps (muscle or omentum) to cover the graft (P = 0.001), age over 55 (P = 0.003), time from onset of initial operation prosthetic vascular graft infection have not been satisfactory. However, the use of pedicled muscle or omental flaps to cover the graft could improve the outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservative treatment of vascular prosthetic graft infection is associated with high mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Meetwaldt, Robbert; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify patient-related and/or disease-related factors that influence outcomes in patients with vascular prosthetic graft infections. METHODS: Through the hospital patient administration system, between January 1997 and December 2007, a total of 44 patients

  18. Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach for Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infection in the Thoracic Aortic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular graft infection in the thoracic aortic area is a rare but serious complication. Adequate management of the complication is essential to increase the chance of success of open surgery. While surgical site infection is suggested as the root cause of the complication, it is also related to decreased host tolerance, especially as found in elderly patients. The handling of prosthetic vascular graft infection has been widely discussed to date. This paper mainly provides a summary of literature reports published within the past 5 years to discuss issues related to multidisciplinary treatment approaches, including surgical site infection, timing of onset, diagnostic methods, causative pathogens, auxiliary diagnostic methods, antibiotic treatment, anti-infective structures of vascular prostheses, surgical treatment, treatment strategy against infectious aortic aneurysms, future surgical treatment, postoperative systemic therapy, and antimicrobial stewardship. A thorough understanding of these issues will enable us to prevent prosthetic vascular graft infection in the thoracic aortic area as far as possible. In the event of its occurrence, the early introduction of appropriate treatment is expected to cure the disease without worsening of the underlying pathological condition. PMID:26356686

  19. Surgical and Antimicrobial Treatment of Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infections at Different Surgical Sites: A Retrospective Study of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzi, Luigia; Gurke, Lorenz; Battegay, Manuel; Widmer, Andreas F.; Weisser, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about optimal management of prosthetic vascular graft infections, which are a rare but serious complication associated with graft implants. The goal of this study was to compare and characterize these infections with respect to the location of the graft and to identify factors associated with outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study over more than a decade at a tertiary care university hospital that has an established multidisciplinary approach to treating graft infections. Cases of possible prosthetic vascular graft infection were identified from the hospital's infectious diseases database and evaluated against strict diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into groups according to the locations of their grafts: thoracic-aortic, abdominal-aortic, or peripheral-arterial. Statistical analyses included evaluation of patient and infection characteristics, time to treatment failure, and factors associated specifically with cure rates in aortic graft infections. The primary endpoint was cure at one year after diagnosis of the infection. Results Characterization of graft infections according to the graft location did show that these infections differ in terms of their characteristics and that the prognosis for treatment seems to be influenced by the location of the infection. Cure rate and all-cause mortality at one year were 87.5% and 12.5% in 24 patients with thoracic-aortic graft infections, 37.0% and 55.6% in 27 patients with abdominal-aortic graft infections, and 70.0% and 30.0% in 10 patients with peripheral-arterial graft infections. In uni- and multivariate analysis, the type of surgical intervention used in managing infections (graft retention versus graft replacement) did not affect primary outcome, whereas a rifampicin-based antimicrobial regimen was associated with a higher cure rate. Conclusions We recommend that future prospective studies differentiate prosthetic vascular graft infections according to the location of the

  20. Cryopreserved Human Allografts for the Reconstruction of Aortic and Peripheral Prosthetic Graft Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Matteo; Tozzi, Matteo; Franchin, Marco; Ferraro, Stefania; Rivolta, Nicola; Ferrario, Massimo; Guttadauro, Chiara; Castelli, Patrizio; Piffaretti, Gabriele

    2017-12-25

    Background : This study aimed to present cases with cryopreserved human allografts (CHAs) for vascular reconstruction in both aortic and peripheral infected prosthetic grafts. Materials and Methods : This is a single center, observational descriptive study with retrospective analysis. In all cases, the infected prosthetic graft material was completely removed. At discharge, patients were administered anticoagulants. Follow-up examinations included clinical visits, echo-color-Doppler ultrasounds, or computed tomography angiography within 30 days and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, and then twice per year. Results : We treated 21 patients (90% men, n=19) with the mean age of 71±12 years and mean interval between the initial operation and replacement with CHA of 30 months [range, 1-216; interquartile range (IQR), 2-36]. In-hospital mortality was 14% (n=3); no CHA-related complication led to death. Limb salvage was 100%. No patient was lost at the median follow-up of 14 months (range, 2-61; IQR, 6-39). No rupture, aneurysmal degeneration, or re-infection occurred. Estimated freedom from CHA-related adverse events (95% confidence interval, 43-63) was 95% at 3 years. Conclusion : In our experience, CHAs are a viable option for prosthetic graft infections and provide satisfactory clinical results and favorable stability because of a very low rate of CHA-related adverse events during follow-up.

  1. Brief report: biomarkers of aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection in a porcine model with Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, S. N.; Tønnesen, E. K.; Jensen, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI) with Staphylococcus aureus is a feared post-operative complication. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical signs and potential biomarkers of infection in a porcine AVPGI model. The biomarkers evaluated were: C-reactive protein (CRP......), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) density, lymphocyte CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in vitro responsiveness. Sixteen pigs were included in the study, and randomly assigned into four groups (n = 4): “SHAM” pigs had their infra...

  2. Detection of thoracic aortic prosthetic graft infection with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Narita, Yuji; Mutsuga, Masato; Kato, Katsuhiko; Usui, Akihiko

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in detecting thoracic aortic prosthetic graft infection. Nine patients with clinically suspected thoracic aortic graft infection underwent FDG-PET/CT scanning. In these patients, the diagnoses could not be confirmed using conventional modalities. The patients' clinical courses were retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of surgical, microbiological and clinical follow-up findings, the aortic grafts were considered infected in 4 patients and not infected in 5. All 4 patients with graft infection (root: 2 cases, arch: 1 case and descending: 1 case) eventually underwent in situ re-replacement. Two of the 4 patients also had abdominal grafts; however, only the thoracic grafts were replaced because uptake was low around the abdominal grafts. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the perigraft area was higher in the infected group than in the non-infected group (11.4 ± 4.5 vs 6.9 ± 6.4), although the difference was not statistically significant. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, SUVmax >8 appeared to be the cut-off value in distinguishing the two groups (sensitivity: 1.0 and specificity: 0.8). FDG-PET/CT is useful for confirming the presence of graft infection by detecting high uptake around grafts and excluding other causes of inflammation. An SUVmax value greater than 8 around a graft suggests the presence of graft infection. In addition, FDG-PET/CT can be used to clarify the precise extent of infection. This is especially useful if multiple separated prosthetic grafts have been implanted.

  3. Accuracy of FDG-PET-CT in the Diagnostic Work-up of Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, J. L. M.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Saleem, B. R.; Meerwaldt, R.; Alkefaji, H.; Prins, T. R.; Start, R. H. J. A.; Zeebregts, C. J.

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) compared with computed tomography (CT) scanning and added value of fused FDG-PET CT in diagnosing vascular prosthetic graft infection. Design: Prospective cohort study with

  4. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scanning in Diagnosing Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Pol, Robert A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI) is a severe complication after vascular surgery. CT-scan is considered the diagnostic tool of choice in advanced VPGI. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) scanning has been suggested as an alternative for the diagnosis and assessment of infectious processes. Hybrid 18F-FDG PET/CT has established the role of 18F-FDG PET for the assessment of suspected VPGI, providing accurate anatomic localization of the site of infection. However, there are no clear guidelines for the interpretation of the uptake patterns of 18F-FDG as clinical tool for VPGI. Based on the available literature it is suggested that a linear, diffuse, and homogeneous uptake should not be regarded as an infection whereas focal or heterogeneous uptake with a projection over the vessel on CT is highly suggestive of infection. Nevertheless, 18F-FDG PET and 18F-FDG PET/CT can play an important role in the detection of VPGI and monitoring response to treatment. However an accurate uptake and pattern recognition is warranted and cut-off uptake values and patterns need to be standardized before considering the technique to be the new standard. PMID:25210712

  5. Healthcare-associated prosthetic heart valve, aortic vascular graft, and disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Kuster, Stefan P; Bloemberg, Guido; Schulthess, Bettina; Frank, Michelle; Tanner, Felix C; Rössle, Matthias; Böni, Christian; Falk, Volkmar; Wilhelm, Markus J; Sommerstein, Rami; Achermann, Yvonne; Ten Oever, Jaap; Debast, Sylvia B; Wolfhagen, Maurice J H M; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J; Vos, Margreet C; Bogers, Ad; Serr, Annerose; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Sax, Hugo; Böttger, Erik C; Weber, Rainer; van Ingen, Jakko; Wagner, Dirk; Hasse, Barbara

    2015-10-21

    We identified 10 patients with disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open-heart surgery at three European Hospitals. Infections originated from the heater-cooler unit of the heart-lung machine. Here we describe clinical aspects and treatment course of this novel clinical entity. Interdisciplinary care and follow-up of all patients was documented by the study team. Patients' characteristics, clinical manifestations, microbiological findings, and therapeutic measures including surgical reinterventions were reviewed and treatment outcomes are described. The 10 patients comprise a 1-year-old child and nine adults with a median age of 61 years (range 36-76 years). The median duration from cardiac surgery to diagnosis was 21 (range 5-40) months. All patients had prosthetic material-associated infections with either prosthetic valve endocarditis, aortic graft infection, myocarditis, or infection of the prosthetic material following banding of the pulmonary artery. Extracardiac manifestations preceded cardiovascular disease in some cases. Despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, M. chimaera infection required cardiosurgical reinterventions in eight patients. Six out of 10 patients experienced breakthrough infections, of which four were fatal. Three patients are in a post-treatment monitoring period. Healthcare-associated infections due to M. chimaera occurred in patients subsequent to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation and implantation of prosthetic material. Infections became clinically apparent after a time lag of months to years. Mycobacterium chimaera infections are easily missed by routine bacterial diagnostics and outcome is poor despite long-term antimycobacterial therapy, probably because biofilm formation hinders eradication of pathogens. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Less Than Total Excision of Infected Prosthetic PTFE Graft Does Not Increase the Risk of Reinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Michael D; Kirkpatrick, Vincent E; Resnick, Karen A; Williams, Russell A; Wilson, Samuel E; Gordon, Ian L

    2015-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infected polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts consist of removal of the entire prosthesis. Closure of the native vessels may compromise vascular patency. We examined the outcomes for patients in whom a PTFE remnant of an infected graft was retained on the vessel. We reviewed the operating room log from 2000 to 2011 and identified all patients who had partial removal of an infected PTFE graft used for hemodialysis or peripheral bypass. These patients were examined for subsequent complications. Twenty-seven patients underwent 30 partial graft excisions with mean follow-up of 27 months. A total of 17% (5 of 30) of the partial graft resection procedures resulted in complications. Of 48 total remnants left behind at the arterial or venous anastomoses, reinfection occurred in 15%. Leaving a well-incorporated small 1-to 5-mm PTFE remnant at the arterial or venous anastomoses can be performed safely with a low risk of complications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Risk factors and outcomes for nosocomial infection after prosthetic vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariñas, María Carmen; Campo, Ana; Duran, Raquel; Sarralde, José Aurelio; Nistal, Juan Francisco; Gutiérrez-Díez, José Francisco; Fariñas-Álvarez, Concepción

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for nosocomial infections (NIs) and predictors of mortality in patients with prosthetic vascular grafts (PVGs). This was a prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients who underwent PVG of the abdominal aorta with or without iliac-femoral involvement and peripheral PVG from April 2008 to August 2009 at a university hospital. Patients younger than 15 years and those with severe immunodeficiency were excluded. The follow-up period was until 3 years after surgery or until death. There were 261 patients included; 230 (88.12%) were male, and the mean age was 67.57 (standard deviation, 10.82) years. The reason for operation was aortic aneurysm in 49 (18.77%) patients or lower limb arteriopathy in 212 (81.23%) patients. NIs occurred in 71 (27.20%) patients. Of these, 42 were surgical site infections (SSIs), of which 61.9% occurred in the lower extremities (14 superficial, 10 deep, and 2 PVG infections) and 38.1% in the abdomen (7 superficial, 7 deep, and 2 PVG infections); 15 were respiratory tract infections; and 15 were urinary tract infections. Active lower extremity skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) at the time of surgery was a significant predictor of NI for both types of PVG (abdominal aortic PVG: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 12.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-138.19; peripheral PVG: adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.08-5.47). Other independent predictors of NI were mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR, 55.96; 95% CI, 3.9-802.39) for abdominal aortic PVG and low hemoglobin levels on admission (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99) and emergent surgery (adjusted OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.51-12.74) for peripheral PVG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.92%. The probability of surviving the first month was 0.96, and significant predictors of mortality were active lower extremity SSTI (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 12.07; 95% CI, 1.04-154.75), high postsurgical glucose levels (adjusted RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1

  8. Corynebacterium minutissimum vascular graft infection: case report and review of 281 cases of prosthetic device-related Corynebacterium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Rebecca M; Cunha, Cheston B; Rich, Josiah D

    2014-09-01

    Corynebacterium spp. have proven their pathogenic potential in causing infections, particularly in the setting of immunosuppression and prosthetic devices. We conducted a PubMed literature review of all cases of Corynebacterium prosthetic device infections published in the English language through December 2013. The majority of cases involved peritoneal dialysis and central venous catheters, but prosthetic joints and central nervous system shunts/drains were also involved. The management of these cases in terms of retention or removal of the device was not uniform; however, the overall mortality remained the same among both groups. All of these prosthetic device infections pose potential problems in management when the device cannot be removed safely for the patient, especially with the lack of data on the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium species. However with better identification of species and sensitivities, successful treatment is possible even with retention of the device.

  9. Late prosthetic graft infection after frozen elephant trunk presenting by haemoptysis and positive ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morjan, Mohammed; Ali, Khaldoun; Harringer, Wolfgang; El-Essawi, Aschraf

    2014-11-01

    In cardiothoracic surgery, prosthetic graft infection represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although clinical assessment, imaging techniques and microbiological investigations are helpful, late graft infection can be difficult to identify using classical diagnostic tools. An aggressive surgical approach involving removal and replacement of all prosthetic materials is technically demanding but remains the best strategy to eradicate infection. Herein, we report a case of a late aortic graft infection, after frozen elephant trunk implantation with atypical presentation, diagnosed with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and treated successfully through a radical surgical strategy. This case emphasizes the emerging diagnostic role of positron emission tomography and encourages the adoption of an aggressive surgical approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. The relevance of aortic endograft prosthetic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernohorsky, Paul; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; van Sterkenburg, Steven M. M.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Vascular prosthetic graft infection is a severe complication after open aortic aneurysm repair. Reports of infected endografts are scarce. General treatment consensus with infected graft material is that it should be removed completely. The objective of this study was to describe the

  11. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  12. Efficacy of a novel strategy for poststernotomy deep sternal infection after thoracic aorta replacement using a prosthetic graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Motone; Yoshida, Yukitaka; Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shin; Sasaguri, Shiro; Akita, Shinsuke; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-01

    Poststernotomy deep sternal wound infections are persistent and occasionally fatal, especially in cases involving prosthetic grafts, because of their complicated structure and virtual impossibility of removal. We aimed to verify the influence of cooperation with plastic surgeons and our novel strategy for treating deep sternal wound infection after aortic replacement on cardiovascular surgery outcomes. Nine hundred eighty-three consecutive patients were divided into two groups: an early group (2012-2013) and a late group (2014-2015). The late group had received cooperatively improved perioperative wound management: our novel strategy of deep sternal infection based on radical debridement and immediate reconstruction decided by reference to severities of the patient's general condition and widespread infection by early intervention of plastic surgeons. The groups were analysed retrospectively. Binary variables were analysed statistically with the Fisher exact test and continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney U test. Inter-group differences were assessed with the chi-square test. Twenty of 390 cases in the early group and 13 of 593 cases in the late group were associated with deep sternal infection. Morbidity rates of deep sternal wound infection and associated mortality rates 1 year after reconstruction surgery were significantly less (p infection also reduced associated mortality rates. Facilities should consider the early inclusion of plastic surgeons in the treatment of patients undergoing aortic replacement to facilitate better outcomes. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gonococcal Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open

  15. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  16. Textural features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Beukinga, Roelof J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Reijnen, Michel M.P.J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective

  17. Textural features of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R; Beukinga, Roelof J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Slart, Riemer H J A

    BACKGROUND: The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The

  18. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  19. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open surgical reconstructions as first line of treatment for aorto-iliac diseases. Nowadays, open reconstructions are primarily reserved for patients unsuitable for endovascular reconstructions or for redo ...

  20. Current Role of Imaging in Diagnosing Aortic Graft Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Pol, Jillis A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection is a rare but serious complication after aortic graft replacement, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, adequate diagnostics are needed to detect and treat these infections as early as possible. Several imaging modalities provide different

  1. Management of Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J; Gomez-Urena, Eric O; Berbari, Elie F; Osmon, Douglas R

    2017-06-01

    Although uncommon, prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication. This challenging condition requires a coordinated management approach to achieve good patient outcomes. This review details the general principles to consider when managing patients with prosthetic joint infection. The different medical/surgical treatment strategies and how to appropriately select a strategy are discussed. The data to support each strategy are presented, along with discussion of antimicrobial strategies in specific situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro adherence of bacteria to prosthetic grafting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.R.; Stromberg, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Adherence of bacteria to prosthetic grafting material is thought to play an important role in the ultimate development of prosthetic infections. To evaluate the role of bacterial adherence in the initiation and colonization of prosthetic materials, Proplast II, Gore-Tex, and silicone were evaluated for adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria were radiolabeled and incubated with the study material. Adherence was determined by scintillation. Adherence to Proplast II and Gore-Tex reached a maximum at approximately 45 minutes of incubation and demonstrated a detachment phenomenon with E. coli. Similar results were noted with S. aureus, but with a maximal attachment at approximately 30 minutes. Interestingly, bacterial attachment to silicone continued to increase throughout the time of the incubation. In addition, adherence of S. aureus was at a faster rate than E. coli. Attachment of bacteria is a multifactorial process. However, the PTFE graft demonstrates a slower rate of attachment, lower total number of attached bacteria, and faster detachment. The importance of this phenomenon may help explain the foreign body effect of increased susceptibility to infection of foreign materials

  3. Textural features of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Zeebregts, Clark J. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, P.O. Box 30 001, Groningen (Netherlands); Beukinga, Roelof J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging (BMPI), Enschede (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Reijnen, Michel M.P.J. [Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Surgery, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different {sup 18}F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize {sup 18}F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive

  4. Textural features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ben R; Beukinga, Roelof J; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2017-05-01

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing 18 F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different 18 F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax

  5. Textural features of "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Beukinga, Roelof J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Reijnen, Michel M.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of "1"8F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent "1"8F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing "1"8F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different "1"8F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize "1"8F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax was found predictive

  6. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtman, E.A.

    1983-09-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole.

  7. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, E.A.; Veterans Administration Medical Center, New York

    1983-01-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole. (orig.)

  8. Isolated Lactobacillus chronic prosthetic knee infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David M; Shekhel, Tatyana; Radelet, Matt; Miller, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus is a gram-positive rod bacteria found primarily in the gastrointestinal and female genital tracts. Prosthetic infections in implants are being increasingly reported. The authors present a case of a 58-year-old patient with Lactobacillus septic prosthetic knee joint infection. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of chronic prosthetic knee infection with isolated Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus has been most commonly implicated with bacteremia and endocarditis and rarely with pneumonia, meningitis, and endovascular infection, and a vast majority of the cases are reported in immunocompromised patients. In the current case, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, malnutrition, anemia, and liver failure were comorbid conditions, placing the patient at increased risk of infection. The findings suggest that further case series are necessary to establish the significance of Lactobacillus as an etiologic agent in chronic low-virulence, and potentially vancomycin-resistant, prosthetic joint infection. The need also exists for further research aimed at the risk of prosthetic joint infection with oral intake of certain probiotic foods and supplements. The goal of this case report is to bring to light the potential of this organism to be a cause of subtle chronic prosthetic joint infection.

  9. Ten questions on prosthetic shoulder infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Elizabeth M; Ong, Joshua Cy; Bale, R Stephen; Trail, Ian A

    2016-07-01

    Prosthetic shoulder infection can cause significant morbidity secondary to pain and stiffness. Symptoms may be present for years before diagnosis because clinical signs are often absent and inflammatory markers may be normal. An emerging common culprit, Propionibacterium acnes, is hard to culture and so prolonged incubation is necessary. A negative culture result does not always exclude infection and new synovial fluid biochemical markers such as α defensin are less sensitive than for lower limb arthroplasty. A structured approach is necessary when assessing patients for prosthetic shoulder joint infection. This includes history, examination, serum inflammatory markers, plain radiology and aspiration and/or biopsy. A classification for the likelihood of prosthetic shoulder infection has been described based on culture, pre-operative and intra-operative findings. Treatment options include antibiotic suppression, debridement with component retention, one-stage revision, two-stage revision and excision arthroplasty. Revision arthroplasty is associated with the best outcomes.

  10. Visualization of a prosthetic vascular graft due to platelet contamination during 111Indium-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.

    1988-01-01

    A prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft was visualized during 111 In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a patient referred for possible abdominal abscess. The presence of significant cardiac blood-pool activity raised the possibility that this uptake was due to deposition of contaminating labeled platelets rather than labeled leukocytes. An analysis of a small sample of the patient's blood confirmed that the circulating activity was due to labeled platelets. Increased activity along prosthetic vascular grafts in patients undergoing 111 In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy may be due to adherent platelet, and not indicative of infection

  11. Gradual Hunterian ligation for infected prosthetic bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egun, A; Slade, D; McCollum, C N

    2000-04-01

    To review gradual snare occlusion for the management of complex or recurrent graft infection. Medical records of patients treated with gradual snare occlusion following graft infection were reviewed for indication for operation, type of bypass and graft material used. In addition, infecting organism, grade of infection (Szilágyi) and outcome were recorded. Four femoropopliteal, two extra-anatomic (axillofemoral) and aortobifemoral bypasses were included in this study. All had chronic infection (Szilágyi grade III) with onset of 4 to 24 months and two of which were recurrent. The causative organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in three patients, with no organism isolated in the remaining cases. There was no loss of limb following gradual snare occlusion but there was only one death due to aortic stump rupture 2 weeks later. Gradual snare occlusion is an alternative for the management of chronic or recurrent graft infection. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. Cadaveric aorta implantation for aortic graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Bahia, Sandeep S S; Ali, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 73-year-old gentleman who underwent explantation of an infected prosthetic aorto-iliac graft and replacement with a cryopreserved thoracic and aorto-iliac allograft. The patient has been followed up a for more than a year after surgery and remains well. After elective tube graft repair of his abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in 2003, he presented to our unit in 2012 in cardiac arrest as a result of a rupture of the distal graft suture line due to infection. After resuscitation he underwent aorto-bifemoral grafting using a cuff of the original aortic graft proximally. Distally the new graft was anastomosed to his common femoral arteries, with gentamicin beads left in situ. Post discharge the patient was kept under close surveillance with serial investigations including nuclear scanning, however it became apparent that his new graft was infected and that he would require aortic graft replacement, an operation with a mortality of at least 50%. The patient underwent the operation and findings confirmed a synthetic graft infection. This tube graft was explanted and a cryopreserved aorta was used to the refashion the abdominal aorta and its bifurcation. The operation required a return to theatre day one post operatively for a bleeding side branch, which was repaired. The patient went on to make a full recovery stepping down from the intensive therapy unit day 6 post operatively and went on to be discharged 32 days after his cryopreserved aorta implantation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of Infection in Orthopedic Prosthetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirca, Ioana; Marculescu, Camelia

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is a generally safe orthopedic procedure; however, infection is a potentially devastating complication. Multiple risk factors have been identified for development of prosthetic joint infections. Identification of patients at risk and preoperative correction of known risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, anemia, malnutrition, and decolonization of Staphylococcus carriers, represent well-established actions to decrease the infection risk. Careful operative technique, proper draping and skin preparation, and appropriate selection and dosing of antimicrobials for perioperative prophylaxis are also very important in prevention of infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  15. Prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, C J; Clarke, T C; Spencer, R C

    1994-01-01

    A case of postoperative prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is described. Difficulties in isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this organism are discussed.

  16. Review of Prosthetic Joint Infection from Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Gilbert; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed; Myers, James

    2016-12-01

    Prosthetic joint infection from Listeria monocytogenes is rare. We decided to shed light on this illness and review the reported cases to better understand its characteristics. We conducted a comprehensive review of the English literature using PubMed. We also included one case that we had managed. We found 25 cases of prosthetic joint infection from L. monocytogenes reported individually and a retrospective study of 43 cases of joint and bone listerial infection, including 34 with prosthetic joint infection, conducted in France. We have described their clinical and para-clinical features and tried to elaborate on the pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention. Prosthetic joint infection from L. monocytogenes is mainly late. Systemic inflammation may be absent. Although rare, it must be suspected in patients at high risk for both prosthetic joint and listerial infections. In addition, those patients must be instructed on appropriate preventive measures.

  17. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Trueperella bernardiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Raul; Chamizo, Francisco; Horcajada, Iballa; Bordes-Benítez, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Trueperella bernardiae is a Gram-positive coryneform bacilli which role as human pathogen is unknown because it has been usually considered a contaminant. Furthermore its identification by biochemical test was difficult. We describe a prosthetic joint infection in a women who years ago underwent a total knee replacement with superinfection and necrosis of the patellar tendon as major complications. In the sample of synovial fluid collected grew a gram-positive bacilli which was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) as T. bernardiae. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and currently preserves the prosthesis without signs of infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. LEUKOCYTE AND BACTERIA IMAGING IN PROSTHETIC JOINT INFECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Galli, Filippo; Pacilio, Marta; Signore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of joint prosthesis replacements worldwide. Although relatively uncommon, complications can occur with the most serious being an infection. Various radiological and nuclear imaging techniques are available to diagnose prosthetic joint infections

  19. Prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafting: five-year results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R M; Abbott, W M; Matsumoto, T; Wheeler, J R; Miller, N; Veith, F J; Money, S; Garrett, H E

    2000-03-01

    This trial was designed to identify factors affecting patency rates of primary prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years. A multi-institutional, prospective trial randomized 240 patients to compare patency rates of Gore-tex and Hemashield above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years. Univariate comparisons of patency between levels of each prognostic variable were made with the Kaplan-Meier method. Variables that had a univariate P value less than.25 or those known to be important were submitted to a Cox regression analysis. The patient survival rate at 5 years was 59.4%. There were no differences in primary or secondary patency rates at 5 years between the two graft materials (primary, 45% vs 43% and secondary, 68% vs 68%). The risk for graft occlusion was significantly increased for patients younger than 65 years (2.1; P =.001) and for grafts with a diameter less than 7 mm (1.65; P =.0219). Variables with no apparent independent effect on patency rates were smoking status, runoff, diabetes mellitus, sex, presenting symptoms, and postoperative treatment with aspirin or Coumadin. Noninvasive test results were not predictive of subsequent graft function. Although the type of prosthetic used for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts does not affect 5-year patency rates, age and graft size do influence results. These factors should be considered before a prosthetic bypass grafting procedure. Furthermore, these data should serve as a contemporary standard, with which evolving and conventional procedures can be compared.

  20. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of one leg - a sign of aortic graft infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruijt, S.; Krijgsman, A.A. [Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Elkerliek Hospital, Helmond (Netherlands); Broek, J.A.C. van den [Department of Radiology, Elkerliek Hospital, Helmond (Netherlands); Tutein Nolthenius-Puylaert, M.C.B.J.E. [Department of Pathology, Elkerliek Hospital, Helmond (Netherlands)

    1999-04-01

    We report a rare case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) confined to the right leg secondary to aortic graft infection. The development of HOA exclusively localized to areas distal to a vascular prosthesis may be the presenting manifestation of graft infection and a crucial diagnostic clue in the early detection of vascular graft infection. HOA is diagnosed by its characteristic radiographic and scintigraphic pattern. Most prosthetic, especially aortic, graft infections are uniformly fatal if not treated by aggressive surgical and antibiotic therapy. Recognition of this uncommon association may facilitate an early diagnosis, which usually requires immediate surgical therapy. (orig.) With 6 figs., 28 refs.

  1. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy of one leg - a sign of aortic graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruijt, S.; Krijgsman, A.A.; Broek, J.A.C. van den; Tutein Nolthenius-Puylaert, M.C.B.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We report a rare case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) confined to the right leg secondary to aortic graft infection. The development of HOA exclusively localized to areas distal to a vascular prosthesis may be the presenting manifestation of graft infection and a crucial diagnostic clue in the early detection of vascular graft infection. HOA is diagnosed by its characteristic radiographic and scintigraphic pattern. Most prosthetic, especially aortic, graft infections are uniformly fatal if not treated by aggressive surgical and antibiotic therapy. Recognition of this uncommon association may facilitate an early diagnosis, which usually requires immediate surgical therapy. (orig.)

  2. Systemic thioridazine in combination with dicloxacillin against early aortic graft infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenger, Michael; Behr-Rasmussen, Carsten; Klein, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Conservative treatment solutions against aortic prosthetic vascular graft infection (APVGI) for inoperable patients are limited. The combination of antibiotics with antibacterial helper compounds, such as the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ), should be explored. AIM: To investigate...

  3. Aortic Graft Infection Secondary to Iatrogenic Transcolonic Graft Malposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jacqueline J; Rothstein, Abby E; Lee, Cheong Jun; Malinowski, Michael J; Lewis, Brian D; Ridolfi, Timothy J; Otterson, Mary F

    2018-01-01

    Aortic graft infections are a rare but devastating complication of aortic revascularization. Often infections occur due to contamination at the time of surgery. Iatrogenic misplacement of the limbs of an aortobifemoral graft is exceedingly rare, and principles of evaluation and treatment are not well defined. We report 2 cases of aortobifemoral bypass graft malposition through the colon. Case 1 is a 54-year-old male who underwent aortobifemoral bypass grafting for acute limb ischemia. He had previously undergone a partial sigmoid colectomy for diverticulitis. Approximately 6 months after vascular surgery, he presented with an occult graft infection. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative findings were consistent with graft placement through the sigmoid colon. Case 2 is a 60-year-old male who underwent aortobifemoral bypass grafting due to a nonhealing wound after toe amputation. His postoperative course was complicated by pneumonia, bacteremia thought to be secondary to the pneumonia, general malaise, and persistent fevers. Approximately 10 weeks after the vascular surgery, he presented with imaging and intraoperative findings of graft malposition through the cecum. Aortic graft infection is usually caused by surgical contamination and presents as an indolent infection. Case 1 presented as such; Case 2 presented more acutely. Both grafts were iatrogenically misplaced through the colon at the index operation. The patients underwent extra-anatomic bypass and graft explantation and subsequently recovered.

  4. Rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction for prosthetic knee joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Kawai, Akira; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Rotationplasty is used most often as a function-preserving salvage procedure after resection of sarcomas of the lower extremity; however, it is also used after infection of prosthetic knee joints. Conventional vascular management during rotationplasty is to preserve and coil major vessels, but recently, transection and reanastomosis of the major vessels has been widely performed. However, there has been little discussion regarding the optimal vascular management of rotationplasty after infection of prosthetic knee joints because rotationplasty is rarely performed for this indication. We reviewed four patients who had undergone resection of osteosarcomas of the femur, placement of a prosthetic knee joint, and rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction from 2010 to 2013. The mean interval between prosthetic joint replacement and rotationplasty was 10.4 years and the mean interval between the diagnosis of prosthesis infection and rotationplasty was 7.9 years. Rotationplasty was successful in all patients; however, in one patient, arterial thrombosis developed and necessitated urgent surgical removal and arterial reconstruction. All patients were able to walk independently with a prosthetic limb after rehabilitation. Although there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate method of vascular management during rotationplasty for revision of infected prosthetic joints, vascular transection and reanastomosis is a useful option.

  5. Second-site prosthetic joint infection in patients with multiple prosthetic joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesham, Kevin; Hughes, Andrew J; O' hEireamhoin, Sven; Fleming, Catherine; Murphy, Colin G

    2018-04-10

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are among the most serious complications in arthroplasty. A second-site PJI in patients with multiple prosthetic joints increases morbidity, with many requiring further revision procedures. We aimed to establish why some patients with multiple joints develop second-site infections. Our institution's arthroplasty database was reviewed from 2004 to 2017. All PJIs were identified, and all patients with more than one prosthetic joint in situ were included. We recorded risk factors, causative organisms, number of procedures and length of stay. Forty-four patients meeting the criteria were identified. Four patients (9.1%) developed second-site infection. Eight patients (18.2%) developed re-infection of the primary PJI. Positive MRSA carrier status and PJI of a total knee replacement were associated with an increased risk of a second episode of infection. Patients who developed further infection had more frequent admission and longer lengths of stay than isolated PJIs. Higher morbidity and use of hospital resources are associated with this cohort of patients. PJIs in total knee replacements and positive MRSA status are associated with higher rates of second infection. Identifying this vulnerable cohort of patients at an early stage is critical to ensure measures are taken to reduce the risks of further infection.

  6. Computerized tomographic evaluation of aortic prosthetic graft complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Kalmar, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized tomography has been found to be an accurate and sensitive method of diagnosing complications of synthetic aortic grafts. Complications in this series of four cases included aortoesophageal fistula, aortoduodenal fistula, pseudoaneurysm, and retroperitoneal hematoma. 6 references, 5 figures

  7. Granulicatella adiacens prosthetic hip joint infection after dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweid, Osama; Sundararajan, Sabapathy; Teferi, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Granulicatella adiacens is a Gram-positive bacteria and a normal component of oral flora. It is also found in dental plaques, endodontic abscesses and can rarely cause more serious infections. We describe a prosthetic hip joint infection in an 81-year-old fit and healthy man due to Granulicatella adiacens who underwent a prolonged dental intervention two days earlier without antibiotic prophylaxis. The infection was successfully treated with surgical intervention and a combination of antibiotics. The patient eventually succumbed to severe community-acquired pneumonia two months later. Current guidelines recommend avoidance of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental treatment in patients who have no co-morbidities and no prior operation on the index prosthetic joint. This case report indicates that infections of prosthetic joints may be associated with dental procedures even in fit and healthy patients without the recognized risk factors.

  8. Future Research Opportunities in Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbari, Elie; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A panel of PJI content experts identified nine PJI prevention research opportunities based on both evidence gaps identified through the guideline development process (transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, anticoagulation, orthopedic space suit, and biofilm) and expert opinion (anesthesia, operative room environment, glycemic control, and Staphylococcus aureus nasal screening and decolonization. This article offers a road map for PJI prevention research.

  9. Diagnostic flowcharts in osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis and prosthetic joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutte, P.; Lazzeri, E.; Sconfienza, L. M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.; Trampuz, A.; Petrosillo, N.; Signore, A.

    2014-01-01

    Infections of the bone, spine and prosthetic joints are serious and complex conditions to diagnose and to treat. Structured diagnostic workup may very well improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, thereby improving the outcome since treatment may very well be more successful and less harmful if timely management is started. Literature shows no uniform advise on diagnosis. The EANM organized a consensus meeting with representatives from the involved disciplines in order to develop common flowcharts for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis and prosthetic joint infections. In this report the proceedings of this consensus meeting, including the proposed flowcharts for diagnosis, are published.

  10. Diagnostic flowcharts in osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis and prosthetic joint infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutte, P.; Lazzeri, E.; Sconfienza, L. M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.; Trampuz, A.; Petrosillo, N.; Signore, A.

    Infections of the bone, spine and prosthetic joints are serious and complex conditions to diagnose and to treat. Structured diagnostic workup may very well improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, thereby improving the outcome since treatment may very well be more successful and less harmful if

  11. Pseudotumor of the Hip due to Fungal Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Artiaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudotumors associated with total hip arthroplasty have been associated with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasties due to a granulomatous foreign-body reaction to methyl methacrylate, polyethylene, or metal ion release, but they have not been related to prosthetic joint infections. In this paper, we report an unusual case of Candida albicans total hip arthroplasty infection, causing a large inflammatory pseudotumor of the hip joint. Fungal periprosthetic joint infections are a rare clinical entity and difficult to diagnose, and a pseudotumor may be part of their clinical presentation. They should be suspected in immunodeficient host patients when clinical symptoms of prosthetic joint infections are observed.

  12. Indium-111 platelet imaging for detection of platelet deposition in abdominal aneurysms and prosthetic arterial grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Stratton, J.R.; Thiele, B.; Haminton, G.W.; Warrick, L.N.; Huang, T.W.; Harker, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-four platelet imaging studies were performed in 23 patients to determine whether platelet deposition could be detected in patients with vascular aneurysms (18 patients) or in patients in whom Dacron prosthetic grafts had been placed (5 patients). In patients in whom abnormal platelet deposition was detected, the effect of administration of platelet-active drugs on platelet deposition was examined. Of the 18 patients with an aneurysm, 12 had equivocally positive studies on initial imaging and 2 had equivocally positive images. Of five patients with Dacron arterial grafts in place, four had diffuse platelet deposition in the grafts; the fifth patient had a platelet deposition only in a pseudoaneurysm. Eight patients with an abdominal aneurysm and positive or equivocally positive baseline images were restudied during platelet-active drug therapy either with aspirin plus dipyridamole (seven patients) or with sulfinpyrazone (four patients). No patient studied during treatment with aspirin plus dipyridamole had detectably decreased platelet deposition compared with baseline determinations. In contrast, two of four patients studied while receiving sulfinpyrazone showed decreased platelet deposition. Thus, platelet imaging may be of value for studying platelet physiology in vivo and for assessing platelet-active drugs and the thrombogenicity of prosthetic graft materials in human beings

  13. Factors influencing the cost of prosthetic joint infection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, T N; Cheng, A C; Lorenzo, Y P; Kong, D C M; Buising, K L; Choong, P F M

    2013-11-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with significant costs to the healthcare system. Current literature examines the cost of specific treatment modalities without assessing other cost drivers for PJI. To examine the overall cost of the treatment of PJI and to identify factors associated with management costs. The costs of treatment of prosthetic joint infections were examined in 139 patients across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008). Cost calculations included hospitalization costs, surgical costs, hospital-in-the-home costs and antibiotic therapy costs. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to model factors associated with total cost. The median cost of treating prosthetic joint infection per patient was Australian $34,800 (interquartile range: 20,305, 56,929). The following factors were associated with increased treatment costs: septic revision arthroplasty (67% increase in treatment cost; P = 0.02), hypotension at presentation (70% increase; P = 0.03), polymicrobial infections (41% increase; P = 0.009), surgical treatment with one-stage exchange (100% increase; P = 0.002) or resection arthroplasty (48% increase; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased treatment costs. Culture-negative prosthetic joint infections were associated with decreased costs (29% decrease in treatment cost; P = 0.047). Treatment failure was associated with 156% increase in treatment costs. This study identifies clinically important factors influencing treatment costs that may be of relevance to policy-makers, particularly in the setting of hospital reimbursement and guiding future research into cost-effective preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Treatment of the infected wound with exposed silver-ring vascular graft and delayed Thiersch method of skin transplant covering ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenezić, Dragoslav; Pandaitan, Simon; Ilijevski, Nenad; Matić, Predrag; Gajin, Predag; Radak, Dorde

    2005-01-01

    Although the incidence of prosthetic infection is low (1%-6%), the consequences (limb loss or death) are dramatic for a patient, with high mortality rate (25%-75%) and limb loss in 40%-75% of cases. In case of Szilagyi's grade III infection, standard procedure consists of the excision of prosthesis and wound debridement. Alternative method is medical treatment. This is a case report of a patient with prosthetic infection of Silver-ring graft, used for femoropopliteal reconstruction, in whom an extreme skin necrosis developed in early postoperative period. This complication was successfully treated medically. After repeated debridement and wound-packing, the wound was covered using Thiersch skin graft.

  15. Mycobacterium smegmatis infection of a prosthetic total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Zaid; Ognjan, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most common organisms causing prosthetic knee joint infections are staphylococci. However, arthroplasty infections with atypical microbial pathogens, such as Mycobacteria can occur. Due to the rarity of mycobacterial prosthetic joint infections, diagnosis, treatment, and management of these atypical infections represent a clinical challenge. A 71-year old female post-operative day 40 after a left total knee arthroplasty was hospitalized secondary to left knee pain and suspected arthroplasty infection. She had failed outpatient oral antimicrobial treatment for superficial stitch abscess; and outpatient IV/Oral antimicrobials for a clinical postoperative septic bursitis. Ultimately, resection arthroplasty with operative tissue acid fast bacterial cultures demonstrated growth of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Post-operatively, she completed a combination course of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin and successfully completed a replacement arthroplasty with clinical and microbial resolution of the infection. To our knowledge, literature review demonstrates three case of knee arthroplasty infection caused by the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Correspondingly, optimal surgical procedures and antimicrobial management including antimicrobial selection, treatment duration are not well defined. Presently, the best treatment options consists of two step surgical management including prosthesis hardware removal followed by extended antimicrobial therapy, followed by consideration for re-implantation arthroplasty. Our case illustrates importance of considering atypical mycobacterial infections in post-operative arthroplasty infections not responding to traditional surgical manipulations and antimicrobials. For an arthroplasty infection involving the atypical Mycobacterium smegmatis group, two step arthroplasty revision, including arthroplasty resection, with a combination of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin can lead to successful infection resolution, allowing for a

  16. Effects of cilostazol and k-134 on reconstructive surgery using prosthetic grafts in the abdominal aorta of beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshinori; Sugano, Norihide; Jibiki, Masatoshi; Kudo, Toshifumi; Iwai, Takehisa

    2008-01-01

    Problems associated with prosthetic graft replacement are stenosis at the anastomosis site and thrombus formation on the inner surface. Cilostazol is known to have antiplatelet activity and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima thickening. A cilostazol derivative, (-)-6-[3-[3-cyclopropyl-3-[(1R,2R)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]ureido]-propoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone (K-134), has more potent anti-platelet activity and anti-neointimal thickening activity than cilostazol in the in-vitro platelet aggregation and in-vivo anti-hyperplastic activity assay. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of cilostazol and K-134 on thrombus formation and neointimal thickening at the site of prosthetic graft replacement. Beagle dogs underwent infrarenal abdominal aortic resection with straight Dacron graft replacement, which were allocated to the control, cilostazol, and K-134 groups. Two dogs were dead without confirming the cause of death. After 6 months, all dogs were necropsied. All prosthetic grafts were patent in each group. Ratios of red thrombus to prosthetic graft area were 0.3+/-6.4%, and 3.3+/-4.5% in the cilostazol and K-134 groups, respectively, which were significant different from that in the control group (24.4+/-16.8%). However, no clear difference was seen among the 3 groups with respect to neointimal thickness (control group, 0.70+/-0.13 mm; cilostazol group, 0.59+/-0.14 mm; K-134 group, 0.67+/-0.14 mm). Cilostazol and K-134 significantly inhibited thrombus formation on the inner surface of the prosthetic graft at 6 months after graft replacement. Neointimal thickening on the inner surface was slight even in control-group animals, and the effects of cilostazol and K-134 on such thickening were unclear.

  17. Candida Prosthetic Joint Infection. A Review of Treatment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-01-01

    Fungal microorganisms are still a rare cause of bone and joint infections. We report a new case of knee prosthetic joint infection due to Candida albicans in a patient with a previous two-stage right knee arthroplasty for septic arthritis due to S. epidermidis occurred several months ago. Moreover, the treatment in 76 cases of Candida prosthetic joint infection has been discussed. Forty patients were female and mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs. No risk factors for candidal infection were found in 25 patients. Infection site was the knee in 38 patients and hip in 36; pain was present in 44 patients and swelling in 24. The most frequent species was C. albicans , followed by C. parapsilosis . Eleven patients were only treated with antifungal drugs being the outcome favourable in all of them. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients, and resection arthroplasty in other 30; in three patients one-stage exchange arthroplasty was done. A favourable outcome was found in 58 patients after antifungal plus surgical treatment, in 11 after antifungal treatment alone and in one after surgery alone. The type of treatment is still not clearly defined and an algorithm for treatment in fungal PJI should be established, but various types of surgical procedures may be applied.

  18. Cost analysis of debridement and retention for management of prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, T N; Dowsey, M M; Buising, K L; Liew, D; Choong, P F M

    2013-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection remains one of the most devastating complications of arthroplasty. Debridement and retention of the prosthesis is an attractive management option in carefully selected patients. Despite this, there are no data investigating the cost of this management modality for prosthetic joint infections. The aim of this case-control study was to calculate the cost associated with debridement and retention for management of prosthetic joint infection compared with primary joint replacement surgery without prosthetic joint infection. From 1 January 2008 to 30 June 2010, there were 21 prosthetic joint infections matched to 42 control patients. Controls were matched to cases according to the arthroplasty site, age and sex. Cases had a greater number of unplanned readmissions (100% vs. 7.1%; p prosthetic joint infection the total cost, including index operation and costs of management of the prosthetic joint infection, was 3.1 times the cost of primary arthoplasty; the mean cost for cases was Australian dollars (AUD) $69,414 (±29,869) compared with $22,085 (±8147) (p prosthetic joint infections will also increase, placing significant burden on the health system. Our study adds significantly to the growing body of evidence highlighting the substantial costs associated with prosthetic joint infection. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Leukocyte and bacteria imaging in prosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AWJM Glaudemans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the number of joint prosthesis replacements worldwide. Although relatively uncommon, complications can occur with the most serious being an infection. Various radiological and nuclear imaging techniques are available to diagnose prosthetic joint infections (PJI. In this review article, we describe the pathophysiology of PJI, the principles of nuclear medicine imaging and the differences between Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET. The value of nuclear medicine techniques for clinical practice is also discussed.Then we provide an overview of the most often used radionuclide imaging techniques that may be helpful in diagnosing prosthetic joint infection: the 67Ga-citrate, labelled white blood cells in vitro and in vivo (monoclonal antibodies directed against specific targets on the leukocytes, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG. We describe their working methods, the pitfalls, and the interpretation criteria. Furthermore, we review recent advances in imaging bacteria, a molecular imaging method that holds promises for the detection of occult infections. We conclude proposing two diagnostic flow-charts, based on data in the literature, that could help the clinicians to choose the best nuclear imaging method when they have a patient with suspicion of or with proven PJI.

  20. Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection detected by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John J; Larson, Joshua A; Akeson, Jeffrey W; Lowery, Kristin S; Rounds, Megan A; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Patel, Robin

    2014-06-01

    We describe the first reported case of Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection (PJI) detected by PCR. Ureaplasma species do not possess a cell wall and are usually associated with colonization and infection of mucosal surfaces (not prosthetic material). U. parvum is a relatively new species name for certain serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and PCR is useful for species determination. Our patient presented with late infection of his right total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperative fluid and tissue cultures and pre- and postoperative synovial fluid cultures were all negative. To discern the pathogen, we employed PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Our patient's failure to respond to empirical antimicrobial treatment and our previous experience with PCR/ESI-MS in culture-negative cases of infection prompted us to use this approach over other diagnostic modalities. PCR/ESI-MS detected U. parvum in all samples. U. parvum-specific PCR testing was performed on all synovial fluid samples to confirm the U. parvum detection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. 111In leukocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of vascular graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, E.A. van; Roevekamp, M.H.; Dongen, R.J.A.M. van; Schoot, J.B. van der; Hardeman, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Infection at the site of a vascular graft is a serious complication in vascular surgery especially when synthetic materials have been used. Prosthetic grafts are widely employed in aorto-iliac, aorto-femoral and femoro-popliteal bypasses. X-ray investigation, angiography, ultrasound and computer tomography are of limited value in the diagnosis of graft infection. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of this complication results in a high morbidity and mortality. Some reports are available on the use of gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy. However, its accumulation in normal intestinal structures is a serious drawback. The authors investigated the effectiveness of indium-111 leukocytes scintigraphy in the diagnosis of vascular graft infection. The possible accumulation of labelled leukocytes was assessed both subjectively by visual interpretation and quantitatively by computer evaluation. (Auth.)

  2. Periprosthetic joint infection: are patients with multiple prosthetic joints at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S Mehdi; Casper, David S; Restrepo, Camilo; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

    2012-06-01

    Patients who present with a periprosthetic joint infection in a single joint may have multiple prosthetic joints. The risk of these patients developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint is unknown. Our purposes were (1) to identify the risk of developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint and (2) to describe the time span and organism profile to the second prosthetic infection. We retrospectively identified 55 patients with periprosthetic joint infection who had another prosthetic joint in place at the time of presentation. Of the 55 patients, 11 (20%) developed a periprosthetic joint infection in a second joint. The type of organism was the same as the first infection in 4 (36%) of 11 patients. The time to developing a second infection averaged 2.0 years (range, 0-6.9 years). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  4. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  5. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    B Dhawan; S Sebastian; R Malhotra; A Kapil; D Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  6. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dhawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  7. Prosthetic joint infection: state-of-the-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sergeyevich Belov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In current clinical practice, joint replacement is one of the progressive and permanently developed surgical treatments in patients with locomotor injury of any genesis. However, the upward trend in the number of replacements is inevitably accompanied by the rising number of patients with periprosthetic joint infection. The polymorphism of its clinical picture and the nonspecificity of diagnostic tests lead to a frequent delay in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI and thus late treatment. This paper gives an update on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of PJI. Emphasis is laid on the value of a multimodal approach to PJI treatment Р a combination of surgery and etiotropic antibiotic therapy. The choice of a treatment modality is determined by patient status, comorbidity, and the magnitude and duration of the infectious process.

  8. Infrascrotal, perineal, femorofemoral bypass for arterial graft infection at the groin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulo; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Giacobbi, Daniela; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Ceccanei, Gianluca

    2004-12-01

    Infrascrotal, perineal, femorofemoral bypass is an acceptable procedure for treating infection of a prosthetic arterial graft limited to a unilateral groin. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 29 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary care center and an affiliated secondary care center. Nineteen patients with a mean age of 68 years with prosthetic graft infection at the outflow anastomosis on a femoral artery at the Scarpa triangle underwent an infrascrotal, perineal, femorofemoral bypass, with excision of the graft material limited at the groin. The recipient artery was the profunda femoris artery in 12 cases, the superficial femoral in 5, and the distal common femoral artery in 2. Cumulative survival, recurrence of sepsis, primary graft patency, and limb salvage rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. Postoperative mortality rate was 5%. Cumulative (SE) survival rate was 65% (11.6%) at 3 years. Cumulative (SE) rate of freedom from recurrent sepsis was 88% (8.6%) at 3 years. Cumulative (SE) primary patency and limb salvage rates were 86% (9.4%) and 91% (7.9%), respectively, at 3 years. Femorofemoral bypass with an infrascrotal perineal approach is a valuable procedure for the treatment of femoral arterial graft infection limited at a unilateral groin.

  9. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Wyngaert, Hans van den [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Love, Charito [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Welling, M.M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Scientist Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Section of Nuclear Medicine C2-203, Leiden (Netherlands); Gemmel, Paul [Ghent University, The Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Hempstead, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  10. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Wyngaert, Hans van den; Love, Charito; Welling, M.M.; Gemmel, Paul; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  11. Rectus femoris muscle flap based on proximal insertion mobilization to cover a groin infected vascular graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Luís; Pedro, Luís Mendes; Fernandes e Fernandes, Ruy; Silva, Emanuel; Fernandes e Fernandes, José

    2015-10-01

    The rectus femoris (RF) muscle flap, which is widely used to cover groin infected vascular grafts, is usually harvested through distal tendon division and an extensive muscle elevation and transposition into the groin wound defect. A case of a vascular prosthetic graft infection in the groin was successfully controlled after coverage with an RF flap that was harvested based on proximal portion mobilization instead of the conventional distal one. This case suggests that the RF muscle flap based on proximal insertion mobilization is a feasible, effective, technically simpler, and less invasive alternative to cover infected vascular grafts in the groin. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endovascular aortic graft infection resulting in retroperitoneal abscess: report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Di Somma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a rare complication of aortoiliac endovascular procedures, with an incidence inferior to 0.5%, and it may result in a retroperitoneal abscess potentially evolving to sepsis and gastrointestinal bleeding. In more than 50% of cases endovascular aortoiliac prosthetic grafts infection occur months or years after the procedure. The growing number of endovascular procedures, and as the actually midterm follow up in most cases, septic sequelae will no doubt continue to occur with increased frequency and may represent an emerging problem in the ED for the emergency physician. Endovascular graft infection begins with unspecific clinical manifestations. An high index of suspicion in any patient with an aortic stent graft presenting prolonged or recurrent fever and or abdominal or back pain and a low threshold for obtaining CT scan should increase the clinician’s ability to make a timely diagnosis in the ED setting.

  13. Conventional and molecular diagnostic strategies for prosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Jaime; Sorlí, Luisa; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Puig, Lluís; Horcajada, Juan P

    2014-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the mainstay for an optimized clinical management. This review analyzes different diagnostic strategies of PJI, with special emphasis on molecular diagnostic tools and their current and future applications. Until now, the culture of periprosthetic tissues has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of PJI. However, sonication of the implant increases the sensitivity of those cultures and is being increasingly adopted by many centers. Molecular diagnostic methods compared with intraoperative tissue culture, especially if combined with sonication, have a higher sensitivity, a faster turnaround time and are not influenced by previous antimicrobial therapy. However, they still lack a system for detection of antimicrobial susceptibility, which is crucial for an optimized and less toxic therapy of PJI. More studies are needed to assess the clinical value of these methods and their cost-effectiveness.

  14. Increased Mortality After Prosthetic Joint Infection in Primary THA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Varnum, Claus

    2017-01-01

    among patients with PJI that are associated with an increased risk of death? Methods: This population-based cohort study was based on the longitudinally maintained Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register on primary THA performed in Denmark from 2005 to 2014. Data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register were......Background: Revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a major effect on patients’ health but it remains unclear if early PJI after primary THA is associated with a high mortality. Questions/Purposes: (1) Do patients with a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have increased...... mortality compared with patients who do not undergo revision for any reason within 1 year of primary THA? (2) Do patients who undergo a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have an increased mortality risk compared with patients who undergo an aseptic revision? (3) Are there particular bacteria...

  15. Remote transient Lactobacillus animalis bacteremia causing prosthetic hip joint infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, R; Lynch, T; Powell, J N; Gregson, D

    2016-11-04

    Lactobacillus spp. are uncommon pathogens in immunocompetent hosts, and even rarer causes of prosthetic device infections. A case of chronic hip prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by L. animalis is described. This occurred 5 years after a transient bacteremia with the same organism. Whole genome sequencing of both isolates proved this PJI infection resulted from this remote bacteremia. We document that prosthetic joint infections may be a consequence of bacteremia as much as 3 years before the onset of symptoms.

  16. Remote transient Lactobacillus animalis bacteremia causing prosthetic hip joint infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somayaji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus spp. are uncommon pathogens in immunocompetent hosts, and even rarer causes of prosthetic device infections. Case presentation A case of chronic hip prosthetic joint infection (PJI caused by L. animalis is described. This occurred 5 years after a transient bacteremia with the same organism. Whole genome sequencing of both isolates proved this PJI infection resulted from this remote bacteremia. Conclusions We document that prosthetic joint infections may be a consequence of bacteremia as much as 3 years before the onset of symptoms.

  17. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA.......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection...

  18. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  19. Effects of sterilization and storage on the properties of ALP-grafted biomaterials for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, S; Pan, G; Vernè, E; Spriano, S; Cassinelli, C; Mazzucco, L

    2012-01-01

    Grafting of the biomaterial surfaces with biomolecules is nowadays a challenging research field for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, very few research works investigate the effect of the sterilization processes on the properties of functionalized biomaterials. In this study, the effects of different sterilization techniques (e.g. gamma and electron beam irradiation, ethylene oxide) on the enzymatic activity of bioactive glasses and Ti6Al4V grafted with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been analyzed. Sterility maintenance and in vitro bioactivity of the sterilized surfaces have also been investigated. Finally the effect of packaging and storage conditions has been considered. (paper)

  20. Sustained release of vancomycin from novel biodegradable nanofiber-loaded vascular prosthetic grafts: in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Wang, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Kuo-Sheng Liu,1 Cheng-Hung Lee,2 Yi-Chuan Wang,3 Shih-Jung Liu3 1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Abstract: This study describes novel biodegradable, drug-eluting nanofiber-loaded vascular prosthetic grafts that provide local and sustained...

  1. Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Hematogenous Prosthetic Joint Infection in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J; Palraj, Bharath Raj; Osmon, Douglas R; Berbari, Elie F; Baddour, Larry M; Lohse, Christine M; Steckelberg, James M; Wilson, Walter R; Sohail, M Rizwan

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a life-threatening condition that may lead to metastatic infection, including prosthetic joint infection. To assess clinical factors associated with hematogenous prosthetic joint infection, we retrospectively reviewed all patients with a joint arthroplasty in place at the time of a first episode of S. aureus bacteremia over a 5-year period at our institution. Patients with postsurgical prosthetic joint infection without hematogenous prosthetic joint infection were excluded. There were 85 patients (143 arthroplasties) with either no prosthetic joint infection (n = 50; 58.8%) or hematogenous prosthetic joint infection in at least one arthroplasty (n = 35; 41.2%). The odds of hematogenous prosthetic joint infection was significantly increased among patients with community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 18.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.64-infinity; P = .001), as compared with nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia, in which there were no patients with hematogenous prosthetic joint infection. After adjusting for S. aureus bacteremia classification, the presence of ≥3 joint arthroplasties in place was associated with a nearly ninefold increased odds of hematogenous prosthetic joint infection as compared with those with 1-2 joint arthroplasties in place (OR 8.55; 95% CI 1.44-95.71; P = .012). All but one joint with prosthetic joint infection demonstrated at least one clinical feature suggestive of infection. There were 4 additional S. aureus prosthetic joint infections diagnosed during a median of 3.4 years of follow-up post hospitalization for S. aureus bacteremia. Prosthetic joint infection is frequent in patients with existing arthroplasties and concomitant S. aureus bacteremia, particularly with community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia and multiple prostheses. In contrast, occult S. aureus prosthetic joint infection without clinical features suggestive of prosthetic joint infection at the time of S. aureus bacteremia

  2. Prosthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokpong Amornvit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular trauma can be caused by road traffic accidents, falls, assaults, or work-related accidents. Enucleation is often indicated after ocular injury or for the treatment of intraocular tumors, severe ocular infections, and painful blind eyes. Rehabilitation of an enucleated socket without an intraocular implant or with an inappropriately sized implant can result in superior sulcus deepening, enophthalmos, ptosis, ectropion, and lower lid laxity, which are collectively known as post-enucleation socket syndrome. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of post-enucleation socket syndrome with a modified ocular prosthesis. Modifications to the ocular prosthesis were performed to correct the ptosis, superior sulcus deepening, and enophthalmos. The rehabilitation procedure produced satisfactory results.

  3. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scan in detection of synthetic vascular graft infection: The effect of antibiotic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.J.; Hicklin, O.A.; Payan, J.M.; Gordon, L.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the indium-111-( 111 In) labeled leukocyte scan for prosthetic vascular graft infection in patients treated with antibiotic therapy, a retrospective study was performed. Of 41 consecutive 111 In-labeled leukocyte scans performed to evaluate possible vascular graft infection, 23 scans were performed in patients treated with antibiotics. The average duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Twelve positive and 11 negative scans for graft infection were found. By surgical and autopsy correlation of all positive cases, and clinical correlation (of all negative cases), there were 10 true-positive, 11 true-negative, 2 false-positive, and no false-negative scans for graft infections, for an overall sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85%

  4. Tubercular prosthetic joint infection: two case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloci, Sara; Mencarini, Jessica; Lagi, Filippo; Beltrami, Giovanni; Campanacci, Domenico Andrea; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    Tubercular prosthetic joint infection (TB-PJI) is an uncommon complication. Lack of evidence of systemic tuberculosis and clinical suspicion could bring a delay in the time of the diagnosis. The aims of this study are to underline the importance of awareness and suspicion of mycobacterial infection in the differential diagnosis in PJI and to evaluate the appropriateness of different therapeutic options. Case report and literature review. We report two cases of TB-PJI after total knee arthroplasty in Caucasian patients without prior history of tubercular disease or exposure. In both cases, the diagnosis was obtained years after the onset of symptoms. Despite that, both patients improved during antitubercular treatment (a four-drug regimen consisting of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for 2 months, followed by rifampicin and isoniazid). Moreover, after an 18-month course of treatment, there was no need for surgical therapy. The result of the literature review allows us to identify 64 cases of TB-PJI. Many differences in both medical and surgical management have been found, among those reviewed cases. Considering our experience and the literature review, we recommend considering a conservative approach (debridement and adequate antituberculous chemotherapy) as a suitable and safe option.

  5. Good quality of life outcomes after treatment of prosthetic joint infection with debridement and prosthesis retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboltins, Craig; Dowsey, Michelle; Peel, Trish; Lim, Wen K; Choong, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Patients treated for early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with surgical debridement and prosthesis retention have a rate of successful infection eradication that is similar to patients treated with the traditional approach of prosthesis exchange. It is therefore important to consider other outcomes after prosthetic joint infection treatment that may influence management decisions, such as quality of life (QOL). Our aim was to describe infection cure rates and quality of life for patients with prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention and to determine if treatment with this approach was a risk factor for poor quality of life outcomes. Prospectively collected pre and post-arthroplasty data were available for 2,134 patients, of which PJI occurred in 41. For patients treated for prosthetic joint infection, the 2-year survival free of treatment failure was 87% (95%CI 84-89). Prosthetic joint infection cases treated with debridement and retention had a similar improvement from pre-arthroplasty to 12-months post-arthroplasty as patients without PJI in QOL according to the SF-12 survey. Prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and retention was not a risk factor for poor quality of life on univariate or multivariate analysis. Prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention results in good cure rates and quality of life. Further studies are required that directly compare quality of life for different surgical approaches for prosthetic joint infection to better inform management decisions. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:898-902, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Is Asymptomatic Bacteriuria a Risk Factor for Prosthetic Joint Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Quayle, Jonathan; Dias da Costa, Luis; Casals, Cristina; Scott, Phylip; Leite, Pedro; Vilanova, Paz; Garcia, Sebastian; Ramos, Maria Helena; Dias, Joana; Soriano, Alex; Guyot, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infection is a major complication after total joint arthroplasty. The urinary tract is a possible source of surgical site contamination, but the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before elective surgery and the subsequent risk of infection is poorly understood. Methods. Candidates for total hip or total knee arthroplasty were reviewed in a multicenter cohort study. A urine sample was cultured in all patients, and those with ASB were identified. Preoperative antibiotic treatment was decided on an individual basis, and it was not mandatory or randomized. The primary outcome was prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the first postoperative year. Results. A total of 2497 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of ASB was 12.1% (303 of 2497), 16.3% in women and 5.0% in men (odds ratio, 3.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.65–5.09; P infection rate was significantly higher in the ASB group than in the non-ASB group (4.3% vs 1.4%; odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–6.27; P = .001). In the ASB group, there was no significant difference in PJI rate between treated (3.9%) and untreated (4.7%) patients. The ASB group had a significantly higher proportion of PJI due to gram-negative microorganisms than the non-ASB group, but these did not correlate to isolates from urine cultures. Conclusions. ASB was an independent risk factor for PJI, particularly that due to gram-negative microorganisms. Preoperative antibiotic treatment did not show any benefit and cannot be recommended. PMID:24723280

  7. Daptomycin treatment in Gram-positive vascular graft infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arnaiz de las Revillas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections and right-side endocarditis. However, there is a lack of published data outlining its usefulness in vascular graft infections (VGI. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical experience of daptomycin use in the treatment of VGI caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with VGI receiving daptomycin at a tertiary care hospital during the period January 2010 to December 2012. Results: Of a total 1066 consecutive patients who had undergone vascular grafts (VG, 25 were diagnosed with VGI. Fifteen of these patients (11 prosthetic VG, three autologous VG, one both types received daptomycin (median dose 6.7 mg/kg/day, range 4.1–7.1 mg/kg/day; median age 69 years, range 45–83 years; 80% male. The infected bypass was removed in 13 cases. The most common reason for selecting daptomycin was kidney failure (53%. The Gram-positive organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 10, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3 (two methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Enterococcus faecium (n = 2, and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1. The mean follow-up was 69 months (interquartile range 48–72 months. Ten patients (66.7% achieved complete healing of the VGI. A recurrence of the infection was observed in 100% of patients in whom the bypass was not removed. Among patients who did not achieve complete healing, one needed a supracondylar amputation and one died as a consequence of infection. Five patients received treatment with rifampicin in addition to daptomycin and they were all cured. Conclusions: The use of daptomycin and surgery for Gram-positive VGI was effective and well tolerated, and this may be a good alternative for the treatment of VGI in patients with peripheral arterial disease in whom renal insufficiency is common. Keywords: Daptomycin, Gram-positive, Vascular

  8. Prosthetic Hip Loosening Due to Brucellar Infection: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Tebourbi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Brucellosis is actually considered to be the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide; conversely prosthetic infection due to brucella is extremely rare. Although diagnostic is easily achieved, management of such situations is extremely challenging. Aims: To report the case of prosthetic hip loosening due to brucellar infection, discuss management manners and to summarize data about 19 cases reported in the literature. Methods: We report the case of a 73-year-old woman with brucellar prosthetic hip loosening treated with 2-stage exchange of the prosthesis and prolonged double antibiotherapy Results: At two years follow up the patient is pain free with total functional recovery and no clinical and radiographic signs of prosthetic loosening Conclusions: Brucella should be evocated as a cause of total joint arthroplasty infection especially in patients from endemic regions and with occupational exposure. Antibiotic treatment alone can be followed if there are no signs of implant loosening. Tow stage revision should be considered in other cases.

  9. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom

    2017-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of prosthetic joint infections due to Propionibacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooff, Miranda L; Meis, Jacques F; Vos, Fidel; Goosen, Jon H M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, Propionibacterium is frequently recognized as a causative microorganism of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We assessed treatment success at 1- and 2-year follow-up after treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI of the shoulder, hip, and knee. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether postoperative treatment with rifampicin is favorable. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which we included patients with a primary or revision joint arthroplasty of the shoulder, hip, or knee who were diagnosed with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI between November 2008 and February 2013 and who had been followed up for at least 1 year. Results We identified 60 patients with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI with a median duration of 21 (0.1–49) months until the occurrence of treatment failure. 39 patients received rifampicin combination therapy, with a success rate of 93% (95% CI: 83–97) after 1 year and 86% (CI: 71–93) after 2 years. The success rate was similar in patients who were treated with rifampicin and those who were not. Interpretation Propionibacterium-associated PJI treated with surgery in combination with long-term antibiotic administration had a successful outcome at 1- and 2-year follow-up irrespective of whether the patient was treated with rifampicin. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the use of rifampicin is beneficial in the treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI. PMID:26414972

  11. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Granulicatella adiacens: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, Fanny; Seng, Piseth; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Fenollar, Florence; Stein, Andreas

    2017-06-23

    Bone and joint infection involving Granulicatella adiacens is rare, and mainly involved in cases of bacteremia and infectious endocarditis. Here we report three cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that were successfully treated with surgery and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. We also review the two cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that are reported in the literature. Not all five cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by G. adiacens were associated with bacteremia or infectious endocarditis. Dental care before the onset of infection was observed in two cases. The median time delay between arthroplasty implantation and the onset of infection was of 4 years (ranging between 2 and 10 years). One of our cases was identified with 16srRNA gene sequencing, one case with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and one case with both techniques. Two literature cases were diagnosed by 16srRNA gene sequencing. All five cases were cured after surgery including a two-stage prosthesis exchange in three cases, a one-stage prosthesis exchange in one case, and debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis in one case, and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. Prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens is probably often dismissed due to difficult culture or misdiagnosis, in particular in the cases of polymicrobial infection. Debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis associated with prolonged antimicrobial treatment (≥ 8 weeks) should be considered as a treatment strategy for prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens.

  12. Improving diagnostic accuracy in aortic prosthetic graft infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Rani

    2017-01-01

    Vaatprothese infecties (VPI) komen relatief weinig voor, echter het klinisch beloop ervan kent hoge morbiditeit en mortaliteit. Derhalve worden bij de implantatie van vaatprotheses diverse preventieve maatregelen genomen om VPI te voorkomen. Ondanks preventieve maatregelen blijft prothesemateriaal

  13. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Pasteurella multocida: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Savini, Hélène; Pinelli, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Fabrice; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is a well-recognized zoonotic agent following dog or cat bites or scratches. Nevertheless, prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida are rarely reported. We report here a series of six cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida managed at a referral centre for the treatment of bone and joint infection in southern France. We also reviewed the 26 cases reported in literature. The mean age of our cases was 74 years [±8.2, range 63-85]. In majority of our cases (5 cases) were associated with knee prostheses and one case with a hip prosthesis. Most of cases occurred after cat or dog scratches or licks or contact. Diagnoses of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida were made by positive cultures of surgical biopsies or needle aspiration. Mean time delay between prosthetic joint implantation and infection onset was 7.6 years (±5.12 years, range 2-17). Local inflammation, which occurred in all six cases, was the most frequent clinical symptom, followed by pain in five cases, fever and swollen joints in four cases, and a fistula with purulent discharge inside the wound in two cases. The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 8 months. Surgical treatment with prosthesis removal was performed in three cases. Six of our cases were in remission without apparent relapse at 3 years after end of treatment. Prosthetic joint infections caused by P. multocida usually occur after animal scratches or bites, but can occasionally occur after a short animal lick. These infections are usually resulting from a contiguous infection and localized in the knee. An early antibiotic therapy after surgical debridement could avoid prosthetic withdrawal, notably in elderly patients. Patients with prosthetic joints should be warned that animals are potential sources of serious infection and urgent medical advice should be sought if they are bitten or scratched.

  14. Efficacy of Antibiotic Suppressive Therapy in Patients with a Prosthetic Joint Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Nijman, Jasperina M; Kampinga, Greetje A; van Assen, Sander; Jutte, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be

  15. [Microbiological characteristics and patterns of resistance in prosthetic joint infections in a referral hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Peña, Silvestre; Colín-Castro, Claudia; Hernández-Duran, Melissa; López-Jácome, Esaú; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The prosthetic joint infection is the most feared and catastrophic complication for cause severe physical damage to patients and, generates high economic costs. To describe the microbiological characteristics and to determine the resistance pattern in prosthetic joint infections in a reference hospital in Mexico. Patients whose prosthetic devices were withdrawn due to suspicion of septic and aseptic loosening were included. Cultures were performed to identify microorganisms and susceptibility analysis. Of the 111 patients included, 55% were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection, with the most frequent prosthesis being of the hip (43%). Positive cultures were obtained in 97% of the infected cases, of which 75% were monomicrobial infections. The most frequent bacterial species isolated were: Staphylococcus epidermidis (31%), Enterococcus faecalis (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%), and Escherichia coli (8%). The resistance patterns for the Staphylococcus genus were: oxacillin (79%), erythromycin (45%) and ciprofloxacin (37%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a high percentage of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (86%), and fluoroquinolones (43%). The large majority (86%) of Escherichia coli were extended spectrum beta-lactamases positive, in addition to having high resistance to fluoroquinolones (86%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (86%) and gentamicin (72%). The microbiological characteristics found in prosthetic joint infections vary according to the hospitals. In this series, a high proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Enterococcus spp. were found, as well as a high bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Vancomycin graft composite for infected bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.; Janata, O.; Georgopoulos, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery under septic conditions represents a major challenge in orthopaedics. Local application of antibiotics can provide high drug levels at the site of infection without systemic effects. However, removal of non-resorbable implants and filling of defects usually requires additional operative procedures. An ideal antibiotic carrier should provide for : 1) Effective bactericidal activity, especially against staphylococci including MRSA; 2) High and long lasting levels at the site of infection without local or systemic toxicity; 3) Repair of defects without a second stage procedure. Allogeneic cancellous bone is proven to be effective in restoration of bone stock. Vancomycin is effective against all gram-positive populations and the agent of choice for infections with MRSA. The aim of our study is to investigate the efficacy of a combination of both components in bone infection. Cancellous bone of human origin was processed during several steps and incubated in 10% vancomycin solution. The antimicrobial activity of the vancomycin graft composite (VGC) was evaluated using an agar diffusion bioassay against staphylococcus aureus and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The testing period was up to 9 weeks. Elution of vancomycin from the graft was evaluated in 2.5% human albumin solution, which was exchanged every 24 hours. Concentration of vancomycin in allograft-bone was between 6.653[tg/g and 23.194gg/g with an average of 15.250 [tg/g, which is equivalent to 10.000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for s. aureus. The initial activity decreased to approx. 50% during the first week and approx. 30% at the end of the 9th week. The lowest values measured exceeded the MIC by 2000 times. Concentration in surrounding fluid decreased from 24.395,80 to 18,43pg/ml after 11 complete exchanges. Human cancellous bone, processed in an adequate way, offers capability to store high quantities of vancomycin. Vancomycin graft composites are

  17. Increased risk of prosthetic joint infection associated with esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Prabhu, Nayantara; Oxentenko, Amy S; Osmon, Douglas R; Baron, Todd H; Hanssen, Arlen D; Wilson, Walter R; Steckelberg, James M; Baddour, Larry M; Harmsen, William S; Mandrekar, Jay; Berbari, Elie F

    2013-02-01

    There are no prospective data regarding the risk of prosthetic joint infection following routine gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. We wanted to determine the risk of prosthetic hip or knee infection following gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in patients with joint arthroplasty. We conducted a prospective, single-center, case-control study at a single, tertiary-care referral center. Cases were defined as adult patients hospitalized for prosthetic joint infection of the hip or knee between December 1, 2001 and May 31, 2006. Controls were adult patients with hip or knee arthroplasties but without a diagnosis of joint infection, hospitalized during the same time period at the same orthopedic hospital. The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) of prosthetic joint infection after gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed within 2 years before admission. 339 cases and 339 controls were included in the study. Of these, 70 cases (21%) cases and 82 controls (24%) had undergone a gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure in the preceding 2 years. Among gastrointestinal procedures that were assessed, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection (OR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-7). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for sex, age, joint age, immunosuppression, BMI, presence of wound drain, prior arthroplasty, malignancy, ASA score, and prothrombin time, the OR for infection after EGD with biopsy was 4 (95% CI: 1.5-10). EGD with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection in patients with hip or knee arthroplasties. This association will need to be confirmed in other epidemiological studies and adequately powered prospective clinical trials prior to recommending antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients.

  18. One-year incidence of prosthetic joint infection in total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, P H; Pedersen, A B; Schønheyder, H C

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the trend of Prosthetic Joint Infections (PJI) following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and the antimicrobial resistance of the bacteria causing these infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified a population-based cohort of patients in the Danish Hip Arthroplasty...

  19. Neisseria meningitidis Infecting a Prosthetic Knee Joint: A New Case of an Unusual Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Becerril Carral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary meningococcal meningitis is an infrequent but known disease. However, the infection of a prosthetic joint with Neisseria meningitidis is rare. We hereby describe the second case of an arthroplasty infected with Neisseria meningitidis that responded favourably to prosthesis retention with surgical debridement, in combination with antibiotics treatment.

  20. Microbiological Aetiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Profile of Prosthetic Joint Infections: Are Current Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guidelines Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen C.; Buising, Kirsty L.; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections remain a major complication of arthroplasty. At present, local and international guidelines recommend cefazolin as a surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. This retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008) investigated the epidemiology and microbiological etiology of prosthetic joint infections. There were 163 cases of prosthetic joint infection identified. From a review of the microbiological culture results, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 45% of infections. In addition, polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving Gram-negative bacilli and enterococcal species, were common (36%). The majority (88%) of patients received cefazolin as an antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. In 63% of patients in this cohort, the microorganisms subsequently obtained were not susceptible to the antibiotic prophylaxis administered. The results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing reviews of the local ecology of prosthetic joint infection, demonstrating that the spectrum of pathogens involved is broad. The results should inform empirical antibiotic therapy. This report also provokes discussion about infection control strategies, including changing surgical antibiotic prophylaxis to a combination of glycopeptide and cefazolin, to reduce the incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci. PMID:22314530

  1. Coil embolization of a false aneurysm with aorto-cutaneous fistula after prosthetic graft replacement of the ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Bruno; Camilleri, Lionel; Gabrillargues, Jean; Macheda, Bruno; Kubota, Hiroshi; Ravel, Anne; Riberolles, Charles de; Boyer, Louis

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To report palliative embolization of a false aneurysm over the distal suture line of an ascending aorta graft replacement. Material and Method: A 78-year-old male patient was admitted for increasing bleeding of a chronic Manubrium ulceration, 20 months after coronary artery bypass complicated by perioperative ascending aorta dissection requiring prosthetic graft replacement. One month later, he underwent epiploplasty for a mediastinitis followed by long-term antibiotic therapy. Five months later, he presented with a Manubrium ulceration of the sternotomy. Spiral computerized tomography (CT) and aortography revealed a 20 mm anterior peri-prosthetic false aneurysm with a wide neck. Advanced age, active mediastinitis and patient's objection led us to perform percutaneous occlusion according to the Moret remodeling technique while protecting the coils release with balloon catheter inflation. Results: No post-operative complication was observed and at 1-year follow-up the patient was doing well with no recurrent bleeding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spiral CT controls confirmed coils stability without any internal flow. Conclusion: Percutaneous coils embolization of a large false aneurysm in the ascending aorta can be a palliative treatment in a surgically unsuited patient

  2. Increased Mortality After Prosthetic Joint Infection in Primary THA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Varnum, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-11-01

    Revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a major effect on patients' health but it remains unclear if early PJI after primary THA is associated with a high mortality. (1) Do patients with a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have increased mortality compared with patients who do not undergo revision for any reason within 1 year of primary THA? (2) Do patients who undergo a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have an increased mortality risk compared with patients who undergo an aseptic revision? (3) Are there particular bacteria among patients with PJI that are associated with an increased risk of death? This population-based cohort study was based on the longitudinally maintained Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register on primary THA performed in Denmark from 2005 to 2014. Data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register were linked to microbiology databases, the National Register of Patients, and the Civil Registration System to obtain data on microbiology, comorbidity, and vital status on all patients. Because reporting to the register is compulsory for all public and private hospitals in Denmark, the completeness of registration is 98% for primary THA and 92% for revisions (2016 annual report). The mortality risk for the patients who underwent revision for PJI within 1 year from implantation of primary THA was compared with (1) the mortality risk for patients who did not undergo revision for any reason within 1 year of primary THA; and (2) the mortality risk for patients who underwent an aseptic revision. A total of 68,504 primary THAs in 59,954 patients were identified, of those 445 primary THAs underwent revision for PJI, 1350 primary THAs underwent revision for other causes and the remaining 66,709 primary THAs did not undergo revision. Patients were followed from implantation of primary THA until death or 1 year of followup, or, in case of a revision, 1 year from the date of revision. Within 1 year of primary THA, 8% (95% CI, 6%-11%) of

  3. [Tuberculous prosthetic knee joint infection: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Oya, A; Liébana-Martos, M C; Rodríguez-Granger, J; Sampedro-Martínez, A; Aliaga-Martínez, L; Gutierrez-Fernández, J; Navarro-Marí, J M

    2016-08-01

    Prosthetic late infection occurs in the second month after surgery in the context of haematogenous spread from another source. Prosthetic mycobacterial infection is a rare complication whose clinical management is not standardized. Patient of 77 years with no personal history except for diabetes and a prosthetic replacement of right knee with osteoarthritis three years ago. Patient goes to hospital emergency box for 6 months pain in the right knee with mechanical inflammatory signs but no fever associated. After their return within 5 days and clinical worsening is reporting growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in knee aspirate and antitubercular treatment is established for 9 months. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging studies also confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis spondylitis in the clinical context of the patients. After surgery, M. tuberculosis was again isolated from intraoperative samples and therefore the patient received another batch of treatment for 9 months. After a year of monitoring, the development was acceptable but few months later, the patient died for cardiovascular causes. In the literature review, 15 publications with a total of 17 clinical cases of prosthetic infection by M. tuberculosis were found from 1980 to 2014. Prosthetic tuberculous arthritis, although it is a rare presentation, it should be noted, especially in patients with predisposing conditions with a history of tuberculosis infection.

  4. Clinical characteristics, microbiology, and outcomes of prosthetic joint infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chih; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Lo, Wan-Yu; Jiang, Ching-Chuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-04-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee or hip replacement is a devastating complication associated with substantial morbidity and economic cost. The incidence of prosthetic joint infection is increasing as the use of mechanical joint replacement increases. The treatment approach to prosthetic joint infection is based on different clinical situations such as a patient's comorbidities, epidemic microbiology data, and surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to understand clinical characteristics of prosthetic joint infection, the microbiology of the prosthetic joint infection, and the outcomes of different treatment strategies during 2006-2011. We retrospectively collected cases of prosthetic joint infection in the National Taiwan University Hospital between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011. The patients' characteristics, microbiology, outcomes, and factors associated with treatment success were recorded. One hundred and forty-four patients were identified as having PJI. Of these, 92 patients were entered into per-protocol analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism (29.9%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (16.7%), and Enterococci (9.7%). The overall treatment success rate was 50%. Patients who received a two-stage revision had a better outcome, compared to patients who underwent other types of surgeries (70% vs. 32.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the two-stage revision was significantly associated with treatment success (odds ratio = 3.923, 95% confidence interval = 1.53-10.04). Our study demonstrates that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organisms in PJI. Performing two-stage revisions was significantly associated with a better outcome. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Implant salvage in breast reconstruction with severe peri-prosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, Farid; Sedaghat, Negin; French, James; Keighley, Caitlin; Mitchell, David; Elder, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Although treatment of mild peri-prosthetic infection in implant-based breast reconstruction results in high rates of resolution, successful management of severe peri-prosthetic infection remains a significant challenge. In this case series, a protocol utilizing a novel dressing - negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) - for the management of severe peri-prosthetic infection in breast reconstruction patients is described. This is an operative technique involving: (i) explantation of the breast prosthesis and application of the NPWTi dressing to the implant pocket; (ii) change of the NPWTi dressing; (iii) intraoperative fluid/tissue cultures; and (iv) reimplantation of the breast prosthesis when cultures yield no growth. This protocol was utilized in six cases of severe peri-prosthetic infection in five patients with immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer or risk-reducing surgery. Cultures of fluid/tissue grew typical and/or unusual organisms. Only one case did not yield an organism. The hospital length of stay upon completion of the protocol ranged from 7-16 days (mean, 12 days). Successful implant salvage was achieved in five of six cases. The protocol was aborted in one case to allow for completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Early findings from this case series suggest that in cases of severe peri-prosthetic infection this novel operative protocol may result in successful implant salvage for breast reconstruction patients. Further studies are needed to more fully elaborate the role of NPWTi to achieve implant salvage in challenging cases of peri-prosthetic infection. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Comparative study of radiography and scintigraphy for loosening and infection of prosthetic hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi Sook; Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Song, Han Joon; Ahn, Chi Yul [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Prosthetic hip replacement is associated with certain complications which result in a painful hip. Many of these, e. g. prosthetic dislocation, fracture, trochanteric avulsion, and heterotopic calcification are easily diagnosed by conventional radiography. However, radiographic evaluation for infection and/pr loosening of prosthesis as major complications requiring reoperation often contributes little to the resolution of the diagnostic problem. The authors made a comparative study of plain radiography and scintigraphy of 39 cases performed revision at Kyung Hee University Hospital from Sep. '81-to Aug. '86. The results were as follows: 1. In 39 revised prosthetic hip replacement, 26 cases (67%) of loosening without infection and 11 cases (28%) of infection were proven. 2. In loosening of prosthesis, plain radiography showed true positive rate of 76% and true negative rate of 60%, and scintigraphy showed true positive rate of 75% and true negative rate of 95%. 3. In infection of prosthesis, plain radiography revealed true positive rate of 55% and true negative rate of 96%, and scintigraphy revealed true positive rate of 100% and true negative rate of 83%. 4. Scintigraphy and plain radiography were useful as complementary procedure in evaluating and differentiating loosening and/or infection of prosthetic component.

  7. Single-stage revision for fungal peri-prosthetic joint infection: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, T O; Kendoff, D; Kamath, A F; Jonen, V; Rueger, J M; Frommelt, L; Gebauer, M; Gehrke, T

    2014-04-01

    Fungal peri-prosthetic infections of the knee and hip are rare but likely to result in devastating complications. In this study we evaluated the results of their management using a single-stage exchange technique. Between 2001 and 2011, 14 patients (ten hips, four knees) were treated for a peri-prosthetic fungal infection. One patient was excluded because revision surgery was not possible owing to a large acetabular defect. One patient developed a further infection two months post-operatively and was excluded from the analysis. Two patients died of unrelated causes. After a mean of seven years (3 to 11) a total of ten patients were available for follow-up. One patient, undergoing revision replacement of the hip, had a post-operative dislocation. Another patient, undergoing revision replacement of the knee, developed a wound infection and required revision 29 months post-operatively following a peri-prosthetic femoral fracture. The mean Harris hip score increased to 74 points (63 to 84; p prosthetic infection is feasible, with an acceptable rate of a satisfactory outcome.

  8. Comparative study of radiography and scintigraphy for loosening and infection of prosthetic hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi Sook; Lee, Sun Wha; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Song, Han Joon; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1987-01-01

    Prosthetic hip replacement is associated with certain complications which result in a painful hip. Many of these, e. g. prosthetic dislocation, fracture, trochanteric avulsion, and heterotopic calcification are easily diagnosed by conventional radiography. However, radiographic evaluation for infection and/pr loosening of prosthesis as major complications requiring reoperation often contributes little to the resolution of the diagnostic problem. The authors made a comparative study of plain radiography and scintigraphy of 39 cases performed revision at Kyung Hee University Hospital from Sep. '81-to Aug. '86. The results were as follows: 1. In 39 revised prosthetic hip replacement, 26 cases (67%) of loosening without infection and 11 cases (28%) of infection were proven. 2. In loosening of prosthesis, plain radiography showed true positive rate of 76% and true negative rate of 60%, and scintigraphy showed true positive rate of 75% and true negative rate of 95%. 3. In infection of prosthesis, plain radiography revealed true positive rate of 55% and true negative rate of 96%, and scintigraphy revealed true positive rate of 100% and true negative rate of 83%. 4. Scintigraphy and plain radiography were useful as complementary procedure in evaluating and differentiating loosening and/or infection of prosthetic component

  9. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  10. Acinetobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated with Debridement and High-Dose Tigecycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Amadio, Claudio; Leiva, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Prosthesis retention is not recommended for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter prosthetic joint infection due to its high failure rate. Nevertheless, replacing the prosthesis implies high morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Although tigecycline is not approved for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, its appropriate use may preclude prosthesis exchange. Since the area under the curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration is the best pharmacodynamic predictor of its efficacy, we used tigecycline at high dose, in order to optimize its efficacy and achieve implant retention in 3 patients who refused prosthesis exchange. All patients with prosthetic joint infections treated at our Institution are prospectively registered in a database. Three patients with early prosthetic joint infection of total hip arthroplasty due to multidrug resistant A. baumannii were treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention, using a high maintenance dose of tigecycline (100 mg every 12 hours). The cases were retrospectively reviewed. All patients signed informed consent for receiving off-label use of tigecycline. Tigecycline was well tolerated, allowing its administration at high maintenance dose for a median of 40 days (range 30-60). Two patients were then switched to minocycline at standard doses for a median of 3.3 months in order to complete treatment. Currently, none of the patients showed relapse. Increasing the dose of tigecycline could be considered as a means to better attain pharmacodynamic targets in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat infections. Tigecycline at high maintenance dose might be useful when retention of the implant is attempted for treatment for prosthetic joint infections due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Although this approach might be promising, off-label use of tigecycline should be interpreted cautiously until prospective data are available. Tigecycline is

  11. Severe prosthetic joint infection in an immunocompetent male patient due to a therapy refractory Pseudallescheria apiosperma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.; Man, F.H. de; Eygendaal, D.; Wintermans, R.G.; Kluytmans, J.A.; Klaassen, C.H.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rarely due to fungal agents and if so they are mainly caused by Candida strains. This case represents a PJI caused by a multi-drug resistant Pseudallescheria apiosperma, with poor in vivo response to itraconazole and voriconazole. This case differs also by the

  12. Pre-operative Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Risk Factor For Prosthetic Joint Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, R; El-Bakri, F; Saeed, Kordo

    2018-04-13

    Infection is a rare complication following implantation of prosthetic material into a joint. The impact of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before elective operations and the subsequent risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) are not well understood. • Assess the prevalence of ASB amongst patients undergoing total arthroplasty of the hip and knee. • Determine the rates of PJI diagnosed within two years of the arthroplasty and if ASB is an independent risk factor for developing PJI. Patients who had total/unicondylar knee or total hip arthroplasty were retrospectively reviewed over a five-year period. Pre-operative urine samples within one year of surgery were analysed and those with ASB identified. Primary outcome was prosthetic joint infection (PJI) within the first postoperative year. 5542 patients were included. 4368 had a pre-operative urine culture recorded. The prevalence of ASB was 140 of 4368 (3.2%). The overall PJI rate was 56 of 5542 (1.01%). Of those with a PJI, 33 had a pre-operative urine sample recorded. The infection rate in the ASB group was 5% (7 of 140), in the no-ASB group it was 0.61% (26 of 4228) and in the group without a urine sample it was 1.96% (23 of 1174) (p value prosthetic joint, suggestive the relationship is unlikely causal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Case Report of Ridge Augmentation using Onlay Interpositional Graft: An Approach to Improve Prosthetic Prognosis of a Deficit Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal therapy has developed beyond the scope of the treatment of periodontal pathoses. Periodontal plastic surgery consists of the reconstructive procedures designed to enhance the both function and esthetics. Deficient ridges pose a severe problem to the restorative dentist in restoring the natural form, function and esthetics of the prosthesis replacing the natural dentition. Depending upon the severity, location of these defects and the prosthetic option chosen, hard and soft tissue ridge augmentation or non-surgical approach or a combination may help to address them. The present clinical report describes a soft tissue ridge augmentation of a localized ridge defect in maxillary aesthetic region using onlay interpositional graft followed by fixed partial denture.

  14. Outcomes of Prosthetic Hemodialysis Grafts after Deployment of Bare Metal versus Covered Stents at the Venous Anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Charles Y., E-mail: charles.kim@duke.edu; Tandberg, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Michael D.; Miller, Michael J.; Suhocki, Paul V.; Smith, Tony P. [Duke University Medical Center, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare postintervention patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents across the venous anastomosis of prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts. Methods: Review of our procedural database over a 6 year period revealed 377 procedures involving stent deployment in an AV access circuit. After applying strict inclusion criteria, our study group consisted of 61 stent deployments in 58 patients (median age 58 years, 25 men, 33 women) across the venous anastomosis of an upper extremity AV graft circuit that had never been previously stented. Both patent and thrombosed AV access circuits were retrospectively analyzed. Within the bare metal stent group, 20 of 32 AV grafts were thrombosed at initial presentation compared to 18 of 29 AV grafts in the covered stent group. Results: Thirty-two bare metal stents and 29 covered stents were deployed across the venous anastomosis. The 3, 6, and 12 months primary access patency rates for bare metal stents were not significantly different than for covered stents: 50, 41, and 22 % compared to 59, 52, and 29 %, respectively (p = 0.21). The secondary patency rates were also not significantly different: 78, 78, and 68 % for bare metal stents compared to 76, 69, and 61 % for covered stents, respectively (p = 0.85). However, covered stents demonstrated a higher primary stent patency rate than bare metal stents: 100, 85, and 70 % compared to 75, 67, and 49 % at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The primary and secondary access patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents at the venous anastomosis were not significantly different. However, bare metal stents developed in-stent stenoses significantly sooner.

  15. Outcomes of Prosthetic Hemodialysis Grafts after Deployment of Bare Metal versus Covered Stents at the Venous Anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Charles Y.; Tandberg, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Michael D.; Miller, Michael J.; Suhocki, Paul V.; Smith, Tony P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare postintervention patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents across the venous anastomosis of prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) grafts. Methods: Review of our procedural database over a 6 year period revealed 377 procedures involving stent deployment in an AV access circuit. After applying strict inclusion criteria, our study group consisted of 61 stent deployments in 58 patients (median age 58 years, 25 men, 33 women) across the venous anastomosis of an upper extremity AV graft circuit that had never been previously stented. Both patent and thrombosed AV access circuits were retrospectively analyzed. Within the bare metal stent group, 20 of 32 AV grafts were thrombosed at initial presentation compared to 18 of 29 AV grafts in the covered stent group. Results: Thirty-two bare metal stents and 29 covered stents were deployed across the venous anastomosis. The 3, 6, and 12 months primary access patency rates for bare metal stents were not significantly different than for covered stents: 50, 41, and 22 % compared to 59, 52, and 29 %, respectively (p = 0.21). The secondary patency rates were also not significantly different: 78, 78, and 68 % for bare metal stents compared to 76, 69, and 61 % for covered stents, respectively (p = 0.85). However, covered stents demonstrated a higher primary stent patency rate than bare metal stents: 100, 85, and 70 % compared to 75, 67, and 49 % at 3, 6, and 12 months (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The primary and secondary access patency rates after deployment of bare metal versus covered stents at the venous anastomosis were not significantly different. However, bare metal stents developed in-stent stenoses significantly sooner.

  16. Actinobaculum schaalii, a new cause of knee prosthetic joint infection in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, H; Benmansour, H; Zadegan, F; Hannouche, D; Micaelo, M; Mongiat-Artus, P; Salomon, E; Cambau, E; Berçot, B

    2016-08-01

    Actinobaculum schaalii is an emerging pathogen particularly involved in urinary tract infection of elderly people and/or patient with urological risk factors of urinary tract infection. This microorganism is a difficult-to-diagnose pathogen and is rarely involved in systemic or deep infections. Here, we report the first case of prosthetic joint infection due to A. schaalii in an 84-year-old man with a benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with chronic retention of urine. This case underlines the importance to optimize the diagnosis of emerging uropathogens as A. schaalii, to prevent systemic infections, particularly in patients with orthopaedic implants.

  17. May one-stage exchange for Candida albicans peri-prosthetic infection be successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, J-Y; Goukodadja, O; Boeri, C; Gaudias, J

    2016-02-01

    Fungal infection of a total joint arthroplasty has a low incidence but is generally considered as more difficult to cure than bacterial infection. As for bacterial infection, two-stage exchange is considered as the gold standard of treatment. We report two cases of one-stage total joint exchange for fungal peri-prosthetic infection with Candida albicans, where the responsible pathogens was only identified on intraoperative samples. This situation can be considered as a one-stage exchange for fungal peri-prosthetic infection without preoperative identification of the responsible organism, which is considered as having a poor prognosis. Both cases were free of infection after two years. One-stage revision has several potential advantages over two-stage revision, including shorter hospital stay and rehabilitation, no interim period with significant functional impairment, shorter antibiotic treatment, better functional outcome and probably lower costs. We suggest that one-stage revision for C. albicans peri-prosthetic infection may be successful even without preoperative fungal identification. Level IV-Historical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Dylla, Brenda L; Hughes, John G; Lynch, David T; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Cheng, Allen C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2016-01-05

    Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P Prosthetic joint infections are a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery. Despite this, current microbiological techniques to detect and diagnose infections are imperfect. This study examined a new approach to diagnosing infections, through the inoculation of tissue samples from around the prosthetic joint into blood culture bottles. This study demonstrated that, compared to current laboratory practices, this new technique increased the detection of infection. These findings are important for patient care to allow timely and accurate diagnosis of infection. Copyright © 2016 Peel et al.

  19. Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gomez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is a treatment to prevent recurrence of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma. Complications after bladder instillation of BCG have been reported including locally invasive and systemic infections due to dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from the bladder. We present an uncommon case and literature review of prosthetic joint infection due to M. bovis after intravesical BCG treatment of bladder cancer.

  20. Infection imaging with 99mTc-biotin in patients with prosthetic hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, G.; Mariani, G.; Augeri, C.; Pipino, F.; Paganelli, G.; Chinol, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Although the incidence of infection in prosthetic hip joint replacements has decreased from about 10-15 % to about 0.5-2 % over the last 20 years, the total number of infections has actually increased because of the large number of patients undergoing the procedure. The most frequent clinical presentation of this complication is functional impairment and pain, with or without fever and other signs and/or symptoms of infection. The main is differentiating true infection from simple loosening with inflammation of the implanted stem. Scintigraphy with radiolabeled autologous leukocytes (WBC) represents the 'gold standard' nuclear medicine procedure for imaging infection. However, this procedure is time-consuming, expensive, and involves some biological hazard. Preliminary data, obtained during validation of the avidin/111In-biotin approach, have suggested some potential of 111ln-biotin per se to accumulate at sites of infection. In this pilot study we explored the potential of 99mTc-biotin as an infection imaging agent in pts with orthopedic infections. N4-lys-biotin was labeled with 1110 MBq. Sixteen pts bearing a total of 20 prosthetic hip replacements were enrolled in the study (9 women and 7 men, mean age 73.2 yrs). Eight pts had previously undergone removal of their hip prosthesis because of infection, while infection was suspected in the remaining 8 pts. Scintigraphy was recorded 20 min, then 1, 4 and 24 hr after the i.v. injection of 99mTc-biotin. Within 48 hrs of the 99mTc-biotin study, all pts also underwent scintigraphy with 99mTc-HMPAO-WBC. Out of the 20 hips evaluated, 15 turned out to be infected while in the remaining 5 cases pain was only caused by bone-prosthetic loosening and/or conditions other than infection. In 12/15 infected sites scintigraphy was concordantly positive with both procedures, 99mTc-biotin yielding higher target-to-nontarget ratios than 99mTc-HMPAO-WBC in 4 cases and similar values in the other cases. Discordant patterns

  1. First described case of prosthetic joint infection with Clostridium disporicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joseph A; Sterkel, Alana K; Rehrauer, William M; Smith, Jeannina A

    2017-12-01

    An orthopedic hardware infection with Clostridium disporicum is described. C. disporicum is a gram positive anaerobic bacillus which can contain two subterminal spores. C. disporicum had not previously been reported in musculoskeletal infections. Gram stains demonstrating gram positive bacilli with two subterminal spores should alert practitioners to the possibility of C. disporicum infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  3. Vancomycin-Rifampin Combination Therapy Has Enhanced Efficacy against an Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Jared A.; Shahbazian, Jonathan H.; Ramos, Romela Irene; Francis, Kevin P.; Bernthal, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of prosthetic joint infections often involves a two-stage exchange, with implant removal and antibiotic spacer placement followed by systemic antibiotic therapy and delayed reimplantation. However, if antibiotic therapy can be improved, one-stage exchange or implant retention may be more feasible, thereby decreasing morbidity and preserving function. In this study, a mouse model of prosthetic joint infection was used in which Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into a knee joint containing a surgically placed metallic implant extending from the femur. This model was used to evaluate whether combination therapy of vancomycin plus rifampin has increased efficacy compared with vancomycin alone against these infections. On postoperative day 7, vancomycin with or without rifampin was administered for 6 weeks with implant retention. In vivo bioluminescence imaging, ex vivo CFU enumeration, X-ray imaging, and histologic analysis were carried out. We found that there was a marked therapeutic benefit when vancomycin was combined with rifampin compared with vancomycin alone. Taken together, our results suggest that the mouse model used could serve as a valuable in vivo preclinical model system to evaluate and compare efficacies of antibiotics and combinatory therapy for prosthetic joint infections before more extensive studies are carried out in human subjects. PMID:23917317

  4. Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression during human prosthetic joint infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    2016-01-01

    and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark 2: Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: ”The aim of this study was to gain insight into the in vivo expression of virulence and metabolic genes of Staphylococcus aureus in a prosthetic joint infection in a human subject” Method: ”Deep RNA......Global changes in Staphylococcus aureus gene expression during human prosthetic joint infection Xu, Yijuan1; Nielsen, Per H.1; Nielsen, Jeppe L.1; Thomsen, Trine R. 1,2; Nielsen, Kåre L.1 and the PRIS study group 1: Center for Microbial Communities, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry...... involved overexpression of various enzymes related to cell-wall synthesis and multidrug efflux pumps. Interestingly, these efflux pumps are only known to be related to fluoroquinolone resistance. Many of the genes encoding virulence factors were upregulated, including toxins and superantigen-like proteins...

  5. In vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-02-01

    We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline by Etest against staphylococci recovered from patients with prosthetic joint infection, including 97 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (36%, oxacillin resistant) and 74 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (74%, oxacillin resistant). Ceftaroline inhibited all staphylococci at ≤0.5 μg/mL. The ceftaroline MIC(90/50) values for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were 0.19/0.125, 0.094/0.047, 0.5/0.38, and 0.38/0.19 μg/mL, respectively. Based on these in vitro findings, ceftaroline should be further evaluated as a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin in prevention of an experimental polytetrafluoroethylene graft infection model caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mese, Bulent; Bozoglan, Orhan; Elveren, Serdal; Eroglu, Erdinc; Gul, Mustafa; Celik, Ahmet; Ciralik, Harun; Yildirimdemir, Halil Ibrahim; Yasim, Alptekin

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin in prevention of prosthetic vascular graft infections in a vascular graft infection model. Fifty rats were divided into 5 groups. A polytetrafluoroethylene graft was implanted on the back of each rat. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain was inoculated into all rats except Group 1. Group 2 was not given any treatment, Group 3 received linezolid, Group 4 received vancomycin, and Group 5 received teicoplanin. The grafts were removed for microbiological and histological examinations on the 7th day. In addition, C-reactive protein and prealbumin levels and leukocyte counts in obtained blood specimens were determined. Group 1 did not have infection. Group 2 had bacteria 5.7 × 10(4) CFU/cm(2). Group 3 and Group 4 had less bacterial growth. Group 5 had no bacterial growth. The number of bacteria was significantly higher in Group 2 than in the other experimental groups and the control group (pprevention of prosthetic vascular graft infections.

  7. A Modern Approach to Preventing Prosthetic Joint Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Paraskevi Vivian; Congiusta, Dominick; Scuderi, Giles R; Cushner, Fred D

    2018-02-28

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is recognized as one of the most successful surgical procedures performed today. One of the most common and dreaded complications of TKA is postoperative infection. To prevent infections, it is critical to identify patients at high risk through analyzing their risk factors, and help in addressing them prior to surgery. The effort to prevent infection must be carried through every step of the surgical process, from preoperative counseling to intraoperative measures and postoperative protocols. Hair removal, the application of antiseptics, the utilization of antibiotics, barbed sutures, smart dressings, and antibacterial washes are some of the avenues surgeons may explore to help prevent infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Most common surgical mistakes with treatment of prosthetic joint infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kocjančič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of infections of orthopedic implants is often difficult and complex, although the chances of successful treatment with properly selected diagnostics, surgical and antibiotic treatment protocol have recently increased significantly. Surgical treatment is a key stone factor in the treatment of infections of orthopedic implants and any errors in it often lead to worse clinical outcomes. The most important and frequent surgical errors include: conservative treatment of periprothetic infections with antibiotics only, to-late surgical revision, insufficient debridement during surgical revision, inadequate intraoperative samples for bacteriological and histological analysis. It is important to have and to follow proper treatment algorithm for periprosthetic joint infection. In this work we present the listed surgical and most illustrative key errors.

  9. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, H.; Yuan, L.; Li, C.; Kan, Y.; Yang, J.; Hao, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  10. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H; Yuan, L; Li, C; Kan, Y; Hao, R; Yang, J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  11. Diffuse skin hyperpigmentation associated with chronic minocycline use in a patient with prosthetic joint infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Berbari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is a recognized adverse effect of chronic minocycline use occurring in up to 50% of patients. In this report we present a rare case of extensive skin hyperpigmentation involving both lower extremities in a patient receiving long term minocycline. The patient was receiving minocycline as suppression for chronic prosthetic joint infection. Risk factors associated with minocycline-induced cutaneous pigmentation (MICH will be reviewed.

  12. A Novel Prosthetic Joint Infection Pathogen, Mycoplasma salivarium, Identified by Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoendel, Matthew; Jeraldo, Patricio; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Chia, Nicholas; Abdel, Matthew P; Steckelberg, James M; Osmon, Douglas R; Patel, Robin

    2017-07-15

    Defining the microbial etiology of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing is a new tool to identify organisms undetected by conventional methods. We present a case where metagenomics was used to identify Mycoplasma salivarium as a novel PJI pathogen in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Propionibacterium avidum as an Etiological Agent of Prosthetic Hip Joint Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wildeman

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes is well-established as a possible etiologic agent of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs. Other Propionibacterium spp. have occasionally been described as a cause of PJIs, but this has not previously been the case for P. avidum despite its capacity to form biofilm. We describe two patients with prosthetic hip joint infections caused by P. avidum. Both patients were primarily operated with an anteriorly curved skin incision close to the skin crease of the groin, and both were obese. Initial treatment was performed according to the DAIR procedure (debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention. In case 1, the outcome was successful, but in case 2, a loosening of the cup was present 18 months post debridement. The P. avidum isolate from case 1 and two isolates from case 2 (obtained 18 months apart were selected for whole genome sequencing. The genome of P. avidum obtained from case 1 was approximately 60 kb larger than the genomes of the two isolates of case 2. These latter isolates were clonal with the exception of SNPs in the genome. All three strains possessed the gene cluster encoding exopolysaccharide synthesis. P. avidum has a pathogenic potential and the ability to cause clinically relevant infections, including abscess formation, in the presence of foreign bodies such as prosthetic joint components. Skin incision in close proximity to the groin or deep skin crease, such as the anteriorly curved skin incision approach, might pose a risk of PJIs by P. avidum, especially in obese patients.

  14. FDG-PET for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection: systematic review and metaanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Thomas C.; Kwee, Robert M.; Alavi, Abass

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and metaanalyze published data on the diagnostic performance of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in detecting prosthetic hip or knee joint infection. A systematic search for relevant studies was performed of the PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. A metaanalysis of the reported sensitivity and specificity of each study was performed. Subgroup analyses were performed if results of individual studies were heterogeneous. The inclusion criteria were met by 11 studies; there was a total sample size of 635 prostheses. Overall, the studies had good methodological quality. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the detection of prosthetic hip or knee joint infection were 82.1% (95%CI = 68.0-90.8%) and 86.6% (95%CI = 79.7-91.4%), respectively. Heterogeneity among the results of individual studies was present (I 2 = 68.8%). Diagnostic performance was influenced by type of joint prostheses (hip prostheses vs. knee prostheses) and type of reconstruction method used (filtered back vs. iterative) (p = 0.0164 and p = 0.0235, respectively). In this metaanalysis, overall diagnostic performance of FDG-PET was moderate to high. Caution is warranted, however, because results of individual studies were heterogeneous and could not be fully explored. Future studies should further explore potential causes of heterogeneity and validate the use of FDG-PET for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection. (orig.)

  15. Cryopreserved Cadaveric Arterial Allograft for Arterial Reconstruction in Patients with Prosthetic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejay, Anne; Delay, Charline; Girsowicz, Elie; Chenesseau, Bettina; Bonnin, Emilie; Ghariani, Mohamed-Zied; Thaveau, Fabien; Georg, Yannick; Geny, Bernard; Chakfe, Nabil

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcomes of cryopreserved arterial allografts used as a vascular substitute in the setting of prosthetic material infection. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted including all consecutive interventions performed with cryopreserved arterial allografts used for vascular reconstruction in the setting of prosthetic material infection between January 2005 and December 2014. Five year outcomes included allograft related re-interventions, survival, primary patency, and limb salvage rates. Fifty-three procedures were performed using cryopreserved allografts for vascular prosthetic infection: 25 procedures (47%) were performed at aorto-iliac level (Group 1) and 28 procedures (53%) at peripheral level (Group 2). The mean follow-up was 52 months. Five year allograft related re-intervention was 55% in Group 1 (6 allograft ruptures and 5 allograft aneurysm degenerations) and 33% in Group 2 (2 allograft ruptures and 7 allograft aneurysm degenerations). Five year survival was 40% and 68%, primary patency was 89% and 59% and limb salvage was 100% and 89% for Group 1 and 2 respectively. Use of cryopreserved arterial allografts provides acceptable results but is tempered by suboptimal 5 year outcomes with high re-intervention rates. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-Disciplinary Antimicrobial Strategies for Improving Orthopaedic Implants to Prevent Prosthetic Joint Infections in Hip and Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzlaf, Matthew A.; Lewallen, Eric A.; Kremers, Hilal M.; Jones, Dakota L.; Bonin, Carolina A.; Dudakovic, Amel; Thaler, Roman; Cohen, Robert C.; Lewallen, David G.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2016-01-01

    Like any foreign object, orthopaedic implants are susceptible to infection when introduced into the human body. Without additional preventative measures, the absolute number of annual prosthetic joint infections will continue to rise, and may exceed the capacity of health care systems in the near future. Bacteria are difficult to eradicate from synovial joints due to their exceptionally diverse taxonomy, complex mechanistic attachment capabilities, and tendency to evolve antibiotic resistance. When a primary orthopaedic implant fails from prosthetic joint infection, surgeons are generally challenged by limited options for intervention. In this review, we highlight the etiology and taxonomic groupings of bacteria known to cause prosthetic joint infections, and examine their key mechanisms of attachment. We propose that antimicrobial strategies should focus on the most harmful bacteria taxa within the context of occurrence, taxonomic diversity, adhesion mechanisms, and implant design. Patient-specific identification of organisms that cause prosthetic joint infections will permit assessment of their biological vulnerabilities. The latter can be targeted using a range of antimicrobial techniques that exploit different colonization mechanisms including implant surface attachment, biofilm formation, and/or hematogenous recruitment. We anticipate that customized strategies for each patient, joint, and prosthetic component will be most effective at reducing prosthetic joint infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant and polymicrobial bacteria. PMID:26449208

  17. Candida-induced prosthetic joint infection. A literature review including 72 cases and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; López, Enrique M; Jiménez, Gemma; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-02-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Candida species is described, including 72 cases in the literature and a case of Candida glabrata infection handled at the present centre. We describe one patient and using the key words 'fungal prosthetic joint infection' and 'candida prosthetic joint infection' we searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane systematic review databases for case reports of this condition. Out of the 73 patients, 38 were female; mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs; 50 had risk factors for candidal infection such as systemic disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus) and/or immunosuppressive therapy in 18 (24.6%) cases, diabetes mellitus in 14 (19.1%), immunosuppression due to malignant or chronic disease in 24 (32.8%) and long-term antibiotic use in four (5.4%) patients. Infection site was the knee in 36 patients and hip in 35; pain was present in 43 patients and swelling in 23 and the mean surgery-diagnosis interval was 32 months. The most frequent species was C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. The diagnosis was obtained from joint fluid aspirate in 33 cases and intra-operative samples in 16. Susceptibility to antifungals was tested in only 21 isolates. The most frequently used antifungals were fluconazole and amphotericin B. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients and resection arthroplasty in 31; 56 patients were cured with a combination of medical and surgical treatment; one patient died from the infection. PJI caused by Candida requires a high index of suspicion; surgery with long-term antifungal therapy is recommended.

  18. Differential contributions of specimen types, culturing, and 16S rRNA sequencing in diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Khalid, Vesal; Xu, Yijuan

    2018-01-01

    Prosthetic joint failure is mainly caused by infection, aseptic failure (AF), and mechanical problems. Infection detection has been improved with modified culture methods and molecular diagnostics. However, comparisons between modified and conventional microbiology methods are difficult due...... to variations in specimen sampling. In this prospective, multidisciplinary study of hip or knee prosthetic failures, we assessed the contributions of different specimen types, extended culture incubations, and 16S rRNA sequencing for diagnosing prosthetic joint infections (PJI). Project specimens included joint...... fluid (JF), bone biopsy specimens (BB), soft-tissue biopsy specimens (STB), and swabs (SW) from the prosthesis, collected in situ, and sonication fluid collected from prosthetic components (PC). Specimens were cultured for 6 (conventional) or 14 days, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed at study...

  19. Novel Suicide by Division of a Chronically Infected, Externalised Axillofemoral Graft Presenting Challenges in Prehospital Assessment of Mental Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing a patient's competence to give informed consent in pre-hospital care is difficult. In the presented case an elderly patient attempted suicide by division of a chronically infected and externalised prosthetic arterial graft. He was able to comprehend his situation and understand the consequences of declining treatment. Without prior knowledge of his medical care and psychological state, however, we did not believe we could fully assess the patient's ability to act in his own best interest. After sedation and resuscitation he was transferred to hospital. This case report discusses a unique method of suicide and the challenge of obtaining valid consent in prehospital care.

  20. Prosthetic joint infection, dental treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthinus J. Kotzé

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national prophylactic antibiotic regimens have been analyzed in respect of the prevention of bacteremia after dental and surgical procedures and, therefore, of joint prosthesis infection. This information was used to formulate guidelines for the Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Publications since 2003 were used in this research. In addition, recommendations of accredited institutions and associations were examined. These included the guidelines of the American Dental Association in association with the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2003, the American Heart Association (2007, the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2006 and the Australian Dental Guidelines (2005. No guidelines published by any institution in South Africa were found. The general rationale for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical (including dental interventions is that those procedures may result in a bacteremia that may cause infection in joint prostheses. Antibiotics, however, should therefore be administered to susceptible patients, e.g. immunocompromised patients, prior to the development of bacteremia. The guidelines recommended for use in South Africa are based solely on those used outside South Africa. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with its own population and demographic characteristics. Eleven percent of our population is infected with HIV, and a specific guideline for prophylactic antibiotic treatment is, therefore, essential.

  1. [124I]FIAU: Human dosimetry and infection imaging in patients with suspected prosthetic joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan M.; Zhang, Halle H.; McLeroth, Patrick; Berkowitz, Richard D.; Mont, Michael A.; Stabin, Michael G.; Siegel, Barry A.; Alavi, Abass; Barnett, T. Marc; Gelb, Jeffrey; Petit, Chantal; Spaltro, John; Cho, Steve Y.; Pomper, Martin G.; Conklin, James J.; Bettegowda, Chetan; Saha, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fialuridine (FIAU) is a nucleoside analog that is a substrate for bacterial thymidine kinase (TK). Once phosphorylated by TK, [ 124 I]FIAU becomes trapped within bacteria and can be detected with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). [ 124 I]FIAU PET/CT has been shown to detect bacteria in patients with musculoskeletal bacterial infections. Accurate diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) has proven challenging because of the lack of a well-validated reference. In the current study, we assessed biodistribution and dosimetry of [ 124 I]FIAU, and investigated whether [ 124 I]FIAU PET/CT can diagnose PJIs with acceptable accuracy. Methods: To assess biodistribution and dosimetry, six subjects with suspected hip or knee PJI and six healthy subjects underwent serial PET/CT after being dosed with 74 MBq (2 mCi) [ 124 I]FIAU intravenously (IV). Estimated radiation doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. To determine accuracy of [ 124 I]FIAU, 22 subjects with suspected hip or knee PJI were scanned at 2–6 and 24–30 h post IV injection of 185 MBq (5 mCi) [ 124 I]FIAU. Images were interpreted by a single reader blinded to clinical information. Representative cases were reviewed by 3 additional readers. The utility of [ 124 I]FIAU to detect PJIs was assessed based on the correlation of the patient's infection status with imaging results as determined by an independent adjudication board (IAB). Results: The kidney, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder received the highest radiation doses of [ 124 I]FIAU. The effective dose was 0.16 to 0.20 mSv/MBq and doses to most organs ranged from 0.11 to 0.76 mGy/MBq. PET image quality obtained from PJI patients was confounded by metal artifacts from the prostheses and pronounced FIAU uptake in muscle. Consequently, a correlation with infection status and imaging results could not be established. Conclusions: [ 124 I]FIAU was well-tolerated in healthy volunteers and subjects with

  2. [(124)I]FIAU: Human dosimetry and infection imaging in patients with suspected prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan M; Zhang, Halle H; McLeroth, Patrick; Berkowitz, Richard D; Mont, Michael A; Stabin, Michael G; Siegel, Barry A; Alavi, Abass; Barnett, T Marc; Gelb, Jeffrey; Petit, Chantal; Spaltro, John; Cho, Steve Y; Pomper, Martin G; Conklin, James J; Bettegowda, Chetan; Saha, Saurabh

    2016-05-01

    Fialuridine (FIAU) is a nucleoside analog that is a substrate for bacterial thymidine kinase (TK). Once phosphorylated by TK, [(124)I]FIAU becomes trapped within bacteria and can be detected with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). [(124)I]FIAU PET/CT has been shown to detect bacteria in patients with musculoskeletal bacterial infections. Accurate diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) has proven challenging because of the lack of a well-validated reference. In the current study, we assessed biodistribution and dosimetry of [(124)I]FIAU, and investigated whether [(124)I]FIAU PET/CT can diagnose PJIs with acceptable accuracy. To assess biodistribution and dosimetry, six subjects with suspected hip or knee PJI and six healthy subjects underwent serial PET/CT after being dosed with 74MBq (2mCi) [(124)I]FIAU intravenously (IV). Estimated radiation doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. To determine accuracy of [(124)I]FIAU, 22 subjects with suspected hip or knee PJI were scanned at 2-6 and 24-30h post IV injection of 185MBq (5mCi) [(124)I]FIAU. Images were interpreted by a single reader blinded to clinical information. Representative cases were reviewed by 3 additional readers. The utility of [(124)I]FIAU to detect PJIs was assessed based on the correlation of the patient's infection status with imaging results as determined by an independent adjudication board (IAB). The kidney, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder received the highest radiation doses of [(124)I]FIAU. The effective dose was 0.16 to 0.20mSv/MBq and doses to most organs ranged from 0.11 to 0.76mGy/MBq. PET image quality obtained from PJI patients was confounded by metal artifacts from the prostheses and pronounced FIAU uptake in muscle. Consequently, a correlation with infection status and imaging results could not be established. [(124)I]FIAU was well-tolerated in healthy volunteers and subjects with suspected PJI, and had acceptable dosimetry. However, the

  3. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of prosthetic joint infection caused by small colony variant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Aaron J; Osmon, Douglas R; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Mabry, Tad M; Hanssen, Arlen D; Patel, Robin

    2014-09-30

    Small colony variants (SCVs) are naturally occurring subpopulations of bacteria. The clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by staphylococcal SCVs are unknown. This study was a retrospective series of 113 patients with staphylococcal PJI, with prospective testing of archived sonicate fluid samples. SCVs were defined using two-investigator review. Treatment failure was defined as (i) subsequent revision surgery for any reason, (ii) PJI after the index surgery, (iii) prosthesis nonreimplantation due to ongoing infection, or (iv) amputation of the affected limb. There were 38 subjects (34%) with SCVs and 75 (66%) with only normal-phenotype (NP) bacteria. Subjects with SCVs were more likely to have been on chronic antimicrobials prior to surgery (P = 0.048), have had prior surgery for PJI (P = 0.03), have had a longer duration of symptoms (P = 0.0003), and have had a longer time since joint implantation (P = 0.007), compared to those with only NP bacteria. Over a median follow-up of 30.6 months, 9 subjects (24%) with SCVs and 23 (32%) with only NP bacteria experienced treatment failure (P = 0.51). Subjects infected with Staphylococcus aureus were more likely to fail than were those infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis (hazard ratio [HR], 4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 9.04). While frequently identified in subjects with PJI and associated with several potential predisposing factors, SCVs were not associated with excess treatment failure compared to NP infections in this study, where they were primarily managed with two-stage arthroplasty exchange. Bacteria with the small colony variant (SCV) phenotype are described in small case series as causing persistent or relapsing infection, but there are insufficient data to suggest that they should be managed differently than infection with normal-phenotype bacteria. In an effort to investigate the clinical importance of this phenotype, we

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes After In Situ Reconstructions for Aortic Graft Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Michel; Feugier, Patrick; Camou, Fabrice; Coffy, Amandine; Senneville, Eric; Caillon, Jocelyne; Calvet, Brigitte; Chidiac, Christian; Laurent, Frederic; Revest, Matthieu; Daures, Jean Pierre

    2018-05-01

    To confirm the advantage of in situ reconstruction (ISR) over extra-anatomic reconstruction (EAR) for aortic graft infection and determine the most appropriate conduit including autogenous veins, cryopreserved allografts, and synthetic prosthesis (standard, rifampicin of silver polyesters). A meta-analysis was conducted with rate of mortality, graft occlusion, amputation, and reinfection. A meta-regression was performed with 4 factors: patients' age, presence of prosthetic-duodenal fistula (PDF), virulent organisms, or nonvirulent organisms. In situ reconstruction over EAR seems to favor all events. For the 5 conduits used for ISR, according to operative mortality, age of the patients looks to have a positive correlation only for silver polyester and no conduit present any advantage in the presence of PDF. Reinfection seems to be not significantly different for the 5 conduits, and only autogenous veins appear to have a positive correlation with infecting organisms. In situ reconstruction may be considered as first-line treatment. Our results suggest that silver polyesters appear to be most appropriate for older patients, and in order to limit reinfection, autogenous veins are probably the most suitable conduit.

  5. Vascular graft infection: Detection by 123I-labeled antigranulocyte antibody (anti-NCA95) scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Hepp, W.; Langer, R.; Pannhorst, J.; Hierholzer, J.; Felix, R.; Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin

    1991-01-01

    A total of 40 scintigraphic examinations were performed after vascular reconstructive surgery in 27 patients in whom there was a clinical suspicion of vascular graft infection. Whole-body gamma camera images were obtained at 4 and 24 h after i.v. administration of 111 MBq 123 I-labeled antigranulocyte antibody Anti-NCA95. Scan results were interpreted without clincal information and were subsequently correlated with computed tomography. Prosthetic vascular graft infection was confirmed in 9 patients and excluded in 18 by surgical findings, bacteriology and/or clinical course. Scintigraphy revealed true-positive results in 16 of 40 and false-negative results in 1 of 40 examinations. True-negative results were found in 19 and 16, false-positive results in 4 and 7 examinations at 4 and 24 h p.i., resp. The sensitivity was calculated to be 94% for both early (4 h) and late (24 h) images whereas the specificity ws 83% and 70%, resp. In all cases the application of the murine antibody was safe and no side effects or complications were noted. Limitations of this diagnostic procedure are accumulations of granulocytes in hematomas which may be observed in the non-complicated early course following reconstructive surgery. (orig.) [de

  6. Vascularized fibular graft in infected tibial bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Cheriyan Kovoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The treatment options of bone loss with infections include bone transport with external fixators, vascularized bone grafts, non-vascularized autogenous grafts and vascularized allografts. The research hypothesis was that the graft length and intact ipsilateral fibula influenced hypertrophy and stress fracture. We retrospectively studied the graft hypertrophy in 15 patients, in whom vascularized fibular graft was done for post-traumatic tibial defects with infection. Materials and Methods : 15 male patients with mean age 33.7 years (range 18 - 56 years of post traumatic tibial bone loss were analysed. The mean bony defect was 14.5 cm (range 6.5 - 20 cm. The mean length of the graft was 16.7 cm (range 11.5 - 21 cm. The osteoseptocutaneous flap (bone flap with attached overlying skin flap from the contralateral side was used in all patients except one. The graft was fixed to the recipient bone at both ends by one or two AO cortical screws, supplemented by a monolateral external fixator. A standard postoperative protocol was followed in all patients. The hypertrophy percentage of the vascularized fibular graft was calculated by a modification of the formula described by El-Gammal. The followup period averaged 46.5 months (range 24 - 164 months. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r was worked out, to find the relationship between graft length and hypertrophy. The t-test was performed to find out if there was any significant difference in the graft length of those who had a stress fracture and those who did not and to find out whether there was any significant difference in hypertrophy with and without ipsilateral fibula union. The Chi square test was performed to identify whether there was any association between the stress fracture and the fibula union. Given the small sample size we have not used any statistical analysis to determine the relation between the percentage of the graft hypertrophy and stress fracture. Results : Graft

  7. Treatment Challenges of Prosthetic Hip Infection with Associated Iliacus Muscle Abscess: Report of 5 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Joshua M; Mesko, Nathan W; Higuera, Carlos A; Molloy, Robert M; Simpfendorfer, Claus; Babic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is an unfortunate though well-recognized complication of total joint arthroplasty. An iliacus and/or iliopsoas muscle abscess is a rarely documented presentation of hip prosthetic joint infection. It is thought an unrecognized retroperitoneal nidus of infection can be a source of continual seeding of the prosthetic hip joint, prolonging attempts to eradicate infection despite aggressive debridement and explant attempts. The current study presents five cases demonstrating this clinical scenario, and discusses various treatment challenges. In each case we report the patient's clinical history, pertinent imaging, management and outcome. Diagnosis of the iliacus muscle abscess was made using computed tomography imaging. In brief, the mean number of total drainage procedures (open and percutaneous) per patient was 4.2, and outcomes consisted of one patient with a hip girdlestone, two patients with delayed revisions, and two patients with retained prosthesis. All patients ended with functional pain and on oral antibiotic suppression with an average follow up of 18 months. This article highlights an iliacus muscle abscess as an unrecognized source of infection to a prosthetic hip. It demonstrates resilience to standard treatment protocols for prosthetic hip infection, and is associated with poor patient outcomes. Aggressive surgical debridement appears to remain critical to treatment success, and early retroperitoneal debridement of the abscess should be considered.

  8. Detection and identification of microbes in prosthetic joint infections by culture and molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Ehrlich, Garth

    , indicating biofilm formation. In conclusion, this study indicated that to improve the microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections molecular methods may be useful supplements to routine cultures, and the current intraoperative sampling strategy needs to be optimized.......Bacterial biofilms have been observed in many device-related infections including orthopedic implants. This mode of growth makes the infection difficult to treat and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study...... uncovered many more species including known pathogens and species not previously reported in orthopedic infections, and polymicrobial communities were commonly observed. Additionally the molecular findings suggested the bacterial composition and yield varied depending on the position and type of samples...

  9. Molecularly specific detection of bacterial lipoteichoic acid for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection of the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Julie E; Thompson, John M; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Minola, Andrea; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Miller, Lloyd S; Thorek, Daniel Lj

    2018-01-01

    Discriminating sterile inflammation from infection, especially in cases of aseptic loosening versus an actual prosthetic joint infection, is challenging and has significant treatment implications. Our goal was to evaluate a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb) probe directed against the Gram-positive bacterial surface molecule lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Specificity and affinity were assessed in vitro. We then radiolabeled the anti-LTA mAb and evaluated its effectiveness as a diagnostic imaging tool for detecting infection via immunoPET imaging in an in vivo mouse model of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In vitro and ex vivo binding of the anti-LTA mAb to pathogenic bacteria was measured with Octet, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The in vivo PJI mouse model was assessed using traditional imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]FDG and [ 18 F]NaF as well as X-ray computed tomography (CT), before being evaluated with the zirconium-89-labeled antibody specific for LTA ([ 89 Zr]SAC55). The anti-LTA mAb exhibited specific binding in vitro to LTA-expressing bacteria. Results from imaging showed that our model could reliably simulate infection at the surgical site by bioluminescent imaging, conventional PET tracer imaging, and bone morphological changes by CT. One day following injection of both the radiolabeled anti-LTA and isotype control antibodies, the anti-LTA antibody demonstrated significantly greater ( P  infected prosthesis sites over either the same antibody at sterile prosthesis sites or of control non-specific antibody at infected prosthesis sites. Taken together, the radiolabeled anti-LTA mAb, [ 89 Zr]SAC55, may serve as a valuable diagnostic molecular imaging probe to help distinguish between sterile inflammation and infection in the setting of PJI. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings will translate to human PJI.

  10. FDG-PET for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection: systematic review and metaanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kwee, Robert M. [University Medical Center Maastricht, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and metaanalyze published data on the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in detecting prosthetic hip or knee joint infection. A systematic search for relevant studies was performed of the PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. A metaanalysis of the reported sensitivity and specificity of each study was performed. Subgroup analyses were performed if results of individual studies were heterogeneous. The inclusion criteria were met by 11 studies; there was a total sample size of 635 prostheses. Overall, the studies had good methodological quality. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the detection of prosthetic hip or knee joint infection were 82.1% (95%CI = 68.0-90.8%) and 86.6% (95%CI = 79.7-91.4%), respectively. Heterogeneity among the results of individual studies was present (I {sup 2} = 68.8%). Diagnostic performance was influenced by type of joint prostheses (hip prostheses vs. knee prostheses) and type of reconstruction method used (filtered back vs. iterative) (p = 0.0164 and p = 0.0235, respectively). In this metaanalysis, overall diagnostic performance of FDG-PET was moderate to high. Caution is warranted, however, because results of individual studies were heterogeneous and could not be fully explored. Future studies should further explore potential causes of heterogeneity and validate the use of FDG-PET for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection. (orig.)

  11. Synovial Calprotectin: An Inexpensive Biomarker to Exclude a Chronic Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Ottink, Karsten; Kampinga, Greetje A; Wagenmakers-Huizenga, Lucie; Jutte, Paul C; Kobold, Anneke C M

    2018-04-01

    To diagnose or exclude a chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be a clinical challenge. Therefore, sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed in the diagnostic work-up. Calprotectin is a protein with antimicrobial properties and is released by activated neutrophils, making it a specific marker for infection. Because of its low costs and ability to obtain a quantitative value as a point of care test, it is an attractive marker to use in clinical practice. In addition, the test is already used in routine care in most hospitals for other indications and therefore easy to implement. Between June 2015 and June 2017 we collected synovial fluid of all consecutive patients who underwent revision surgery of a prosthetic joint because of chronic pain with or without prosthetic loosening. Synovial calprotectin was measured using a lateral flow immunoassay. A PJI was defined by the diagnostic criteria described by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Fifty-two patients with chronic pain were included. A PJI was diagnosed in 15 of 52 (29%) patients. The median calprotectin in the PJI group was 859 mg/L (interquartile range 86-1707) vs 7 mg/L (interquartile range 3-25) in the control group (P < .001). With a cut-off value of 50 mg/L, synovial calprotectin showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 86.7%, 91.7%, 81.3%, and 94.4%, respectively. Synovial calprotectin is a useful and cheap biomarker to use in the diagnostic work-up of patients with chronic pain, especially to exclude a PJI prior to revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prosthetic joint infection development of an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Pohlig, Florian; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; Kelch, Sarah; Harrasser, Norbert; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    2017-03-09

    Increasing rates of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have presented challenges for general practitioners, orthopedic surgeons and the health care system in the recent years. The diagnosis of PJI is complex; multiple diagnostic tools are used in the attempt to correctly diagnose PJI. Evidence-based algorithms can help to identify PJI using standardized diagnostic steps. We reviewed relevant publications between 1990 and 2015 using a systematic literature search in MEDLINE and PUBMED. The selected search results were then classified into levels of evidence. The keywords were prosthetic joint infection, biofilm, diagnosis, sonication, antibiotic treatment, implant-associated infection, Staph. aureus, rifampicin, implant retention, pcr, maldi-tof, serology, synovial fluid, c-reactive protein level, total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and combinations of these terms. From an initial 768 publications, 156 publications were stringently reviewed. Publications with class I-III recommendations (EAST) were considered. We developed an algorithm for the diagnostic approach to display the complex diagnosis of PJI in a clear and logically structured process according to ISO 5807. The evidence-based standardized algorithm combines modern clinical requirements and evidence-based treatment principles. The algorithm provides a detailed transparent standard operating procedure (SOP) for diagnosing PJI. Thus, consistently high, examiner-independent process quality is assured to meet the demands of modern quality management in PJI diagnosis.

  13. [Joint Prosthetic Infection: UpDate Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, B S; Makarov, S A; Byalik, E I

    2015-01-01

    At present endoprosthetics of the joints is considered as a progressive and ever developing method in the surgical treatment of patients with affection of the locomotor system of any genesis. Hence, increasing of the number of endoprosthetic results in increasing of the number of patients with periprosthetic infection. Polymorphism of the clinical picture and inspecificity of the diagnostic tests often cause a delay in the diagnosis of the joint prosthetic infection (JPI) and consequently the late treatment. The contemporary data on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical picture and diagnosis of JPI are presented. The importance of cooperated treatment of JPI, i.e. combination of the surgical management and etiotropic antibacterial therapy is indicated. The choice of the concrete treatment method is defined by the patient state, comorbid pathology, the infection severity and duration.

  14. Is There an Association Between Smoking Status and Prosthetic Joint Infection After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Amanda I; Luime, Jolanda J; Uçkay, Ilker; Hannouche, Didier; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Lübbeke, Anne

    2018-02-23

    Recent reports highlighted the association between smoking and higher risk of postsurgical infections. The aim was to compare the incidence of prosthetic joint infection after primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) according to smoking status. A prospective hospital registry-based cohort study was performed including all primary knee and hip TJAs performed between March 1996 and December 2013. Smoking status preoperatively was classified into never, former, and current smoker. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for prosthetic joint infection according to smoking status were assessed within the first year and beyond. We included 8559 primary TJAs (mean age 69.5 years), and median follow-up was 67 months. There were 5722 never, 1315 former, and 1522 current smokers. Incidence rates of infection within the first year for never, former, and current smokers were, respectively, 4.7, 10.1, and 10.9 cases/1000 person-years, comparing ever vs never smokers, crude and adjusted HRs were 2.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.98) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.04-3.2). Beyond the first year, crude and adjusted HRs were 1.37 (95% CI 0.78-2.39) and 1.12 (95% CI 0.61-2.04). Smoking increased the infection risk about 1.8 times after primary hip or knee TJA in both current and former smokers. Beyond the first year, the infection risk was similar to never smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineered biomaterial and biophysical stimulation as combinatorial strategies to address prosthetic infection by pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2017-10-01

    A plethora of antimicrobial strategies are being developed to address prosthetic infection. The currently available methods for implant infection treatment include the use of antibiotics and revision surgery. Among the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus species pose significant challenges particularly, with regard to hospital acquired infections. In order to combat such life threatening infectious diseases, researchers have developed implantable biomaterials incorporating nanoparticles, antimicrobial reinforcements, surface coatings, slippery/non-adhesive and contact killing surfaces. This review discusses a few of the biomaterial and biophysical antimicrobial strategies, which are in the developmental stage and actively being pursued by several research groups. The clinical efficacy of biophysical stimulation methods such as ultrasound, electric and magnetic field treatments against prosthetic infection depends critically on the stimulation protocol and parameters of the treatment modality. A common thread among the three biophysical stimulation methods is the mechanism of bactericidal action, which is centered on biophysical rupture of bacterial membranes, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bacterial membrane depolarization evoked by the interference of essential ion-transport. Although the extent of antimicrobial effect, normally achieved through biophysical stimulation protocol is insufficient to warrant therapeutic application, a combination of antibiotic/ROS inducing agents and biophysical stimulation methods can elicit a clinically relevant reduction in viable bacterial numbers. In this review, we present a detailed account of both the biomaterial and biophysical approaches for achieving maximum bacterial inactivation. Summarizing, the biophysical stimulation methods in a combinatorial manner with material based strategies can be a more potent solution to control bacterial infections. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B

  16. Juxtarenal Modular Aortic Stent Graft Infection Caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Novotný

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We are presenting a case report of an infected modular abdominal stent graft. Case Presentation. A 67-year-old male patient three years after Cook’s modular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA graft implantation for juxtarenal AAA with an implantation of a stent extension into the right common iliac artery for type Ib endoleak. The patient was admitted into our center in severe condition with suspected retroperitoneal bleeding. Computed tomography angiography (CTAG confirmed retroperitoneal bleeding in the right common iliac artery. An urgent surgical revision was indicated; destructed arterial wall around the stent extension in the right common iliac artery was discovered. Due to the severe state of health of the patient, a resection of the infected stent and affected arterial wall was performed, followed by an iliac-femoral crossover bypass. The patient was transported to the intensive care unit with hepatic and renal failure, with maximal catecholamine support. Combined antibiotic treatment was started. The patient died five hours after the procedure. The cause of death was multiorgan failure caused by sepsis. Hemocultures and perioperative microbiological cultures showed the infection agent to be Staphylococcus aureus methicillin sensitive. Conclusion. Stent graft infection is a rare complication. Treatment is associated with high mortality and morbidity.

  17. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Fran?ois Sarrazin; Fran?ois Philippon; Mika?l Trottier; Michel Tessier

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device(CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis(PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge.Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE.Over the past few years,cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients,and in assessing the need for surgery,mainly in the most difficult cases.Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography(18F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography(WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations.In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis,the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE,but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment.This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE,and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging.It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE,the limitations of these tests,and potential areas of future research.

  18. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations. In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis, the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE, but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment. This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE, and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging. It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE, the limitations of these tests, and potential areas of future research. PMID:27721936

  19. Technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging for detecting prosthetic joint infection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Hou, Yanjie; Lu, Shanshan; Tian, Wei; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Wang, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n = 12). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n = 12). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ± 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ± 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.

  20. Prosthetic joint infection-a devastating complication of hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guren, Ellen; Figved, Wender; Frihagen, Frede; Watne, Leiv Otto; Westberg, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Background and purpose - Hemiarthroplasty is the most common treatment in elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fracture. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a feared complication. The infection rate varies in the literature, and there are limited descriptive data available. We investigated the characteristics and outcome of PJI following hemiarthroplasty over a 15-year period. Patients and methods - Patients with PJI were identified among 519 patients treated with hemiarthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture at Oslo University Hospital between 1998 and 2012. We used prospectively registered data from previous studies, and recorded additional data from the patients' charts when needed. Results - Of the 519 patients, we identified 37 patients (6%) with early PJI. 20 of these 37 patients became free of infection. Soft tissue debridement and retention of implant was performed in 35 patients, 15 of whom became free of infection with an intact arthroplasty. The 1-year mortality rate was 15/37. We found an association between 1-year mortality and treatment failure (p = 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus and polymicrobial infection were the most common microbiological findings, each accounting for 14 of the 37 infections. Enterococcus spp. was found in 9 infections, 8 of which were polymicrobial. There was an association between polymicrobial infection and treatment failure, and between polymicrobial infection and 1-year mortality. Interpretation - PJI following hemiarthroplasty due to femoral neck fracture is a devastating complication in the elderly. We found a high rate of polymicrobial PJIs frequently including Enterococcus spp, which is different from what is common in PJI after elective total hip arthroplasty.

  1. Differential bacterial load on components of total knee prosthesis in patients with prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holinka, Johannes; Pilz, Magdalena; Hirschl, Alexander M; Graninger, Wolfgang; Windhager, Reinhard; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate and quantify the bacterial adherence on different components of total knee prosthesis with the sonication culture method. Explanted components of all patients with presumptive prosthetic or implant infection were treated by sonication separately in sterile containers to dislodge the adherent bacteria from the surfaces and cultured. The bacterial load of the different knee components (femur, tibia, PE-inlay and patella) was evaluated by counting of colony-forming units (CFU) dislodged from the components surfaces using the sonication culture method. Overall, 27 patients had positive sonication cultures of explanted total knee prostheses. Microorganisms were detected from 88 of 100 explanted components. Twenty femoral components were culture positive and 7 negative, 23 tibial components as well as 23 polyethylene (PE) platforms had positive microorganism detection from the surface. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to the highest number of components whereas Staphylococcus aureus yielded the highest load of CFU in the sonication cultures. Although not significant, PE-inlays and tibial components were most often affected. The highest CFU count was detected in polyethylene components. The sonication culture method is a reliable method to detect bacteria from the components. Additionally, the results demonstrate that bacterial adherence is not affecting a single component of knee prosthesis only. Thus, in septic revision surgery partial prosthetic exchange or exchange of single polyethylene components alone may be not sufficient.

  2. The Effect of Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis on Intraoperative Culture Results in Patients with a Suspected or Confirmed Prosthetic Joint Infection : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Benito, Natividad; Soriano, Alex

    Obtaining reliable cultures during revision arthroplasty is important to adequately diagnose and treat a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The influence of antimicrobial prophylaxis on culture results remains unclear. Since withholding prophylaxis increases the risk for surgical site infections,

  3. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  4. Revision for prosthetic joint infection following hip arthroplasty: Evidence from the National Joint Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguerrand, E; Whitehouse, M R; Beswick, A D; Jones, S A; Porter, M L; Blom, A W

    2017-06-01

    We used the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man (NJR) to investigate the risk of revision due to prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for patients undergoing primary and revision hip arthroplasty, the changes in risk over time, and the overall burden created by PJI. We analysed revision total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed due to a diagnosis of PJI and the linked index procedures recorded in the NJR between 2003 and 2014. The cohort analysed consisted of 623 253 index primary hip arthroplasties, 63 222 index revision hip arthroplasties and 7585 revision THAs performed due to a diagnosis of PJI. The prevalence, cumulative incidence functions and the burden of PJI (total procedures) were calculated. Overall linear trends were investigated with log-linear regression. We demonstrated a prevalence of revision THA due to prosthetic joint infection of 0.4/100 procedures following primary and 1.6/100 procedures following revision hip arthroplasty. The prevalence of revision due to PJI in the three months following primary hip arthroplasty has risen 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 4.1) between 2005 and 2013, and 3.0-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 8.5) following revision hip arthroplasty. Over 1000 procedures are performed annually as a consequence of hip PJI, an increase of 2.6-fold between 2005 and 2013. Although the risk of revision due to PJI following hip arthroplasty is low, it is rising and, coupled with the established and further predicted increased incidence of both primary and revision hip arthroplasty, this represents a growing and substantial treatment burden. Cite this article : E. Lenguerrand, M. R. Whitehouse, A. D. Beswick, S. A. Jones, M. L. Porter, A. W. Blom. Revision for prosthetic joint infection following hip arthroplasty: Evidence from the National Joint Registry. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:391-398. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.66.BJR-2017-0003.R1. © 2017 Lenguerrand et al.

  5. Predictors of revision, prosthetic joint infection and mortality following total hip or total knee arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rene Lindholm; Zobbe, Kristian; Højgaard, Pil

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate predictors of 10-year risk of revision and 1-year risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and death following total hip/total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) in (1) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with patients with osteoarthritis (OA); and (2) patients...

  6. [Redo ascending aorta replacement using a homograft for graft infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; report of an emergently air-transferred case just after Great East Japan Earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Kim, Cholsu; Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Minagawa, Tadanori; Mizumoto, Masahiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of replacement with a cryopreserved homograft for graft infection. A 48-year-old man had been performed ascending aorta replacement using woven dacron graft for type A aortic dissection. Two months ago, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection was suspected because of high-grade fever. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed abscess formation around the prosthetic graft and redo operation using cryopreserved homograft was scheduled to avoid re-infection into mediastinum at Tohoku University Hospital, an institute cooperating with University of Tokyo tissue bank. However, Catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake occurred the day before the scheduled date, and the patient could not have an operation at the institution. He was transferred to our hospital by helicopter. Then homograft was successfully implanted in ascending aorta after complete excision of infectious graft.

  7. Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex causing olecranon bursitis and prosthetic joint infection in an immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene M. Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case: A 73-year-old immunocompromised male presented with recurrent left elbow swelling due to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC olecranon bursitis. 3 years after completing MAC treatment, he underwent right total knee arthroplasty (TKA. 1 year later, he developed TKA pain and swelling and was diagnosed with MAC prosthetic joint infection (PJI. He underwent TKA resection, reimplantation, and 12 months of anti-MAC therapy. This patient is the seventh case report of MAC olecranon bursitis and the third case report of MAC PJI. He is the only report of both MAC olecranon bursitis and PJI occurring in the same patient. Informed consent: This patient was informed and agreed to the publication of this material.

  8. Current antibiotic management of prosthetic joint infections in Italy: the 'Udine strategy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Cadeo, Barbara; Villa, Giovanni; Sartor, Assunta; Cainero, Vanni; Causero, Araldo

    2014-09-01

    The rate of prosthetic joint infections followed and cured at our institution is constantly increasing, in line with epidemiological data from the recent literature. This is probably related to the greater number of knee and hip prostheses implanted every year. For intermediate and late infections, only the two-stage approach is applied, as this demonstrates the best outcome in our experience. Particular attention is paid to microbiological isolation of the pathogen: multiple samples of tissue are collected during the interventions, and kept in culture for a longer period of time than usual. Sonication of prosthetic devices is used to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the microbiological cultures. Histological examination influences surgical choices either towards implantation of a new prosthesis or replacement of the spacer. An empirical antibiotic backbone of a glycopeptide/lipopeptide and rifampicin is chosen, due to the leading role of Gram-positive bacteria in this setting and the high incidence of methicillin resistance in our centre (>30%), followed by an antibiotic regimen containing linezolid. If specific risk factors are present, an anti-Gram-negative drug is added to the regimen. Duration of therapy depends upon the approach that is chosen, usually being 6 weeks when the prosthesis is removed. Despite at the moment being limited by its small sample size, data from our experience confirms that our empirical approach may represent a valid choice during the early phase of treatment, by keeping linezolid for a step-down therapy of shorter duration (4 weeks). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative bacteriological samples in 85 chronic peri-prosthetic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Parrat, V; Ronde-Oustau, C; Boéri, C; Gaudias, J; Jenny, J-Y

    2017-04-01

    Whether pre-operative microbiological sampling contributes to the management of chronic peri-prosthetic infection remains controversial. We assessed agreement between the results of pre-operative and intra-operative samples in patients undergoing single-stage prosthesis exchange to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative samples exceeds 75% in patients undergoing single-stage exchange of a hip or knee prosthesis to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. This single-centre retrospective study included 85 single-stage prosthesis exchange procedures in 82 patients with chronic peri-prosthetic infection at the hip or knee. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative sample results was evaluated. Changes to the initial antibiotic regimen made based on the intra-operative sample results were recorded. Of 149 pre-operative samples, 109 yielded positive cultures, in 75/85 cases. Of 452 intra-operative samples, 354 yielded positive cultures, in 85/85 cases. Agreement was complete in 54 (63%) cases and partial in 9 (11%) cases; there was no agreement in the remaining 22 (26%) cases. The complete agreement rate was significantly lower than 75% (P=0.01). The initial antibiotic regimen was inadequate in a single case. Pre-operative sampling may contribute to the diagnosis of peri-prosthetic infection but is neither necessary nor sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and identify the causative agent. The spectrum of the initial antibiotic regimen cannot be safely narrowed based on the pre-operative sample results. We suggest the routine prescription of a probabilistic broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen immediately after the prosthesis exchange, even when a pathogen was identified before surgery. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential contributions of specimen types, culturing, and 16S rRNA sequencing in diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Khalid, Vesal; Xu, Yijuan

    2018-01-01

    to variations in specimen sampling. In this prospective, multidisciplinary study of hip or knee prosthetic failures, we assessed the contributions of different specimen types, extended culture incubations, and 16S rRNA sequencing for diagnosing prosthetic joint infections (PJI). Project specimens included joint...... fluid (JF), bone biopsy specimens (BB), soft-tissue biopsy specimens (STB), and swabs (SW) from the prosthesis, collected in situ, and sonication fluid collected from prosthetic components (PC). Specimens were cultured for 6 (conventional) or 14 days, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed at study...... completion. Of the 156 patients enrolled, 111 underwent 114 surgical revisions (cases) due to indications of either PJI (n = 43) or AF (n = 71). Conventional tissue biopsy cultures confirmed PJI in 28/43 (65%) cases and refuted AF in 3/71 (4%) cases; one case was not evaluable. Based on these results, minor...

  11. Early prosthetic aortic valve infection identified with the use of positron emission tomography in a patient with lead endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, Sana; Tlili, Ghoufrane; Sohal, Manav; Bordenave, Laurence; Bordachar, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) scanning has recently been proposed as a diagnostic tool for lead endocarditis (LE). FDG PET/CT might be also useful to localize associated septic emboli in patients with LE. We report an interesting case of a LE patient with a prosthetic aortic valve in whom a trans-esophageal echocardiogram did not show associated aortic endocarditis. FDG PET/CT revealed prosthetic aortic valve infection. A second TEE performed 2 weeks after identified aortic vegetation. A longer duration of antimicrobial therapy with serial follow-up echocardiography was initiated. There was also increased uptake in the sigmoid colon, corresponding to focal polyps resected during a colonoscopy. FDG PET/CT scanning seems to be highly sensitive for prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis diagnosis. This promising diagnostic tool may be beneficial in LE patients, by identifying septic emboli and potential sites of pathogen entry.

  12. Candida glabrata prosthetic joint infection, successfully treated with anidulafungin: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutserimpas, Christos; Samonis, George; Velivassakis, Emmanouil; Iliopoulou-Kosmadaki, Stylliani; Kontakis, Georgios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P

    2018-04-01

    Non-albicans Candida prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is extremely rare. A case of a Candida glabrata knee PJI is a 68-year-old splenectomised female smoker, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alcoholism is reported. The patient presented with a peri-prosthetic fracture, 15 years after total knee replacement surgery. Cultures of the intraoperative peri-prosthetic tissue and materials yielded C. glabrata, as well as a methicillin-resistant S. epidermitis. The patient was treated with anidulafungin and vancomycin. The knee prosthetic joint was removed and cement-spacer with vancomycin and gentamycin was placed. Additionally, an external fixation was performed. A second stage revision surgery was planned, after completion of the antimicrobial and antifungal treatment. The patient is followed up for 4 months without signs, symptoms or findings of infection. PJI Candida infections require a high clinical suspicion index. It is of utmost importance to report these cases, since there is no consensus yet of the proper antifungal treatment. Furthermore, a literature review regarding treatment of those cases is provided. First-line treatment with an echinocandin seems most proper, due to their fungicidal properties, their effectiveness against biofilm, as well as their minimal toxicity, making them ideal for long-term use. Further experience is needed, for better understanding the disease's pathogenesis and optimal treatment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Success rates for initial eradication of peri-prosthetic knee infection treated with a two-stage procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Andrzej; Citak, Mustafa; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Fehmer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rates of primary total knee arthroplasty procedures and exchange arthroplasty procedures continue to rise. Late-onset peri-prosthetic infection constitutes a serious complication whose management may be dependent upon the spectrum of micro-organisms involved. The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of initial eradication measures performed as part of a two-stage procedure. Between 2002 and 2008, a total of 328 patients who had received a first-time diagnosis of chronic peri-prosthetic knee infection following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) subsequently underwent surgery at our clinic. The surgical approach consisted of a two-stage procedure, with the initial procedure consisting of the removal of the prosthesis and radical debridement, followed by insertion of an antibiotic-loaded static spacer. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed after six weeks, with each patient undergoing a number of clinical and laboratory-based tests, including knee joint aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus strains were responsible for 68% (n=223) of the total number of cases of peri-prosthetic knee infection. 19% of cases (n=62) showed evidence of gram-negative bacteria, while MRSA accounted for 15% (n=49) of cases. Six weeks after completion of the above-named treatment regimen, eradication of infection was considered successful in 289 patients (88.1%). Eradication was unsuccessful in 22% of MRSA infections (n=11) and 7% of MSSA infections (n=23). The treatment regimen outlined in this report is capable of achieving satisfactory results in the management of late-onset peri-prosthetic knee infection, with one exception: patients with infections caused by MRSA showed high failure rates.

  14. Human prosthetic joint infections are associated with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs): Implications for infection persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Cortney E; Vidlak, Debbie; Odvody, Jessica; Hartman, Curtis W; Garvin, Kevin L; Kielian, Tammy

    2017-11-15

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of joint arthroplasty surgery typified by biofilm formation. Currently, mechanisms whereby biofilms persist and evade immune-mediated clearance in immune competent patients remain largely ill-defined. Therefore, the current study characterized leukocyte infiltrates and inflammatory mediator expression in tissues from patients with PJI compared to aseptic loosening. CD33 + HLA-DR - CD66b + CD14 -/low granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) were the predominant leukocyte population at sites of human PJI compared to aseptic tissues. MDSCs inhibit T cell proliferation, which coincided with reduced T cells in PJIs compared to aseptic tissues. IL-10, IL-6, and CXCL1 were significantly elevated in PJI tissues and have been implicated in MDSC inhibitory activity, expansion, and recruitment, respectively, which may account for their preferential increase in PJIs. This bias towards G-MDSC accumulation during human PJI could account for the chronicity of these infections by preventing the pro-inflammatory, antimicrobial actions of immune effector cells. Animal models of PJI have revealed a critical role for MDSCs and IL-10 in promoting infection persistence; however, whether this population is prevalent during human PJI and across distinct bacterial pathogens remains unknown. This study has identified that granulocytic-MDSC infiltrates are unique to human PJIs caused by distinct bacteria, which are not associated with aseptic loosening of prosthetic joints. Better defining the immune status of human PJIs could lead to novel immune-mediated approaches to facilitate PJI clearance in combination with conventional antibiotics. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sonication technique improves microbiological diagnosis in patients treated with antibiotics before surgery for prosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzolini, Laura; Lichtner, Miriam; Iannetta, Marco; Mengoni, Fabio; Russo, Gianluca; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Vasso, Michele; Vasto, Michele; Bove, Marco; Villani, Ciro; Mastroianni, Claudio M; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Microbiological diagnosis is crucial for the appropriate management of implant-associated orthopedic infections (IAOIs). Sonication of biomaterials for microbiological diagnosis has not yet been introduced in routine clinical practice. Aim of this study was to describe the advantages and feasibility of this procedure in the clinical setting. We prospectively studied 56 consecutive patients undergoing revision because of IAOI and compared the sensitivity of sonication of explanted orthopedic implants with standard cultures. Patients were divided into two groups: those with foreign body infection (FBI, 15 patients) and those with prosthetic joint infection (PJI, 41 patients). Clinical, radiological and microbiological features were recorded. In the PJI group the sensitivity of sonication in detecting bacterial growth was higher than conventional culture (77% vs 34.1% respectively, p0.05). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 90% of the bacteria detected by sonication. Moreover, we found that in the PJI group the sensitivity of sonication was not affected by the timing of antibiotic interruption before surgery. Sonication remains an important tool to improve microbiological diagnosis in PJIs, especially in patients who received previous antimicrobial treatment.

  16. Synovial calprotectin: a potential biomarker to exclude a prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M; Ploegmakers, J J W; Kampinga, G A; Wagenmakers-Huizenga, L; Jutte, P C; Muller Kobold, A C

    2017-05-01

    Recently, several synovial biomarkers have been introduced into the algorithm for the diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Alpha defensin is a promising biomarker, with a high sensitivity and specificity, but it is expensive. Calprotectin is a protein that is present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, is released upon neutrophil activation and exhibits anti-microbial activity. Our aim, in this study, was to determine the diagnostic potential of synovial calprotectin in the diagnosis of a PJI. In this pilot study, we prospectively collected synovial fluid from the hip, knee, shoulder and elbow of 19 patients with a proven PJI and from a control group of 42 patients who underwent revision surgery without a PJI. PJI was diagnosed according to the current diagnostic criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Synovial fluid was centrifuged and the supernatant was used to measure the level of calprotectin after applying a lateral flow immunoassay. The median synovial calprotectin level was 991 mg/L (interquartile range (IQR) 154 to 1787) in those with a PJI and 11 mg/L (IQR 3 to 29) in the control group (p infection. With a lateral flow immunoassay, a relatively rapid quantitative diagnosis can be made. The measurement is cheap and is easy to use. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:660-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Psoas abscess masquerading as a prosthetic hip infection: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Malik, Azeem Tariq; Noordin, Shahryar

    2018-01-01

    Psoas abscess is an unusual condition and is defined as a collection of pus in the iliopsoas compartment. Due to the unique anatomy of psoas muscle it forms a conduit for spread of infection from upper part of body to hip joint in neglected cases. A 67year old lady presented with left groin pain for three weeks. She underwent an uncemented unipolar hemiarthoplasty eight years back. Currently, she developed fever and was unable to do any active left hip range of motion. Passive motion of the left hip was restricted to 30° flexion, no internal rotation, 5° external rotation, and 10° abduction. Lab workup showed raised serum infective markers and radiographs of pelvis were normal with no evidence of any radiolucency. Ultrasound guided aspiration of left hip joint showed E coli. Arthrotomy revealed clear fluid in hip joint but pus was drained at psoas insertion. Later on, culture reported presence of E. coli and biopsy confirmed psoas abscess. Postoperatively CT scan abdomen showed pyelonephritis. Antibiotics were given for three months. Twenty months later, she remains asymptomatic without evidence of infection with normal gait. Psoas abscess is a rare clinical entity that may mimic symptoms of a primary prosthetic hip infection. Treatment outcomes are directly related to early detection with adequate dissection of the psoas muscle up to sites of attachment and complete eradication of infection. This case highlights importance of thorough initial clinical examination, lab workup and radiological assessment to rule out rare causes of hip joint pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Efficacy of Antibiotic Suppressive Therapy in Patients with a Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Nijman, Jasperina M; Kampinga, Greetje A; van Assen, Sander; Jutte, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. AST was defined as antibiotic treatment for PJI that was started after the usual 3 months of antibiotic treatment. The time of follow-up was defined from the time point AST was started. Treatment was considered as failed, when the patient still experienced joint pain, when surgical intervention (debridement, removal, arthrodesis or amputation) was needed to control the infection and/or when death occurred due to the infection. Results: We included 21 patients with a median age of 67 years (range 21 - 88) and with a median follow-up of 21 months (range 3 - 81). Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (n=6), S. aureus (n=6) and polymicrobial flora (n=4) were the most frequently found causative pathogens. Most patients with CNS and S. aureus were treated with minocycline (67%) and clindamycin (83%) as AST, respectively. Overall, treatment was successful in 67% of patients. Failure was due to persistent joint pain (n=1), surgical intervention because of an uncontrolled infection (n=3), and death due the infection (n=3). We observed a treatment success of 90% in patients with a 'standard' prosthesis (n=11), compared to only 50% in patients with a tumor-prosthesis (n=10). Also, treatment was successful in 83% of patients with a CNS as causative microorganism for the infection, compared to 50% in patients with a S. aureus . Patients who failed on AST had a

  19. [Hepatitis B infection transmission by anti-HBc-positive grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárcena, Rafael

    2014-07-01

    In Spain, the rate of anti-HBc positive, HBsAg-negative carriers is approximately 10% of adults between the ages of 26 and 65 years. It is therefore impossible to exclude these donors without increasing the mortality of recipients on waiting lists. The incidence of de novo hepatitis B infection in HBsAg-negative recipients of anti-HBc-positive donors is high without prophylaxis and is related to the serological state of the recipient against HBV. Anti-HBc and anti-HBs-positive recipients have low risk, with or without prophylaxis. This patient group therefore does not require prophylaxis but rather periodic posttransplantation checkups. For the other recipient groups (naïve, anti-Hbc and anti-HBs isolates), prophylaxis with IgG HB, lamivudine or combined therapy decreases the incidence of infection. These patients should be treated with prophylaxis immediately after transplantation. Depending on the risk, cost and benefit, patients should currently be treated with lamivudine 100mg/d indefinitely or for longer periods (>10 years). Periodic checkups of HBsAg should be conducted, and if there is graft dysfunction then HBV DNA should be checked. IF HBV DNA is discovered in the donor and found to be positive in serum or in the biopsy, the prophylaxis should be an analogue with a high barrier to resistance from the start. Grafts from anti-HBc-positive donors are not considered at-risk grafts and are used according to donor severity, without being determined by the recipient's serological profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution of a multiplex serological test for the preoperative diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Seynes, Camille; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Dutronc, Hervé; Ribes, Clément; Crémer, Paul; Dubois, Véronique; Fabre, Thierry; Dupon, Michel; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine

    2018-03-22

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of orthopaedic surgery. Preoperative diagnosis, although sometimes difficult, is key to choose the relevant treatment. We conducted a prospective study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of a multiplex serological test for the pre-operative diagnosis of PJI. Blood samples were collected between 1 July 2016 and 31 July 2017 among patients referred for suspected PJI that occurred at least six weeks prior. Infection diagnosis was confirmed using intraoperative bacteriological cultures during prosthetic exchange. Seventy-one patients were included, with a median age of 73 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 66-81) and 40 (56%) were male. Twenty-six patients had aseptic loosening and 45 patients had PJI. Among the latter, median time since the last surgery was 96 weeks (IQR: 20-324). Intraoperative cultures found Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp or both in 39, 5 and 1 patients, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 81.8, 95.4, 97.3 and 72.4%, respectively, for all patients and 87.5, 93.5, 94.6 and 85.3%, respectively, for staphylococcal infections. Patients with false negative (FN) results had a significantly lower blood lymphocyte count (p = .045). Multiplex serological test performed well among patients with chronic staphylococcal prosthetic infection. This approach could contribute to PJI diagnosis especially in patients for whom the pre-operative analysis of joint fluid is not informative.

  1. Detection of acute synthetic vascular graft infection with IN-111 labeled leukocyte imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Murphy, K.; Kercher, J.; Datz, F.; Christian, P.; Taylor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic vascular graft infection is characterized by late diagnosis due to indolent and nonspecific symptoms. Reported data on accuracy of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging to identify vascular graft infection is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this animal study was to clarify the accuracy of detection of early graft infection using a mixed population of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Twelve mongrel dogs received dacron aortic interposition grafts. Seven grafts were contaminated at surgery by topical ATCC S. aureus, 10/sup 8/ organisms per ml. Six control animals received no graft contamination Mixed population In-111 homologous leukocyte labeling was performed followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours following intravenous injection of 250 μCi In-111 leukocytes. Scans were done on Day 2 post-surgery. Infected dogs were sacrificed following Indium imaging; control dogs were rescanned at 3 weeks postop and sacrificed thereafter. Autopsy results were correlated with scans, yielding sensitivity 71%, specificity 100%, accuracy 85% for In-111 leukocyte imaging to detect early graft infection. False positive leukocyte imaging in the early postop period was not a problem. At autopsy all 5 dogs with infected grafts and positive scans had gross pus. The 2 dogs with false negative scans showed no gross pus at autopsy; cultures were positive for S. aureus in all 7 dogs. Scans at 2 days and 3 weeks post-surgery were true negatives in all 6 control dogs. These data suggest a high level of clinical reliability of leukocyte imaging for early graft infection detection

  2. Impact of Early Valve Surgery on Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis: Analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M.; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M.; Muñoz, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Using appropriate analytical methods to examine data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study, we found that early valve surgery was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality in Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis.

  3. Introduction to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection: Prosthetic Joint Arthroplasty Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Berbari, Elie; Ricks, Philip; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty that appears to be increasing as more of these procedures are performed. Numerous risk factors for incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSIs) have been identified. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional SSI and PJI. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recently updated the national Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. The updated guideline applies evidence-based methodology, presents recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI, and includes an arthroplasty-specific section. This article serves to introduce the guideline development process and to complement the Prosthetic Joint Arthroplasty section with background information on PJI-specific economic burden, epidemiology, pathogenesis and microbiology, and risk factor information.

  4. Prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy for prosthetic joint infection in the elderly: a national multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendki, V; Ferry, T; Sergent, P; Oziol, E; Forestier, E; Fraisse, T; Tounes, S; Ansart, S; Gaillat, J; Bayle, S; Ruyer, O; Borlot, F; Le Falher, G; Simorre, B; Dauchy, F-A; Greffe, S; Bauer, T; Bell, E N; Martha, B; Martinot, M; Froidure, M; Buisson, M; Waldner, A; Lemaire, X; Bosseray, A; Maillet, M; Charvet, V; Barrelet, A; Wyplosz, B; Noaillon, M; Denes, E; Beretti, E; Berlioz-Thibal, M; Meyssonnier, V; Fourniols, E; Tliba, L; Eden, A; Jean, M; Arvieux, C; Guignery-Kadri, K; Ronde-Oustau, C; Hansmann, Y; Belkacem, A; Bouchand, F; Gavazzi, G; Herrmann, F; Stirnemann, J; Dinh, A

    2017-09-01

    During prosthetic joint infection (PJI), optimal surgical management with exchange of the device is sometimes impossible, especially in the elderly population. Thus, prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy (PSAT) is the only option to prevent acute sepsis, but little is known about this strategy. We aimed to describe the characteristics, outcome and tolerance of PSAT in elderly patients with PJI. We performed a national cross-sectional cohort study of patients >75 years old and treated with PSAT for PJI. We evaluated the occurrence of events, which were defined as: (i) local or systemic progression of the infection (failure), (ii) death and (iii) discontinuation or switch of PSAT. A total of 136 patients were included, with a median age of 83 years [interquartile range (IQR) 81-88]. The predominant pathogen involved was Staphylococcus (62.1%) (Staphylococcus aureus in 41.7%). A single antimicrobial drug was prescribed in 96 cases (70.6%). There were 46 (33.8%) patients with an event: 25 (18%) with an adverse drug reaction leading to definitive discontinuation or switch of PSAT, 8 (5.9%) with progression of sepsis and 13 died (9.6%). Among patients under follow-up, the survival rate without an event at 2 years was 61% [95% confidence interval (CI): 51;74]. In the multivariate Cox analysis, patients with higher World Health Organization (WHO) score had an increased risk of an event [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5, p = 0.014], whereas patients treated with beta-lactams are associated with less risk of events occurring (HR = 0.5, p = 0.048). In our cohort, PSAT could be an effective and safe option for PJI in the elderly.

  5. Accuracy of different diagnostic tests for early, delayed and late prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sampedro, M; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Garces-Zarzalejo, C; Alonso-Aguirre, M A; Salas-Venero, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fariñas, M C

    2017-08-25

    A combination of laboratory, histopathological and microbiological tests for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been strongly recommended. This study aims to characterize the accuracy of individual or group tests, such as culture of sonicate fluid, synovial fluid and peri-implant tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) and histopathology for detection of early, delayed and late PJI. A prospective study of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty from February 2009 to February 2014 was performed in a Spanish tertiary health care hospital. The diagnostic accuracy of the different methods was evaluated constructing receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve areas. One hundred thirty consecutive patients were included: 18 (13.8%) early PJI, 35 (27%) delayed PJI and 77 (59.2%) late PJI. For individual parameters, the area under the ROC curve for peri-implant tissue culture was larger for early (0.917) than for delayed (0.829) and late PJI (0.778), p = 0.033. There was a significantly larger difference for ROC area in the synovial fluid culture for delayed (0.803) than for early (0.781) and late infections (0.679), p = 0.039. The comparison of the areas under the ROC curves for the two microbiological tests showed that sonicate fluid was significantly different from peri-implant tissue in delayed (0.951 vs 0.829, p = 0.005) and late PJI (0.901 vs 0.778, p = 0.000). The conjunction of preoperative parameters, synovial fluid culture and CRP, improved the accuracy for late PJI (p = 0.01). The conjunction of histopathology and sonicate fluid culture increased the area under ROC curve of sonication in early (0.917 vs 1.000); p = 0.06 and late cases (0.901 vs 0.999); p < 0.001. For early PJI, sonicate fluid and peri-implant tissue cultures achieve the same best sensitivity. For delayed and late PJI, sonicate fluid culture is the most sensitive individual diagnostic method. By combining histopathology and peri-implant tissue, all early, 97% of

  6. Implementation of an Algorithm for Prosthetic Joint Infection: Deviations and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Pohlig, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    The outcome of revision surgery in arthroplasty is based on a precise diagnosis. In addition, the treatment varies based on whether the prosthetic failure is caused by aseptic or septic loosening. Algorithms can help to identify periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) and standardize diagnostic steps, however, algorithms tend to oversimplify the treatment of complex cases. We conducted a process analysis during the implementation of a PJI algorithm to determine problems and deviations associated with the implementation of this algorithm. Fifty patients who were treated after implementing a standardized algorithm were monitored retrospectively. Their treatment plans and diagnostic cascades were analyzed for deviations from the implemented algorithm. Each diagnostic procedure was recorded, compared with the algorithm, and evaluated statistically. We detected 52 deviations while treating 50 patients. In 25 cases, no discrepancy was observed. Synovial fluid aspiration was not performed in 31.8% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-45.6%), while white blood cell counts (WBCs) and neutrophil differentiation were assessed in 54.5% of patients (95% CI, 39.8%-69.3%). We also observed that the prolonged incubation of cultures was not requested in 13.6% of patients (95% CI, 3.5%-23.8%). In seven of 13 cases (63.6%; 95% CI, 35.2%-92.1%), arthroscopic biopsy was performed; 6 arthroscopies were performed in discordance with the algorithm (12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). Self-critical analysis of diagnostic processes and monitoring of deviations using algorithms are important and could increase the quality of treatment by revealing recurring faults.

  7. Prosthetic joint infection: A pluridisciplinary multi-center audit bridging quality of care and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P-M; Tabutin, J; Blanc, V; Léotard, S; Brofferio, P; Léculé, F; Redréau, B; Bernard, E

    2015-06-01

    Care to patients with prosthetic joint infections (PJI) is provided after pluridisciplinary collaboration, in particular for complex presentations. Therefore, to carry out an audit in PJI justifies using pluridisciplinary criteria. We report an audit for hip or knee PJI, with emphasis on care homogeneity, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. Fifteen criteria were chosen for quality of care: 5 diagnostic tools, 5 therapeutic aspects, and 5 pluridisciplinary criteria. Among these, 6 were chosen: surgical bacterial samples, surgical strategy, pluridisciplinary discussion, antibiotic treatment, monitoring of antibiotic toxicity, and prevention of thrombosis. They were scored on a scale to 20 points. We included PJI diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 from 6 different hospitals. PJI were defined as complex in case of severe comorbid conditions or multi-drug resistant bacteria, or the need for more than 1 surgery. Eighty-two PJI were included, 70 of which were complex (85%); the median score was 15, with a significant difference among hospitals: from 9 to 17.5 points, P < 0.001. The median LOS was 17 days, and not related to the criterion score; 16% of the patients required intensive care and 13% died. The cure rate was 41%, lost to follow-up 33%, and therapeutic failure 13%. Cure was associated with a higher score than an unfavorable outcome in the univariate analysis (median [range]): 16 [9-18] vs 13 [4-18], P = 0.002. Care to patients with PJI was heterogeneous, our quality criteria being correlated to the outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, J L [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry

    1979-01-01

    The unique value of ionizing radiation for the initiation of grafting to backbone polymers is discussed. The principles of the technique are briefly reviewed. The conditions under which free radicals and ions participate in these reactions are examined. Examples of representative grafting processes are considered to illustrate where the technique can be of potential commercial value to a wide range of industries. The general principles of these grafting reactions are shown to be applicable to radiation induced rapid cure technology such as is provided by electron beam processing facilities. Grafting reactions initiated by UV are also treated and shown to be of importance because of the many similarities in properties of the ionizing radiation and UV systems, also the rapid industrial exploitation of EB and sensitized UV processing technology. Possible future trends in radiation grafting are outlined.

  9. First report of Sneathia sanguinegens together with Mycoplasma hominis in postpartum prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaskova, Iva; Nemec, Petr; Vanerkova, Martina; Malisova, Barbora; Tejkalova, Renata; Orban, Marek; Zampachova, Vita; Freiberger, Tomas

    2017-08-14

    The presence of more than one bacterial agent is relatively rare in infective endocarditis, although more common in prosthetic cases. Molecular diagnosis from a removed heart tissue is considered a quick and effective way to diagnose fastidious or intracellular agents. Here we describe the case of postpartum polymicrobial prosthetic valve endocarditis in a young woman. Sneathia sanguinegens and Mycoplasma hominis were simultaneously detected from the heart valve sample using broad range 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing while culture remained negative. Results were confirmed by independent PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Before the final agent identification, the highly non-compliant patient left from the hospital against medical advice on empirical intravenous treatment with aminopenicillins, clavulanate and gentamicin switched to oral amoxycillin and clavulanate. Four months after surgery, no signs of inflammation were present despite new regurgitation and valve leaflet flail was detected. However, after another 5 months the patient died from sepsis and recurrent infective endocarditis of unclarified etiology. Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative agent of infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, presented case is the first report of Sneathia sanguinegens detected in this condition. Molecular techniques were shown to be useful even in polymicrobial infective endocarditis samples.

  10. Do Prolonged Prophylactic Antibiotics Reduce the Incidence of Surgical-Site Infections in Immediate Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frederick; Chin, Robin; Piper, Merisa; Esserman, Laura; Sbitany, Hani

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 50,000 women in the United States undergo mastectomy and immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction annually, and most receive postoperative prophylactic antibiotics. The effect of these antibiotics on the risk of surgical-site infections remains unclear. The authors searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies that compared less than 24 hours and greater than 24 hours of antibiotics following immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. Primary outcomes were surgical-site infections and implant loss. Conservative random effects models were used to obtain pooled relative risk estimates. The authors identified 927 studies, but only four cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial met their inclusion criteria. Unadjusted incidences of surgical-site infections were 14 percent with more than 24 hours of antibiotics, 19 percent with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, and 16 percent overall. Unadjusted incidences of implant loss were 8 percent with more than 24 hours of antibiotics, 10 percent with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, and 9 percent overall. The pooled relative risk of implant loss was 1.17 (95 percent CI, 0.39 to 3.6) with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, which was not statistically significant. Prolonged antibiotic use did not have a statistically significant effect on reducing surgical-site infections or implant loss. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, and prolonged antibiotics may have increased the risk of implant loss in the randomized controlled trial. Definitive evidence may only be obtained with data from more prospective randomized controlled trials.

  11. Aortic Stent-Graft Infection Following Septic Complications of a Kidney Stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. Rogier van den; Leijdekkers, Vanessa J.; Vahl, Anco

    2006-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was treated because of a renal pelvis blowout of the left kidney for which he received a nephrostomy catheter without antibiotic prophylaxis. Almost a year previously this patient had undergone endovascular repair of a symptomatic infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm. Four weeks after the diagnosis and treatment of the ruptured renal pelvis, a new computed tomography scan and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of infected aortic stent-graft. An extra-anatomic axillo-uniiliac bypass and graft excision was performed. Two weeks after discharge the patient returned to the hospital with an occlusion of his left renal artery and died of renal failure. This is the first time an infected aortic stent-graft after a renal pelvis blowout has been reported. Although infections of aortic stent-grafts occur rarely, one should be aware of the possibility in aortic stent-graft patients undergoing abdominal procedures without antibiotic prophylaxis

  12. Prosthetics / Limb Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... implant to encourage the sealing process. Implanting titanium prosthetic components avoids the need for a socket. But preventing bacterial invasion and infection is a key challenge, one that this research ...

  13. Diagnosis Of Persistent Infection In Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: PCR analysis of Sonication fluid From Bone Cement Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Tafin, Ulrika Furustrand; Borens, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: When treating periprosthetic joint infections with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers are used in the interval between removal of prosthesis and reimplantation. According to our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of our study was to investigate whether PCR analysis would improve the detection of bacteria in the spacer sonication fluid. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria were two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Beside tissues samples and sonication, broad range bacterial PCRs, specific S. aureus PCRs and Unyvero-multiplex PCRs were performed on the sonicated spacer fluid. Results: 30 patients were identified (15 hip, 14 knee and 1 ankle replacements). At reimplantation, cultures of tissue samples and spacer sonication fluid were all negative. Broad range PCRs were all negative. Specific S. aureus PCRs were positive in 5 cases. We had two persistent infections and four cases of infection recurrence were observed, with bacteria different than for the initial infection in three cases. Conclusion: The three different types of PCRs did not detect any bacteria in spacer sonication fluid that was culture-negative. In our study, PCR did not improve the bacterial detection and did not help to predict whether the patient will present a persistent or recurrent infection. Prosthetic 2-stage exchange with short interval and antibiotic-impregnated spacer is an efficient treatment to eradicate infection as both culture- and molecular-based methods were unable to detect bacteria in spacer sonication fluid after reimplantation.

  14. Outcome after VAC® therapy for infected bypass grafts in the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, S; Monsen, C

    2012-09-01

    To assess the outcome of vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC(®)) therapy for infected bypass grafts. A retrospective 7-year review of patient records from 2004 to 2011 of all patients receiving VAC(®) therapy for infected bypass grafts. Thirty-seven patients with 42 wounds and 45 infected bypass (28 synthetic) grafts received VAC(®) treatment. Two serious bleeding episodes from the suture lines occurred. The median VAC(®) therapy time was 20 days. The proportion of patent bypass grafts was 91% (41/45) at a median time of 3.5 months from the start of VAC(®) therapy. Five patients with seven bypasses had persistent infection or re-infection, and the total graft preservation rate was 76% (34/45). The median follow-up time was 15 months. The presence of two infected bypass grafts in one groin wound was associated with an increased major amputation rate (hazard ratio (HR) 7.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-27.5]), and synthetic graft infection (HR 5.0 [95% CI 1.5-17.4]) and non-healed wound (HR 3.6 [95% CI 1.5-8.7]) were associated with mortality. VAC(®) therapy of infected bypass grafts was able to induce effective wound healing without compromising the early bypass function. Two infected synthetic bypasses in the wound were associated with the highest risk of adverse outcome. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sonication contribution to identifying prosthetic joint infection with Ralstonia pickettii: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlutiu, Rares Mircea; Roman, Mihai Dan; Cismasiu, Razvan Silviu; Fleaca, Sorin Radu; Popa, Crina Maria; Mihalache, Manuela; Birlutiu, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    In the context of an increase number of primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasty performed yearly, an increased risk of complication is expected. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains the most common and feared arthroplasty complication. Ralstonia pickettii is a Gram-negative bacterium, that has also been identified in biofilms. It remains an extremely rare cause of PJI. There is no report of an identification of R. pickettii on an extracted spacer loaded with antibiotic. We present the case of an 83-years-old Caucasian male patient, that underwent a right cemented total hip replacement surgery. The patient is diagnosed with an early PJI with no isolated microorganism. A debridement and change of mobile parts is performed. At the beginning of 2016, the patient in readmitted into the Orthopedic Department for sever, right abdominal and groin pain and elevated serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. A joint aspiration is performed with a negative microbiological examination. A two-stage exchange with long interval management is adopted, and a preformed spacer loaded with gentamicin was implanted. In July 2016, based on the proinflammatory markers evolution, a shift a three-stage exchange strategy is decided. In September 2016, a debridement, and changing of the preformed spacer loaded with gentamicin with another was carried out. Bacteriological examination of the tissues sampled intraoperatively was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From the sonication fluid, no bacteria were isolated on culture or identified using the bbFISH assay. During the hospitalization period, the patient received i.v. ceftazidime 3x2g/day and p.o. ciprofloxacin 2x750mg/day, antibiotic therapy that was continued after discharge with p.o. ciprofloxacin 2x750mg/day for 6 weeks. In February 2017, a reimplantation of a revision prosthesis is performed. The retrieved spacer is sonicated, and after 4 days of incubation of the sonication fluid, R

  16. Daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic joint infection by Enterococcus faecalis: safety and efficacy of high-dose and prolonged therapy

    OpenAIRE

    José Ramón Yuste; Milena Quesada; Pablo Díaz-Rada; José Luis Del Pozo

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are implicated in less than 2.3% of prosthetic joint infections. These infections can be difficult to treat and therapeutic failures are not uncommon. In these situations, daptomycin is a safe and effective alternative. We present a clinical case with a successful response to the prolonged use of high-dose daptomycin.

  17. Daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic joint infection by Enterococcus faecalis: safety and efficacy of high-dose and prolonged therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Yuste

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are implicated in less than 2.3% of prosthetic joint infections. These infections can be difficult to treat and therapeutic failures are not uncommon. In these situations, daptomycin is a safe and effective alternative. We present a clinical case with a successful response to the prolonged use of high-dose daptomycin.

  18. Does positron emission tomography/computed tomography aid the diagnosis of prosthetic valve infective endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmforth, Damian; Chacko, Jacob; Uppal, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) aids the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE)? A total of 107 publications were found using the reported search, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. The reported outcome of all studies was a final diagnosis of confirmed endocarditis on follow-up. All the six studies were non-randomized, single-centre, observational studies and thus represented level 3 evidence. The diagnostic capability of PET/CT for PVE was compared with that of the modified Duke Criteria and echocardiography, and reported in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. All studies demonstrated an increased sensitivity for the diagnosis of PVE when PET/CT was combined with the modified Duke Criteria on admission. A higher SUVmax on PET was found to be significantly associated with a confirmed diagnosis of endocarditis and an additional diagnostic benefit of PET/CT angiography over conventional PET/non-enhanced CT is reported due to improved anatomical resolution. However, PET/CT was found to be unreliable in the early postoperative period due to its inability to distinguish between infection and residual postoperative inflammatory changes. PET/CT was also found to be poor at diagnosing cases of native valve endocarditis. We conclude that PET/CT aids in the diagnosis of PVE when combined with the modified Duke Criteria on admission by increasing the diagnostic sensitivity. The diagnostic ability of PET/CT can be potentiated by the use of PET/CTA; however, its use may be unreliable in the early postoperative period or in native valve endocarditis. © The Author 2016. Published by

  19. 75% success rate after open debridement, exchange of tibial insert, and antibiotics in knee prosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Anna; Thórhallsdóttir, Valdís Gudrún; Robertsson, Otto; W-Dahl, Annette; Stefánsdóttir, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a leading cause of early revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Open debridement with exchange of tibial insert allows treatment of infection with retention of fixed components. We investigated the success rate of this procedure in the treatment of knee PJIs in a nationwide material, and determined whether the results were affected by microbiology, antibiotic treatment, or timing of debridement. 145 primary TKAs revised for the first time, due to infection, with debridement and exchange of the tibial insert were identified in the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (37%) followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (23%). Failure was defined as death before the end of antibiotic treatment, revision of major components due to infection, life-long antibiotic treatment, or chronic infection. The overall healing rate was 75%. The type of infecting pathogen did not statistically significantly affect outcome. Staphylococcal infections treated without a combination of antibiotics including rifampin had a higher failure rate than those treated with rifampin (RR = 4, 95% CI: 2-10). In the 16 cases with more than 3 weeks of symptoms before treatment, the healing rate was 62%, as compared to 77% in the other cases (p = 0.2). The few patients with a revision model of prosthesis at primary operation had a high failure rate (5 of 8). Good results can be achieved by open debridement with exchange of tibial insert. It is important to use an antibiotic combination including rifampin in staphylococcal infections.

  20. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  1. [In situ aortofemoral reconstructions in surgical treatment of infected aortofemoral grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badretdinov, I A; Pokrovsky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a review of literature sources covering possibilities of peiforming in situ aortofemoral reconstructions in surgical treatment of infected aortofemoral grafts. This methodology makes it possible to improve the outcomes of treatment for paraprosthetic infection at the expense of decreasing lethality and morbidity, increasing parameters of patency of grafts and lower limb salvage in the remote postoperative period. Mention should be made that in situ secondary aortofemoral reconstructions are fraught with danger of relapsing paraprosthetic infection, therefore many publications are dedicated to search for prostheses most resistant to infection. The article also presents the results of works devoted to the use of various types of prostheses for in situ secondary aortofemoral reconstructions: prostheses made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), synthetic grafts saturated with various antibacterial drugs and gelatine, cadaveric allografts, synthetic prostheses treated with silver ions, autovenous conduits based on the femoral and popliteal veins.

  2. Use of an automated blood culture system (BD BACTEC™) for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections: easy and fast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Angela M; Newnham, Robert; Kalimeris, Elizabeth; Bejon, Philip; Atkins, Bridget L; Bowler, Ian C J W

    2014-05-04

    For the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) automated BACTEC™ blood culture bottle methods have comparable sensitivity, specificity and a shorter time to positivity than traditional cooked meat enrichment broth methods. We evaluate the culture incubation period required to maximise sensitivity and specificity of microbiological diagnosis, and the ability of BACTEC™ to detect slow growing Propionibacteria spp. Multiple periprosthetic tissue samples taken by a standardised method from 332 patients undergoing prosthetic joint revision arthroplasty were cultured for 14 days, using a BD BACTEC™ instrumented blood culture system, in a prospective study from 1st January to 31st August 2012. The "gold standard" definition for PJI was the presence of at least one histological criterion, the presence of a sinus tract or purulence around the device. Cases where > =2 samples yielded indistinguishable isolates were considered culture-positive. 1000 BACTEC™ bottle cultures which were negative after 14 days incubation were sub-cultured for Propionibacteria spp. 79 patients fulfilled the definition for PJI, and 66 of these were culture-positive. All but 1 of these 66 culture-positive cases of PJI were detected within 3 days of incubation. Only one additional (clinically-insignificant) Propionibacterium spp. was identified on terminal subculture of 1000 bottles. Prolonged microbiological culture for 2 weeks is unnecessary when using BACTEC™ culture methods. The majority of clinically significant organisms grow within 3 days, and Propionibacteria spp. are identified without the need for terminal subculture. These findings should facilitate earlier decisions on final antimicrobial prescribing.

  3. Indium-111 labeled purified granulocytes in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection. To minimize the potential effects of labeled red blood cells and platelets on image interpretation, the authors prepared purified autologous granulocytes (PG) from 84 ml of blood using Volex enhanced gravity sedimentation and Ficoll-Hypaque double density centrifugation. The labeling efficiency of PG with In-111 tropolone was 90 +/- 9% (mean +/- SD). Imaging was performed 18-24 hours following injection of approximately 445 microcuries of In-111 PG in 26 patients with suspected infection of vascular grafts that had been implanted 12 days to 12 years prior to the study. In ten patients with proven graft infection, seven had positive In-111 PG scans. Ten of 11 patients without infection had negative scans. In five patients with clinically equivocal findings, scan results were positive in one, negative in one, and equivocal in three. A false-positive scan occurred in a patient with an uninfected inflammatory pseudoaneurysm of an aortic graft. These results confirm an earlier report that In-111 PG imaging is a useful technique in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection

  4. Evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy for specific detection of experimental Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Meulemans, Alain; Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Raguin, Olivier; Lebtahi, Rachida; Guludec, Dominique Le [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); Service de Medecine Nucleaire, AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Bichat-Beaujon, Paris (France); INSERM, U773, Paris (France); Saleh-Mghir, Azzam [Universite Versailles-St-Quentin, EA 3647, Garches (France); Welling, Mick M. [Leiden University Medical Center (LUCM), Department of Radiology, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Hervatin, Florence [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); CEA, DSV/DRM/SHFJ, Orsay (France); Martet, Genevieve [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); INSERM, U773, Paris (France); Chau, Francoise [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR S773, Paris (France); Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, EA 3964, Paris (France)

    2007-08-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 (UBI), an antimicrobial peptide, specifically targets bacteria. We tested the ability of UBI to discriminate between infected and uninfected prosthetic joints using a rabbit model previously validated. Left knee arthroplasty was performed on 20 New Zealand rabbits, then 10{sup 7} cfu of S. aureus (n = 12) or sterile saline (n = 8) was injected into the joint. On days 9 and 20 after surgery, planar UBI scintigraphy was performed in six infected and four uninfected rabbits, 1 h and 4 h p.i. (150 MBq), on a gamma camera. Operated-to-normal knee activity ratio (ONKR) was calculated on each scintigram. Then, after sacrifice, tissue samples of both knees were counted in a gamma counter. One rabbit injected with sterile saline had cutaneous infection at sacrifice and was excluded from analysis. ONKR was higher in infected than in uninfected animals 4 h p.i. 20 days after surgery: 1.75 {+-} 0.48 vs 1.13 {+-} 0.11, p = 0.04. From 1 h to 4 h p.i., ONKR increased in 9/12 infected and 0/7 uninfected animals. According to UBI uptake intensity and kinetics, scintigraphy was truly positive in all infected cases on day 9 and in four of six infected cases on day 20. It was truly negative in two of three sterile inflamed prosthetic knees on day 9, and in all cases on day 20. Biodistribution studies revealed increased UBI uptake in periprosthetic tissues in all animals 9 days after surgery, and only in infected animals on day 20. In this experimental study, {sup 99m}Tc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy permitted the early detection of acute prosthetic joint infection, and exclusion of infection in chronic sterile prosthetic joint inflammation. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of 99mTc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy for specific detection of experimental Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Meulemans, Alain; Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Raguin, Olivier; Lebtahi, Rachida; Guludec, Dominique Le; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam; Welling, Mick M.; Hervatin, Florence; Martet, Genevieve; Chau, Francoise

    2007-01-01

    99m Tc-UBI 29-41 (UBI), an antimicrobial peptide, specifically targets bacteria. We tested the ability of UBI to discriminate between infected and uninfected prosthetic joints using a rabbit model previously validated. Left knee arthroplasty was performed on 20 New Zealand rabbits, then 10 7 cfu of S. aureus (n = 12) or sterile saline (n = 8) was injected into the joint. On days 9 and 20 after surgery, planar UBI scintigraphy was performed in six infected and four uninfected rabbits, 1 h and 4 h p.i. (150 MBq), on a gamma camera. Operated-to-normal knee activity ratio (ONKR) was calculated on each scintigram. Then, after sacrifice, tissue samples of both knees were counted in a gamma counter. One rabbit injected with sterile saline had cutaneous infection at sacrifice and was excluded from analysis. ONKR was higher in infected than in uninfected animals 4 h p.i. 20 days after surgery: 1.75 ± 0.48 vs 1.13 ± 0.11, p = 0.04. From 1 h to 4 h p.i., ONKR increased in 9/12 infected and 0/7 uninfected animals. According to UBI uptake intensity and kinetics, scintigraphy was truly positive in all infected cases on day 9 and in four of six infected cases on day 20. It was truly negative in two of three sterile inflamed prosthetic knees on day 9, and in all cases on day 20. Biodistribution studies revealed increased UBI uptake in periprosthetic tissues in all animals 9 days after surgery, and only in infected animals on day 20. In this experimental study, 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy permitted the early detection of acute prosthetic joint infection, and exclusion of infection in chronic sterile prosthetic joint inflammation. (orig.)

  6. Moxifloxacin plus rifampin as an alternative for levofloxacin plus rifampin in the treatment of a prosthetic joint infection with staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Tornero, Eduard; Morata, Laura; Panday, Prashant V Nannan; Jutte, Paul C; Bori, Guillem; Kampinga, Greetje A; Soriano, Alex

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of a fluorquinolone with rifampin is one of the cornerstones in the treatment of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by staphylococci. Moxifloxacin is highly active against methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and therefore, an attractive agent to use. However,

  7. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([{sup 123/131}I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amartey, J.K. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: amarty@kfshrc.edu.sa; Esguerra, C. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Otaibi, B. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jammaz, I. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Qahtani, M. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia); Parhar, R.S. [Cyclotron and Radiopharmaceuticals Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, MBC-03, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application.

  8. Prosthetic radioiodination of interleukin-8 ([123/131I]-IL-8): biological behavior in a mouse infection model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, J.K.; Esguerra, C.; Al-Otaibi, B.; Al-Jammaz, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.; Parhar, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous molecular entities with diverse structures have been radiolabeled and investigated as potential infection and inflammation detection agents. However, none of these molecules have gained the acceptance of gallium citrate or radiolabeled autologous white blood cells. We have radioiodinated interleukin-8 using two different methods and tested the biological behavior of the products in mice. As expected, the direct radioiodinated material displayed extensive in vivo deiodination. The use of pyridine-based prosthetic label yielded a product with better kinetics than the direct radioiodination method and showed a better target to non-target ratio. Nonetheless, this method is not suited for labeling of bioactive peptides such as the title peptide because of the very high specific activity required to prevent cytotoxic effects in a human application

  9. Long-term outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections due to gram-negative bacilli treated with retention of prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, N; Martínez-Pastor, J C; Muñoz-Mahamud, E; García-Ramiro, S; Bosch, J; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2012-09-01

    To update the clinical information of the 47 patients with a prosthetic joint infection due to Gram-negative bacilli included in a previous study and to reassess the predictors of failure after a longer follow-up. Using the electronic files of our hospital, all the information regarding readmissions to the hospital, new surgical procedures and the reason for the new surgery (infection, aseptic loosening), and the last visit in the hospital were registered. The medical chart of the 35 patients that were considered in remission in the previous publication was reviewed. In 30 patients no clinical evidence of failure was detected and no additional surgery on the previously infected prosthesis was necessary and they were considered in long-term remission. In 5 cases a late complication was identified. One case had a reinfection due to coagulase-negative staphylococci after 22 months from the open debridement and required a 2-stage revision surgery. The other 4 cases developed an aseptic loosening and it was necessary to perform a 1-stage exchange. Receiving a fluoroquinolone when all the Gram-negatives involved in the infection were susceptible to fluoroquinolones was the only factor associated with remission in the univariate analysis (p=0.002). After a long-term follow-up, our results support the importance of using fluoroquinolones in acute PJI due to Gram-negative bacilli.

  10. 18F-FDG-PET/CT angiography in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and cardiac device infection in adult patients with congenital heart disease and prosthetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, María N; Dos-Subirà, L; Roque, Albert; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Cuéllar-Calabria, Hug; Pijuan Domènech, Antonia; Gonzàlez-Alujas, María T; Subirana-Domènech, M T; Miranda-Barrio, B; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; González-López, Juan J; Igual, Albert; Maisterra-Santos, Olga; García-Dorado, David; Castell-Conesa, Joan; Almirante, Benito; Escobar Amores, Manuel; Tornos, Pilar; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) and cardiac device infection (CDI) are a major complication in the growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) reaching adulthood. We aimed to evaluate the added value of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT angiography (PET/CTA) in the diagnosis of IE-CDI in adults with CHD and intravascular or intracardiac prosthetic material, in whom echocardiography (ECHO) and modified Duke Criteria (DC) have limitations because of the patients' complex anatomy. A prospective study was conducted in a referral center with multidisciplinary IE and CHD Units. PET/CTA and ECHO findings were compared in consecutive adult (≥18years) patients with CHD who have prosthetic material and suspected IE-CDI. The initial diagnosis using the DC and the diagnosis with the additional PET/CTA data (DC+PET/CTA) were compared with the final diagnostic consensus established by an expert team at three months. Between November-2012 and April-2017, 25 patients (15 men; median age 40years) were included. Cases were initially classified as definite in 8 (32%), possible in 14 (56%) and rejected in 3 (12%). DC+PET/CTA allowed reclassification of 12/14 (86%) cases initially identified as possible IE. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of DC at IE suspicion were 39.1%/83.3%/90.4%/25.5%/61.2%, respectively. The diagnostic performance increased significantly with addition of PET/CTA data: 87%/83.3%/95.4%/61.5%/85.1%, respectively. PET/CTA also provided an alternative diagnosis in 3 patients with rejected IE, and detected pulmonary embolisms in 3 patients. PET/CTA was a useful diagnostic tool in the complex group of adult patients with CHD who have cardiac or intravascular prosthetic material and suspected IE or CDI, providing added diagnostic value to the modified DC (increased sensitivity) and improving case classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of aortic graft infections - the present strategy and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treska, V; Certik, B; Molacek, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortic graft infections (AGI) are serious complications of open and endovascular types of surgery with an incidence rate of 0.6-3 %. AGI are associated with 30-60 % perioperative mortality and 40-60 % morbidity rate with limb amputation rates between 10 % and 40 %. The economic cost of AGI is substantial. At the time of aortic reconstruction, almost 90 % of patients have one or more predisposing factors for AGI. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptomatology, laboratory markers, microbial cultures, and imaging modalities. The general principle of surgical treatment lies in the removal of infected graft, debridement of infected periprosthetic tissues, and vascular reconstruction by in situ or extra-anatomic bypass with long-term antibiotic therapy. The conservative treatment is used only for selected patients with endograft infection. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the incidence, predisposing factors, etiology, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention of aortic vascular graft and endograft infections. With the growing number of endovascular procedures we can expect more cases of infected aortic endografts in patients with severe comorbidities in the near future, where the recent radical surgical approach (graft excision, debridement, and new revascularization) cannot be used. Therefore the less invasive, sophisticated and individualized treatment strategies will have to be used in search of the best therapeutic approach to each specific patient (Fig. 4, Ref. 82).

  12. Preoperative Anemia Is Associated With Failure of Open Debridement Polyethylene Exchange in Acute and Acute Hematogenous Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Richard D; Butterfield, James A; Irwin, Timothy J; Zurlo, John J; Davis, Charles M

    2018-06-01

    Acute and acute hematogenous prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are often treated with open debridement and polyethylene exchange (ODPE) in an effort to save the prosthesis, decrease morbidity, and reduce costs. However, failure of ODPE may compromise a subsequent 2-stage treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify patient factors that impact the success of ODPE for acute and acute hematogenous PJIs. A retrospective review examined comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and patient history for patients with successful and failed ODPE treatment for acute perioperative or acute hematogenous periprosthetic hip or knee joint infections. Successful treatment was defined as retaining a well-fixed implant without the need for additional surgery for a minimum of 6-month follow-up with or without lifelong oral maintenance antibiotics. Fifty-three of 72 patients (73.6%) underwent successful ODPE. Of the 19 failures, 14 completed 2-stage revision with one subsequent known failure for recurrent infection. Patients with a Staphylococcus aureus infection were more likely to fail ODPE (48.3% vs 11.6%, P = .0012, odds ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval 2.3-25.3). Patients with a preoperative hematocrit ≤32.1 were also more likely to fail ODPE (55% vs 16%, P = .0013, odds ratio 6.7, 95% confidence interval 2.2-22.4). When neither risk factor was present, 97.1% of PJIs were successfully treated with ODPE. S aureus infection and preoperative hematocrit ≤32.1 are independent risk factors for ODPE failure. ODPE is a safe alternative to 2-stage revision in patients without preoperative anemia and without S aureus infection. Two-thirds of patients with a failed ODPE were successfully treated with a 2-stage reimplantation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of {sup 99m}Tc-ciprofloxacin (infecton) imaging in suspected prosthetic infection following total knee replacement arthroplasty (pilot study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Nam Bum [Gachon Medical School, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to increase the labelling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-ciprofloxacin (infecton) and 2) to determine the value of infecton imaging in demonstrating infection following total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA). Five patients (4 female, 1 male: mean age 52.8{+-}13.5 years, both TKRA in 3 pt) with suspected prosthetic infective conditions were included. In order to increase labelling efficiency, infection was labelled with stannous tartrate instead of previousely used formamidine sulfinic acid (FSA). Immediate perfusion, 5min blood pool, 1hr, 4hr and 24hr delayed images were perfomed. All images were blindly interpreted by two independent observers with visual findings being classified according to a four-grade scale(0.1.2.3). Images graded 0 and 1, and also those regions which showed faintly increase or unchanged uptake grade on late images as compared with early images, were classified as negative; grades 2 and 3 were classified as positive. The diagnosis was confirmed by intraoperative microbiological / histological findings or by the presence of gross purulence. Labelling efficiency increased up to over 98% with formation of radiocolloid less than 1%. All of four pt with prosthetic infection showed positive infecton images but one pt with sterile loosening of prosthesis showed negative infection images. The easy availability as well as new labelling technique make infecton imaging the better option for the detection of prosthetic orthopedic infection.

  14. The efficacy of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin (infecton) imaging in suspected prosthetic infection following total knee replacement arthroplasty (pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Nam Bum

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to increase the labelling efficiency of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin (infecton) and 2) to determine the value of infecton imaging in demonstrating infection following total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA). Five patients (4 female, 1 male: mean age 52.8±13.5 years, both TKRA in 3 pt) with suspected prosthetic infective conditions were included. In order to increase labelling efficiency, infection was labelled with stannous tartrate instead of previousely used formamidine sulfinic acid (FSA). Immediate perfusion, 5min blood pool, 1hr, 4hr and 24hr delayed images were perfomed. All images were blindly interpreted by two independent observers with visual findings being classified according to a four-grade scale(0.1.2.3). Images graded 0 and 1, and also those regions which showed faintly increase or unchanged uptake grade on late images as compared with early images, were classified as negative; grades 2 and 3 were classified as positive. The diagnosis was confirmed by intraoperative microbiological / histological findings or by the presence of gross purulence. Labelling efficiency increased up to over 98% with formation of radiocolloid less than 1%. All of four pt with prosthetic infection showed positive infecton images but one pt with sterile loosening of prosthesis showed negative infection images. The easy availability as well as new labelling technique make infecton imaging the better option for the detection of prosthetic orthopedic infection

  15. Excellent AUC for joint fluid cytology in the detection/exclusion of hip and knee prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Jiri; Juranova, Jarmila; Svoboda, Michal; Zapletalova, Jana

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (SWCC) and neutrophil/lymphocyte percentage in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for particular threshold values. This was a prospective study of 391 patients in whom SF specimens were collected before total joint replacement revisions. SF was aspirated before joint capsule incision. The PJI diagnosis was based only on non-SF data. Receiver operating characteristic plots were constructed for the SWCC and differential counts of leukocytes in aspirated fluid. Logistic binomic regression was used to distinguish infected and non-infected cases in the combined data. PJI was diagnosed in 78 patients, and aseptic revision in 313 patients. The areas (AUC) under the curve for the SWCC, the neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were 0.974, 0.962, and 0.951, respectively. The optimal cut-off for PJI was 3,450 cells/μL, 74.6% neutrophils, and 14.6% lymphocytes. Positive likelihood ratios for the SWCC, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were 19.0, 10.4, and 9.5, respectively. Negative likelihood ratios for the SWCC, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were 0.06, 0.076, and 0.092, respectively. Based on AUC, the present study identified cut-off values for the SWCC and differential leukocyte count for the diagnosis of PJI. The likelihood ratio for positive/negative SWCCs can significantly change the pre-test probability of PJI.

  16. Oral Therapy, Microbiological Findings, and Comorbidity Influence the Outcome of Prosthetic Joint Infections Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Tiziana; Pagliano, Pasquale; Balato, Giovanni; Mariconda, Massimo; Rotondo, Renato; Esposito, Silvano

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis. One-hundred twenty-two patients with PJI were included (median age, 69 years [range, 36-80 years]; 48% males, 47 hip PJI, and 75 knee PJI). Known comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 43 patients (35%). Microbiological definition was obtained in 101 (83%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 44 (36%) patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 41 (34%) patients. A favorable outcome was obtained in 102 of 122 patients (84%). After univariate analysis, bacterial growth from operative specimens (P = .007), growth of Gram-positive bacteria (P rate can be reduced with appropriate treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gram-negative prosthetic joint infection: outcome of a debridement, antibiotics and implant retention approach. A large multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pardo, D; Pigrau, C; Lora-Tamayo, J; Soriano, A; del Toro, M D; Cobo, J; Palomino, J; Euba, G; Riera, M; Sánchez-Somolinos, M; Benito, N; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Sorli, L; Guio, L; Iribarren, J A; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Ramos, A; Bahamonde, A; Flores-Sánchez, X; Corona, P S; Ariza, J

    2014-11-01

    We aim to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of gram-negative prosthetic joint infection (GN-PJI) treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR), identify factors predictive of failure, and determine the impact of ciprofloxacin use on prognosis. We performed a retrospective, multicentre, observational study of GN-PJI diagnosed from 2003 through to 2010 in 16 Spanish hospitals. We define failure as persistence or reappearance of the inflammatory joint signs during follow-up, leading to unplanned surgery or repeat debridement>30 days from the index surgery related death, or suppressive antimicrobial therapy. Parameters predicting failure were analysed with a Cox regression model. A total of 242 patients (33% men; median age 76 years, interquartile range (IQR) 68-81) with 242 episodes of GN-PJI were studied. The implants included 150 (62%) hip, 85 (35%) knee, five (2%) shoulder and two (1%) elbow prostheses. There were 189 (78%) acute infections. Causative microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae in 78%, Pseudomonas spp. in 20%, and other gram-negative bacilli in 2%. Overall, 19% of isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant. DAIR was used in 174 (72%) cases, with an overall success rate of 68%, which increased to 79% after a median of 25 months' follow-up in ciprofloxacin-susceptible GN-PJIs treated with ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin treatment exhibited an independent protective effect (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.23; 95% CI, 0.13-0.40; pInfection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Efficacy of indefinite chronic oral antimicrobial suppression for prosthetic joint infection in the elderly: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendki, V; Sergent, P; Barrelet, A; Oziol, E; Beretti, E; Berlioz-Thibal, M; Bouchand, F; Dauchy, F A; Forestier, E; Gavazzi, G; Ronde-Oustau, C; Stirnemann, J; Dinh, A

    2017-07-01

    During prosthetic joint infection (PJI), surgical management is sometimes impossible and indefinite chronic oral antimicrobial suppression (ICOAS) may be the only option. The outcomes of elderly patients who benefited from ICOAS with strictly palliative intent were evaluated. A national retrospective cohort study was performed in France, involving patients aged >75 years with a PJI who were managed with planned life-long ICOAS from 2009 to 2014. Patients who experienced an event were compared to those who did not. An event was defined as a composite outcome in patients undergoing ICOAS, including local or systemic progression of the infection, death, or discontinuation of antimicrobial therapy because of an adverse drug reaction. Twenty-one patients were included, with a median age of 85 years (interquartile range 81-88 years). Eight of the 21 patients experienced an event: one had an adverse drug reaction, three had systemic progression of sepsis, and two had local progression. Two of the 21 patients died. No death was related to ICOAS or infection. There was no significant difference between the population with an event and the population free of an event with regard to demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics (p>0.05). ICOAS appeared to be an effective and safe option in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial adherence to vascular grafts after in vitro bacteremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, J.E.; Pearce, W.H.; Kempczinski, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    All currently used arterial prosthetics have a greater susceptibility to infection following bacteremia than does autogenous tissue. This experiment compares quantitative bacterial adherence to various prosthetic materials after bacteremia carried out in a tightly controlled and quantitative fashion. Ten centimeters long, 4 mm i.d. Dacron, umbilical vein (HUV), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts, as well as PTFE grafts with a running suture line at the midportion were tested. Each graft was interposed into a pulsatile perfusion system modified from a Waters MOX 100 TM renal transplant pump. Indium-111-labeled Staphylococcus aureus were added to heparinized canine blood to give a mean concentration of 4.7 X 10(6) bacteria/cc. This infected blood was recirculated through each graft for 30 min at a rate of 125 cc/m, 100 Torr (sys), 60 beats/min. The gamma counts/graft were used to calculate the number of bacteria/cm2 of graft surface. After nine experiments, a mean of 9.63 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 were adherent to the Dacron, 1.04 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 to the HUV, and 2.15 X 10(4) bacteria/cm2 to the PTFE. These differences were all significant at the 0.05 level. The addition of a suture line increased bacterial adherence to the PTFE graft by 50%. These results suggest that PTFE is the vascular graft material of choice when a prosthetic graft must be implanted despite a high risk of subsequent clinical bacteremia. An in vitro, pulsatile perfusion model gave accurate and reproducible results, and appears well suited for further studies of bacterial, or platelet adherence to grafts, as well as the biomechanics of vascular conduits

  20. Efficacy of a novel PCR- and microarray-based method in diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods enable detection and species identification of many pathogens. We assessed the efficacy of a new PCR and microarray-based platform for detection of bacteria in prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Methods This prospective study involved 61 suspected PJIs in hip and knee prostheses and 20 negative controls. 142 samples were analyzed by Prove-it Bone and Joint assay. The laboratory staff conducting the Prove-it analysis were not aware of the results of microbiological culture and clinical findings. The results of the analysis were compared with diagnosis of PJIs defined according to the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria and with the results of microbiological culture. Results 38 of 61 suspected PJIs met the definition of PJI according to the MSIS criteria. Of the 38 patients, the PCR detected bacteria in 31 whereas bacterial culture was positive in 28 patients. 15 of the PJI patients were undergoing antimicrobial treatment as the samples for analysis were obtained. When antimicrobial treatment had lasted 4 days or more, PCR detected bacteria in 6 of the 9 patients, but positive cultures were noted in only 2 of the 9 patients. All PCR results for the controls were negative. Of the 61 suspected PJIs, there were false-positive PCR results in 6 cases. Interpretation The Prove-it assay was helpful in PJI diagnostics during ongoing antimicrobial treatment. Without preceding treatment with antimicrobials, PCR and microarray-based assay did not appear to give any additional information over culture. PMID:24564748

  1. Failure of the first step of two-stage revision due to polymicrobial prosthetic joint infection of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkova, Svetlana; Tikhilov, Rashid; Labutin, Dmitry; Denisov, Alexey; Shubnyakov, Igor; Razorenov, Vadim; Artyukh, Vasilii; Rukina, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The unsuccessful treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with two-stage revision leads to infection recurrence. The objectives of the study were to assess the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with polymicrobial PJI, and to evaluate the role of the microbial profile involved in PJI in the risk of infection recurrence after the first step of two-stage revision surgery. A retrospective analysis of 189 cases of culture-positive PJI following total hip replacement over a 5-year period was performed. The demographic characteristics of patients, clinical symptoms, microbiology cultures of intraoperative biopsies, laboratory values of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups-135 with monomicrobial and 54 with polymicrobial infection. Of all patients, 68.9 % in the monomicrobial and 83.3 % in the polymicrobial group had a body mass index >25 kg/m 2 (p = 0.05). The median CRP values were 5.7 mg/L (IQR 4.0-10.0 mg/L) in the monomicrobial compared to 8.8 mg/L (IQR 5.0-27 mg/L) in the polymicrobial group (p = 0.01). The percentage of successful outcomes was 27.8 % in patients with microbial associations (p infection recurrence (OR 4.4; 95 % CI 1.18-16.37; p = 0.03). Overweight and obese patients or those with elevated CRP had a greater risk of polymicrobial PJI. They were predisposed to recurrence of infection after the first step of two-stage revision. An unsuccessful outcome was more likely in cases with polymicrobial infection compared to those with monomicrobial infection. In addition, the presence of multidrug-resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria substantially increased the risk of PJI treatment being unsuccessful. Level III, therapeutic study.

  2. Are homografts superior to conventional prosthetic valves in the setting of infective endocarditis involving the aortic valve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Bum; Ejiofor, Julius I; Yammine, Maroun; Camuso, Janice M; Walsh, Conor W; Ando, Masahiko; Melnitchouk, Serguei I; Rawn, James D; Leacche, Marzia; MacGillivray, Thomas E; Cohn, Lawrence H; Byrne, John G; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2016-05-01

    Surgical dogma suggests that homografts should be used preferentially, compared with conventional xenograft or mechanical prostheses, in the setting of infective endocarditis (IE), because they have greater resistance to infection. However, comparative data that support this notion are limited. From the prospective databases of 2 tertiary academic centers, we identified 304 consecutive adult patients (age ≥17 years) who underwent surgery for active IE involving the aortic valve (AV), in the period 2002 to 2014. Short- and long-term outcomes were evaluated using propensity scores and inverse-probability weighting to adjust for selection bias. Homografts, and xenograft and mechanical prostheses, were used in 86 (28.3%), 139 (45.7%), and 79 (26.0%) patients, respectively. Homografts were more often used in the setting of prosthetic valve endocarditis (58.1% vs 28.8%, P = .002) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (25.6% vs 12.1%, P = .002), compared with conventional prostheses. Early mortality occurred in 17 (19.8%) in the homograft group, and 20 (9.2%) in the conventional group (P = .019). During follow-up (median: 29.4 months; interquartile-range: 4.7-72.6 months), 60 (19.7%) patients died, and 23 (7.7%) experienced reinfection, with no significant differences in survival (P = .23) or freedom from reinfection rates (P = .65) according to the types of prostheses implanted. After adjustments for baseline characteristics, using propensity-score analyses, use of a homograft did not significantly affect early death (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-3.40, P = .23), overall death (hazard ratio 1.10; 95% CI, 0.62-1.94, P = .75), or reinfection (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI, 0.49-2.18, P = .93). No significant benefit to use of homografts was demonstrable with regard to resistance to reinfection in the setting of IE. The choice among prosthetic options should be based on technical and patient-specific factors. Lack of availability of homografts should

  3. The effect of infection and lag screw fixation on the union of membranous bone grafts in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Phillips, J H; Walmsley, S L

    1994-03-01

    Infection complicating craniofacial procedures contributes significantly to patient morbidity and health care costs. The role of fixation materials in this setting remains unclear. As foreign material, does fixation hardware increase patients' susceptibility to developing postoperative infection? Furthermore, once infection is established, should fixation hardware be removed? To answer these questions, we performed an onlay membranous bone grafting procedure to the mandible in 94 New Zealand White rabbits, applied lag-screw fixation in half the animals, and inoculated the wounds with different bacterial doses. We quantified the differential rates of infection and rates of graft union in the presence of infection. The infection rates for the rigidly fixated group were not significantly different from the rates for the nonfixated group for a range of bacterial inoculum doses. There was no significant difference in the rates of resolution of infection and sepsis between the two groups. Gross and histologic assessments revealed a significantly lower union rate for infected grafts when compared with uninfected grafts. Furthermore, grafts rigidly fixated with a lag screw showed a higher rate of union when compared with nonfixated grafts in the presence of infection. In the absence of infection, the union rates for fixated and nonfixated groups did not differ significantly. While fixation hardware has been cited as a risk factor for postoperative infection, we were unable to show that lag-screw fixation contributes to this risk. Although infection impaired the union of membranous bone grafts to the recipient mandible, fixation of the grafts with a lag screw significantly decreased this deleterious effect of infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Peri-Prosthetic Knee Infection Management: Spacers Loaded with Two or Three Antibiotic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortola, David Joaquin; Fenga, Domenico; Marcellino, Sandra; Rosi, Massimiliano; Centofanti, Francesco; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare pre-made antibiotic-loaded spacers with two commercially available antibiotic agents and custom-made cements with three antibiotic agents added. We evaluated: (a) the validity of our procedures, (b) the control of the rate of infection in the long term, (c) complications, and (d) quality of life and patient satisfaction. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 112 consecutively treated patients between January 2010 and December 2013; 56 patients were treated with a pre-formed cement spacer (clindamycin + gentamicin), and 56 patients were treated with a spacer loaded with three antibiotic agents (clindamycin + gentamicin + vancomycin). Demographic data were collected: Classification of infection according to criteria of Cierny-Mader; microbiologic results; number of previous operations; and years of disease. Infection control or relapse after at least 18 months of follow-up was evaluated. Complications were recorded. Every patient completed the SF-36 test and Oxford Knee Score. With a follow-up of 32.87 months (standard deviation 12.04), at the end of treatment, amputation occurred in three of 112 patients because of recurrence of infection, and one patient died from other causes not related to the infection. The study population presented a rate of recurrence of infection of 2.70%. Our results suggest that a two stage re-implant with three antibiotic agents added to the spacer should be considered to avoid rescue procedures, especially in patients with multi-resistant micro-organism infections.

  5. FDG and FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT in the imaging of prosthetic joint infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Sabire Yilmaz; Asa, Sertac; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, M.S.; Halac, Metin; Kabasakal, Levent; Soenmezoglu, Kerim; Kanmaz, Bedii [University of Istanbul, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Aksaray, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [University of Istanbul, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul (Turkey); Erkan, Melih Engin [Duzce University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Duzce (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    The demand for arthroplasty is rapidly growing as a result of the ageing of the population. Although complications such as heterotrophic ossification, fracture and dislocation are relatively rare, differentiating aseptic loosening, the most common complication of arthroplasty from infection, is a major challenge for clinicians. Radionuclide imaging is currently the imaging modality of choice since it is not affected by orthopaedic hardware. Whereas FDG PET/CT imaging has been widely used in periprosthetic infection, it cannot discriminate aseptic from septic inflammation. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of FDG PET/CT and FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT in the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. Of 54 patients with painful joint arthroplasty who were imaged by FDG PET/CT for diagnosis of periprosthetic infection examined, 46 (36 women, 10 men; mean age 61.04 ± 12.2 years, range 32 - 89 years) with 54 painful joint prostheses (19 hip, 35 knee) with grade 2 (above liver uptake) FDG accumulation on FDG PET/CT were included in the study and these 46 patients also underwent FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT. Final diagnoses were made by histopathological-microbiological culture or clinical follow-up. The final diagnosis showed infection in 15 (28 %) and aseptic loosening in 39 (72 %) of the 54 prostheses. FDG PET/CT was found to have a positive predictive value of 28 % (15/54). Since patients with no FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT were excluded from the study, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy could not be calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT were 93.3 % (14/15), 97.4 % (38/39), 93.3 % and 97.4 %, respectively. Since FDG is not specific to infection, the specificity of FDG PET/CT was very low. FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT with its high specificity may be a useful method and better than labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in periprosthetic infection

  6. Diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection with alpha-defensin using a lateral flow device: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P; Van Cauter, M; Driesen, R; Neyt, J; Cornu, O; Bellemans, J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this current multicentre study is to analyse the presence of alpha-defensin proteins in synovial fluid using the Synovasure lateral flow device and to determine its diagnostic reliability and accuracy compared with the prosthetic joint infection (PJI) criteria produced by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS). A cohort of 121 patients comprising 85 total knee arthroplasties and 36 total hip arthroplasties was prospectively evaluated between May 2015 and June 2016 in three different orthopaedic centres. The tests were performed on patients with a chronically painful prosthesis undergoing a joint aspiration in a diagnostic pathway or during revision surgery. Based on the MSIS criteria, 34 patients (28%) would have had a PJI, and 87 patients had no PJI. Testing with the lateral flow device had a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 84.5 to 99.9) and a specificity of 96.6% (95% CI 90.3 to 99.2). The positive predictive value was 91.7% (95% CI 77.7% to 98.3), and the negative predictive value was 98.8% (95% CI 93.6 to 99.9). Receiver operator characteristics analysis demonstrated an area under the curve for the Synovasure test of 0.97 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.00). Our findings suggest that the Synovasure test has an excellent diagnostic performance to confirm or reject the diagnosis of a PJI. The results are promising for the care of the painful or problematic knee and hip joint arthroplasty and the test should be considered as part of the diagnostic toolbox for PJIs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1176-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Efficacy of collagen silver-coated polyester and rifampin-soaked vascular grafts to resist infection from MRSA and Escherichia coli in a dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Fabrice; O'Connor, Stephen; Becquemin, Jean Pierre

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of a collagen silver-coated polyester graft, InterGard, with a gelatin-sealed graft, Gelsoft, both soaked in rifampin, for resistance to direct bacterial contamination in an animal model. The second objective was to confirm the lack of inflammation from silver acetate. Vascular grafts, 6 mm in diameter, were implanted in the infrarenal aorta of 28 dogs. Intravenous cefamandole (20 mg/kg) was injected intraoperatively in all dogs. The dogs were divided into three groups. Group I included 12 dogs. Six dogs received silver grafts and six dogs received gelatin-sealed grafts, all soaked with rifampin. Grafts implanted in group I were directly infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Group II included also six silver grafts and six gelatin-sealed grafts, all soaked with rifampin. Dogs of group II were directly infected with Escherichia coli. Group III comprised four dogs, which received gelatin unsealed grafts, directly infected with MRSA, the control group. All dogs were followed by regular clinical examination, including blood cultures. Grafts in groups I and III and in group II were harvested at 30 days and 10 days, respectively. Bacterial analyses were performed on the explanted grafts. Histology was performed on both the tissue samples and the anastomotic sites of the harvested grafts. In group I, no grafts were infected with MRSA, irrespective of graft type. In group II, no silver grafts were infected with E. coli, whereas one (16.6%) of six gelatin-sealed grafts was infected (p = 0.317). In group III, three (75%) of the four grafts were infected with MRSA. The infection rate in the silver grafts and the gelatin-sealed grafts soaked in rifampin in group I compared with the unsealed gelatin grafts in group III was statistically significantly different (p anastomoses in three (25%) gelsoft grafts of 12 in groups I and II. There were no clinical or biological signs of inflammation

  8. The Clinical usefulness of 99mTc HMPAO Leukocyte/99mTc phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/ 99mT c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of 99mT c phytate, a substitute for 99mT c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72±6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both 99mT c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/ 99ms ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections

  9. Graft-versus-host disease and sialodacryoadenitis viral infection in bone marrow transplanted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, K.M.; Sheridan, J.F.; Barthold, S.W.; Tutschka, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a localized viral infection on the occurrence of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) was examined in allogeneic rat bone marrow chimeras (ACI/LEW). Animals without clinical evidence of GVHD, 62 days after bone marrow transplant, were infected in salivary and lacrimal glands with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), and sacrificed 8-25 days postinfection. Using established histologic criteria, GVHD was found more frequently in salivary and lacrimal glands of SDAV-infected chimeras than uninfected chimeras. Skin and oral mucosa, tissues not infected by the virus, showed no differences in occurrence of GVHD, suggesting that the viral infection induced only local and not systemic GVHD. GVHD and SDAV infection, which are histologically similar, were differentiated by examining tissues for SDAV antigen using immunoperoxidase technique. Histologic changes were present for at least 1 week longer than viral antigen, suggesting they represented GVHD rather than viral infection. GVHD and SDAV infection were also differentiated by looking for a histologic feature characteristic of GVHD and not found in SDAV infection (periductal lymphocytic infiltrate). This was found in SDAV-infected chimeras more frequently than uninfected chimeras, suggesting that the viral infection somehow induced GVHD. Results showed a localized increase in the occurrence of GVHD subsequent to localized viral infection

  10. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unique Presentation of Orf Virus Infection in a Thermal-Burn Patient After Receiving an Autologous Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Christopher H; Rokni, Ghasem Rahmatpour; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Brinster, Nooshin; Li, Yu; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Zhao, Hui; Petersen, Brett; McCollum, Andrea M; Reynolds, Mary G

    2016-10-15

    We describe a burn patient who developed skin lesions on her skin-graft harvest and skin-graft recipient (burn) sites. Orf virus infection was confirmed by a combination of diagnostic assays, including molecular tests, immunohistochemical analysis, pathologic analysis, and electron microscopy. DNA sequence analysis grouped this orf virus isolate among isolates from India. Although no definitive source of infection was determined from this case, this is the first reported case of orf virus infection in a skin graft harvest. Skin graft recipients with exposures to animals may be at risk for this viral infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. [Rupture of venous bypass graft associated to infection of multiresistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoedo, José C; Toledo, Timmy; Sampaio, Sérgio; Cerqueira, Alfredo; Vilaça, Isabel; Dias, Paulo; Carvalho, Joana; Meira, José; Mansilha, Armando; Paiva, José A; de Albuquerque, Roncon

    2006-01-01

    We report two cases of severe trauma of the upper limb requiring arterial revascularization. A brachio-brachial inverted saphenous bypass graft was done in both cases. Graft rupture attributed to local infection occurred at fourth post-operative week. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the surgical wound in the first case and Acinetobacter baumanni in the second. The first case ended up with arm amputation mostly owing to extensive destruction of soft tissue, the patient being discharged home without any other sequel. In the second case the patient was successfully resuscitated after cardiopulmonary arrest, secondary to hemorrhagic shock. He underwent new brachio-brachial venous bypass graft avoiding the contaminated area. Irreversible ischemic signs plus growing overt infection led to arm amputation later on. This patient developed multi-organ failure and died by the fifth post-operative week. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are gram-negative bacilli widely present in hospital environment. Most of them are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Their association with vascular conduit infections might have dreadful consequences as it happened in these cases.

  13. Validation of the diagnosis 'prosthetic joint infection' in the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, P H; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Schønheyder, H C

    2016-01-01

    and followed them until first-time revision, death, emigration or until 31 December 2012. Revision for PJI, as registered in the DHR, was validated against a benchmark which included information from microbiology databases, prescription registers, clinical biochemistry registers and clinical records. We......AIMS: The purpose of this study was to validate the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified a cohort of patients from the DHR who had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) since 1 January 2005...... the validity of the diagnosis of PJI and should enable future register-based studies. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:320-5....

  14. Differentiation between peri-prosthetic infection and aseptic loosening using quantitative analysis of triphasic 99Tcm-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinxin; Zhang Yanyan; Zhang Weifang; Mao Yuan; Zhao Meixin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate between peri-prosthetic infection and aseptic loosening using quantitative analysis of triphasic bone scintigraphy. Methods: Twenty-eight patients (9 males, 19 females; mean age 67.5 years, range 49-80 years) with recurrent joint pain after arthroplasty were retrospectively assessed. All patients underwent triphasic bone scintigraphy. ROI of each joint was drawn and the ratios of affected to unaffected side were calculated. The ratios of blood flow phase, blood pool phase, static phase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR) were quantitatively analyzed by ROC curve. The final diagnosis was based on microbiological and histological examinations. The optimal cut-off value was chosen based on the ideal sensitivity and specificity. Results: Nine patients were diagnosed as septic loosening, 17 patients aseptic loosening, 1 patient bursitis of hip joint and 1 patient suture reaction. Taking the positive results of blood flow phase or blood pool phase as standard for diagnosing septic loosening, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of bone scintigraphy were 7/9, 78.9% (15/19) and 78.6% (22/28), respectively. The AUC of blood pool phase was 0.942, and the sensitivity and specificity were 8/9 and 78.9% (15/19), respectively, with the optimal cut-off value of 1.40. The AUCs of blood flow ratio and CRP were 0.816 and 0.795, with cut-off values of 1.53 and 1.20, respectively. The AUCs of static phase ratio and ESR were 0.474 and 0.722, respectively, both P>0.05. Conclusions: For the diagnosis of septic loosening, quantitative analysis of triphasic 99 Tc m -MDP bone scintigraphy, particularly with the ratio of blood pool phase, is more accurate than qualitative analysis. (authors)

  15. The “true” incidence of surgically treated deep prosthetic joint infection after 32,896 primary total hip arthroplasties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Overgaard, Søren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Pedersen, Alma Becic

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose It has been suggested that the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be underestimated if based only on arthroplasty registry data. We therefore wanted to estimate the “true” incidence of PJI in THA using several data sources. Patients and methods We searched the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) for primary THAs performed between 2005 and 2011. Using the DHR and the Danish National Register of Patients (NRP), we identified first revisions for any reason and those that were due to PJI. PJIs were also identified using an algorithm incorporating data from microbiological, prescription, and clinical biochemistry databases and clinical findings from the medical records. We calculated cumulative incidence with 95% confidence interval. Results 32,896 primary THAs were identified. Of these, 1,546 had first-time revisions reported to the DHR and/or the NRP. For the DHR only, the 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences of PJI were 0.51% (0.44–0.59) and 0.64% (0.51–0.79). For the NRP only, the 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences of PJI were 0.48% (0.41–0.56) and 0.57% (0.45–0.71). The corresponding 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences estimated with the algorithm were 0.86% (0.77–0.97) and 1.03% (0.87–1.22). The incidences of PJI based on the DHR and the NRP were consistently 40% lower than those estimated using the algorithm covering several data sources. Interpretation Using several available data sources, the “true” incidence of PJI following primary THA was estimated to be approximately 40% higher than previously reported by national registries alone. PMID:25637247

  16. Deep prosthetic joint infection: a qualitative study of the impact on patients and their experiences of revision surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ashley W; Whitehouse, Michael R; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Around 1% of patients who have a hip replacement have deep prosthetic joint infection (PJI) afterwards. PJI is often treated with antibiotics plus a single revision operation (1-stage revision), or antibiotics plus a 2-stage revision process involving more than 1 operation. This study aimed to characterise the impact and experience of PJI and treatment on patients, including comparison of 1-stage with 2-stage revision treatment. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews with patients who had undergone surgical revision treatment for PJI. Patients were interviewed between 2 weeks and 12 months postdischarge. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed using a thematic approach, with 20% of transcripts double-coded. Setting Patients from 5 National Health Service (NHS) orthopaedic departments treating PJI in England and Wales were interviewed in their homes (n=18) or at hospital (n=1). Participants 19 patients participated (12 men, 7 women, age range 56–88 years, mean age 73.2 years). Results Participants reported receiving between 1 and 15 revision operations after their primary joint replacement. Analysis indicated that participants made sense of their experience through reference to 3 key phases: the period of symptom onset, the treatment period and protracted recovery after treatment. By conceptualising their experience in this way, and through themes that emerged in these periods, they conveyed the ordeal that PJI represented. Finally, in light of the challenges of PJI, they described the need for support in all of these phases. 2-stage revision had greater impact on participants’ mobility, and further burdens associated with additional complications. Conclusions Deep PJI impacted on all aspects of patients’ lives. 2-stage revision had greater impact than 1-stage revision on participants’ well-being because the time in between revision procedures meant long periods of immobility and related psychological distress

  17. Cost-Utility Analysis: Sartorius Flap versus Negative Pressure Therapy for Infected Vascular Groin Graft Managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Macarios, David; Griffin, Leah; Kosowski, Tomasz; Pyfer, Bryan J; Offodile, Anaeze C; Driscoll, Daniel; Maddali, Sirish; Attwood, John

    2015-11-01

    Sartorius flap coverage and adjunctive negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) have been described in managing infected vascular groin grafts with varying cost and clinical success. We performed a cost-utility analysis comparing sartorius flap with NPWT in managing an infected vascular groin graft. A literature review compiling outcomes for sartorius flap and NPWT interventions was conducted from peer-reviewed journals in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE. Utility scores were derived from expert opinion and used to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Medicare current procedure terminology and diagnosis-related groups codes were used to assess the costs for successful graft salvage with the associated complications. Incremental cost-effectiveness was assessed at $50,000/QALY, and both univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess robustness of the conclusions. Thirty-two studies were used pooling 384 patients (234 sartorius flaps and 150 NPWT). NPWT had better clinical outcomes (86.7% success rate, 0.9% minor complication rate, and 13.3% major complication rate) than sartorius flap (81.6% success rate, 8.0% minor complication rate, and 18.4% major complication rate). NPWT was less costly ($12,366 versus $23,516) and slightly more effective (12.06 QALY versus 12.05 QALY) compared with sartorius flap. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the base case findings; NPWT was either cost-effective at $50,000/QALY or dominated sartorius flap in 81.6% of all probabilistic sensitivity analyses. In our cost-utility analysis, use of adjunctive NPWT, along with debridement and antibiotic treatment, for managing infected vascular groin graft wounds was found to be a more cost-effective option when compared with sartorius flaps.

  18. The effect of infection and lag screw fixation on revascularization and new bone deposition in membranous bone grafts in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Phillips, J H; Walmsley, S L; Morava-Protzner, I

    1996-08-01

    We have suggested that rigid fixation of membranous bone grafts in the presence of infection may improve graft-recipient bone union by facilitating graft revascularzation. To test this hypothesis, we grafted autogenous membranous bone grafts to the mandibles of 94 New Zealand White rabbits. Lag screw fixation was applied in half the animals. The wounds were inoculated with a range of Staphylococcus aureus doses. Infected and noninfected rabbits were injected weekly over a 5-week course with fluorescein bone markers and with a marker of vascular endothelium (procion red) just prior to sacrifice. Revascularization and new bone deposition in the grafts were then quantified histologically for the 75 rabbits available for data collection. Infection decreased the amount of graft revascularized and the amount of new bone deposited for both rigidly fixated and nonfixated grafts. Grafts fixated with a lag screw showed a greater amount of revascularization and new bone deposition in the presence and absence of infection when compared with nonfixated grafts, supporting the hypothesis that rigid fixation of membranous bone grafts in the presence of infection may promote graft survival and union by improving revascularization and osteogenesis within the graft.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy-a promising treatment for prosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Timothy; Blunn, Gordon; Hislop, Simon; Ramalhete, Rita; Bagley, Caroline; McKenna, David; Coathup, Melanie

    2018-04-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with high patient morbidity and a large financial cost. This study investigated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a means of eradicating bacteria that cause PJI, using a laser with a 665-nm wavelength and methylene blue (MB) as the photosensitizer. The effectiveness of MB concentration on the growth inhibition of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii was investigated. The effect of laser dose was also investigated and the optimized PDT method was used to investigate its bactericidal effect on species within planktonic culture and following the formation of a biofilm on polished titanium and hydroxyapatite coated titanium discs. Results showed that Staphylococci were eradicated at the lowest concentration of 0.1 mM methylene blue (MB). With P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, increasing the MB concentration improved the bactericidal effect. When the laser dose was increased, results showed that the higher the power of the laser the more bacteria were eradicated with a laser power ≥ 35 J/cm 2 and an irradiance of 35 mW/cm 2 , eradicating all S. epidermidis. The optimized PDT method had a significant bactericidal effect against planktonic MRSA and S. epidermidis compared to MB alone, laser alone, or control (no treatment). When biofilms were formed, PDT treatment had a significantly higher bactericidal effect than MB alone and laser alone for all species of bacteria investigated on the polished disc surfaces. P. aeruginosa grown in a biofilm was shown to be less sensitive to PDT when compared to Staphylococci, and a HA-coated surface reduced the effectiveness of PDT. This study demonstrated that PDT is effective for killing bacteria that cause PJI.

  20. Prosthetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the household and community environments may lead to falls and injuries. This research aims to develop an ankle that can invert and evert and thereby control the center of pressure under the prosthetic foot; enhancing balance and stability of lower limb amputees. Foot-Ankle ...

  1. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients: incidence, risk factors, and impact on graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L F; Esteves, A B A; Ulisses, L R S; Rivelli, G G; Mazzali, M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection posttransplant. However, the risk factors for and the impact of UTIs remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of posttransplant UTIs in a series of renal transplant recipients from deceased donors. Secondary objectives were to identify: (1) the most frequent infectious agents; (2) risk factors related to donor; (3) risk factors related to recipients; and (4) impact of UTI on graft function. This was a retrospective analysis of medical records from renal transplant patients from January to December 2010. Local ethics committee approved the protocol. The incidence of UTI in this series was 34.2%. Risk factors for UTI were older age, (independent of gender), biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes, and kidneys from deceased donors (United Network for Organ Sharing criteria). For female patients, the number of pretransplant pregnancies was an additional risk factor. Recurrent UTI was observed in 44% of patients from the UTI group. The most common infectious agents were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, for both isolated and recurrent UTI. No difference in renal graft function or immunosuppressive therapy was observed between groups after the 1-year follow-up. In this series, older age, previous pregnancy, kidneys from expanded criteria donors, and biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were risk factors for posttransplant UTI. Recurrence of UTI was observed in 44%, with no negative impact on graft function or survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Open Repair of Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms With Biological Grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinola, Ivika; Sörelius, Karl; Wyss, Thomas R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm requires surgery and antimicrobial therapy. Since prosthetic reconstructions carry a considerable risk of reinfection, biological grafts are noteworthy alternatives. The current study evaluated the durability, infection resistance......, and midterm outcome of biological grafts in treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients treated with biological graft in 6 countries between 2006 and 2016 were included. Primary outcome measures were 30- and 90-day survival, treatment-related mortality, and reinfection...... rate. Secondary outcome measures were overall mortality and graft patency. Fifty-six patients (46 males) with median age of 69 years (range 35-85) were included. Sixteen patients were immunocompromised (29%), 24 (43%) had concomitant infection, and 12 (21%) presented with rupture. Bacterial culture...

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  4. Diagnosis of Persistent Infection in Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: Evaluation of the Effect of Sonication on Antibiotic Release from Bone Cement Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Borens, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : When treating periprosthetic joint infection with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers can be used in the interval between prosthetic removal and reimplantation. In our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of the study was to assess whether that sonication causes an elution of antibiotics, leading to elevated antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid inhibiting bacterial growth and thus causing false-negative cultures. Methods : A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to March 2016. Inclusion criteria were a two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Spacers were made of gentamicin-containing cement to which tobramycin and vancomycin were added. Antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid were determined by mass-spectometry (LC-MS). Results : 30 patients were identified (15 hip and 14 knee and 1 ankle arthroplasties). No cases of culture positive sonicated spacer fluid were observed in our serie. In the sonication fluid median concentrations of 13.2µg/ml, 392 µg/ml and 16.6 µg/ml were detected for vancomycin, tobramycin and gentamicin, respectively. According to the European Committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST), these concentrations released from cement spacer during sonication are higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for most bacteria relevant in prosthetic joint infections. Conclusion: Spacer sonication cultures remained sterile in all of our cases. Elevated concentrations of antibiotics released during sonication could explain partly negative-cultured sonicated spacers. Indeed, the absence of antibiotic free interval during the two-stages can also contribute to false-negative spacers sonicated cultures.

  5. Biosynthetic graft failure to replace infected infrainguinal bypass as developing infection due to Morganella morganii leading to disrupture of the anastomosis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladiol Zenunaj

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosynthetic prosthesis has become the trend to carry out arterial reconstruction in infected sites since considered to be resistant to infection. Late graft occlusion is the only complication reported in literature so far. We report a case of biosynthetic graft infection which led to early detachment of the femoral anastomosis of a femoral-popliteal above-knee bypass. Material: A 76-year-old man developed groin infection 3 months later after performing an ePTFE femoral-popliteal above-knee bypass for critical limb ischemia. He was re-admitted for groin infection involving the vascular structures. Explantation of the existing bypass and its replacement with a biosynthetic graft (omniflow II was performed. Detachment of the proximal anastomosis occurred 6 days later leading to groin haematoma. Consequently, retroperitoneal access was performed for clamping the external iliac artery so as to control haemorrhage followed by explantation of the biosynthetic graft. An external iliac-popliteal above-knee bypass was tailored in order to save the limb and it was performed using a transobturator approach avoiding the infected site. In both cases bacterial cultures resulted positive for Morganella Morganii. The groin wound was treated separately with negative pressure medication healing definitively within 20 days and after 3-month follow-up the bypass was still patent. Conclusion: This is the first report of biosynthetic graft infection used for infrainguinal reconstruction leading to haemorrhage due to anastomosis disrupture. Using an extra-anatomical access for providing blood inflow to the leg avoiding the infected site and treating safely the groin wound with VAC therapy revealed to be a valid approach. Keywords: Infrainguinal bypass, Graft infection, Biosynthetic material, Graft occlusion, Negative pressure medication, Morganella morgani

  6. A comparison of gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy and indium-111 labelled leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Gray, H.W.; McKay, Iain; Sturrock, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary experience in comparing Gallium-67 imaging in patients with a painful prosthetic joint to the findings on Indium-111 labelled leukocyte imaging is reported. In the small series of patients so far studied, no clear advantage has emerged for either Gallium-67 or Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in terms of sensitivity or specificity for joint prosthesis infection. Should a larger group confirm the preliminary findings, Gallium-67 imaging may be preferable to Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in the patient with the painful joint prosthesis, in view of the greater simplicity of the former technique

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Acute Lower Extremity Occlusions of Native Arteries and Prosthetic Bypass Grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, A. Marjolein; de Vries, Jean Paul P M; van den Heuvel, Daniel A F; Moll, Frans L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed thrombolysis is a well-accepted treatment for acute lower extremity occlusions of native arteries and bypass grafts. Several variables that affect outcomes of thrombolysis have been identified. The hypothesis of this study was that the long-term outcome after

  8. The vacuum-assisted closure (V.A.C®) system for surgical site infection with involved vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saziye, Karaca; Afksendiyos, Kalangos

    2015-04-01

    In vascular surgery, surgical site infection is the most common postoperative morbidity, occurring in 5-10% of vascular patients. The optimal management of surgical site infection with involved lower limb vascular grafts remains controversial. We present our 6-year results of using the V.A.C.® system in surgical site infection with involved vascular grafts. A retrospective 6-year review of patient who underwent a VAC® therapy for postoperative surgical site infection in lower limb with involved vascular grafts in our department between January 2006 and December 2011. V.A.C therapy was used in 40 patients. All patients underwent surgical wound revision with VAC® therapy and antibiotics. The mean time of use of the V.A.C. system was 14.2 days. After mean of 12 days in 34 of 40 patients, in whom the use of VAC® therapy resulted in delayed primary closure or healing by secondary intention. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 61.67 months, during which 3 patients died. We showed that the V.A.C.® system is valuable for managing specifically surgical site infection with involved vascular grafts. Using the V.A.C.® system, reoperation rates are reduced; 85% of patients avoided graft replacement. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. The Effect of Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis on Intraoperative Culture Results in Patients with a Suspected or Confirmed Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Benito, Natividad; Soriano, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining reliable cultures during revision arthroplasty is important to adequately diagnose and treat a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The influence of antimicrobial prophylaxis on culture results remains unclear. Since withholding prophylaxis increases the risk for surgical site infections, clarification on this topic is critical. A systematic review was performed with the following research question: in patients who undergo revision surgery of a prosthetic joint, does preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis affect the culture yield of intraoperative samples in comparison with nonpreoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis? Seven articles were included in the final analysis. In most studies, standard diagnostic culture techniques were used. In patients with a PJI, pooled analysis showed a culture yield of 88% (145/165) in the prophylaxis group versus 95% (344/362) in the nonprophylaxis group ( P = 0.004). Subanalysis of patients with chronic PJIs showed positive cultures in 88% (78/89) versus 91% (52/57), respectively ( P = 0.59). In patients with a suspected chronic infection, a maximum difference of 4% in culture yield between the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups was observed. With the use of standard culture techniques, antimicrobial prophylaxis seems to affect cultures in a minority of patients. Along with the known risk of surgical site infections due to inadequate timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis, we discourage the postponement of prophylaxis until tissue samples are obtained in revision surgery. Future studies are necessary to conclude whether the small percentage of false-negative cultures after prophylaxis can be further reduced with the use of more-sensitive culture techniques, like sonication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy for vascular graft infection (Szilagyi grade III) in the groin-a 10-year multi-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Himanshu; Ktenidis, Kiriakos; George, Robbie K; Tripathi, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefit of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the management of deep, alloplastic graft infections (Szilagyi grade III) in the groin. From 2000 to 2009, we identified and included in our study 72 deep inguinal infections in 68 patients, involving native as well as synthetic graft or patch material. There were 29 early graft infections (infections (≥30 days after implantation). Among these, 17 cases involved native grafts/patches (12 grafts and 5 patches), while 55 cases involved non-native grafts/patches [26 polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) grafts and 24 Dacron grafts (Haemashield, Meadox Medical, Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, NY; Gelsoft graft, Vascutek, Inchinnan, Renfrewshire, Scotland, UK; Intervascular, Mahwah, NJ); INVISTA, and 5 Vascu-Guard(™) bovine pericardial patches; Synovis Surgical Innovation]. All patients were treated with multiple wound debridements, graft salvage, sartorius myoplasty, intravenous antibiotics and VAC therapy until thorough surface healing was achieved. Exclusion criteria were an alloplastic graft infection with proximal expansion above the inguinal ligament, blood culture positive for septicaemia or septic anastomotic herald or overt bleeding. Nine months after initiation of therapy, overall, graft/patch salvage was achieved in 61 of 72 (84·7%) cases. Of the native graft/patch group, infected graft material was replaced with an autogenous great saphenous vein graft or patch in four patients (23·5%). In the non-native group, vein or synthetic graft preservation without revision was achieved in 48 of 55 (87·3%) patients. The mean duration of VAC therapy was 16 ± 7·7 days, and postoperative mean hospital stay was 25·3 ± 8·5 days. In 23 of 72 (31·9%) cases, a secondary closure of the wound was achieved; in the other 49 cases, wound healing was achieved by meshed split-thickness skin grafting. Mean wound healing time for all wounds was 24·3 ± 12·5 days. Specific

  11. One- and two-stage surgical revision of peri-prosthetic joint infection of the hip: a pooled individual participant data analysis of 44 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W; Board, Tim; Kay, Peter; Wroblewski, B Mike; Zeller, Valérie; Chen, Szu-Yuan; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin; Masri, Bassam A; Herman, Amir; Jenny, Jean-Yves; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Whittaker, John-Paul; Burston, Ben; Huang, Ronald; Restrepo, Camilo; Parvizi, Javad; Rudelli, Sergio; Honda, Emerson; Uip, David E; Bori, Guillem; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Darley, Elizabeth; Ribera, Alba; Cañas, Elena; Cabo, Javier; Cordero-Ampuero, José; Redó, Maria Luisa Sorlí; Strange, Simon; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Webb, Jason; MacGowan, Alasdair; Dieppe, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Beswick, Andrew D

    2018-04-05

    One-stage and two-stage revision strategies are the two main options for treating established chronic peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip; however, there is uncertainty regarding which is the best treatment option. We aimed to compare the risk of re-infection between the two revision strategies using pooled individual participant data (IPD). Observational cohort studies with PJI of the hip treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and reporting re-infection outcomes were retrieved by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; as well as email contact with investigators. We analysed IPD of 1856 participants with PJI of the hip from 44 cohorts across four continents. The primary outcome was re-infection (recurrence of infection by the same organism(s) and/or re-infection with a new organism(s)). Hazard ratios (HRs) for re-infection were calculated using Cox proportional frailty hazards models. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 222 re-infections were recorded. Re-infection rates per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 16.8 (95% CI 13.6-20.7) and 32.3 (95% CI 27.3-38.3) for one-stage and two-stage strategies respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted HR of re-infection for two-stage revision was 1.70 (0.58-5.00) when compared with one-stage revision. The association remained consistently absent after further adjustment for potential confounders. The HRs did not vary importantly in clinically relevant subgroups. Analysis of pooled individual patient data suggest that a one-stage revision strategy may be as effective as a two-stage revision strategy in treating PJI of the hip.

  12. Brucella melitensis prosthetic joint infection in a traveller returning to the UK from Thailand: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joseph M; Folb, Jonathan; Kalra, Sanjay; Squire, S Bertel; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Beeching, Nick J

    Brucella spp. prosthetic joint infections are infrequently reported in the literature, particularly in returning travellers, and optimal treatment is unknown. We describe a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Brucella melitensis in a traveller returning to the UK from Thailand, which we believe to be the first detailed report of brucellosis in a traveller returning from this area. The 23 patients with Brucella-related PJI reported in the literature are summarised, together with our case. The diagnosis of Brucella-related PJI is difficult to make; only 30% of blood cultures and 75% of joint aspiration cultures were positive in the reported cases. Culture of intraoperative samples provides the best diagnostic yield. In the absence of radiological evidence of joint loosening, combination antimicrobial therapy alone may be appropriate treatment in the first instance; this was successful in 6/7 [86%] of patients, though small numbers of patients and the likelihood of reporting bias warrant caution in drawing any firm conclusions about optimal treatment. Aerosolisation of synovial fluid during joint aspiration procedures and nosocomial infection has been described. Brucella-related PJI should be considered in the differential of travellers returning from endemic areas with PJI, including Thailand. Personal protective equipment including fit tested filtering face piece-3 (FFP3) mask or equivalent is recommended for personnel carrying out joint aspiration when brucellosis is suspected. Travellers can reduce the risk of brucellosis by avoiding unpasteurised dairy products and animal contact (particularly on farms and abattoirs) in endemic areas and should be counselled regarding these risks as part of their pre-travel assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Utility of the indium 111-labeled human immunoglobulin G scan for the detection of focal vascular graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMuraglia, G.M.; Fischman, A.J.; Strauss, H.W.; Keech, F.; Wilkinson, R.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Rubin, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to diagnose and localize vascular graft infections has been a major challenge. Recent studies in animal models and humans with focal bacterial infection have shown that radiolabeled, polyclonal, human immunoglobulin G accumulates at the site of inflammation and can serve as the basis for an imaging technique. This study investigated this new technique for the diagnosis and localization of vascular graft infections. Twenty-five patients with suspected vascular infections involving grafts (22), atherosclerotic aneurysms (2), and subclavian vein thrombophlebitis (1) were studied. Gamma camera images of the suspected area were obtained between 5 and 48 hours after intravenous administration of 1.5 to 2.0 mCi (56 to 74 mBq) of indium 111-labeled, human, polyclonal immunoglobulin G. Scan results were interpreted without clinical information about the patient and were subsequently correlated with surgical findings, other imaging modalities, and/or clinical follow-up. In 10 of 10 patients found to have positive scan results, localized infections were confirmed at the involved sites. In 14 of 15 patients whose scan results were interpreted as negative, no vascular infections were identified at follow-up. The patient with false-negative results and recurrent bacteremia from an aortoduodenal fistula was found to have a negative scan outcome at a time when his disease was quiescent. These data suggest that nonspecific, human, indium 111-labeled immunoglobulin G scanning can be a useful noninvasive means of localizing vascular infections

  14. Effect of auto-skin grafting on bacterial infection of wound in rats inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Wei Shuqing

    1992-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 6 Gy whole body γ-ray irradiation from a 60 Co source followed by light radiation burn (15% TBSA, full thickness burn) from a 5 kw bromo-tungsten lamp. The effect of auto-skin grafting on invasive bacterial infection of wound in the rats with combined radiation-burn injury was studied, In the control group inflicted with combined radiation-burn injury but without skin grafting, bacteria were found on and in the eschars at 24th hour after injury, and in the subeschar tissue on 3rd day. Tremendous bacterial multiplication occurred from 7th to 15th day, and the amount of bacteria in the internal organs increased along with the increase of subeschar infection. At the same time, no bacterial infection was found in internal organs in auto-skin grafted group at 24th hour after injury. The results show that skin grafting can decrease or prevent bacterial infection in both subeschar tissue and internal organs

  15. Systemic thioridazine in combination with dicloxacillin against early aortic graft infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model: In vivo results do not reproduce the in vitro synergistic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stenger

    Full Text Available Conservative treatment solutions against aortic prosthetic vascular graft infection (APVGI for inoperable patients are limited. The combination of antibiotics with antibacterial helper compounds, such as the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ, should be explored.To investigate the efficacy of conservative systemic treatment with dicloxacillin (DCX in combination with TDZ (DCX+TDZ, compared to DCX alone, against early APVGI caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA in a porcine model.The synergism of DCX+TDZ against MSSA was initially assessed in vitro by viability assay. Thereafter, thirty-two pigs had polyester grafts implanted in the infrarenal aorta, followed by inoculation with 106 CFU of MSSA, and were randomly administered oral systemic treatment with either 1 DCX or 2 DCX+TDZ. Treatment was initiated one week postoperatively and continued for a further 21 days. Weight, temperature, and blood samples were collected at predefined intervals. By termination, bacterial quantities from the graft surface, graft material, and perigraft tissue were obtained.Despite in vitro synergism, the porcine experiment revealed no statistical differences for bacteriological endpoints between the two treatment groups, and none of the treatments eradicated the APVGI. Accordingly, the mixed model analyses of weight, temperature, and blood samples revealed no statistical differences.Conservative systemic treatment with DCX+TDZ did not reproduce in vitro results against APVGI caused by MSSA in this porcine model. However, unexpected severe adverse effects related to the planned dose of TDZ required a considerable reduction to the administered dose of TDZ, which may have compromised the results.

  16. Comprehensive Comparison of the Performance of Autogenous Brachial-Basilic Transposition Arteriovenous Fistula and Prosthetic Forearm Loop Arteriovenous Graft in a Multiethnic Asian Hemodialysis Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koy Min Chue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. For patients who have exhausted cephalic vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF options, controversy exists on whether brachial-basilic AVF with transposition (BBTAVF or a forearm arteriovenous graft (AVG should be the next vascular access of choice. This study compared the outcomes of these two modalities. Methods. A retrospective study of 122 Asian multiethnic patients who underwent either a BBTAVF (81 or an AVG (41. Maturation time and intervention rates were analyzed. Functional primary, secondary, and overall patency rates were evaluated. Results. The maturation time for BBTAVFs was significantly longer than AVGs. There was also a longer deliberation time before surgeons abandon a failing BBTAVF compared to an AVG. Both functional primary and secondary patency rates were significantly higher in the BBTAVF group at 1-year follow-up: 73.2% versus 34.1% (p<0.001 and 71.8% versus 54.3% (p=0.022, respectively. AVGs also required more interventions to maintain patency. When maturation rates were considered, the overall patency of AVGs was initially superior in the first 25 weeks after creation and then became inferior afterwards. Conclusion. BBTAVFs had superior primary and functional patency and required less salvage interventions. The forearm AVG might have a role in patients who require early vascular access due to complications from central venous catheters or with limited life expectancy.

  17. In vitro comparison between α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl phosphate against bacteria responsible of prosthetic and joint infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bidossi

    Full Text Available Biofilm-related infections represent a recurrent problem in the orthopaedic setting. In recent years, great interest was directed towards the identification of novel molecules capable to interfere with pathogens adhesion and biofilm formation on implant surfaces. In this study, two stable forms of α-tocopherol, the hydrophobic acetate ester and the water-soluble phosphate ester, were tested in vitro as coating for titanium prosthesis. Antimicrobial activity against microorganisms responsible of prosthetic and joints infections was assessed by broth microdilution method. In addition, α-tocopherol esters were evaluated for both their ability to hamper bacterial adhesion to and biofilm formation on sandblasted titanium surfaces. Results showed that only α-tocopheryl phosphate displayed antimicrobial activity against the tested strains. Both esters were able to significantly interfere with bacterial adhesion and to prevent biofilm formation, especially by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The activity of α-tocopheryl phosphate was greater than that of α-tocopheryl acetate. Alterations at membrane levels have been reported in literature and may be likely responsible for the interference on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation shown by α-tocopherol esters. Although further studies are needed to better investigate the mechanisms of action and the spectrum of activity of α-tocopherol esters, these characteristics together with the positive effect on wound healing and immune response, make these molecules promising candidate for coating in order to prevent implant-associated infections.

  18. Managing uncertainty - a qualitative study of surgeons' decision-making for one-stage and two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic hip joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew J; Blom, Ashley W; Whitehouse, Michael R; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-04-12

    Approximately 88,000 primary hip replacements are performed in England and Wales each year. Around 1% go on to develop deep prosthetic joint infection. Between one-stage and two-stage revision arthroplasty best treatment options remain unclear. Our aims were to characterise consultant orthopaedic surgeons' decisions about performing either one-stage or two-stage revision surgery for patients with deep prosthetic infection (PJI) after hip arthroplasty, and to identify whether a randomised trial comparing one-stage with two-stage revision would be feasible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 consultant surgeons who perform revision surgery for PJI after hip arthroplasty at 5 high-volume National Health Service (NHS) orthopaedic departments in England and Wales. Surgeons were interviewed before the development of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. There is no single standardised surgical intervention for the treatment of PJI. Surgeons balance multiple factors when choosing a surgical strategy which include multiple patient-related factors, their own knowledge and expertise, available infrastructure and the infecting organism. Surgeons questioned whether it was appropriate that the two-stage revision remained the best treatment, and some surgeons' willingness to consider more one-stage revisions had increased over recent years and were influenced by growing evidence showing equivalence between surgical techniques, and local observations of successful one-stage revisions. Custom-made articulating spacers was a practice that enabled uncertainty to be managed in the absence of definitive evidence about the superiority of one surgical technique over the other. Surgeons highlighted the need for research evidence to inform practice and thought that a randomised trial to compare treatments was needed. Most surgeons thought that patients who they treated would be eligible for trial participation in instances

  19. Harvest surgical site infection following coronary artery bypass grafting: risk factors, microbiology, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Fakih, Mohamad G; Berriel-Cass, Dorine; Meisner, Susan; Saravolatz, Louis; Khatib, Riad

    2009-10-01

    Our goals were to evaluate the risk factors predisposing to saphenous vein harvest surgical site infection (HSSI), the microbiology implicated, associated outcomes including 30-day mortality, and identify opportunities for prevention of infection. All patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures from January 2000 through September 2004 were included. Data were collected on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, in addition to microbiology and outcomes. Eighty-six of 3578 (2.4%) patients developed HSSI; 28 (32.6%) of them were classified as deep. The median time to detection was 17 (range, 4-51) days. An organism was identified in 64 (74.4%) cases; of them, a single pathogen was implicated in 50 (78%) cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen: 19 (38% [methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) = 12, methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) = 7]). Gram-negative organisms were recovered in 50% of cases, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa predominating in 11 (22%) because of a single pathogen. Multiple pathogens were identified in 14 (22%) cases. The 30-day mortality was not significantly different in patients with or without HSSI. Multivariate analysis showed age, diabetes mellitus, obesity, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and duration of surgery to be associated with increased risk. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and duration of surgery were associated with increased risk for HSSI. S aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen.

  20. Viral infections in acute graft-versus-host disease: a review of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lana X; Worswick, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    While immunosuppressive therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) advances, viral reactivation has been found to be an increasingly common complication in these patients. Dermatologists may often be consulted on inpatient services for evaluation. We investigated the literature for the role of viral infections in aGVHD and review the current evidence regarding management. Articles in the public domain regarding aGVHD, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella zoster virus, hepatitis viruses, parvovirus B19, and respiratory viruses were included. Dermatologic findings vary between different viral antigens, and some infections may be a marker for the development of aGVHD or worsen prognosis. The heterogeneous cohorts of the studies reviewed often preclude direct comparison between results. The relationship between viral reactivation and aGVHD may be bidirectional and is worthy of further exploration. Additional studies are needed to determine appropriate prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. One-stage exchange with antibacterial hydrogel coated implants provides similar results to two-stage revision, without the coating, for the treatment of peri-prosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Nicola; Logoluso, Nicola; Gallazzi, Enrico; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanò, Carlo Luca

    2018-03-16

    Aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that a one-stage exchange procedure, performed with an antibiotic-loaded, fast-resorbable hydrogel coating, provides similar infection recurrence rate than a two-stage procedure without the coating, in patients affected by peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In this two-center case-control, study, 22 patients, treated with a one-stage procedure, using implants coated with an antibiotic-loaded hydrogel [defensive antibacterial coating (DAC)], were compared with 22 retrospective matched controls, treated with a two-stage revision procedure, without the coating. At a mean follow-up of 29.3 ± 5.0 months, two patients (9.1%) in the DAC group showed an infection recurrence, compared to three patients (13.6%) in the two-stage group. Clinical scores were similar between groups, while average hospital stay and antibiotic treatment duration were significantly reduced after one-stage, compared to two-stage (18.9 ± 2.9 versus 35.8 ± 3.4 and 23.5 ± 3.3 versus 53.7 ± 5.6 days, respectively). Although in a relatively limited series of patients, our data shows similar infection recurrence rate after one-stage exchange with DAC-coated implants, compared to two-stage revision without coating, with reduced overall hospitalization time and antibiotic treatment duration. These findings warrant further studies in the possible applications of antibacterial coating technologies to treat implant-related infections. III.

  2. Synovial fluid white cell count and histopathological examination of periprosthetic tissue samples (frozen and permanent sections in the diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obada B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine prospectively the importance of synovial fluid white cell count and intraoperative frozen and permanent sections analysis (number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field in the diagnosis of septic total knee arthroplasty. There were studied prospectively 72 patients who needed a revision total knee arthroplasty between 2013-2015. 30 patients were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection due to high rates of ESR (93% and CRP (90% and preoperative positive culture from aspirated synovial fluid and 42 patients were considered to have aseptic failure according to negative preoperative culture from joint aspirate. For all the patients was analysed synovial fluid white cell count and histopathological aspect of intraoperative frozen and permanent sections of periprosthetic tissue. The results showed a median value of 13800 of sinovial white cells count for infected knee and 92 for noninfected knee. 90% of the patients with joint infection had more than 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high power field on intraoperative frozen sections and 83% on permanent sections. None of the patients from aseptic group had more than 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per field on permanent sections. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level can be supplemented with cultures of aspirated joint fluid and fluid white cell count to confirm the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. When the preoperative diagnosis remain unclear, the histological examination of frozen or permanent sections of periprosthetic tissue with at least 5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high power field, is predictive for the presence of infection.

  3. Chest wall reconstruction with autologas rib grafts in dogs and report of a clinic case.

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    Tunçözgür, B; Elbeyli, L; Güngör, A; Işik, F; Akay, H

    1999-09-01

    Nowadays, in chest wall reconstruction prosthetic materials are generally used. However, the rejections of prosthetic materials and infections frequently occur in chest wall reconstruction, especially after radiotherapy or resection that is performed due to infections. We used 10 mongrel dogs and performed resections of 8 cm diameter on their chest walls. In the reconstruction of these defects, in five of the subjects, we used two free rib grafts with periosteum to be resected from the contralateral side and in other five subjects, we used free rib grafts without periosteum. After this experimental study, sternal resection was performed in a 24-year-old man because of sternal osteomyelitis. First to obtain rib grafts with periosteum, partial resection was performed to 5th, 7th, and 9th ribs of the lateral left side. After, total sternal resection, end to end anastomosis was performed to the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th anterior ends of the ribs. Autogeneous rib grafts were found to be enough to provide chest wall stabilization. The contralateral autogeneous free rib grafts can successfully be used in reconstruction of wide chest wall defects. This method is found to be effective and sufficient to prevent infection, rejection and to provide stabilization.

  4. Executive summary of management of prosthetic joint infections. Clinical practice guidelines by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Javier; Cobo, Javier; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Benito, Natividad; Bori, Guillermo; Cabo, Javier; Corona, Pablo; Esteban, Jaime; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Murillo, Oscar; Palomino, Julián; Parra, Jorge; Pigrau, Carlos; Del Pozo, José Luis; Riera, Melchor; Rodríguez, Dolores; Sánchez-Somolinos, Mar; Soriano, Alex; Del Toro, M Dolores; de la Torre, Basilio

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is expected to increase in the coming years. PJI has serious consequences for patients, and high costs for the health system. The complexity of these infections makes it necessary to organize the vast quantity of information published in the last several years. The indications for the choice of a given surgical strategy and the corresponding antimicrobial therapy are specifically reviewed. The authors selected clinically relevant questions and then reviewed the available literature in order to give recommendations according to a pre-determined level of scientific evidence. The more controversial aspects were debated, and the final composition was agreed at an ad hoc meeting. Before its final publication, the manuscript was made available online in order that all SEIMC members were able to read it and make comments and suggestions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwik, Claudia A M; Jutte, Paul C; Tornero, Eduard; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Knobben, Bas A S; de Vries, Astrid J; Zijlstra, Wierd P; Dijkstra, Baukje; Soriano, Alex; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan

    2018-03-27

    Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C-reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort. We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as infection-related death within 60 days after debridement. A total of 386 patients were included. Failure occurred in 148 patients (38.3%). Patients with KLIC scores of ≤2, 2.5-3.5, 4-5, 5.5-6.5, and ≥7 had failure rates of 27.9%, 37.1%, 49.3%, 54.5%, and 85.7%, respectively (P < .001). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.59-0.69). A KLIC score higher than 6 points showed a specificity of 97.9%. The KLIC score is a relatively good preoperative risk score for DAIR failure in patients with early acute PJI and appears to be most useful in clinical practice for patients with low or high KLIC scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of bacteria on the surface of clinically infected and non-infected prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by microbiological culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kate E; Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Hannah, Victoria E; Ramage, Gordon; Allan, David; Bagg, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It has been postulated that bacteria attached to the surface of prosthetic hip joints can cause localised inflammation, resulting in failure of the replacement joint. However, diagnosis of infection is difficult with traditional microbiological culture methods, and evidence exists that highly fastidious or non-cultivable organisms have a role in implant infections. The purpose of this study was to use culture and culture-independent methods to detect the bacteria present on the surface of prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties. Ten consecutive revisions were performed by two surgeons, which were all clinically and radiologically loose. Five of the hip replacement revision surgeries were performed because of clinical infections and five because of aseptic loosening. Preoperative and perioperative specimens were obtained from each patient and subjected to routine microbiological culture. The prostheses removed from each patient were subjected to mild ultrasonication to dislodge adherent bacteria, followed by aerobic and anaerobic microbiological culture. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each sonicate and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair 27f/1387r. All 10 specimens were positive for the presence of bacteria by both culture and PCR. PCR products were then cloned, organised into groups by RFLP analysis and one clone from each group was sequenced. Bacteria were identified by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained with those deposited in public access sequence databases. A total of 512 clones were analysed by RFLP analysis, of which 118 were sequenced. Culture methods identified species from the genera Leifsonia (54.3%), Staphylococcus (21.7%), Proteus (8.7%), Brevundimonas (6.5%), Salibacillus (4.3%), Methylobacterium (2.2%) and Zimmermannella (2.2%). Molecular detection methods identified a more diverse microflora. The predominant genus detected was Lysobacter, representing 312 (60.9%) of 512 clones

  7. The unsuspected prosthetic joint infection : incidence and consequences of positive intra-operative cultures in presumed aseptic knee and hip revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A M E; Bénard, M; Meis, J F; van Hellemondt, G; Goosen, J H M

    2017-11-01

    Positive cultures are not uncommon in cases of revision total knee and hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA) for presumed aseptic causes. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of positive intra-operative cultures in presumed aseptic revision of TKA and THA, and to determine whether the presence of intra-operative positive cultures results in inferior survival in such cases. A retrospective cohort study was assembled with 679 patients undergoing revision knee (340 cases) or hip arthroplasty (339 cases) for presumed aseptic causes. For all patients three or more separate intra-operative cultures were obtained. Patients were diagnosed with a previously unsuspected prosthetic joint infection (PJI) if two or more cultures were positive with the same organism. Records were reviewed for demographic details, pre-operative laboratory results and culture results. The primary outcome measure was infection-free implant survival at two years. The incidence of unsuspected PJI was 27 out of 340 (7.9%) in TKA and 41 out of 339 (12.1%) in THA. Following revision TKA, the rate of infection-free implant survival in patients with an unsuspected PJI was 88% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 60 to 97) at two years compared with 98% (95% CI 94 to 99) in patients without PJI (p = 0.001). After THA, the rate of survival was similar in those with unsuspected PJI (92% (95% CI 73 to 98) at two years) and those without (94% (95% CI 89 to 97), p = 0.31). Following revision of TKA and THA for aseptic diagnoses, around 10% of cases were found to have positive cultures. In the knee, such cases had inferior infection-free survival at two years compared with those with negative cultures; there was no difference between the groups following THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1482-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. The treatment and outcome of peri-prosthetic infection of the ankle: a single cohort-centre experience of 34 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, B; Knupp, M; Graber, P; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Zimmerli, W; Sendi, P

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the ankle is not standardised. It is not clear whether an algorithm developed for hip and knee PJI can be used in the management of PJI of the ankle. We evaluated the outcome, at two or more years post-operatively, in 34 patients with PJI of the ankle, identified from a cohort of 511 patients who had undergone total ankle replacement. Their median age was 62.1 years (53.3 to 68.2), and 20 patients were women. Infection was exogenous in 28 (82.4%) and haematogenous in six (17.6%); 19 (55.9%) were acute infections and 15 (44.1%) chronic. Staphylococci were the cause of 24 infections (70.6%). Surgery with retention of one or both components was undertaken in 21 patients (61.8%), both components were replaced in ten (29.4%), and arthrodesis was undertaken in three (8.8%). An infection-free outcome with satisfactory function of the ankle was obtained in 23 patients (67.6%). The best rate of cure followed the exchange of both components (9/10, 90%). In the 21 patients in whom one or both components were retained, four had a relapse of the same infecting organism and three had an infection with another organism. Hence the rate of cure was 66.7% (14 of 21). In these 21 patients, we compared the treatment given to an algorithm developed for the treatment of PJI of the knee and hip. In 17 (80.9%) patients, treatment was not according to the algorithm. Most (11 of 17) had only one criterion against retention of one or both components. In all, ten of 11 patients with severe soft-tissue compromise as a single criterion had a relapse-free survival. We propose that the treatment concept for PJI of the ankle requires adaptation of the grading of quality of the soft tissues. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Ofloxacin: new applications for the prevention of urinary tract infections in renal graft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, C; Vimont, S; Ancel, P Y; Xu-Dubois, Y C; Mesnard, L; Ouali, N; Denis, M; Vandewalle, A; Rondeau, E; Hertig, A

    2011-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), the most common form of bacterial infection in kidney transplant recipients, recently have been demonstrated to be detrimental for long-term graft outcome. Therefore, reinforcing antibiotic prophylaxis might be vital, in addition to basic hygiene recommendations, surgical care, and prophylaxis by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In 2006, a Legionella pneumophila contamination of our department's water pipes meant that all the patients undergoing renal transplantation underwent a 1-month regimen of ofloxacin (OFLO) (200 mg every other day). We took this opportunity to measure the incidence of UTI, including acute pyelonephritis (APN), in 100 consecutive patients transplanted before (n = 50) and after (n = 50) this treatment decision was reached. We also studied the antimicrobial resistance profiles in our department and in the rest of the hospital. No patient developed Legionnaire's disease. A dramatic decrease in the incidence of UTI (-63%) was also seen in patients undergoing OFLO treatment. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the use of OFLO was independently associated with a reduction in UTI (odd ratio [OR] = 0.31%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.84, P = 0.02) and APN (OR = 0.21%, 95% CI 0.07-0.98, P = 0.045). This protection was sustained during the whole first year post transplantation. As for resistance rates, we observed a decrease in the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin in our nephrology department, compared with that observed in the rest of the hospital. The incidence of multi-resistant bacteria was stable. Our unintentional extension of prophylactic antibiotherapy with OFLO gave rise to a dramatic decrease in the 1-year incidence of UTI and APN in kidney recipients. Emergence of resistant strains is, however, a major concern. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Lavage with allicin in combination with vancomycin inhibits biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a rabbit model of prosthetic joint infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohan Zhai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate, an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. METHODS: A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n = 32. Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL, allicin (4 mg/L, or allicin (4 mg/L plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL. Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. RESULTS: The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups. The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be

  11. Impact of Early Valve Surgery on Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis: Analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M.; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M.; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R.; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Nacinovich, Francisco; Oses, Pablo Fernandez; Ronderos, Ricardo; Sucari, Adriana; Thierer, Jorge; Casabé, José; Cortes, Claudia; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Harris, Owen; Kennedy, Karina; Tan, Ren; Gordon, David; Papanicolas, Lito; Eisen, Damon; Grigg, Leeanne; Street, Alan; Korman, Tony; Kotsanas, Despina; Dever, Robyn; Jones, Phillip; Konecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Rees, David; Ryan, Suzanne; Feneley, Michael P.; Harkness, John; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Post, Jeffrey; Reinbott, Porl; Ryan, Suzanne; Gattringer, Rainer; Wiesbauer, Franz; Andrade, Adriana Ribas; de Brito, Ana Cláudia Passos; Guimarães, Armenio Costa; Grinberg, Max; Mansur, Alfredo José; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; de Medeiros Tranchesi, Regina Aparecida; Paiva, Marcelo Goulart; Fortes, Claudio Querido; de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna; Golebiovski, Wilma; Lamas, Cristiane; Santos, Marisa; Weksler, Clara; Karlowsky, James A.; Keynan, Yoav; Morris, Andrew M.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Jones, Sandra Braun; Garcia, Patricia; Cereceda, M; Fica, Alberto; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Barsic, Bruno; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir; Pangercic, Ana; Rudez, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Freiberger, Tomas; Pol, Jiri; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ashour, Zainab; El Kholy, Amani; Mishaal, Marwa; Rizk, Hussien; Aissa, Neijla; Alauzet, Corentine; Alla, Francois; Campagnac, Catherine; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Selton-Suty, Christine; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Delahaye, François; Delahaye, Armelle; Vandenesch, Francois; Donal, Erwan; Donnio, Pierre Yves; Michelet, Christian; Revest, Matthieu; Tattevin, Pierre; Violette, Jérémie; Chevalier, Florent; Jeu, Antoine; Sorel, Claire; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Bernard, Yvette; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Mazaheri, Bahram; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Athanasia, Sofia; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Mylona, Elena; Paniara, Olga; Papanicolaou, Konstantinos; Pyros, John; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Sharma, Gautam; Francis, Johnson; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Venugopal, Krishnan; Hannan, Margaret; Hurley, John; Gilon, Dan; Israel, Sarah; Korem, Maya; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Casillo, Roberta; Cuccurullo, Susanna; Dialetto, Giovanni; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Irene, Mattucci; Ragone, Enrico; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Cecchi, Enrico; De Rosa, Francesco; Forno, Davide; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Tebini, Alessandro; Grossi, Paolo; Lattanzio, Mariangela; Toniolo, Antonio; Goglio, Antonio; Raglio, Annibale; Ravasio, Veronica; Rizzi, Marco; Suter, Fredy; Carosi, Giampiero; Magri, Silvia; Signorini, Liana; Baban, Tania; Kanafani, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S.; Yasmine, Mohamad; Abidin, Imran; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Martínez, Eduardo Rivera; Soto Nieto, Gabriel Israel; van der Meer, Jan T.M.; Chambers, Stephen; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur; Raymond, Nigel; Read, Kerry; Murdoch, David R.; Dragulescu, Stefan; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Butkevich, O.M.; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vadim, Kulichenko; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Edathodu, Jameela; Halim, Magid; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Commerford, Patrick; Commerford, Anita; Deetlefs, Eduan; Hansa, Cass; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Almela, Manuel; Armero, Yolanda; Azqueta, Manuel; Castañeda, Ximena; Cervera, Carlos; del Rio, Ana; Falces, Carlos; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Fita, Guillermina; Gatell, Jose M.; Marco, Francesc; Mestres, Carlos A.; Miró, José M.; Moreno, Asuncion; Ninot, Salvador; Paré, Carlos; Pericas, Joan; Ramirez, Jose; Rovira, Irene; Sitges, Marta; Anguera, Ignasi; Font, Bernat; Guma, Joan Raimon; Bermejo, Javier; Bouza, Emilio; Fernández, Miguel Angel Garcia; Gonzalez-Ramallo, Victor; Marín, Mercedes; Muñoz, Patricia; Pedromingo, Miguel; Roda, Jorge; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Solis, Jorge; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; Tornos, Pilar; de Alarcón, Arístides; Parra, Ricardo; Alestig, Eric; Johansson, Magnus; Olaison, Lars; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Pachirat, Orathai; Pachirat, Pimchitra; Pussadhamma, Burabha; Senthong, Vichai; Casey, Anna; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Eyton, Christina; Klein, John L.; Bradley, Suzanne; Kauffman, Carol; Bedimo, Roger; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Douglas, Pamela; Drew, Laura; Fowler, Vance G.; Holland, Thomas; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Mudrick, Daniel; Samad, Zaniab; Sexton, Daniel; Stryjewski, Martin; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Cantey, Robert; Steed, Lisa; Wray, Dannah; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Bonilla, Hector; DiPersio, Joseph; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Baddley, John; Patel, Mukesh; Peterson, Gail; Stancoven, Amy; Afonso, Luis; Kulman, Theresa; Levine, Donald; Rybak, Michael; Cabell, Christopher H.; Baloch, Khaula; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Dixon, Christy C.; Fowler, Vance G.; Harding, Tina; Jones-Richmond, Marian; Pappas, Paul; Park, Lawrence P.; Redick, Thomas; Stafford, Judy; Anstrom, Kevin; Athan, Eugene; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Karchmer, A. W.; Miró, José M.; Murdoch, David R.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Wang, Andrew; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian; Corey, G. Ralph; Durack, David T.; Eykyn, Susannah; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M.; Moreillon, Phillipe; Olaison, Lars; Raoult, Didier; Rubinstein, Ethan; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study. Methods. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. Results. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non–S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39–1.15]; P = .15). Conclusions. In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. PMID:25389255

  12. Anterior versus posterior approach in reconstruction of infected nonunion of the tibia using the vascularized fibular graft: potentialities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Sherif M; El-Mofty, Aly O; Amin, Sherif N

    2002-01-01

    The potentialities, limitations, and technical pitfalls of the vascularized fibular grafting in infected nonunions of the tibia are outlined on the basis of 14 patients approached anteriorly or posteriorly. An infected nonunion of the tibia together with a large exposed area over the shin of the tibia is better approached anteriorly. The anastomosis is placed in an end-to-end or end-to-side fashion onto the anterior tibial vessels. To locate the site of the nonunion, the tibialis anterior muscle should be retracted laterally and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. All the scarred skin over the anterior tibia should be excised, because it becomes devitalized as a result of the exposure. To cover the exposed area, the fibula has to be harvested with a large skin paddle, incorporating the first septocutaneous branch originating from the peroneal vessels before they gain the upper end of the flexor hallucis longus muscle. A disadvantage of harvesting the free fibula together with a skin paddle is that its pedicle is short. The skin paddle lies at the antimesenteric border of the graft, the site of incising and stripping the periosteum. In addition, it has to be sutured to the skin at the recipient site, so the soft tissues (together with the peroneal vessels), cannot be stripped off the graft to prolong its pedicle. Vein grafts should be resorted to, if the pedicle does not reach a healthy segment of the anterior tibial vessels. Defects with limited exposed areas of skin, especially in questionable patency of the vessels of the leg, require primarily a fibula with a long pedicle that could easily reach the popliteal vessels and are thus better approached posteriorly. In this approach, the site of the nonunion is exposed medial to the flexor digitorum muscle and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. No attempt should be made to strip the scarred skin off

  13. Detection of low-grade prosthetic joint infections using 99mTc-antigranulocyte SPECT/CT: initial clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graute, Vera; Lehner, Sebastian; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Feist, Markus; Mueller, Peter Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade joint infections are characterized by infiltration of granulocytes, which mediate aspects of inflammatory changes. We evaluated retrospectively the contribution of SPECT/CT as an addition to planar scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosing and localizing low-grade joint infections. Planar scintigraphy using 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte BW 250/183 antibodies was performed in 31 patients with suspected joint infections at 5 min, 5 h and 24 h after injection, with additional SPECT/CT performed 6 h after injection. With reference to gold standard clinical data, we assessed the diagnostic sensitivity of scintigraphy alone and in conjunction with SPECT/CT. Joint infections were diagnosed clinically in 9 of the 31 patients (1 hip and 8 knee prostheses). Planar scintigraphy revealed 6 true-positives, 13 true-negatives, 9 false-positives and 3 false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of, respectively, 0.66, 0.60, 0.4 and 0.81. With the addition of SPECT images, corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values increased to 0.89, 0.45, 0.40 and 0.91. Implementation of fused SPECT/CT led to a further increase to 0.89, 0.73, 0.57 and 0.94. Relative to planar scintigraphy, SPECT with and without CT substantially improved the utility of imaging with 99m Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosis and localization of suspected joint infections. Optimal accuracy was obtained through image fusion, which permitted anatomical allocation of foci of pathological tracer accumulation as well as providing information on the extent of the infection. This imaging method seems suited for selection of patients requiring surgical therapy. (orig.)

  14. Silver-coated dacron prosthesis in the treatment of infection in arterial surgery: Case reports

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    Nenezić Dragoslav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Although the incidence is low, infection of prosthetic vascular graft bears a high incidence of serious complications including 25-75% mortality rate and 40-75% limb loss. The standard treatment of vascular graft infection consists of excision of the prosthesis, wound debridement and extraanatomic revascularization. Conservative treatment might be an option in a limited number of patients. We present three cases of surgical and conservative treatment of vascular graft infection. CASE OUTLINE Case 1: A patient developed silver-coated graft infection after femorodistal arterial reconstruction performed because of critical limb ischemia. In the early postoperative period, massive skin and subcutaneous tissue necrosis developed, with the graft being exposed. After two months of persistent debridement and wound toilette, the defect was covered with a Thiersch skin graft. Case 2: PTFE graft infection in the right groin followed reconstruction of the isolated common femoral artery aneurysm. This graft was replaced with a silver-coated graft in situ. Reinfection of the proximal end of the implanted silver-coated graft occurred and the graft was exposed. After repeated debridement and wound toilette, the exposed prosthesis was covered with granulomatous tissue, and the wound healed. Case 3: A year after anastomotic pseudoaneurysm resection in the left groin, prosthesis was exposed following wound infection. This graft was substituted with a silver-coated graft in situ. The wound healed primarily. CONCLUSION These three cases demonstrate that under some circumstances vascular prosthesis infection can be successfully treated conservatively without graft removal, and also by in situ replacement using silver-coated graft.

  15. Computed Tomography of the complications of prosthetic surgery of the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovagnorio, Francesco; Andreoli, Chiara; De Cicco, Maria Luisa

    1997-01-01

    Computerized Tomography has gained an important role in the diagnosis of the complications of prosthetic surgery of the abdominal aorta: the importance of such complications come from their frequency, which is proportional to the increasing number of interventions, and their severity. The authors investigated the CT patterns of the most frequent complications. 24 patients referred for strongly suspected postoperative complications were examined in 2 years: fever and leukocytosis (20 cases) and progressive anemia (4 cases) were the most frequent findings. The operation had been performed 7± 12 weeks before (2 patients were excluded because surgery dated less than 3 weeks. 14 patients had infective complications: thickening (57%) and inhomogeneity (43%) of the periprosthetic wrap and ectopic gas bubble (78%) were the most frequent Computerized Tomography findings. The authors also observed 2 periprosthetic hematomas, 1 aneurysm relapse and 1 prosthetic graft rupture. In conclusion, CT confirmed its important role in the study of the complications of prosthetic aortic surgery, despite its know poor specificity in the demonstration of the aorta in the first 2-3 months postoperatively, in the initial stages of infection and in the diagnosis of aorta-enteric fistulas

  16. Short- versus long-duration levofloxacin plus rifampicin for acute staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection managed with implant retention: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Euba, Gorane; Cobo, Javier; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Soriano, Alex; Sandoval, Enrique; Pigrau, Carles; Benito, Natividad; Falgueras, Luis; Palomino, Julián; Del Toro, María Dolores; Jover-Sáenz, Alfredo; Iribarren, José Antonio; Sánchez-Somolinos, Mar; Ramos, Antonio; Fernández-Sampedro, Marta; Riera, Melchor; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu Mirena; Ariza, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Levofloxacin plus rifampicin (L+R) is the treatment of choice for acute staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection (PJI) managed with debridement and implant retention (DAIR). Long courses have been empirically recommended, but some studies have suggested that shorter treatments could be as effective. Our aim was to prove that a short treatment schedule was non-inferior to the standard long schedule. An open-label, multicentre, randomised clinical trial (RCT) was performed. Patients with an early post-surgical or haematogenous staphylococcal PJI, managed with DAIR and initiated on L+R were randomised to receive 8 weeks of treatment (short schedule) versus a long schedule (3 months or 6 months for hip or knee prostheses, respectively). The primary endpoint was cure rate. From 175 eligible patients, 63 were included (52% women; median age, 72 years): 33 patients (52%) received the long schedule and 30 (48%) received the short schedule. There were no differences between the two groups except for a higher rate of polymicrobial infection in the long-schedule group (27% vs. 7%; P = 0.031). Median follow-up was 540 days. In the intention-to-treat analysis, cure rates were 58% and 73% in patients receiving the long and short schedules, respectively (difference -15.7%, 95% CI -39.2% to 7.8%). Forty-four patients (70%) were evaluable per-protocol: cure rates were 95.0% and 91.7% for the long and short schedules, respectively (difference 3.3%, 95% CI -11.7% to 18.3%). This is the first RCT suggesting that 8 weeks of L+R could be non-inferior to longer standard treatments for acute staphylococcal PJI managed with DAIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Synovial Fluid α-Defensin as a Biomarker for Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Guokang

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been one of the most beneficial interventions for treating patients suffering from joint disorders. However, peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication that often accompanies TJA and the diagnosis of PJI is remains difficult. Questions remain regarding whether certain biomarkers can be valuable in the diagnosis of PJI. We conducted our systematic review by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Science Direct with the key words "periprosthetic joint infection," "synovial fluid," and "α-defensin." Studies that provided sufficient data to construct 2 × 2 contingency tables were chosen based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed according to the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated for the included studies. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (AUSROC) were used to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance. Eight studies were included in this systematic review. Among them four articles were included in meta-analysis. A total of 421 participants were studied in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.00), 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99), and 1095.49 (95% CI: 283.68.58-4230.45), respectively. The AUSROC was 0.9949 (standard error [SE] 0.0095). Synovial fluid α-defensin is a biomarker of high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of PJI.

  18. Validation and Application of a Dried Blood Spot Assay for Biofilm-Active Antibiotics Commonly Used for Treatment of Prosthetic Implant Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippenberg, Ben; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Clark, Ben; Dyer, John; Batty, Kevin T.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) antibiotic assays can facilitate pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) studies in situations where venous blood sampling is logistically difficult. We sought to develop, validate, and apply a DBS assay for rifampin (RIF), fusidic acid (FUS), and ciprofloxacin (CIP). These antibiotics are considered active against organisms in biofilms and are therefore commonly used for the treatment of infections associated with prosthetic implants. A liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy DBS assay was developed and validated, including red cell partitioning and thermal stability for each drug and the rifampin metabolite desacetyl rifampin (Des-RIF). Plasma and DBS concentrations in 10 healthy adults were compared, and the concentration-time profiles were incorporated into population PK models. The limits of quantification for RIF, Des-RIF, CIP, and FUS in DBS were 15 μg/liter, 14 μg/liter, 25 μg/liter, and 153 μg/liter, respectively. Adjusting for hematocrit, red cell partitioning, and relative recovery, DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable to measured plasma concentrations for each antibiotic (r > 0.95; P < 0.0001), and Bland-Altman plots showed no significant bias. The final population PK estimates of clearance, volume of distribution, and time above threshold MICs for measured and DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable. These drugs were stable in DBSs for at least 10 days at room temperature and 1 month at 4°C. The present DBS antibiotic assays are robust and can be used as surrogates for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK and PK/PD data in a variety of clinical situations, including therapeutic drug monitoring or studies of implant infections. PMID:27270283

  19. The Clinical usefulness of {sup 99mT}c HMPAO Leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99mT}c phytate, a substitute for {sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72{+-}6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both {sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/{sup 99ms}ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections.

  20. Microsporidial infection masquerading as graft rejection post-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbini Devi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old immunocompetent male with a history of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and immature cataract who underwent Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with intraocular lens implantation in both eyes presented with redness and defective vision of 1-day duration in his left eye. Slit lamp examination revealed coarse superficial punctate lesions with graft edema. He was diagnosed with acute graft rejection and treated with topical steroids. Two days later, symptoms worsened in his left eye with the involvement of his right eye showing a similar clinical picture. An infectious etiology was suspected and in vivo confocal microscopy ordered, which revealed hyperreflective dots, highly suggestive of microsporidial spores. The patient was prescribed topical fluconazole 0.3% in both eyes. This unique presentation of bilateral graft edema following microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in postgraft patients requires a high index of suspicion as it can be easily be mistaken for and mismanaged as acute graft rejection.

  1. Echocardiographic evaluation of heart valve prosthetic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Ivaniv

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with replaced heart valve submitted to echocardiographic examination may have symptoms related either to valvular malfunction or ventricular dysfunction from different causes. Clinical examination is not reliable in a prosthetic valve evaluation and the main information regarding its function could be obtained using different cardiac ultrasound modalities. This review provides a description of echocardiographic and Doppler techniques useful in evaluation of prosthetic heart valves. For the interpretation of echocardiography there is a need in special knowledge of prosthesis types and possible reasons of prosthetic function deterioration. Echocardiography allows to reveal valve thrombosis, pannus formation, vegetation and such complications of infective endocarditis as valve ring abscess or dehiscence. Transthoracic echocardiography requires different section plane angles and unconventional views. Transesophageal echocardiography is more often used than in native valve examination due to better visualization of prosthetic valve structure and function. Three-dimensional echocardiography could provide more detailed visual information especially in the assessment of paravalvular regurgitation or valve obstruction.

  2. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  3. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Bronislawa; Mazanowska, Natalia; Ekiel, Alicja M; Durlik, Magdalena; Martirosian, Gayane; Wielgos, Mirosław; Kaminski, Pawel

    2012-06-18

    Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37). There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥ 2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have developed in the cervical canal.

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzak Bronislawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have

  5. How Many Samples and How Many Culture Media To Diagnose a Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Clinical and Microbiological Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bémer, Pascale; Léger, Julie; Tandé, Didier; Plouzeau, Chloé; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bret, Laurent; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Corvec, Stéphane; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous perioperative samples and culture media are required to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI), their exact number and types have not yet been definitely determined with a high level of proof. We conducted a prospective multicenter study to determine the minimal number of samples and culture media required for accurate diagnosis of PJI. Over a 2-year period, consecutive patients with clinical signs suggesting PJI were included, with five perioperative samples per patient. The bacteriological and PJI diagnosis criteria were assessed using a random selection of two, three, or four samples and compared with those obtained using the recommended five samples (references guidelines). The results obtained with two or three culture media were then compared with those obtained with five culture media for both criteria. The times-to-positivity of the different culture media were calculated. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, with a bacteriological criterion in 192 (89%). The PJI was monomicrobial (85%) or polymicrobial (15%). Percentages of agreement of 98.1% and 99.7%, respectively, for the bacteriological criterion and confirmed PJI diagnosis were obtained when four perioperative samples were considered. The highest percentages of agreement were obtained with the association of three culture media, a blood culture bottle, a chocolate agar plate, and Schaedler broth, incubated for 5, 7, and 14 days, respectively. This new procedure leads to significant cost saving. Our prospective multicenter study showed that four samples seeded on three culture media are sufficient for diagnosing PJI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Comparison of FLIXENE™ and standard PTFE arteriovenous graft for early haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nathaniel; Hulme, Katherine Ria; Haggart, Paul Charles; Vasudevan, Thodur

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to compare the outcomes of FLIXENE™ arteriovenous graft (AVG) to standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) AVG for early haemodialysis. This is a prospective observational study of all AVGs placed over a 40-month period between 2008 and 2011 at our vascular unit. Primary outcome was to examine early cannulation rates for FLIXENE™. Secondary outcomes included patency rates, usability of grafts, complications in particular infections, interventions and death in comparison to standard PTFE grafts. Forty-five FLIXENE™ and 19 standard PTFE AVGs were placed in the study period; 89% of FLIXENE™ grafts were used for dialysis, with 78% cannulated within 3 days. At 18 months, primary patency (FLIXENE™ 34% vs standard PTFE 24%), primary assisted patency (35% vs 36%) and secondary patency rate (51% vs 48%) were not statistically different; 20.2% of FLIXENE™ grafts were infected at 18 months requiring explantation compared with 40.3% of standard PTFE grafts (p=0.14). FLIXENE™ can be cannulated for dialysis within 3 days. It has similar patency and complication rates as other prosthetic grafts in the market. In patients who have no access and require urgent dialysis, FLIXENE™ is a viable option.

  7. Infection in the ischemic lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D E; Marek, J M; Langsfeld, M

    1998-06-01

    Infections in the lower extremity of the patient with ischemia can cover a broad spectrum of different diseases. An understanding of the particular pathophysiologic circumstances in the ischemic extremity can be of great value in understanding the natural history of the disease and the potential complications that may occur. Optimizing blood flow to the extremity by using revascularization techniques is important for any patient with an ischemic lower extremity complicated by infection or ulceration. Infections in the ischemic lower extremity require local débridement and systemic antibiotics. For severe infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis or the fetid foot, more extensive local débridement and even amputation may be required. Fundamentals of managing prosthetic graft infection require removing the infected prosthesis, local wound débridement, and systemic antibiotics while attempting to preserve viability of the lower extremity using autogenous graft reconstruction.

  8. A retrospective 15-year review: survival advantage after switching to sirolimus in hepatitis C virus infected liver graft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Shankar, A; Gee, I; Nash, K; Hoare, M; Gibbs, P; Davies, S; Alexander, G J M

    2015-02-01

    The use of sirolimus-based immune suppression in liver transplantation, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected recipients, remains contentious. There is some evidence that sirolimus retards hepatic fibrosis, is renal sparing and may be of benefit in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Sirolimus has not been adopted by many transplant centres because of persistent concerns regarding an increased risk of hepatic artery thrombosis, graft loss and death with de novo sirolimus. To review the impact of switching to sirolimus monotherapy in HCV-infected liver recipients with respect to survival, graft loss and hepatic fibrosis. A retrospective review of 190 patients from a single centre undergoing first liver transplantation for HCV over 15 years. 113 patients were switched from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy to low-dose sirolimus monotherapy at a median of 15 months after transplantation for HCV-related fibrosis (72%), renal impairment (14%) or high-risk HCC (5%). Patients switched to sirolimus had improved survival (P diabetes (P = 0.03). These data suggest selective switching to low-dose sirolimus monotherapy in HCV-positive liver recipients improves clinical outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rationale for one stage exchange of infected hip replacement using uncemented implants and antibiotic impregnated bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Heinz

    2009-09-04

    biomechanical properties. Efficient cementing techniques will result in tight bonding with the underlying bone, making eventual removal time consuming and possibly associated with further damage to the osseous structures. All these issues are likely to make uncemented revisions more desirable. Allograft bone may be impregnated with high loads of antibiotics using special incubation techniques. The storage capacities and pharmacological kinetics of the resulting antibiotic bone compound (ABC) are more advantageous than the ones of antibiotic loaded cement. ABC provides local concentrations exceeding those of cement by more than a 100fold and efficient release is prolonged for several weeks. The same time they are likely to restore bone stock, which usually is compromised after removal of an infected endoprosthesis. ABC may be combined with uncemented implants for improved long term results and easy removal in case of a failure. Specifications of appropriate designs are outlined. Based on these considerations new protocols for one stage exchange of infected TJR have been established. Bone voids surrounding the implants may be filled with antibiotic impregnated bone graft; uncemented implants may be fixed in original bone. Recent studies indicate an overall success rate of more than 90% without any adverse side effects. Incorporation of allografts appears as after grafting with unimpregnated bone grafts. Antibiotic loaded bone graft seems to provide sufficient local antibiosis for protection against colonisation of uncemented implants, the eluted amounts of antibiotics are likely to eliminate biofilm remnants, dead space management is more complete and defects may be reconstructed efficiently. Uncemented implants provide improved long term results in case of success and facilitated re-revision in case of failure. One stage revision using ABC together with uncemented implants such should be at least comparably save as multiple stage procedures, taking advantage of the obvious

  10. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  11. Outcome of Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli Treated with Open Debridement and Retention of the Prosthesis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan C.; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Vilchez, Félix; García-Ramiro, Sebastián; Bori, Guillem; Sierra, Josep; Martínez, José A.; Font, Lluis; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ≤15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone. PMID:19687237

  12. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Review Resources AT Education Blind Rehab Chiropractic Service Polytrauma/TBI Prosthetics & Sensory Aids Recreation Therapy More Health ... Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues ...

  13. The noncovalent bonding of antibiotics to a polytetrafluoroethylene-benzalkonium graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.A.; Greco, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluates the noncovalent bonding of anionic antibiotics to polytetrafluoroethylene grafts using benzalkonium chloride as a cationic anchor. The binding of radiolabeled surfactants and antibiotics was evaluated by liquid scintillation and in an in vitro microbiologic assay against Staphylococcus aureus. Significant quantities of antibiotic were bound when the grafts were pretreated with benzalkonium in ethanol or aqueous solution at elevated temperature. Bound antibiotic is stable in aqueous salt solutions, but slowly dissociates in the presence of blood or serum. The ionic nature of the bonding process is clarified by the use of a variety of antibiotics and surfactants with complementary charges. The ability of the benzalkonium treated grafts to adsorb antibiotic from blood is, likewise, demonstrated and the possibility of concomitantly binding heparin and antibiotic simultaneously is evaluated. These studies support the ability to noncovalently bond antibiotics to polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces and form the basis of eventually utilizing these surfaces in the prevention of vascular prosthetic infections

  14. Observations on human smooth muscle cell cultures from hyperplastic lesions of prosthetic bypass grafts: Production of a platelet-derived growth factor-like mitogen and expression of a gene for a platelet-derived growth factor receptor--a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birinyi, L.K.; Warner, S.J.; Salomon, R.N.; Callow, A.D.; Libby, P.

    1989-01-01

    Prosthetic bypass grafts placed to the distal lower extremity often fail because of an occlusive tissue response in the perianastomotic region. The origin of the cells that comprise this occlusive lesion and the causes of the cellular proliferation are not known. To increase our understanding of this process we cultured cells from hyperplastic lesions obtained from patients at the time of reexploration for lower extremity graft failure, and we studied their identity and growth factor production in tissue culture. These cultures contain cells that express muscle-specific actin isoforms, shown by immunohistochemical staining, consistent with vascular smooth muscle origin. These cultures also released material that stimulated smooth muscle cell growth. A portion of this activity was similar to platelet-derived growth factor, since preincubation with antibody-to-human platelet-derived growth factor partially blocked the mitogenic effect of medium conditioned by human anastomotic hyperplastic cells. These conditioned media also contained material that competed with platelet-derived growth factor for its receptor, as measured in a radioreceptor assay. Northern blot analysis showed that these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes the A chain but not the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor. In addition, these cells contain messenger RNA that encodes a platelet-derived growth factor receptor. We conclude that cultured smooth muscle cells from human anastomotic hyperplastic lesions express genes for platelet-derived growth factor A chain and a platelet-derived growth factor receptor and secrete biologically active molecules similar to platelet-derived growth factor

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis and risk of Clostridium difficile infection after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeran, Jashvant; Mazumdar, Madhu; Rasul, Rehana; Meyer, Joanne; Sacks, Henry S; Koll, Brian S; Wallach, Frances R; Moskowitz, Alan; Gelijns, Annetine C

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic use, particularly type and duration, is a crucial modifiable risk factor for Clostridium difficile. Cardiac surgery is of particular interest because prophylactic antibiotics are recommended for 48 hours or less (vs ≤24 hours for noncardiac surgery), with increasing vancomycin use. We aimed to study associations between antibiotic prophylaxis (duration/vancomycin use) and C difficile among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We extracted data on coronary artery bypass grafting procedures from the national Premier Perspective claims database (2006-2013, n = 154,200, 233 hospitals). Multilevel multivariable logistic regressions measured associations between (1) duration (difficile as outcome. Overall C difficile prevalence was 0.21% (n = 329). Most patients (59.7%) received a cephalosporin only; in 33.1% vancomycin was added, whereas 7.2% received vancomycin only. Extended prophylaxis was used in 20.9%. In adjusted analyses, extended prophylaxis (vs standard) was associated with significantly increased C difficile risk (odds ratio, 1.43; confidence interval, 1.07-1.92), whereas no significant associations existed for vancomycin use as adjuvant or primary prophylactic compared with the use of cephalosporins (odds ratio, 1.21; confidence interval, 0.92-1.60, and odds ratio, 1.39; confidence interval, 0.94-2.05, respectively). Substantial inter-hospital variation exists in the percentage of extended antibiotic prophylaxis (interquartile range, 2.5-35.7), use of adjuvant vancomycin (interquartile range, 4.2-61.1), and vancomycin alone (interquartile range, 2.3-10.4). Although extended use of antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with increased C difficile risk after coronary artery bypass grafting, vancomycin use was not. The observed hospital variation in antibiotic prophylaxis practices suggests great potential for efforts aimed at standardizing practices that subsequently could reduce C difficile risk. Copyright © 2016 The

  16. Prosthetic replacement of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava for leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Giacobbi, Daniela; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Ceccanei, Gianluca

    2006-09-01

    Resection of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava associated with prosthetic graft replacement for caval leiomyosarcoma is an acceptable procedure to obtain prolonged and good-quality survival. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 40 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary center and an affiliated secondary care center. Eleven patients, with a mean age of 51 years, who have primary leiomyosarcoma of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava. All of the patients underwent radical resection of the tumor en bloc with the affected segment of the vena cava. Reconstruction consisted of 10 cavocaval polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and 1 cavobiliac graft. An associated right nephrectomy was performed in 2 cases. The left renal vein was reimplanted in the graft in 3 cases. Cumulative disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and graft patency rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The cumulative (SE) disease-specific survival rate was 53% (21%) at 5 years. The cumulative (SE) disease-free survival rate was 44% (19%) at 5 years. The cumulative (SE) graft patency rate was 67% (22%) at 5 years. Radical resection followed by prosthetic graft reconstruction is a valuable method for treating primary leiomyosarcoma of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava.

  17. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  18. Spontaneous Rupture of Superficial Femoral Artery Repaired with Endovascular Stent-Grafting with use of Rendez-Vous Technique, Followed by Delayed Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Cannavale, Alessandro; Gazzetti, Marianna; Fantozzi, Cristiano; Taurino, Maurizio; Speziale, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This is the case of a 72-year-old man with lower limb ischemia due to spontaneous rupture of nonaneurysmal superficial femoral artery that developed into thigh hematoma. After failure of a Fogarty revascularization, an emergency endovascular procedure was performed to restore the arterial continuity. A rendezvous procedure was performed with a double femoral and popliteal approach and two covered stent-grafts were deployed. Patient’s clinical conditions immediately improved, but 4 months later the stent-grafts were surgically removed for infection and exteriorization. A femoropopliteal bypass was performed. After 1 year follow-up, the patient is in good clinical condition.

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of Superficial Femoral Artery Repaired with Endovascular Stent-Grafting with use of Rendez-Vous Technique, Followed by Delayed Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.fanelli@uniroma1.it; Cannavale, Alessandro [University of Rome ' Sapienza,' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit (Italy); Gazzetti, Marianna [Sapienza University of Rome ' Sapienza,' , Department of Surgery Paride Stefanini, Vascular Surgery Division, Policlinico Umberto I (Italy); Fantozzi, Cristiano; Taurino, Maurizio [University of Rome ' Sapienza,' , Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Speziale, Francesco [Sapienza University of Rome ' Sapienza,' , Department of Surgery Paride Stefanini, Vascular Surgery Division, Policlinico Umberto I (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    This is the case of a 72-year-old man with lower limb ischemia due to spontaneous rupture of nonaneurysmal superficial femoral artery that developed into thigh hematoma. After failure of a Fogarty revascularization, an emergency endovascular procedure was performed to restore the arterial continuity. A rendezvous procedure was performed with a double femoral and popliteal approach and two covered stent-grafts were deployed. Patient's clinical conditions immediately improved, but 4 months later the stent-grafts were surgically removed for infection and exteriorization. A femoropopliteal bypass was performed. After 1 year follow-up, the patient is in good clinical condition.

  20. Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Pankaj; Adluri, Krishna; Javangula, Kalyana; Baig, Wasir

    2009-01-01

    A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis. PMID:19239701

  1. Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javangula Kalyana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis.

  2. Secondary surgical-site infection after coronary artery bypass grafting: A multi-institutional prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulack, Brian C; Kirkwood, Katherine A; Shi, Wei; Smith, Peter K; Alexander, John H; Burks, Sandra G; Gelijns, Annetine C; Thourani, Vinod H; Bell, Daniel; Greenberg, Ann; Goldfarb, Seth D; Mayer, Mary Lou; Bowdish, Michael E

    2018-04-01

    To analyze patient risk factors and processes of care associated with secondary surgical-site infection (SSI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Data were collected prospectively between February and October 2010 for consenting adult patients undergoing CABG with saphenous vein graft (SVG) conduits. Patients who developed a deep or superficial SSI of the leg or groin within 65 days of CABG were compared with those who did not develop a secondary SSI. Among 2174 patients identified, 65 (3.0%) developed a secondary SSI. Median time to diagnosis was 16 days (interquartile range 11-29) with the majority (86%) diagnosed after discharge. Gram-positive bacteria were most common. Readmission was more common in patients with a secondary SSI (34% vs 17%, P < .01). After adjustment, an open SVG harvest approach was associated with an increased risk of secondary SSI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.48). Increased body mass index (adjusted HR, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) and packed red blood cell transfusions (adjusted HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.22) were associated with a greater risk of secondary SSI. Antibiotic type, antibiotic duration, and postoperative hyperglycemia were not associated with risk of secondary SSI. Secondary SSI after CABG continues to be an important source of morbidity. This serious complication often occurs after discharge and is associated with open SVG harvesting, larger body mass, and blood transfusions. Patients with a secondary SSI have longer lengths of stay and are readmitted more frequently. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Value of preserved saphenous vein graft for the creation of access ports in hemodialyzed patients: report of 309 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marc; Barrou, Benoît; Cluzel, Philippe; Hamani, Aziz; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Richard, François

    2003-09-01

    Biological grafts are rarely used for the creation of vascular access, despite their many advantages. Our group prefers to use distal vascular accesses with interposition of a biological graft when direct access cannot be achieved. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term patency and the complication rate of a series of 309 vascular access procedures using a preserved saphenous (PS) vein homograft. 410 (27%) of the 1,500 vascular access procedures performed by our group required the use of a graft, including 376 PS vein homografts (25%). This retrospective study comprised complete data collection for 309 arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) using preserved saphenous (PS) vein graft in the forearm performed in 267 patients between 1985 and 2000. Primary patency was defined as the interval between creation of the vascular access and the first complication requiring surgical or radiological correction; secondary patency was defined as the interval between creation and loss of the graft, with or without revision of the fistula. Survival rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Inter-group comparison was performed by the Logrank test and analysis of variance was performed by logistic regression. Primary patency rates were 77%, 40% and 27% at 1,2 and 5 years, respectively. Secondary patency rates were 79% and 47% at 1 year and 5 years, respectively. The thrombosis rate was 42%. Two episodes of thrombosis occurred in 25% of grafts and 3 episodes were observed in 10% of cases. Infection rates were 1.9% postoperatively and 5% after dialysis, respectively. An aneurysm occurred on 10% of grafts. The operator's experience (RR = 1.58; p creation of vascular accesses with similar patency rates to those of prosthetic grafts. Vein grafts present a number of advantages, particularly a greater ease of use facilitating distal implantation of the graft and a low infection rate.

  4. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Ballve, Ana; Jesus Perez-Castejon, Maria; Carreras-Delgado, Jose L. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Delgado-Bolton, Roberto C. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, San Carlos Health Research Institute (IdISSC), Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Madrid (Spain); San Pedro Hospital and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), University of La Rioja, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine, La Rioja (Spain); Sanchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vilacosta, Isidre; Vivas, David; Olmos, Carmen [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Manuel E.F. [Clinico San Carlos University Hospital, Research Unit, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) and infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in these patients and analyse the interpretation criteria. We included 41 patients suspected of having IE by the Duke criteria who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The criteria applied for classifying the findings as positive/negative for IE were: (a) visual analysis of only PET images with attenuation-correction (AC PET images); (b) visual analysis of both AC PET images and PET images without AC (NAC PET images); (c) qualitative analysis of NAC PET images; and (d) semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was considered positive for IE independently of the intensity and distribution of FDG uptake. The gold standard was the Duke pathological criteria (if tissue was available) or the decision of an endocarditis expert team after a minimum 4 months follow-up. We studied 62 areas with suspicion of IE, 28 areas (45 %) showing definite IE and 34 (55 %) showing possible IE. Visual analysis of only AC PET images showed poor diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 20 %, specificity 57 %). Visual analysis of both AC PET and NAC PET images showed excellent sensitivity (100 %) and intermediate specificity (73 %), focal uptake being more frequently associated with IE. The accuracy of qualitative analysis of NAC PET images depended on the threshold: the maximum sensitivity, specificity and accuracy achieved were 88 %, 80 %, 84 %, respectively. In the semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images, SUVmax was higher in areas of confirmed IE than in those without IE (∇SUVmax 2.2, p < 0.001). When FDG uptake was twice that in the liver, IE was always confirmed, and SUVmax 5.5 was the optimal threshold for IE diagnosis using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve 0.71). The value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of suspected IE of PVs

  5. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Ballve, Ana; Jesus Perez-Castejon, Maria; Carreras-Delgado, Jose L.; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto C.; Sanchez-Enrique, Cristina; Vilacosta, Isidre; Vivas, David; Olmos, Carmen; Ferrer, Manuel E.F.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of prosthetic valve (PV) infective endocarditis (IE) and infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT in these patients and analyse the interpretation criteria. We included 41 patients suspected of having IE by the Duke criteria who underwent "1"8F-FDG PET/CT. The criteria applied for classifying the findings as positive/negative for IE were: (a) visual analysis of only PET images with attenuation-correction (AC PET images); (b) visual analysis of both AC PET images and PET images without AC (NAC PET images); (c) qualitative analysis of NAC PET images; and (d) semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images. "1"8F-FDG PET/CT was considered positive for IE independently of the intensity and distribution of FDG uptake. The gold standard was the Duke pathological criteria (if tissue was available) or the decision of an endocarditis expert team after a minimum 4 months follow-up. We studied 62 areas with suspicion of IE, 28 areas (45 %) showing definite IE and 34 (55 %) showing possible IE. Visual analysis of only AC PET images showed poor diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 20 %, specificity 57 %). Visual analysis of both AC PET and NAC PET images showed excellent sensitivity (100 %) and intermediate specificity (73 %), focal uptake being more frequently associated with IE. The accuracy of qualitative analysis of NAC PET images depended on the threshold: the maximum sensitivity, specificity and accuracy achieved were 88 %, 80 %, 84 %, respectively. In the semiquantitative analysis of AC PET images, SUVmax was higher in areas of confirmed IE than in those without IE (∇SUVmax 2.2, p < 0.001). When FDG uptake was twice that in the liver, IE was always confirmed, and SUVmax 5.5 was the optimal threshold for IE diagnosis using ROC curve analysis (area under the curve 0.71). The value of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of suspected IE of PVs and CIEDs is

  6. Assessment of the accumulation of technetium-99m labelled leukocytes in the treatment of the infections of vascular prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupka, A.; Kaluza, G.; Skora, J.; Szyber, P.; Rynowiecka, M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this is to evaluate the accumulation of technetium-99m-labelled leukocytes after change of vascular, dacron and infected prosthetic graft in arterial homo grafts harvested from multiorgan-procurement - with own computer program. In this paper 11 cases of aorto-ilio-femoral graft infection treated by the replacement of infected prosthesis with fresh, bifurcated, arterial homografts is presented. In all patients clinical investigations revealed vascular prosthesis infection with the rupture of vascular anastomoses between the prosthesis' branch and wall of artery that resulted with hemorrhage. The Duplex- Doppler ultrasound and the scintigraphy with use of technetium-labeled leucocytes were used in the diagnostic trial of infection and of the healing process of the arterial homografts.The area of the accumulation of 99m Tc labelled leukocytes was evaluated with own computer programs. Positive clinical effect was obtained in all patients.The regression of infection after in situ replacement of the synthetic prosthesis with homograft was presented with the scintigraphic examination: in these patients the area of leukocytes accumulation decreased from 34±3 cm 2 to 9±2cm 2 . The use of scintigraphy with 99m Tc labelled leukocytes to evaluate the healing process of the arterial homografts in therapy of the prosthetic graft is a the accumulation of leucocytes is facilitation in the monitoring of regression of infection. (author)

  7. Amputation and Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Amputation and Prosthetics Email to a friend * required ...

  8. Dilatation of aortic grafts over time: what to expect and when to be concerned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben V; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Just, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Dilatation of aortic prosthetic grafts is commonly reported, but most reports are anecdotal, with little objective data in the literature. We performed a prospective trial of 303 patients who underwent prosthetic graft repair for aortic aneurysm or occlusive disease, randomizing patients between...... insertion of a woven polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) graft. Patients were followed with computed tomography and ultrasonography for up to 5 years in order to assess the frequency and magnitude of postoperative dilatation. Graft dilatation was documented in patients with polyester...... grafts at 12 months. Thereafter and up to 60 months, polyester grafts did not dilate further. After 5 years, polyester prostheses had dilated by 25% and ePTFE by 12.5%, as determined by computed tomography imaging. These observations suggest that dilatation of prosthetic grafts is more frequent...

  9. Synovial aspiration and serological testing in two-stage revision arthroplasty for prosthetic joint infection: evaluation before reconstruction with a mean follow-up of twenty seven months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Knebel, C; Pohlig, Florian; Feihl, Susanne; Harrasser, Norbert; Schauwecker, Johannes; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger

    2018-02-01

    The two-stage revision protocol is the gold standard for controlling and treating low-grade prosthetic joint infections of total hip and total knee arthroplasty. The antibiotic pause for diagnostic reasons before reconstruction (stage two) is discussed in relation to the persistence of the infection and the development of resistant bacterial strains. Serological markers and a synovial analysis are commonly used to exclude the persistence of infection. Therefore, we asked (1) is the serological testing of C-reactive protein and leucocytes a valuable tool to predict a persistence of infection? and (2) what is the role of synovial aspiration of Plymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) spacers in hip and knee joints? One hundred twelve patients who were MSIS criteria-positive for a prosthetic joint infection were studied, including 45 total hip arthroplasties (THA) and 67 total knee artrhoplasties (TKA) patients. All patients were treated with a two-stage-protocol using a mobile PMMA spacer after a 14-day antibiotic-free interval, during which we measured serological markers (C-reactive protein and leucocytes) and performed synovial aspiration (white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear cell percentage, and microbiological culture) in these patients and compared the results with those of their long-term-follow-up (mean follow-up 27 months, range 24-36 months). Of the 112 patients, 89 patients (79.5%; 95% CI 72-86.9) exhibited infection control after a two-stage exchange, and we detected most methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in cases of a persistent infection. The mean sensitivity of serum C-reactive protein in the patients was 0.43 (range 0.23-0.64), and the mean specificity was 0.73 (range 0.64-0.82). For serum leucocytes, the mean sensitivity was 0.09 (range 0-0.29), and the mean specificity was 0.81 (range 0.7-0.92). The mean sensitivity for the WBC count in the synovial fluid (PMMA spacer aspiration) was 0.1 (range 0-0.29), and the mean

  10. Prosthetics in Paediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulićević Zoran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss of teeth in children may lead to both functional and esthetic problems. Missing teeth in both anterior and posterior regions may cause malfunctions in mastication and proper pronunciation. If the missing teeth are not replaced, further complications may occur, including adjacent tooth migration, loss of alveolar bone, and irregular occlusion. Considering the sensitive nature of children, loss of teeth may cause the development of insecurities and low self esteem problems. Due to dynamic nature of growth in children and adolescents, prosthetic appliances must not hinder development of orofacial system, and must meet adequate esthetic and functional standards. Dental prosthetic appliances in paediatrics must be planned with respect to the special conditions that led to tooth loss or damage. Multi-disciplinary approach is needed, under constant supervision of paediatric dentist and orthodontist, as well as regular checkups with clinical and radiographical examinations.

  11. Welding of Prosthetic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the techniques of joining metal denture elements, used in prosthetic dentistry: the traditional soldering technique with a gas burner and a new technique of welding with a laser beam; the aim of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the quality of the joints in view of the possibility of applying them in prosthetic structures. Fractographic examinations were conducted along with tensile strength and impact strength tests, and the quality of the joints was assessed compared to the solid metal. The experiments have shown that the metal elements used to make dentures, joined by the technique which employs a laser beam, have better strength properties than those achieved with a gas burner.

  12. Treatment of necrotic infection on the anterior chest wall secondary to mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy by the application of omentum and mesh skin grafting. Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Wada, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    We report herein the case of a patient who initially underwent right radical mastectomy for breast carcinoma in 1988, followed by left breast-conserving surgery in 1997. On both occasions she was given postoperative radiation therapy of 50 Gy. Repeated dressings and the administration of antibiotics failed to heal ulcerative infected lesions that had formed on the anterior chest wall in early 1998. In 1999, the sternum and surrounding tissue were debrided and the anterior chest wall was reconstructed by omentum transposition and mesh skin grafting. The patient is currently well and alive without any evidence of recurrence of either infection or breast cancer. (author)

  13. A Chimeric Peptide Composed of a Dermaseptin Derivative and an RNA III-Inhibiting Peptide Prevents Graft-Associated Infections by Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Naomi; Gov, Yael; Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; Orlando, Fiorenza; D'Amato, Giuseppina; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Bernes, Sabina; Mor, Amram

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcal bacteria are a prevalent cause of infections associated with foreign bodies and indwelling medical devices. Bacteria are capable of escaping antibiotic treatment through encapsulation into biofilms. RNA III-inhibiting peptide (RIP) is a heptapeptide that inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation by obstructing quorum-sensing mechanisms. K4-S4(1-13)a is a 13-residue dermaseptin derivative (DD13) believed to kill bacteria via membrane disruption. We tested each of these peptides as well as a hybrid construct, DD13-RIP, for their ability to inhibit bacterial proliferation and suppress quorum sensing in vitro and for their efficacy in preventing staphylococcal infection in a rat graft infection model with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or S. epidermidis (MRSE). In vitro, proliferation assays demonstrated that RIP had no inhibitory effect, while DD13-RIP and DD13 were equally effective, and that the chimeric peptide but not DD13 was slightly more effective than RIP in inhibiting RNA III synthesis, a regulatory RNA molecule important for staphylococcal pathogenesis. In vivo, the three peptides reduced graft-associated bacterial load in a dose-dependent manner, but the hybrid peptide was most potent in totally preventing staphylococcal infections at the lowest dose. In addition, each of the peptides acted synergistically with antibiotics. The data indicate that RIP and DD13 act in synergy by attacking bacteria simultaneously by two different mechanisms. Such a chimeric peptide may be useful for coating medical devices to prevent drug-resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:15215107

  14. Management of carotid Dacron patch infection: a case report using median sternotomy for proximal common carotid artery control and in situ polytetrafluoroethylene grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 58-year-old male who presented with an enlarging cervical hematoma 3 months following carotid endarterectomy with Dacron patch repair, due to septic disruption of the Dacron patch secondary to presumed infection. The essential features of this case are the control of the proximal common carotid artery gained through a median sternotomy, because the patient was markedly obese with minimal thyromental distance, and the treatment consisting of in situ polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting, due to the absence of a suitable autogenous saphenous vein. Median sternotomy is rarely required in case of reintervention for septic false aneurysms and hematomas following carotid endarterectomy but should be considered whenever difficult control of the common carotid artery, when entering the previous cervicotomy, is anticipated. In situ polytetrafluoroethylene grafting can be considered if autogenous vein material is lacking.

  15. An Evaluation of Dental Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    present cross‑sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs .... who consented to become part of the study guided us to the .... to the reason that our study population comprised of adults with low SES. ... Arora M, Schwarz E, Sivaneswaran S, Banks E. Cigarette smoking.

  16. [Vacuum sealing drainage combined with free skin graft in repairing cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-fei; Li, Chun-you; Jin, Guo-qiang; Ming, Xiao-feng; Wang, Guo-jie

    2014-12-01

    To observe clinical efficacy in treating cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump with full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage. From September 2009 to December 2012, 15 patients with cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump were treated with full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage. Among patients, there were 11 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 (ranged from 25 to 62) years old. Ten cases were caused by traffic accident and 5 cases were caused by heavy object, 9 cases on left and 6 cases on right. Six patients with smashed wound were treated with debridement and amputation, combined with vacuum aspiration in-emergency; 9 patients caused by infection and necrosis were treated with debridement and amputation, combined with vacuum aspiration, and full-thickness skin graft were performed at stage II. The skin defect area of residual limbs ranged from 40 cm x 20 cm to 25 cm x 15 cm. All patients were followed up from 3 months to 1 year. Full-thickness skin graft of residual limbs were survived,and obtained satisfactory walking function with prosthetic. Residual skin increased thicken, wearproof without rupture and pain. Full-thickness skin graft combined with vacuum sealing drainage in treating cutaneous deficiency of traumatic shank amputation stump could reserve the length of residual limbs, increase survival rate of skin graft with less scar of survival skin, get good wearability and it is conducive to prosthetic wear. It is a simple and easy treatment method.

  17. Evaluation of Replacement Grafts and Punch Grafts in the Treatment of Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajit Kumar

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirtycasesof vitiligo eachwithminimum of two lesions undent replacement graft and multiple punch grafts in one lesion each. Complications observed at the recipient site like infection and raised nigosed surface were significantly more in replacement grafts. Hypopigmentation of the graft was significantly more when the disease was progressive.

  18. Guide to prosthetic cardiac valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, D.; Steiner, R.M.; Fernandez, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The development of artificial heart valves: Introduction and historical perspective; The radiology of prosthetic heart valves; The evaluation of patients for prosthetic valve implantation; Pathology of cardiac valve replacement; and Bioengineering of mechanical and biological heart valve substitutes

  19. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Actinobacteria from Grapevine Plants To Reduce Nursery Fungal Graft Infections That Lead to Young Grapevine Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; González-García, Sandra; Cobos, Rebeca; Olego, Miguel Ángel; Ibañez, Ana; Díez-Galán, Alba; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2017-12-15

    Endophytic and rhizosphere actinobacteria isolated from the root system of 1-year-old grafted Vitis vinifera plants were evaluated for their activities against fungi that cause grapevine trunk diseases. A total of 58 endophytic and 94 rhizosphere isolates were tested. Based on an in vitro bioassay, 15.5% of the endophytic isolates and 30.8% of the rhizosphere isolates exhibited antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Diplodia seriata , whereas 13.8% of the endophytic isolates and 16.0% of the rhizosphere isolates showed antifungal activity against Dactylonectria macrodidyma (formerly Ilyonectria macrodidyma ). The strains which showed the greatest in vitro efficacy against both pathogens were further analyzed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium minimum (formerly Phaeoacremonium aleophilum ). Based on their antifungal activity, three rhizosphere isolates and three endophytic isolates were applied on grafts in an open-root field nursery in a 3-year trial. The field trial led to the identification of one endophytic strain, Streptomyces sp. VV/E1, and two rhizosphere isolates, Streptomyces sp. VV/R1 and Streptomyces sp. VV/R4, which significantly reduced the infection rates produced by the fungal pathogens Dactylonectria sp., Ilyonectria sp., P. chlamydospora , and P. minimum , all of which cause young grapevine decline. The VV/R1 and VV/R4 isolates also significantly reduced the mortality level of grafted plants in the nursery. This study shows that certain actinobacteria could represent a promising new tool for controlling fungal trunk pathogens that infect grapevine plants through the root system in nurseries. IMPORTANCE Grapevine trunk diseases are a major threat to the wine and grape industry worldwide. They cause a significant reduction in yields as well as in grape quality, and they can even cause plant death. Trunk diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that enter through pruning wounds and/or the

  20. Detection of low-grade prosthetic joint infections using {sup 99m}Tc-antigranulocyte SPECT/CT: initial clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graute, Vera; Lehner, Sebastian; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Feist, Markus; Mueller, Peter Ernst [University of Munich, Department of Orthopedic Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Low-grade joint infections are characterized by infiltration of granulocytes, which mediate aspects of inflammatory changes. We evaluated retrospectively the contribution of SPECT/CT as an addition to planar scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosing and localizing low-grade joint infections. Planar scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-labelled antigranulocyte BW 250/183 antibodies was performed in 31 patients with suspected joint infections at 5 min, 5 h and 24 h after injection, with additional SPECT/CT performed 6 h after injection. With reference to gold standard clinical data, we assessed the diagnostic sensitivity of scintigraphy alone and in conjunction with SPECT/CT. Joint infections were diagnosed clinically in 9 of the 31 patients (1 hip and 8 knee prostheses). Planar scintigraphy revealed 6 true-positives, 13 true-negatives, 9 false-positives and 3 false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of, respectively, 0.66, 0.60, 0.4 and 0.81. With the addition of SPECT images, corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values increased to 0.89, 0.45, 0.40 and 0.91. Implementation of fused SPECT/CT led to a further increase to 0.89, 0.73, 0.57 and 0.94. Relative to planar scintigraphy, SPECT with and without CT substantially improved the utility of imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled antigranulocyte antibodies for diagnosis and localization of suspected joint infections. Optimal accuracy was obtained through image fusion, which permitted anatomical allocation of foci of pathological tracer accumulation as well as providing information on the extent of the infection. This imaging method seems suited for selection of patients requiring surgical therapy. (orig.)

  1. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Essig, Andreas; Herrmann, Manuel; Liebold, Andreas; Quader, Mohamed Abo

    2015-12-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) kroppenstedtii is a rarely detected agent of bacterial infections in humans. Here, we describe the first case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. kroppenstedtii. Application of molecular methods using surgically excised valve tissue was a cornerstone for the establishment of the microbiological diagnosis, which is crucial for targeted antimicrobial treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. One-stage or two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic hip joint infection--the INFORM trial: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Simon; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew D; Board, Tim; Burston, Amanda; Burston, Ben; Carroll, Fran E; Dieppe, Paul; Garfield, Kirsty; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Jones, Stephen; Kunutsor, Setor; Lane, Athene; Lenguerrand, Erik; MacGowan, Alasdair; Moore, Andrew; Noble, Sian; Simon, Joanne; Stockley, Ian; Taylor, Adrian H; Toms, Andrew; Webb, Jason; Whittaker, John-Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Wylde, Vikki; Blom, Ashley W

    2016-02-17

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) affects approximately 1% of patients following total hip replacement (THR) and often results in severe physical and emotional suffering. Current surgical treatment options are debridement, antibiotics and implant retention; revision THR; excision of the joint and amputation. Revision surgery can be done as either a one-stage or two-stage operation. Both types of surgery are well-established practice in the NHS and result in similar rates of re-infection, but little is known about the impact of these treatments from the patient's perspective. The main aim of this randomised controlled trial is to determine whether there is a difference in patient-reported outcome measures 18 months after randomisation for one-stage or two-stage revision surgery. INFORM (INFection ORthopaedic Management) is an open, two-arm, multi-centre, randomised, superiority trial. We aim to randomise 148 patients with eligible PJI of the hip from approximately seven secondary care NHS orthopaedic units from across England and Wales. Patients will be randomised via a web-based system to receive either a one-stage revision or a two-stage revision THR. Blinding is not possible due to the nature of the intervention. All patients will be followed up for 18 months. The primary outcome is the WOMAC Index, which assesses hip pain, function and stiffness, collected by questionnaire at 18 months. Secondary outcomes include the following: cost-effectiveness, complications, re-infection rates, objective hip function assessment and quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore patients' and surgeons' experiences, including their views about trial participation and randomisation. INFORM is the first ever randomised trial to compare two widely accepted surgical interventions for the treatment of PJI: one-stage and two-stage revision THR. The results of the trial will benefit patients in the future as the main focus is on patient-reported outcomes: pain, function

  3. Does Categorization Method Matter in Exploring Volume-Outcome Relation? A Multiple Categorization Methods Comparison in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Tung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2015-08-01

    Volume-infection relation studies have been published for high-risk surgical procedures, although the conclusions remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be caused by inconsistent categorization methods, the definitions of service volume, and different statistical approaches. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relation exists between provider volume and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical site infection (SSI) using different categorization methods. A population-based cross-sectional multi-level study was conducted. A total of 10,405 patients who received CABG surgery between 2006 and 2008 in Taiwan were recruited. The outcome of interest was surgical site infection for CABG surgery. The associations among several patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics was examined. The definition of surgeons' and hospitals' service volume was the cumulative CABG service volumes in the previous year for each CABG operation and categorized by three types of approaches: Continuous, quartile, and k-means clustering. The results of multi-level mixed effects modeling showed that hospital volume had no association with SSI. Although the relation between surgeon volume and surgical site infection was negative, it was inconsistent among the different categorization methods. Categorization of service volume is an important issue in volume-infection study. The findings of the current study suggest that different categorization methods might influence the relation between volume and SSI. The selection of an optimal cutoff point should be taken into account for future research.

  4. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    modules to train individuals to distinguish gait deviations (trunk motion and lower-limb motion). Each of these modules help trainers improve their...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karim Abdel-Malek CONTRACTING...study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities

  5. Which prosthetic foot to prescribe?

    OpenAIRE

    De Asha, AR; Barnett, CT; Struchkov, V; Buckley, JG

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: \\ud Clinicians typically use findings from cohort studies to objectively inform judgements regarding the potential (dis)advantages of prescribing a new prosthetic device. However, before finalising prescription a clinician will typically ask a patient to 'try out' a change of prosthetic device while the patient is at the clinic. Observed differences in gait when using the new device should be the result of the device’s mechanical function, but could also conceivably be due to pa...

  6. Pre-prosthetic surgery: Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeramalai Naidu Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-prosthetic surgery is that part of oral and maxillofacial surgery which restores oral function and facial form. This is concerned with surgical modification of the alveolar process and its surrounding structures to enable the fabrication of a well-fitting, comfortable, and esthetic dental prosthesis. The ultimate goal of pre-prosthetic surgery is to prepare a mouth to receive a dental prosthesis by redesigning and smoothening bony edges.

  7. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  8. Quantification and localization of hesperidin and rutin in Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia after Xylella fastidiosa infection by HPLC-UV and MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Márcio Santos; da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; Forim, Moacir Rossi; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Carvalho, Sérgio Alves; de Souza, Alessandra Alves; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed for quantifying hesperidin and rutin levels in leaves and stems of Citrus limonia, with a good linearity over a range of 1.0-80.0 and 1.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) respectively, with r(2)>0.999 for all curves. The limits of detection (LOD) for both flavonoids were 0.6 and 0.5 μg mL(-1), respectively, with quantification (LOQ) being 2.0 and 1.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. The quantification method was applied to Citrus sinensis grafted onto C. limonia with and without CVC (citrus variegated chlorosis) symptoms after Xylella fastidiosa infection. The total content of rutin was low and practically constant in all analyses in comparison with hesperidin, which showed a significant increase in its amount in symptomatic leaves. Scanning electron microscopy studies on leaves with CVC symptoms showed vessel occlusion by biofilm, and a crystallized material was noted. Considering the difficulty in isolating these crystals for analysis, tissue sections were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to confirm the presence of hesperidin at the site of infection. The images constructed from MS/MS data with a specific diagnostic fragment ion (m/z 483) also showed higher ion intensities for it in infected plants than in healthy ones, mainly in the vessel regions. These data suggest that hesperidin plays a role in the plant-pathogen interaction, probably as a phytoanticipin. This method was also applied to C. sinensis and C. limonia seedlings, and comparison with the graft results showed that the rootstock had an increased hesperidin content ∼3.6 fold greater in the graft stem than in the stem of C. sinensis seedlings. Increase in hesperidin content by rootstock can be related to induced internal defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Donor genotype in the Interleukin-7 receptor α-chain predicts risk of graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Enevold, Christian; Heilmann, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is challenged by acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD and cGVHD) and viral infections due to long-lasting immunodeficiency. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine essential for de novo T cell generation in thymus.......1-3.8, P = 0.034) and with significantly increased risk of extensive cGVHD (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6, P = 0.025) after adjustment for potential risk factors. In addition, the TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection post-transplant (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-4.3, P.......7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3, P = 0.0027) and increased treatment-related mortality (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.0, P = 0.0047), but was not associated with the risk of relapse (P = 0.35). In conclusion, the IL-7Rα rs6897932 genotype of the donor is predictive of aGVHD and cGVHD, CMV infection, and mortality...

  10. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Legout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections.

  11. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  12. Prosthetic management of deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Bassil, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introduction: Situations of single or multiple edentulous are not an exception during childhood. Prosthetic management is necessary in case of absence of replacing tooth or when its eruption is planned too far in time. Indications of prosthetic rehabilitation for children are multiple and rise from the etiologic factors caus...

  13. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  14. Pancreas grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D.; Buell, U.; Land, W.; Unertl, K.

    1981-01-01

    Perfusion studies with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, which has hitherto been used routinely to investigate renal grafts, have also proved useful for monitoring the perfusion of pancreas grafts. A total perfusion failure is equally reliably demonstrable as in renal grafts. Quantitatively smaller perfusion alterations can be demonstrated by monitoring the course. It seems possible to differentiate the salivary edema of a rejection reaction, well known from animal experiments, with the help of other paramters (e.g. creatinine). Further clinical studies are however necessary to confirm these results. (orig.) [de

  15. Postoperative radiographic evaluation of vascularized fibular grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaster, B.J.; Coleman, D.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on thirty-five patients with free vascularized fibular grafts examined postoperatively with plain radiography. Early graft incorporation is seen as a fuzziness of the cortex at the site of its insertion into the host bone. Causes of failure in grafting for bone defects include graft fracture, hardware failure, and infection. A high percentage of complications or at least delayed unions occurred when vascularized fibular grafts were used to fill defects in the lower extremity. Conversely, upper extremity defects bridged by vascularized grafts heal quickly and hypertrophy. Vascularized grafts placed in the femoral head and neck for a vascular necrosis incorporate early on their superior aspect. The osseous tunnel in which they are placed is normally wider than the graft and often becomes sclerotic; this appearance does not represent nonunion

  16. Mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting: the effect of vacuum-assisted closure versus traditional closed drainage on survival and re-infection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risnes, Ivar; Abdelnoor, Michael; Veel, Terje; Svennevig, Jan Ludvig; Lundblad, Runar; Rynning, Stein Erik

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinitis is treated with either vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) or traditional closed drainage (TCD) with irrigation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the two treatments on mortality and re-infection rate in a source population, using 21 314 consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from January 1997 to October 2010. Median observation time was 2·9 years in the VAC group and 8·0 years in the TCD group. The epidemiological design was of an exposed (VAC, n = 64) versus non-exposed (TCD, n = 66) cohort with two endpoints: (1) mortality and (2) failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection. The crude effect of treatment technique versus endpoint was estimated by univariate analysis. Stratification analysis by the Mantel-Haenszel method was performed to quantify confounders and to pinpoint effect modifiers. Adjustment for confounders was performed using Cox regression analysis. Mediastinitis was diagnosed 6-105 (median 14) days after primary operation in the VAC group and 13 (5-29) days in the TCD group. There was no difference between groups in long-term survival. Failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection occurred less frequently in the VAC group (6%) than in the TCD group (21%; relative risk = 0·29, 95% CI = 0·06-0·88, P = 0·01). There are concerns for increase in right ventricle rupture in VAC compared with TCD. There was no difference in survival after VAC therapy and TCD therapy of post-CABG mediastinitis. Failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection was more common after TCD therapy. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prosthetic bypass for restenosis after endarterectomy or stenting of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Belmonte, Romain; Schneider, Fabrice; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calió, Francesco G; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of prosthetic carotid bypass (PCB) with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in treatment of restenosis after CEA or carotid artery stenting (CAS). From January 2000 to December 2014, 66 patients (57 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) presenting with recurrent carotid artery stenosis ≥70% (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial [NASCET] criteria) were enrolled in a prospective study in three centers. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. During the same period, a total of 4321 CEAs were completed in the three centers. In these 66 patients, the primary treatment of the initial carotid artery stenosis was CEA in 57 patients (86%) and CAS in nine patients (14%). The median delay between primary and redo revascularization was 32 months. Carotid restenosis was symptomatic in 38 patients (58%) with transient ischemic attack (n = 20) or stroke (n = 18). In this series, all patients received statins; 28 patients (42%) received dual antiplatelet therapy, and 38 patients (58%) received single antiplatelet therapy. All PCBs were performed under general anesthesia. No shunt was used in this series. Nasal intubation to improve distal control of the internal carotid artery was performed in 33 patients (50%), including those with intrastent restenosis. A PTFE graft of 6 or 7 mm in diameter was used in 6 and 60 patients, respectively. Distal anastomosis was end to end in 22 patients and end to side with a clip distal to the atherosclerotic lesions in 44 patients. Completion angiography was performed in all cases. The patients were discharged under statin and antiplatelet treatment. After discharge, all of the patients underwent clinical and Doppler ultrasound follow-up every 6 months. Median length of follow-up was 5 years. No patient died, sustained a stroke, or presented with a

  18. Control method for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  19. Increased Pathogen Identification in Vascular Graft Infections by the Combined Use of Tissue Cultures and 16S rRNA Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Ajdler-Schaeffler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular graft infections (VGI are difficult to diagnose and treat, and despite redo surgery combined with antimicrobial treatment, outcomes are often poor. VGI diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, radiological, laboratory and microbiological criteria. However, as many of the VGI patients are already under antimicrobial treatment at the time of redo surgery, microbiological identification is often difficult and bacterial cultures often remain negative rendering targeted treatment impossible. We aimed to assess the benefit of 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (broad-range PCR for better microbiological identification in patients with VGI.Methods: We prospectively analyzed the clinical, microbiological, and treatment data of patients enrolled in the observational Vascular Graft Cohort Study (VASGRA, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. The routine diagnostic work-up involved microbiological cultures of minced tissue samples, and the use of molecular techniques in parallel. Patient-related and microbiological data were assessed in descriptive analyses, and we calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value for broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR versus culture (considered as gold standard.Results: We investigated 60 patients (median age 66 years (Interquartile range [IQR] 59–75 with confirmed VGI between May 2013 and July 2017. The prevalence of antimicrobial pretreatment at the time of sampling was high [91%; median days of antibiotics 7 days (IQR 1–18]. We investigated 226 microbiological specimens. Thereof, 176 (78% were culture-negative and 50 (22% were culture-positive. There was a concordance of 70% (158/226 between conventional culture and broad-range PCR (sensitivity 58% (95% CI 43–72; specificity 74% (67–80%. Among the group of 176 culture-negative specimens, 46 specimens were broad-range PCR-positive resulting in identification of overall 69 species. Among the culture and

  20. Lactococcus garvieae Endocarditis on a Prosthetic Biological Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, A; Slutzki, T; Flusser, D

    2015-09-01

    Lactococcus garvieae (LG) endocarditis is a rare disease in humans. There are only about 16 reported cases in the world. We report a 76-year-old male patient with LG endocarditis. In depth interview with the patient revealed that 2 weeks prior to admission, he had eaten sushi containing raw fish. Unlike many of the other infections reported, which were on a native mitral valve, our patient's vegetation was on a prosthetic aortic valve. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management

  2. [Antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Zhou, H; Cui, Z C; Wang, L; Luo, P F; Ji, S Z; Hu, X Y; Ma, B; Wang, G Y; Zhu, S H; Xia, Z F

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To study the antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats. Methods: (1) Each one standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were selected. Each 20 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected from those isolated from wound exudates of burn patients hospitalized in our wards from January 2014 to December 2016 according to the random number table. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of compound lysostaphin disinfectant to above-mentioned strains were detected. The experiment was repeated 3 times. Compared with the corresponding standard strain, the clinical strain with higher MIC and/or MBC was considered as having decreased sensitivity to the disinfectant. The percentage of strains of each of the three kinds of bacteria with decreased sensitivity was calculated. (2) Artificial dermis pieces were soaked in compound lysostaphin disinfectant for 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h, respectively, with 21 pieces at each time point. After standing for 0 (immediately), 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h (with 3 pieces at each time point), respectively, the diameters of their inhibition zones to standard strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The experiment was repeated 3 times. The shortest soaking time corresponding to the longest standing time, after which the disinfectant-soaked artificial dermis could form an effective inhibition zone (with diameter more than 7 mm), was the sufficient soaking time of the disinfectant to the artificial dermis. (3) Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14, and 21 sampling groups according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. A full-thickness skin

  3. Prosthetic Mitral Valve Leaflet Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Darae; Hun, Sin Sang; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik; Ju, Hyun Chul; Sohn, Jang Won

    2013-01-01

    Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well. PMID:23837121

  4. Control System for Prosthetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that of movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part through the full-shrg position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  5. Prosthetics & Orthotics Manufacturing Initiative (POMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    suspension system, socket- ankle /knee interface, etc.) associated with a complete prosthetic system. More specific, the purpose of these deliverables was...strap. The waist belt consists of an adjustable belt utilizing polypropylene buckles and a 2‖ elastic suspension strap which descends to the anchor ...Superior View. Step 8: The suspension component consists of a 1’ anchor strap with a buckle and a 5’ – 6’ long shoulder strap with hook and

  6. The mechanical properties of infrainguinal vascular bypass grafts: their role in influencing patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Salacinski, H J; Hamilton, G; Seifalian, A M

    2006-06-01

    When autologous vein is unavailable, prosthetic graft materials, particularly expanded polytetrafluoroethylene are used for peripheral arterial revascularisation. Poor long term patency of prosthetic materials is due to distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia. Intimal hyperplasia is directly linked to shear stress abnormalities at the vessel wall. Compliance and calibre mismatch between native vessel and graft, as well as anastomotic line stress concentration contribute towards unnatural wall shear stress. High porosity reduces graft compliance by causing fibrovascular infiltration, whereas low porosity discourages the development of an endothelial lining and hence effective antithrombogenicity. Therefore, consideration of mechanical properties is necessary in graft development. Current research into synthetic vascular grafts concentrates on simulating the mechanical properties of native arteries and tissue engineering aims to construct a new biological arterial conduit.

  7. Calcification of a Synthetic Renovascular Graft in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S.T. Chong

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Vascular grafts, especially in paediatric cases, need to be durable. Common failures such as thrombosis are well documented with research efforts directed towards them. However, there are lesser known causes of graft failure, such as graft calcification, and these also require further research focus. Report: A paediatric case is described in which a synthetic renovascular graft, implanted for mid-aortic syndrome, became calcified, necessitating surgical intervention to resolve graft malfunction. Significant calcification in the limb of a bifurcated polyethylene terephthalate graft was found to be the cause of resistant stenosis and refractory hypertension. Histology conducted on the explanted limb showed the presence of multinuclear giant cells, indicating a chronic foreign body response. Discussion: Calcification of vascular grafts is probably more common than previously recognised. Stenosis typically resistant to angioplasty may result in the long term and thus leading to surgical intervention. In young children, this is suboptimal as these grafts need to last throughout adulthood. Explanted prosthetic grafts should be sent to specialist registries such as that in Strasbourg to be optimally assessed so that contributory factors can be identified. Keywords: Renovascular graft, Paediatric, Calcification

  8. Current status of grafts and implants in rhinoplasty: Part II. Homologous grafts and allogenic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali; Naghshineh, Nima; Rubinstein, Roee

    2010-03-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the challenges in restoring volume and structural integrity in rhinoplasty. 2. Identify the appropriate uses of various homologous grafts and allogenic implants in reconstruction, including: (a) freeze-dried acellular allogenic cadaveric dermis grafts, (b) irradiated cartilage grafts, (c) hydroxyapatite mineral matrix, (d) silicone implants, (e) high-density polyethylene implants, (f) polytetrafluoroethylene implants, and (g) injectable filler materials. 3. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of each of these biomaterials. 4. Understand the specific techniques that may aid in the use these grafts or implants. This review specifically addresses the use of homologous grafts and allogenic implants in rhinoplasty. It is important to stress that autologous materials remain the preferred graft material for use in rhinoplasty, owing to their high biocompatibility and low risk of infection and extrusion. However, concerns of donor-site morbidity, graft availability, and graft resorption have motivated the development and use of homologous and allogenic implants.

  9. Fifteen years of follow-up of a removable prosthetic design to maintain two remaining molars in a patient with mandibular reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lun Hsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This clinical report describes a long-term prosthetic solution for a patient who had undergone mandibular reconstruction with a fibular graft, leaving only two right molars. The only retention device for the removable prosthesis design included a telescoping system with an O-ring application, but without fibula graft involvement. This prosthesis design was motivated by the altered bony and muscular architecture resulting in an increased maxillomandibular space and thick soft tissue in the denture-bearing area. This case demonstrates that appropriate denture design, consistent recall maintenance, and oral hygiene motivation minimized periodontal destruction and maximized prosthetic use for the patient despite the unfavorable loading conditions.

  10. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  11. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  12. Distal anastomotic vein adjunct usage in infrainguinal prosthetic bypasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, James T; Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Shaykevich, Shimon; Belkin, Michael; Menard, Matthew T

    2013-04-01

    Single-segment saphenous vein remains the optimal conduit for infrainguinal revascularization. In its absence, prosthetic conduit may be used. Existing data regarding the significance of anastomotic distal vein adjunct (DVA) usage with prosthetic grafts are based on small series. This is a retrospective cohort analysis derived from the regional Vascular Study Group of New England as well as the Brigham and Women's hospital database. A total of 1018 infrainguinal prosthetic bypass grafts were captured in the dataset from 73 surgeons at 15 participating institutions. Propensity scoring and 3:1 matching was performed to create similar exposure groups for analysis. Outcome measures of interest included: primary patency, freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs), and amputation free survival at 1 year as a function of vein patch utilization. Time to event data were compared with the log-rank test; multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the adjusted association between vein cuff usage and the primary end points. DVA was defined as a vein patch, cuff, or boot in any configuration. Of the 1018 bypass operations, 94 (9.2%) had a DVA whereas 924 (90.8%) did not (no DVA). After propensity score matching, 88 DVAs (25%) and 264 no DVAs (75%) were analyzed. On univariate analysis of the matched cohort, the DVA and no DVA groups were similar in terms of mean age (70.0 vs 69.0; P = .55), male sex (58.0% vs 58.3%; P > .99), and preoperative characteristics such as living at home (93.2% vs 94.3%; P = .79) and independent ambulatory status (72.7% vs 75.7%; P = .64). The DVA and no DVA groups had similar rates of major comorbidities such as hypertension chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and dialysis dependence (P > .05 for all). Likewise, they had similar rates of distal origin grafts (13.6% vs 12.5%; P = .85), critical limb ischemia indications (P = .53), and prior arterial bypass (58% vs 47%; P = .08

  13. Scintigraphic detection of prosthetic joint and soft tissue sepsis secondary to tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Watters, W.; Sherk, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a 40-year-old Hispanic woman with pain and swelling in the left knee with a prosthesis, the combination of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scans was used to indicate that there was a septic prosthetic joint. At surgery, the joint was infected and a foreign body was found. Cultures positive for tuberculosis were found also. The presence of an incongruent Ga-67 and Tc-99m (MDP) scan pattern suggests infection of the prosthetic joint, as in the following case

  14. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus capitis: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Yuko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Staphylococcus capitis is considered to be a rare causative organism for prosthetic valve endocarditis, we report 4 such cases that were encountered at our hospital over the past 2 years. Case 1 was a 79-year-old woman who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve and presented with fever 24 days later. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed an annular abscess in the aorto-mitral continuity and mild perivalvular regurgitation. We performed emergency surgery 5 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 2 was a 79-year-old woman presenting with fever 40 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the valve, and she underwent urgent surgery 2 days after prosthetic valve endocarditis was diagnosed. In case 3, a 76-year-old man presented with fever 53 days after aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Vegetation on the prosthetic leaflet could be seen by transesophageal echocardiography. He underwent emergency surgery 2 days after the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis was made. Case 4 was a 68-year-old woman who collapsed at her home 106 days after aortic and mitral valve replacement with bioprosthetic valves. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was started immediately after massive mitral regurgitation due to prosthetic valve detachment was revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. She was transferred to our hospital by helicopter and received surgery immediately on arrival. In all cases, we re-implanted another bioprosthesis after removal of the infected valve and annular debridement. All patients recovered without severe complications after 2 months of antibiotic treatment, and none experienced re-infection during 163 to 630 days of observation. Since the time interval between diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis and valve re-replacement ranged from 0 to 5 days, early surgical removal

  15. In situ replacement of infected vascular prosthesis with fresh arterial homograft: Early and long-term results in 18 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejkić Siniša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Graft infection is rightly considered one of the severest complications of vascular reconstruction. Treatment is non­standardized and associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. The choice of therapeutic modality depends upon variety of factors. One increasingly used option is in situ replacement of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft. Objective. The aim of this prospective nonrandomized study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of fresh arterial allograft as in situ substitute for the infected vascular prosthesis. Methods. During period of 2002-2005, 18 patients with the synthetic vascular graft infection underwent partial or complete prosthesis removal and secondary in situ reconstruction using the fresh arterial allograft, preserved under hypothermic conditions in buffered saline solution with an addition of antibiotics. Results. In 14 male and 4 female patients, meanaged 62 years, 8 aortic and 10 peripheral arterial infected prostheses were partially or completely replaced with the allograft. Operative mortality was 27.8% and amputation rate was 22.2%. Systemic sepsis at initial presentation and highly virulent nature of causative microorganisms were identified as significant negative prognostic factors (χ² test, p<0.05. During the long­term follow­up (mean 47 months, allograft aneurysm developed in three patients, requiring allograft explantation, followed in two cases by tertiary prosthetic reconstruction. Conclusion. Substitution of the infected prosthesis with the arterial allograft could be successful if used selectively - for less virulent and localized infections of extracavitary grafts. Close follow­up is mandatory for timely diagnosis of late homograft lesions and its eventual replacement with more durable prosthetic material.

  16. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  17. Update on Bioactive Prosthetic Material for the Treatment of Hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, David S; Hodde, Jason P

    2011-12-01

    The use of mesh in the repair of hernias is commonplace. Synthetic mesh, like polypropylene, has been the workhorse for hernia repairs since the 1980s. Surgisis® mesh (Cook Surgical, Bloomington, IN), a biologic hernia graft material composed of purified porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS), was first introduced to the United States in 1998 as an alternative to synthetic mesh materials. This mesh, composed of extracellular matrix collagen, fibronectin and associated glycosaminoglycans and growth factors, has been extensively investigated in animal models and used clinically in many types of surgical procedures. SIS acts as a scaffold for natural growth and strength. We reported our initial results in this publication in July 2006. Since then, there have been many more reports and numerous other bioactive prosthetic materials (BPMs) released. The object of this article is to briefly review some of the current literature on the use of BPM for inguinal hernias, sports hernias, and umbilical hernias.

  18. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad Tatar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection

  19. Potential for Monitoring Gut Microbiota for Diagnosing Infections and Graft-versus-Host Disease in Cancer and Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Andrew Y

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS). The technical approaches and resources needed for each approach are outlined, and advantages and disadvantages for each approach are summarized. The findings regarding the role of the gut microbiota in the health of patients with cancer and stem cell transplant (SCT) patients (specifically in modulating the development of gut-derived bacterial infections and a posttransplant immune-mediated complication known as graft-vs-host-disease) are reviewed. Finally, there is discussion of the potential viability of these approaches in the actual clinical treatment of cancer and SCT patients. Advances in next-generation sequencing have revolutionized our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiome to human health. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MSS are currently too labor-intensive or computationally burdensome to incorporate into real-time clinical monitoring of gut microbiomes. Yet, the lessons learned from these technologies could be adapted to currently used methods (e.g., qPCR) that could then be rigorously tested in the clinical care of these patients. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  20. Fifteen years of follow-up of a removable prosthetic design to maintain two remaining molars in a patient with mandibular reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Lun Hsu; Jacqueline Chia-Hsuan Wu; Ling-Ming Yu

    2012-01-01

    This clinical report describes a long-term prosthetic solution for a patient who had undergone mandibular reconstruction with a fibular graft, leaving only two right molars. The only retention device for the removable prosthesis design included a telescoping system with an O-ring application, but without fibula graft involvement. This prosthesis design was motivated by the altered bony and muscular architecture resulting in an increased maxillomandibular space and thick soft tissue in the den...

  1. Characterization of microbes in prosthetic joint specimens by culture-independent molecular methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Simonsen, Ole

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications of joint alloplasty. Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of PJIs and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study was to inves......Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications of joint alloplasty. Formation of biofilm is a prominent feature of PJIs and constitutes a challenge to current sampling procedures and culture practices to obtain a reliable diagnosis. The aim of the study...... was to investigate the microbial diversity in surgical samples (eg. synovial fluid, periprosthetic tissue, removed prosthesis) from 22 prosthetic patients using a range of culture-independent molecular methods including broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR, cloning, phylogeny, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence...

  2. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE. PMID:25695043

  3. Production of radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments and, more recently, radiolabeled peptides have been extensively studied in order to develop radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The radioiodination of proteins can be done by a direct method, with radioiodine being incorporated in to a tyrosine residue of the protein by electrophilic substitution. The main problem in the use of radioiodinated proteins, is that they are often dehalogenated in vivo by the action of specific enzymes, probably because of the structural similarity between iodophenyl groups and thyroid hormones. Several protein radioiodination methods have been developed in order to minimize this in vivo dehalogenation using prosthetic groups for indirect labeling. In this case, the radioiodine is first incorporated in to the prosthetic group that is subsequently attached to a terminal amino group or to a ε-amino group of lysine residue. The aim of this work is to obtain a radioiodinated prosthetic group for indirect labeling of proteins. The prosthetic group selected was the N-succinimidyl-4-radioiodine benzoate (SIB), obtained by the iodination of the p-bromobenzoic acid followed by the reaction with TSTU (0-(N-succinimidyl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl uronium tetrafluoroborate) The results of these studies showed that the p-radio iodobenzoic acid was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 92% and a labeling yield of about 65%. Some reaction parameters were studied like temperature, time and Cu Cl mass (cataliser). The SIB was quantitatively obtained from p-radio iodobenzoic acid, using basic medium and after removing the water from the reaction using an nitrogen stream. The kinetic of this reaction is very fast with complete consumption of the p-radioiodebenzoic acid after 5 minutes. The coupling of the SIB prosthetic group to the protein was studied using Human Immunoglobulin (IgG) as a protein model. In a comparative way, the same protein was used on direct labeling

  4. Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenton, James; Davies, John; Homer-Vanniasinkam, S.; McPherson, Simon

    2008-01-01

    An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

  5. Fully 3-dimensional digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible with a free vascularized fibula and immediate placement of an implant-supported prosthetic construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Rutger H.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Lahoda, Lars U.; Van der Meer, W. Joerd; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Reintsema, Harry; Witjes, Max J.

    Background Reconstruction of craniofacial defects becomes complex when dental implants are included for functional rehabilitation. We describe a fully 3-dimensional (3D) digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible and immediate prosthetic loading with a fibula graft in a 2-step surgical approach.

  6. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  7. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis with mycotic aneurysm: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Mariana; Almeida, Jorge; Ferraz, Rita; Santos, Lurdes; Pinho, Paulo; Casanova, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis is an extremely severe form of infective endocarditis, with poor prognosis and high mortality despite treatment. Candida albicans is the most common etiological agent for this rare but increasingly frequent condition. We present a case of fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis due to C. albicans following aortic and pulmonary valve replacement in a 38-year-old woman with a history of surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot, prior infective endocarditis and acute renal failure with need for catheter-based hemodialysis. Antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B was initiated prior to cardiac surgery, in which the bioprostheses were replaced by homografts, providing greater resistance to recurrent infection. During hospitalization, a mycotic aneurysm was diagnosed following an episode of acute arterial ischemia, requiring two vascular surgical interventions. Despite the complications, the patient's outcome was good and she was discharged on suppressive antifungal therapy with oral fluconazole for at least a year. The reported case illustrates multiple risk factors for fungal endocarditis, as well as complications and predictors of poor prognosis, demonstrating its complexity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Ruptured peroneal aneurysm after infrapopliteal prosthetic bypass with Taylor patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Enzmann

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 45-year-old mailman underwent an implantation of a femoro-peroneal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE bypass with a distal Taylor patch six years prior to admission after two failed autologous reconstructions and extensive fasciotomy. The initial pathology was an acute ischemia due to popliteal entrapment with subsequent popliteal thrombectomy. Report: The patient was examined because of pain, reduction of walking distance and development of a palpable mass at the medial fasciotomy site. A 6-cm pseudoaneurysm with complete disruption of the suture line of the vein patch was discovered and resected. Arterial continuity with a vein interposition graft was established using non-reversed cephalic vein. Conclusion: The etiology of the aneurysm is not entirely clear. One may argue that the fourth revascularization could have been performed with an arm vein instead of a prosthetic graft with the probability of a better long term patency in a young patient. 15 months after the procedure the bypass is patent and the patient is without any symptoms. This complication of a Taylor patch has not been reported before. Keywords: Taylor patch, Pseudoaneurysm, Infrapopliteal bypass

  9. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  11. Computed Tomography of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Patients with PHV dysfunction clinically can present with symptoms of congestive heart failure (dyspnea, fatigue, edema), fever, angina pectoris, dizziness

  12. A rare case of prosthetic endocarditis and dehiscence in a mechanical valved conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Smith, Cristy; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-02-07

    A middle-aged adult patient with a history of aortic root replacement with a mechanical valved conduit and remote chest trauma was referred to our institution with prosthetic endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram at our institution confirmed a near-complete dehiscence of the prosthetic aortic valve from the conduit, with significant perivalvular flow forming a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent a high-risk re-operation, involving redo aortic root replacement with a homograft after extensive debridement of the infected tissue. The patient was discharged to an outside facility after an uncomplicated hospital course, and remains stable.

  13. Capnocytophaga canimorsus: a rare case of conservatively treated prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava-Karvinen, Päivi; Grönroos, Juha O; Tuunanen, Helena; Kemppainen, Jukka; Oksi, Jarmo; Hohenthal, Ulla

    2018-05-01

    We describe a rare case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by the canine bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a male aged 73 years. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was unequivocal, as it blood cultures were positive for C. canimorsus and vegetations were detected on transesophageal echocardiography; the modified Duke criteria were fulfilled. PET-CT showed intense 18 F-FDG uptake of the prosthetic valve area. The patient was treated with antibiotics alone (no surgery), and is now on life-long suppressive antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. canimorsus and the first one to have been treated conservatively. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cetacean Swimming with Prosthetic Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank

    2016-11-01

    During entanglement in fishing gear, dolphins can suffer abrasions and amputations of flukes and fins. As a result, if the dolphin survives the ordeal, swimming performance is altered. Current rehabilitation technques is the use of prosthesis to regain swimming ability. In this work, analyses are focused on two dolphins with locomotive impairment; Winter (currently living in Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Florida) and Fuji (lived in Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium in Japan). Fuji lost about 75% of its fluke surface to necrosis (death of cells) and Winter lost its tail due to amputation. Both dolphins are aided by prosthetic tails that mimic the shape of a real dolphin tail. Using 3D surface reconstruction techniques and a high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow solver, we were able to elucidate the kinematics and hydrodynamics and fluke deformation of these swimmers to clarify the effectiveness of prostheses in helping the dolphins regain their swimming ability. Associated with the performance, we identified distinct features in the wake structures that can explain this gap in the performance compared to a healthy dolphin. This work was supported by ONR MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  15. Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Moscatiello, Rafael Andrade; Lima, Aida Maria Custodio de; Moscatiello, Vitoria Aparecida Muglia; Helio Kiitiro Yamashita; Mosacatiello, Rafael Muglia; Nishiguchi, Celso Itiro; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from apheresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months), with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental implant. All patients were submitted to computed tomography examinations prior and six months after sinus lift surgery. Fifty-three maxillary sinuses were operated and divided into three distinct groups: autogenous bone graft, autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation, and autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by apheresis. The results showed that computed tomography demonstrated bone growth in height and width between the initial and the follow-up computed tomography scans in all three groups. However, no statistical difference was found either for bone height or width. It was concluded that clinical evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of autogenous bone grafts, particularly when used in combination with bone growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, which allow prosthetic and functional restoration of maxillofacial structures through fixation of dental implants. (author)

  16. Infeccion urinaria temprana en trasplante renal: Factores de riesgo y efecto en la sobrevida del injerto Early urinary tract infection in kidney transplantation: Risk factors and impact on graft sur-vival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Cepeda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La infección urinariatemprana del injerto (IUTI, definida como infección urinaria sintomática en los primeros 3 meses del trasplante, su efecto sobre la sobrevida del injerto y los factores de riesgo han sido poco estudiados. Los objetivos del presente análisis fueron conocer factores de riesgo para IUTI, analizar agentes causantes e impacto en la sobrevida del injerto. En forma retrospectiva se analizaron pacientes que recibieron trasplante renal durante 1997-2000 en el Hospital Privado - Centro Médico de Córdoba. Se dividió en dos grupos de pacientes, según presencia (grupo IUTI o ausencia (grupo control de IUTI. Los factores de riesgo se analizaron con el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox y la sobrevida del injerto con el método de Kaplan-Meier. Recibieron trasplante renal 226 pacientes consecutivos. La IUTI se presentó en 55 (24.3%. Factores de riesgo asociados con IUTI: antecedentes de maniobras urológicas invasivas (RR=4.34, IC 95% 1.42-13.21, diabetes mellitus (RR=3.79, IC 95% 1.42-10.14, infección por citomegalovirus (RR=2.9, IC 95% 1.02-8.24 y antecedente de trasplante previo (RR=2.83, IC 95% 1.08-7.45. El retardo en la función del injerto (RR=0.38, IC 95% 0.15-0.94 se asoció con menor incidencia de IUTI. Agentes más frecuentes: Klebsiella pneumoniae (36%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24% y Escherichia coli (9%. La sobrevida del injerto a los 2 años en el grupo IUTI (87.2% no fue diferente del control (81.2%, P = 0.32. En esta serie las maniobras urológicas invasivas fueron el principal factor de riesgo asociado a IUTI. No hubo disminución de la sobrevida del injerto asociada a IUTI. La alta prevalencia de uropatógenos no coli requiere mayor evaluación.The early urinary tract infection (EUTI in kidney transplant recipients is an infection develop during the first 3 months post transplant surgery. The effect of EUTI on graft survival and risk factors have been scarcely studied. Our objetives were the evaluation of

  17. Autologous fat graft in irradiated orbit postenucleation for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Francesco; Maione, Luca; Vinci, Valeriano; Lisa, Andrea; Barbera, Federico; Balia, Laura; Caviggioli, Fabio; Di Maria, Alessandra

    2018-01-05

    Autologous fat grafting has been extensively and successfully adopted in a number of pathologic conditions in regenerative surgery especially on irradiated fields in order to improve pain symptoms and tissue trophism promoting scar release. In the present study, we report our experience with autologous fat grafting for the treatment of postirradiation fibrosis and pain on three consecutive patients undergoing orbital enucleation for locally advanced retinoblastoma (RB) and subsequent radiotherapy. We selected three consecutive patients who underwent orbital enucleation for locally advanced RB and subsequent local radiotherapy showing severe reduction in orbital volume and eyelid length and retraction due to fibrosis, spontaneous local pain exacerbated after digital pressure with no possibility to place an ocular implant. They underwent autologous fat grafting in the orbital cavity and results were evaluated by clinical examination at 5 and 14 days, and 1, 3, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. A significant release of scar retraction, reduction of fibrosis and orbital rim contraction together with an important improvement of pain symptoms was observed in all patients. The local changes observed enabled an ease placement of an ocular prosthetic implant (implant). No local or systemic complication occurred. Fat grafting is a promising treatment for patients showing radiotherapy related complication in the orbital area and it should be adopted by all oculoplastic surgeon in order to improve pain syndrome creating the ideal local conditions for the placement of an ocular prosthetic implant.

  18. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  19. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  20. An unusual case of fistula formation and thrombosis between arteriovenous graft and a native vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sub Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous graft for hemodialysis vascular access is a widely used technique with many advantages. However, it has crucial complications with graft thrombosis and infection. We recently experienced an unusual case of arteriovenous graft complication involving graft thrombosis related to fistula formation between the graft and the natural vein with infection. We diagnosed this condition using Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography angiography. Successful surgical treatment including partial graft excision and creation of a secondary arteriovenous fistula using an inadvertently dilated cephalic vein was performed. The dialysis unit staff should keep this condition in mind and try to prevent this complication.

  1. Are the Polyomaviruses BK and JC Associated with Opportunistic Infections, Graft-versus-Host Disease, or Worse Outcomes in Adult Patients Receiving Their First Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation with Low-Dose Alemtuzumab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidewind, Laila; Neumann, Thomas; Knoll, Florian; Zimmermann, Kathrin; Smola, Sigrun; Schmidt, Christian Andreas; Krüger, William

    2017-01-01

    The association of polyomaviruses BK and JC with other opportunistic infections and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation is controversially discussed. We conducted a retrospective study of 64 adult patients who received their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation between March 2010 and December 2014; the follow-up time was 2 years. Acute leukemia was the most frequent underlying disease (45.3%), and conditioning included myeloablative (67.2%) and nonmyeloablative protocols (32.8%). All patients received 10 mg of alemtuzumab on day -2 (20 mg in case of mismatch) as GvHD prophylaxis. Twenty-seven patients (41.5%) developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation. BKPyV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis was diagnosed in 10 patients (15.6%). Other opportunistic infections caused by viruses or protozoa occurred rarely (reactivation, Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, human herpes virus 6, or parvovirus B19 infection requiring treatment. There was a significant correlation of BKPyV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis with toxoplasmosis (p = 0.013). Additionally, there was a significant link of simultaneous BKPyV and JCPyV viruria with toxoplasmosis (p = 0.047). BKPyV and JCPyV were not associated with GvHD, relapse, or death. We found no association of BKPyV or JCPyV with viral infections or GvHD. Only the correlation of both polyomaviruses with toxoplasmosis was significant. This is a novel and interesting finding. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Validation of the prosthetic esthetic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özhayat, Esben B; Dannemand, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In order to diagnose impaired esthetics and evaluate treatments for these, it is crucial to evaluate all aspects of oral and prosthetic esthetics. No professionally administered index currently exists that sufficiently encompasses comprehensive prosthetic esthetics. This study aimed...... to validate a new comprehensive index, the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), for professional evaluation of esthetics in prosthodontic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The content, criterion, and construct validity; the test-retest, inter-rater, and internal consistency reliability; and the sensitivity...... furthermore distinguish between participants and controls, indicating sufficient sensitivity. CONCLUSION: The PEI is considered a valid and reliable instrument involving sufficient aspects for assessment of the professionally evaluated esthetics in prosthodontic patients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE...

  3. Responsiveness of the Prosthetic Esthetic Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI) in a population who received prosthetic replacements. Materials and methods Fifty-seven patients who received prosthetic replacement of at least one tooth by means of fixed or removable...... prosthesis were professionally esthetically evaluated using the PEI and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) before and after treatment. The participants further evaluated their oral esthetics using the Oral Health Impact Profile Aesthetic (OHIP-Aes) and Orofacial Esthetic Index (OES). Responsiveness......-Aes and OES scores. The PEI was more consistent in responsiveness than the DAI. Conclusions The PEI shows sufficient responsiveness for use in longitudinal studies and for use as a follow-up measure in clinical practice. Clinical relevance The PEI can in a standardized manner monitor and document esthetic...

  4. Bruxism and prosthetic treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2011-07-01

    Based on the findings from available research on bruxism and prosthetic treatment published in the dental literature, an attempt was made to draw conclusions about the existence of a possible relationship between the two, and its clinical relevance. MEDLINE/PubMed searches were conducted using the terms 'bruxism' and 'prosthetic treatment', as well as combinations of these and related terms. The few studies judged to be relevant were critically reviewed, in addition to papers found during an additional manual search of reference lists within selected articles. Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit, occurring both during sleep and wakefulness. Usually it causes few serious effects, but can do so in some patients. The etiology is multifactorial. There is no known treatment to stop bruxism, including prosthetic treatment. The role of bruxism in the process of tooth wear is unclear, but it is not considered a major cause. As informed by the present critical review, the relationship between bruxism and prosthetic treatment is one that relates mainly to the effect of the former on the latter. Bruxism may be included among the risk factors, and is associated with increased mechanical and/or technical complications in prosthodontic rehabilitation, although it seems not to affect implant survival. When prosthetic intervention is indicated in a patient with bruxism, efforts should be made to reduce the effects of likely heavy occlusal loading on all the components that contribute to prosthetic structural integrity. Failure to do so may indicate earlier failure than is the norm. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimising the prescription of prosthetic technologies (opptec): Outcome measures for evidence based prosthetic practice and use

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryall, Dr Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This study provided a forum for patients and service providers to voice their opinions in what they believe to be the important predictors and outcomes involved in successful rehabilitation following limb loss. To develop a consensus on the most important outcomes and factors to address for both the lower limb and upper limb prosthetic prescription process, the above data relating to lower limb and upper prosthetics were subsequently used in the next phase of the research involving two Delphi surveys of 23 and 53 experts within the lower limb and upper limb amputation and prosthetic field respectively, including users, service providers and researchers.\\r\

  6. [Multiple agenesis and prosthetic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, P

    1990-03-01

    Cases of multiple agenesia present some difficulties in the treatment planing. Three situations may be encountered: limited agenesia, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia without remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by a fixed, bonded or cemented prosthesis or the partial adjacent prosthesis, multiple uni- or bimaxillary agenesia with remaining of deciduous teeth, restored by means of a supra-dental prosthesis. The first two situations have been described in dental literature and are relatively easy to treat. The same is not true for the third situation, where the decision to keep the temporary teeth considerably increases the difficulty of prosthetic restoration. This subject will be illustrated by the presentation of a clinical case of multiple bi-maxillary agenesia. The patient has: on the maxilla: an absence of 9 permanent teeth (18, 15, 14, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28) and the presence of 4 deciduous teeth (62, 63, 64, 65), on the mandible: an absence of all permanent teeth, with the exception of 36 and 46, and the remaining of 4 deciduous teeth (75, 73, 83, 84). The remaining of deciduous teeth and the presence of a very high inter-arch space led to opting for dental coverage so as to keep the deciduous teeth and a proper vertical dimension. The patient wished to solve his "problem" in the maxilla first, and is not wanting to undergo the extraction of his deciduous teeth. The following therapeutic proposal was adapted: On the maxilla, a three-step procedure: first step: building of metal copings on 13, 16 and 26 and metal-ceramic crowns on 11 and 21, second step: building of telescop crowns on 16 and 26 and clasps on 13, 11 and 21, third step: casting of the removable partial denture framework and soldering to the telescop crowns and clasps. On the mandible, a provisional restoration using a supra-dental resin removable partial denture with ceramic occlusal surfaces was adopted. The aesthetic and functional

  7. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  8. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  9. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.; Loo-Teck Ng; Visay Viengkhou

    1998-01-01

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  10. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  11. Autologous alternative veins may not provide better outcomes than prosthetic conduits for below-knee bypass when great saphenous vein is unavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Sachdev, Ulka; Naddaf, Abdallah; Doucet, Dannielle R; Mohapatra, Abhisekh; Leers, Steven A; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S

    2015-08-01

    There is a need to better define the role of alternative autologous vein (AAV) segments over contemporary prosthetic conduits in patients with critical limb ischemia when great saphenous vein (GSV) is not available for use as the bypass conduit. Consecutive patients who underwent bypass to infrageniculate targets between 2007 and 2011 were categorized in three groups: GSV, AAV, and prosthetic. The primary outcome was graft patency. The secondary outcome was limb salvage. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for baseline confounding variables. A total of 407 infrainguinal bypasses to below-knee targets were analyzed; 255 patients (63%) received a single-segment GSV, 106 patients (26%) received an AAV, and 46 patients (11%) received a prosthetic conduit. Baseline characteristics were similar among groups, with the exception of popliteal targets and anticoagulation use being more frequent in the prosthetic group. Primary patency at 2 and 5 years was estimated at 47% and 32%, respectively, for the GSV group; 24% and 23% for the AAV group; and 43% and 38% for the prosthetic group. Primary assisted patency at 2 and 5 years was estimated at 71% and 55%, respectively, for the GSV group; 53% and 51% for the AAV group; and 45% and 40% for the prosthetic group. Secondary patency at 2 and 5 years was estimated at 75% and 60%, respectively, for the GSV group; 57% and 55% for the AAV group; and 46% and 41% for the prosthetic group. In Cox analysis, primary patency (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; P < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.404-0.758), primary assisted patency (HR, 0.57; P = .004; 95% CI, 0.388-0.831), and secondary patency (HR, 0.56; P = .005; 95% CI, 0.372-0.840) were predicted by GSV compared with AAV, but there was no difference between AAV and prosthetic grafts except for the primary patency, for which prosthetic was protective (HR, 0.38; P < .001; 95% CI, 0.224-0.629). Limb salvage was similar among groups. AAV conduits may not offer a significant

  12. Tomographic and echocardiographic diagnosis of mitral prosthetic valve thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz Gonzalez de la Penna, Benito; Ramos Gutierrez, Luis Benito; Gonzalez Artiles, Iovank

    2010-01-01

    Despite the progress achieved in the design of mechanical prosthetic valves, prosthetic valve thrombosis remains a frequent cause of morbidity, usually due to incorrect anticoagulation. A patient was presented with mitral prosthetic thrombosis one year after implantation, who had been diagnosed by transthoracic transesophageal echocardiography imaging and 64-slice computed tomography. Thrombolytic therapy was successful and led to the satisfactory evolution of the patient

  13. Effect of flow on vascular endothelial cells grown in tissue culture on polytetrafluoroethylene grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentissi, J.M.; Ramberg, K.; O'Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Vascular grafts lined with endothelial cells (EC) grown to confluence in culture before implantation may provide a thromboresistant flow surface. Growth of EC on and their adherence to currently available prosthetic materials under conditions of flow are two impediments remaining in the development of such a graft. To address these problems, 22 polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (PTFE) (5 cm by 4 mm inside diameter) were pretreated with collagen and fibronectin, seeded with 2 to 3 X 10(6) bovine aortic EC per graft, and placed in tissue culture (seeded grafts). Twenty-two grafts pretreated with collagen and fibronectin alone served as controls. After 2 weeks morphologic studies revealed that 20/22 seeded grafts were lined with a confluent endothelial layer. Indium 111-oxine was then used to label the EC-seeded grafts. After exposure to either low (25 ml/min) or high (200 ml/min) flow rates for 60 minutes in an in vitro circuit, examination of the luminal surface of the graft by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed minimal loss of EC. These findings were corroborated by radionuclide scans that showed an insignificant loss of the EC-associated indium label during exposure to flow (7% low flow, 11% high flow). Pretreatment of PTFE grafts with collagen and fibronectin thus promotes both attachment and adherence of EC even under flow conditions

  14. Transluminal endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Chang, Byung Chul; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Chung, Nam Sik; Kwon, Hyuk Moon; Lee, Young Joon; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    The standard treatment for aortic aneurysms is surgical replacement with a prosthetic graft. Currently there is great interest in endoluminal intervention for treatment of aortic aneurysm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of endoluminally placed Stent-graft for the treatment of aortic aneurysms. Transluminal endovascular Stent-graft placements were attempted in 9 patients with infra-renal aortic aneurysms(n 6), thoracic aortic aneurysm(n = 1), and aortic dissection(n = 2). The endovascular Stent-grafts were custom-designed for each patient and were constructed of self-expandable modified Gianturco Stents covered with polytetrafluroethylene. The Stent-grafts were introduced through a 16-18 French sheath and expanded to 17-30 mm in diameter. The endovascular therapy was performed using a common femoral artery cutdown with local anesthesia. The endovascular Stent-graft deployment was achieved in 7 of 9 patients. Two cases failed deployment of the Stent-graft due to iliac artery stenosis and tortousity. There were complete thrombosis of the thoracic and infra-renal aortic aneurysm surround the Stent-graft in 3 patients, and persistent leak with partial thrombosis in 2. Two patients with aortic dissection were successfully treated by obliteration of entry tears. There were no major complication associated with Stent-graft placement. These preliminary results show that transluminal endovascular Stent-grafts offer great promise and good results. Further investigation is needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy.

  15. Transluminal endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Yun; Chang, Byung Chul; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Chung, Nam Sik; Kwon, Hyuk Moon; Lee, Young Joon; Lee, Jong Tae

    1995-01-01

    The standard treatment for aortic aneurysms is surgical replacement with a prosthetic graft. Currently there is great interest in endoluminal intervention for treatment of aortic aneurysm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of endoluminally placed Stent-graft for the treatment of aortic aneurysms. Transluminal endovascular Stent-graft placements were attempted in 9 patients with infra-renal aortic aneurysms(n 6), thoracic aortic aneurysm(n = 1), and aortic dissection(n = 2). The endovascular Stent-grafts were custom-designed for each patient and were constructed of self-expandable modified Gianturco Stents covered with polytetrafluroethylene. The Stent-grafts were introduced through a 16-18 French sheath and expanded to 17-30 mm in diameter. The endovascular therapy was performed using a common femoral artery cutdown with local anesthesia. The endovascular Stent-graft deployment was achieved in 7 of 9 patients. Two cases failed deployment of the Stent-graft due to iliac artery stenosis and tortousity. There were complete thrombosis of the thoracic and infra-renal aortic aneurysm surround the Stent-graft in 3 patients, and persistent leak with partial thrombosis in 2. Two patients with aortic dissection were successfully treated by obliteration of entry tears. There were no major complication associated with Stent-graft placement. These preliminary results show that transluminal endovascular Stent-grafts offer great promise and good results. Further investigation is needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy

  16. Electrospun polydioxanone-elastin blends: potential for bioresorbable vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, S A [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); McClure, M J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Barnes, C P [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Knapp, D C [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Walpoth, B H [University Hospital, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Simpson, D G [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Bowlin, G L [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    An electrospun cardiovascular graft composed of polydioxanone (PDO) and elastin has been designed and fabricated with mechanical properties to more closely match those of native arterial tissue, while remaining conducive to tissue regeneration. PDO was chosen to provide mechanical integrity to the prosthetic, while elastin provides elasticity and bioactivity (to promote regeneration in vitro/in situ). It is the elastic nature of elastin that dominates the low-strain mechanical response of the vessel to blood flow and prevents pulsatile energy from being dissipated as heat. Uniaxial tensile and suture retention tests were performed on the electrospun grafts to demonstrate the similarities of the mechanical properties between the grafts and native vessel. Dynamic compliance measurements produced values that ranged from 1.2 to 5.6%/100 mmHg for a set of three different mean arterial pressures. Results showed the 50:50 ratio to closely mimic the compliance of native femoral artery, while grafts that contained less elastin exceeded the suture retention strength of native vessel. Preliminary cell culture studies showed the elastin-containing grafts to be bioactive as cells migrated through their full thickness within 7 days, but failed to migrate into pure PDO scaffolds. Electrospinning of the PDO and elastin-blended composite into a conduit for use as a small diameter vascular graft has extreme potential and warrants further investigation as it thus far compares favorably to native vessel.

  17. Alveolar Ridge Contouring with Free Connective Tissue Graft at Implant Placement: A 5-Year Consecutive Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Thomas; Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated volume stability after alveolar ridge contouring with free connective tissue grafts at implant placement in single-tooth gaps. A total of 52 single-tooth gaps with labial volume deficiencies in the maxilla (incisors, canines, and premolars) were consecutively treated with implants and concomitant free palatal connective tissue grafts in 46 patients between 2006 and 2009. Implants had to be covered with at least 2 mm peri-implant local bone after insertion. At implant placement, a free connective tissue graft from the palate was fixed inside a labial split-thickness flap to form an existing concave buccal alveolar ridge contour due to tissue volume deficiency into a convex shape. Standardized volumetric measurements of the labial alveolar contour using a template were evaluated before connective tissue grafting and at 2 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after implantprosthetic incorporation. Tissue volume had increased significantly (P tissue contour of the implant before connective tissue grafting to baseline (2 weeks after implant-prosthetic incorporation). Statistically, 50% of the reference points (P > .05) kept their volume from baseline to 1 year after prosthetic incorporation and from baseline to 5 years after prosthetic incorporation, respectively, whereas reference points located within the area of the implant sulcus showed a significant (P connective tissue grafting appears to be an appropriate long-term means to contour preexisting buccal alveolar volume deficiencies in single implants.

  18. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  19. Post-transplantation Infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arze, S; Arze, L; Abecia, C

    2016-03-01

    Over 26 years, we found 46 infectious episodes in 350 kidney transplant recipients. Fifteen were urinary tract infections, recurrent in 4 patients. There were 8 cytomegalovirus infections, three of them fatal when intravenous (IV) ganciclovir was not available. Seven patients had a reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) in the pleura, cervical spine, lumbar spine, knee, ankle, skin and peritoneum, respectively, and were all resolved satisfactorily with conventional anti-TB therapy. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of acyclovir developed an extensive herpes zoster infection in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was resolved with the use of oral acyclovir, and 1 had a disseminated herpes simplex infection resolved with the use of IV acyclovir. Three patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with trimethoprim sulfa developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the 1st 6 months after transplantation, which was fatal in one of them. In 2 patients, we found a Nocardia infection, confined to the lung, which was cured in one of the cases and systemic and fatal in the other. Two patients transplanted before routine prophylaxis with the use of nystatin developed esophageal candidiasis in the 1st 6 months after transplantation. One patient developed infective endocarditis in a stenotic bicuspid aortic valve and died 10 years later after another incident of infective endocarditis at the prosthetic aortic valve. Two patients developed an extensive condyloma at the penis, perianal region, and perineum owing to human papillomavirus, requiring extensive surgical resection and podophyllin applications. Another patient developed fatal post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease due to Epstein-Barr virus infection 15 years after transplantation. One patient developed a severe and fatal mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with no response to conventional antimonial therapy. It is interesting to note that despite Chagas disease being endemic

  20. Autologous patch graft in tube shunt surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, I M; Spaeth, G L; Schmidt, C M; Lanzl, I M; Gandham, S B

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate an alternate method of covering the subconjunctival portion of the tube in aqueous shunt surgery. Evidence of tube erosion, graft-related infection, graft melting, or other associated intraocular complications were evaluated. A retrospective study of 16 patients (17 eyes) who underwent tube shunt surgery at Wills Eye Hospital between July 1991 and October 1996 was conducted. An autologous either "free" or "rotating" scleral lamellar graft was created to cover the subconjunctival portion of the tube shunt. All patients were evaluated for at least 6 months, with a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range 6-62 months). All eyes tolerated the autologous graft well, with no clinical evidence of tube erosion, or graft-related or intraocular complications. Autologous patch graft in tube shunt surgery appears--in selected cases--to be an effective, safe and inexpensive surgical alternative to allogenic graft materials. It also offers ease of availability, and eliminates the risk of transmitting infectious disease.

  1. Tactile Sensing Reflexes for Advanced Prosthetic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Jeremy A. Fishel, Member, IEEE Figure 1. A) Custom NumaTac prosthetic fingertip sensor core and foam; B) Ottobock VariPlus Speed hand installed with two...oal – H ardw are P rototype D evelopm ent R   Identify alternatives for outcom e m easures R   E xplore sensor design param eters C Y16 G oals – C

  2. Prosthetic Management of Patients Presenting with Juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen were referred for prosthetic replacement. Their age ranged between 18 and 36 years. A total of 24 removable partial dentures were fabricated, 17[70.8%] were kennedy class III type, of which 11[64.7%] had the bounded saddle located in the anterior segment. Majority 8[44.4%] of the patients had 2-4 teeth replaced ...

  3. Successful Thrombolysis of Aortic Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    patients with valvular heart disease). Endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular. Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular. Angiography and Interventions, and Society of. Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(13):e1-142. 5. Elkayam U, Bitar F. Valvular heart disease and pregnancy. Part II: prosthetic valves.

  4. Multimodality Imaging Assessment of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchá, D.; Symersky, Petr; Tanis, W; Mali, Willem P Th M; Leiner, Tim; van Herwerden, LA; Budde, Ricardo P J

    Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the main techniques for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) evaluation, but because of specific limitations they may not identify the morphological substrate or the extent of PHV pathology. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have

  5. The Prosthetic Experience Between Body and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that a prosthetic aesthetic instigated by experimental art practices operate with and within a ‘second nature’ – in-between science and art. Drawing on theories from Dewey and Edelman and examples from Da Vinci, Brancusi, Man Ray, Dali and Stelarc, I am calling...

  6. Consumer satisfaction in prosthetics and orthotics facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; Gankema, H.G.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    The aim of this study was to assess consumer/patient satisfaction with the services of the prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) facilities in the north of the Netherlands, using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire. In this questionnaire, consumer interests and experiences are assessed on a 5-point Likert

  7. Aortic allografts in treatment of aortic valve and ascending aorta prosthetic endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Spiridonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to assess short- and long-term results of aortic root replacement using aortic allografts in patients with prosthetic endocarditis. Materials and methods. Since February 2009 until June 2016 aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement using aortic allografts was performed in 26 patients with prosthetic endocarditis. In 50 % of cases at initial operation aortic valve replacement was performed, in another 50 % of cases – aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement. Echocardiography was performed 10 days, 3, 6 and 12 months, 2, 3 and 5 years after surgery. Analysis of long-term results included all cases of deaths, prosthesis-related complications and recurrence of endocarditis. Results. 30-day mortality was 23.1 %. Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO was used only in 5 patients (19.2 %. Four patients were weaned from ECMO. We did not observe any allograft-related complications. During follow-up period there were no cases of reoperation due to structural allograft failure. Relapse of infection occurred in 1 patient (3.8 % four years after the operation and led to lethal outcome. Conclusion. Reoperations using allografts are an effective surgical treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. In majority of cases prosthetic endocarditis was caused by gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus. In 84.6 % of cases it was associated with destruction of paravalvular structures and abscesses formation. Heart failure was a causative factor of different complications in these patients, which required ECMO in 19.2 % of patients. In 80 % of cases patients were weaned from ECMO. Allografts using for the treatment of prosthetic endocarditis is associated with high resistance to infection and with a significant rate of freedom from recurrence of endocarditis within 3 years after surgery.

  8. Pregnancy after Prosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement: How Do We Monitor Prosthetic Valvular Function during Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sahasrabudhe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With modern medicine, many women after structural heart repair are deciding to experience pregnancy. There is a need for further study to identify normal echocardiographic parameters to better assess prosthetic valvular function in pregnancy. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach is essential in managing pregnant patients with complex cardiac conditions. Case. A 22-year-old nulliparous woman with an aortic valve replacement 18 months prior to her pregnancy presented to prenatal care at 20-week gestation. During her prenatal care, serial echocardiography showed a significant increase in the mean gradient across the prosthetic aortic valve. Multidisciplinary management and a serial echocardiography played an integral role in her care that resulted in a successful spontaneous vaginal delivery without complications. Conclusion. Further characterization of the normal echocardiographic parameters in pregnant patients with prosthetic valves is critical to optimize prenatal care for this patient population. This case report is novel in that serial echocardiograms were obtained throughout prenatal care, which showed significant changes across the prosthetic aortic valve. Teaching Points. (1 Further study is needed to identify normal echocardiographic parameters to best assess prosthetic valvular function in pregnancy. (2 Multidisciplinary management is encouraged to optimize prenatal care for women with prosthetic aortic valve replacements.

  9. Periprosthetic hip joint infection with Aspergillus terreus: A clinical case and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal periprosthetic joint infections due to Aspergillus species are rare but are associated with significant cost and morbidity. We present a case of Asperigillus terreus prosthetic joint infection of the hip. The patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of systemic antifungals along with surgical management. Keywords: Fungal prosthetic joint infection, Aspergillus terreus

  10. Vascularized fibular graft combined with vacuum assisted closure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flowthrough fibular graft combined with Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) controlled the infection, shortened the course of treatment, and effectively restored limb function when applied to the treatment of tibial defects. Keywords: Tibial defect, Flow-through fibular graft, Vacuum Assisted Closure, Chronic Osteomyelitis ...

  11. Distal vein patch as a form of autologus modification for infragenicular prosthetic bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totic, Dragan; Rustempasic, Nedzad; Djedovic, Muhamed; Solakovic, Sid; Vukas, Haris; Aslani, Ilijas; Krvavac, Alma; Rudalija, Dzejra; Ahmetasevic, Alen

    2013-01-01

    Preferred graft for infragenicular bypass is autologus vein. The problem is when there is not available autologus vein. Literature suggest that in these situations, prosthetic graft with some form of modification of distal anastomosis with autogenic tissue is valuable adjunctive. Frequently used modifications are Miller's cuff, Taylor's patch and St. Mary's boot. Recently, there are reports on "Distal vein patch" as a form of autologus modification which, due to its simplicity and patency rate, attracted attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate benefits of this novel modification by comparing its patencies with other autologus modification of distal anastomosis. Study was performed on 60 patients, diabetics, with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Patients were divided in two groups: Group with distal vein patch modification; and group with some other form modification - control group. Patients were followed at least 22 months. We examined patency of grafts by physical examination or using Color Doppler. For statistical purposes we used KIaplan Meier analysis and curve. Significance was determined by Mann-Whitney, Fisher's exact, Pearsons chi square or Student T test as appropriate. P value less than 0,05 was considered significant. Groups were fairly matched relative to demographics, risk factors, operative intervention and distal anastomosis site. There was not statistical difference in two year primary patency between distal vein patch and control group--50% vs 53% respectivly (X2 = 0,08; p = 0,773). Also, there was not statistically significant difference in extremity survival (77% vs 77%) and patient survival between groups (89% vs 93%; X2 = 2,458; p = 0,117). This study proved equivalent patencies of infragenicular prosthetic bypasses performed using distal vein patch technique as with any other modification of distal anastomosis.

  12. Mitral Prosthetic Valve Obstruction and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic Valve Obstruction (PVO is a serious complication which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This could result from thrombus formation, development of pannus, or a combination of both. Patients with this complication often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure, systemic embolism, acute cardiovascular collapse, and sudden death. Transesophageal echocardiography and cine fluoroscopy play a vital role in diagnosis of this potentially lethal condition. Herein, we reported a 56-year-old male patient who presented with severe heart failure and was found to have obstructed ATS27 bileaflet mitral prosthetic valve. Thrombolysis and redo surgery are two important options for treating this condition although guidelines for choosing between the two are not very definite.

  13. Prosthetic valve obstruction: Redo surgery or fibrinolysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Inamdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of surgery versus fibrinolytic therapy in patients with prosthetic valve obstruction. Materials and Methods: We compared 15 patients of prosthetic valve thrombosis treated by surgical line of management and another 15 patients treated by thrombolysis. All patients were initially assessed by clinical evaluation and diagnosis confirmed by transthoracic and transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography. Depending on hemodynamic stability, pannus, or thrombus on transesophageal echocardiography, the patients were assigned surgical or medical line of management. Results: Patients mortality rate was 40% in fibrinolytic group and 13.33% in surgical group. Recurrence was 40% in fibrinolytic group while there was no recurrence till date in surgery group. Complications were more in fibrinolytic group as opposed to surgery group patient. Conclusion: From our experience, we conclude that redo surgery is effective and definitive treatment, especially in patients with stable hemodynamic conditions.

  14. The radiology of prosthetic heart valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.M.; Flicker, S.

    1985-01-01

    The development of prosthetic heart valves in the late 1950s ushered in a new era in the treatment of heart disease. The radiologist has an important role to play preoperatively in the diagnosis of valvular heart disease. Radiology is valuable in identification of the implanted prosthetic valve and recognition of complications associated with valve implantation. Radiologists must be familiar with the imaging techniques best suited to evaluate the function of the valve prosthesis in question. In this chapter the authors discuss the radiographic approach to the evaluation of the status of patients for valve replacement and the imaging problems peculiar to the types of valves in current use. The relative value of plain-film radiography, fluoroscopy, videorecording and cinerecording, and aortography is addressed, as well as the potential value of magnetic resonance imaging and subsecond dynamic computed tomography

  15. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  16. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Vujaklija,1 Dario Farina,1 Oskar C Aszmann2 1Institute of Neurorehabilitation Systems, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany; 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Absence of an upper limb leads to severe impairments in everyday life, which can further influence the social and mental state. For these reasons, early developments in cosmetic and body-driven prostheses date some centuries ago, and they have been evolving ever since. Following the end of the Second World War, rapid developments in technology resulted in powered myoelectric hand prosthetics. In the years to come, these devices were common on the market, though they still suffered high user abandonment rates. The reasons for rejection were trifold – insufficient functionality of the hardware, fragile design, and cumbersome control. In the last decade, both academia and industry have reached major improvements concerning technical features of upper limb prosthetics and methods for their interfacing and control. Advanced robotic hands are offered by several vendors and research groups, with a variety of active and passive wrist options that can be articulated across several degrees of freedom. Nowadays, elbow joint designs include active solutions with different weight and power options. Control features are getting progressively more sophisticated, offering options for multiple sensor integration and multi-joint articulation. Latest developments in socket designs are capable of facilitating implantable and multiple surface electromyography sensors in both traditional and osseointegration-based systems. Novel surgical techniques in combination with modern, sophisticated hardware are enabling restoration of dexterous upper limb

  17. Control system and method for prosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the movable body part through the full-shrug position of the movable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the movable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective movable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  18. Smart Prosthetic Hand Technology - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    functional magnetic resonance imaging (f- MRI ) was used to analyze the reciprocal adaptation between the human brain and the prosthetic hand by the...Schmidt PC. Influence of compacted hydrophobic and hydrophilic colloidal silicon dioxide on tableting properties of pharmaceutical excipients. Drug Dev...nanoparticles, and manganese nanoparticles) in magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) in the detection and staging of cancer [2]. 2.1 Iron Oxide

  19. PVDF multifilament yarns grafted with polystyrene induced by γ-irradiation: Influence of the grafting parameters on the mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmey, P.; Porte, M.C.; Baquey, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The development of alternative prosthetic materials for cardiovascular applications has found growing interest due to the failure to date to be able to implement functional patent small diameter vascular grafts (diameter <5 mm). For instance, the successful implantation of small diameter polyester (PET) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFEe) vascular grafts has not been achieved in humans. Our strategy is to work with a new multifilament yarns biomaterial, produced from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which shows suitable mechanical properties, such as a lower tensile modulus than PET and PTFEe. The required biological properties sought for (i.e. low thrombogenicity) could be achieved by 'heparin-like' surface modification treatments in order to modify the thrombogenicity levels of the polymeric materials [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 7 (1979) 429]. A four step method is necessary to achieve this 'heparin-like' surface transformation [J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (2000) 119]. The first step consists in grafting polystyrene onto the PVDF surface by γ irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of grafting parameters on the mechanical properties: (i) γ-ray irradiation time and (ii) grafting time of styrene monomers, which polymerize and form polystyrene bound to the PVDF surface

  20. Dynamic elasticity measurement for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Kim, Junghoon; Son, Hyeryon; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel apparatus to measure the dynamic elasticity of human limb in order to help the design and fabrication of the personalized prosthetic socket. To take measurements of the dynamic elasticity, the desired force generated as an exponential chirp signal in which the frequency increases and amplitude is maintained according to time progress is applied to human limb and then the skin deformation is recorded, ultimately, to obtain the frequency response of its elasticity. It is referred to as a Dynamic Elasticity Measurement Apparatus (DEMA) in the paper. It has three core components such as linear motor to provide the desired force, loadcell to implement the force feedback control, and potentiometer to record the skin deformation. After measuring the force/deformation and calculating the dynamic elasticity of the limb, it is visualized as 3D color map model of the limb so that the entire dynamic elasticity can be shown at a glance according to the locations and frequencies. For the visualization, the dynamic elasticities measured at specific locations and frequencies are embodied using the color map into 3D limb model acquired by using 3D scanner. To demonstrate the effectiveness, the visualized dynamic elasticities are suggested as outcome of the proposed system, although we do not have any opportunity to apply the proposed system to the amputees. Ultimately, it is expected that the proposed system can be utilized to design and fabricate the personalized prosthetic socket in order for releasing the wearing pain caused by the conventional prosthetic socket.

  1. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustained Thromboresistant Bioactivity with Reduced Intimal Hyperplasia of Heparin-Bonded Polytetrafluoroethylene Propaten Graft in a Chronic Canine Femoral Artery Bypass Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John; Chen, Aaron; Weinberg, Roy J; Okada, Tamuru; Chen, Changyi; Lin, Peter H

    2018-05-01

    Bypass graft thrombosis remains a significant mode of failure in prosthetic graft revascularization. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the long-term thromboresistant effect of heparin-bonded expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) graft using Carmeda BioActive Surface technology in a canine model. Bilateral femorofemoral artery bypass grafts with ePTFE grafts were performed in 25 adult grayhound dogs. In each animal, a heparin-bonded ePTFE graft (Propaten, WL Gore) was placed on one side, whereas a control nonheparin graft was placed on the contralateral side. The graft patency was assessed at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 5 per group) following the bypass. Heparin bioactivity of the graft material was analyzed. The effect of intimal hyperplasia was also assessed. All bypass grafts were patent at 1 month. Significantly greater patency rates were noted in the Propaten group compared to the control group at 12, 18, and 24 months, which were 84%, 80%, and 80% vs. 55%, 35%, and 20%, respectively (P  0.05). Heparin-bonded ePTFE graft provides a thromboresistant surface and reduced anastomotic intimal hyperplasia at 2 years. The stable heparin bioactivity of the Propaten graft confers an advantage in long-term graft patency. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Osseous scintigraphy and auxiliary graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, F.; Siles, S.; Puech, B.

    1992-01-01

    The scintigraphy could be a good way to survey the osseous graft: three cases are studied in which were recognized the presence of a graft, surinfection, graft lysis, pseudo-arthrosis, algodystrophy. 8 refs., 5 figs

  4. Meniscal allograft transplantation. Part 1: systematic review of graft biology, graft shrinkage, graft extrusion, graft sizing, and graft fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Taylor, Dean C; Rill, Brian; Lock, Terrence; Moutzouros, Vasilius; Kolowich, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To provide a systematic review of the literature regarding five topics in meniscal allograft transplantation: graft biology, shrinkage, extrusion, sizing, and fixation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect, and EBSCO-CINAHL databases. Articles were classified only in one topic, but information contained could be reported into other topics. Information was classified according to type of study (animal, in vitro human, and in vivo human) and level of evidence (for in vivo human studies). Sixty-two studies were finally included: 30 biology, 3 graft shrinkage, 11 graft extrusion, 17 graft size, and 6 graft fixation (some studies were categorized in more than one topic). These studies corresponded to 22 animal studies, 22 in vitro human studies, and 23 in vivo human studies (7 level II, 10 level III, and 6 level IV). The principal conclusions were as follows: (a) Donor cells decrease after MAT and grafts are repopulated with host cells form synovium; (b) graft preservation alters collagen network (deep freezing) and causes cell apoptosis with loss of viable cells (cryopreservation); (c) graft shrinkage occurs mainly in lyophilized and gamma-irradiated grafts (less with cryopreservation); (d) graft extrusion is common but has no clinical/functional implications; (e) overall, MRI is not superior to plain radiograph for graft sizing; (f) graft width size matching is more important than length size matching; (g) height appears to be the most important factor influencing meniscal size; (h) bone fixation better restores contact mechanics than suture fixation, but there are no differences for pullout strength or functional results; and (i) suture fixation has more risk of graft extrusion compared to bone fixation. Systematic review of level II-IV studies, Level IV.

  5. Preditores de infecção no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica Predictors of infection in post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ledur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Embora a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM seja uma boa alternativa terapêutica na doença arterial grave, pode evoluir com complicações, especialmente infecções. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de infecção no pós-operatório de CRM e seus preditores clínicos em um centro de referência cardiológico brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte. Foram coletados dados de todos os pacientes submetidos à CRM entre janeiro/2004 e fevereiro/2006, excluindo-se cirurgias de urgência, sem glicemia pré-operatória e com infecção prévia à cirurgia. Análise estatística: teste t-Student, qui quadrado e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 717 pacientes, 61,9 ± 11 anos, 67,1% homens, 29,6% com diabetes, dos quais 137 (19,1% desenvolveram infecção (62% respiratória, 25% superficial de ferida operatória, 9,5% urinária, 3,6% profunda de ferida operatória. Diabetes foi mais prevalente naqueles que desenvolveram infecção, assim como maior tempo de permanência do cateter venoso central (79,3 ± 40,5 vs. 61,0 ± 19,3 h, PBACKGROUND: Although coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is a good alternative therapy in severe arterial disease, it may evolve with complications, especially infections. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of infection in post-CABG and its clinical predictors in a cardiology reference center in Brazil. METHODS: Cohort study. Data were collected from all patients undergoing CABG between January/2004 and February/2006, excluding emergency surgery, absent record of glucose blood levels preoperatively and infection prior to surgery. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, chi square, logistic regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 717 patients, 61.9 ± 11 years old, 67.1% were men, 29.6% with diabetes, of whom 137 (19.1% developed infection (62% respiratory, 25% superficial wound, 9.5% urinary, 3.6% deep wound. Diabetes was more prevalent in those who developed infection, as well as

  6. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kevin J.; Ross, E. Raymond S.; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N.

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had e...

  7. Stiffness and hysteresis properties of some prosthetic feet

    OpenAIRE

    van Jaarsveld, H.W.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A prosthetic foot is an important element of a prosthesis, although it is not always fully recognized that the properties of the foot, along with the prosthetic knee joint and the socket, are in part responsible for the stability and metabolic energy cost during walking. The stiffness and the hysteresis, which are the topics of this paper, are not properly prescribed, but could be adapted to improve the prosthetic walking performance. The shape is strongly related to the cosmetic appearance a...

  8. Improved endothelial cell seeding with cultured cells and fibronectin-coated grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, J.M.; Klingman, N.

    1985-01-01

    A possible approach to the low seeding efficiency of endothelial cells into prosthetic grafts is to increase the number of cells to be seeded in cell culture and improve seeding efficiency by graft precoating with fibronectin. The effect of cell culture on cell adhesion is unknown, however, and fibronectin also binds fibrin, which may increase the thrombogenicity of the graft luminal surface. To investigate these questions, freshly harvested canine jugular vein endothelial cells from six animals and similar cells harvested from six primary and eight secondary cell cultures were labeled with 111 Indium and seeded into 5 cm, 4 mm PTFE grafts coated with fibronectin, using similar uncoated PTFE grafts as controls. Platelet accumulation and distribution on six similar coated and uncoated grafts placed in canine carotid, external jugular arterial venous shunts for 2 hr were also determined using autogenous 111 Indium-labeled platelets. Significant differences between group means were determined using the paired Student's t test. Results reveal that seeding efficiency is significantly better in all groups of coated grafts compared to uncoated grafts (P less than 0.01). Cells derived from cell culture also had significantly higher seeding efficiencies than freshly harvested cells when seeded into coated grafts (P less than 0.05) and tended to have higher seeding efficiencies than harvested cells when seeded into uncoated grafts (P = 0.53). Fibronectin coating increased mean platelet accumulation on the entire graft luminal surface, but not to a statistically significant degree (P greater than 0.1). Whether this increased seeding efficiency will improve graft endothelialization remains to be investigated

  9. Fused Filament Fabrication of Prosthetic Components for Trans-Humeral Upper Limb Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, Steven M.

    Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a thermoplastic osseointegrated upper limb prosthesis for average adult trans-humeral amputation with mechanical properties greater than upper limb skeletal bone. The prosthetic designed has: a one-step surgical process, large cavities for bone tissue ingrowth, uses a material that has an elastic modulus less than skeletal bone, and can be fabricated on one system. FFF osseointegration screw is an improvement upon the current two-part osseointegrated prosthetics that are composed of a fixture and abutment. The current prosthetic design requires two invasive surgeries for implantation and are made of titanium, which has an elastic modulus greater than bone. An elastic modulus greater than bone causes stress shielding and overtime can cause loosening of the prosthetic. The tactile sensor is a thermoplastic piezo-resistive sensor for daily activities for a prosthetic's feedback system. The tactile sensor is manufactured from a low elastic modulus composite comprising of a compressible thermoplastic elastomer and conductive carbon. Carbon is in graphite form and added in high filler ratios. The printed sensors were compared to sensors that were fabricated in a gravity mold to highlight the difference in FFF sensors to molded sensors. The 3D printed tactile sensor has a thickness and feel similar to human skin, has a simple fabrication technique, can detect forces needed for daily activities, and can be manufactured in to user specific geometries. Lastly, a biomimicking skeletal muscle actuator for prosthetics was developed. The actuator developed is manufactured with Fuse Filament Fabrication using a shape memory polymer composite that has non-linear contractile and passive forces, contractile forces and strains comparable to mammalian skeletal muscle, reaction

  10. Factors Associated with Prosthetic Looseness in Lower Limb Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonghanyudh, Thong; Sutpasanon, Taweesak; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak; Devakula, M L Buddhibongsa; Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors associated with prosthetic looseness in lower limb amputees in Sisaket province. The present was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Subjects were lower limb amputees who previously obtained prostheses and required prosthetic replacements at the mobile prosthetic laboratory unit under the Prostheses Foundation of H.R.H. the Princess Mother at Khun Han Hospital, Sisaket province, in February 2013. Data including participant characteristics, prosthetic looseness data, and various variables were collected by direct semi-structured interview. Energy expenditures in physical activities were measured using the Thai version of the short format international physical activity questionnaire. Data between participants with and without prosthetic looseness were compared to determine prosthetic loosening associated factors. Among 101 participants enrolled, 33 (32.7%) had prosthetic looseness with average onset of 1.76 ± 1.67 years. Diabetes mellitus was the only significant factor associated with prosthetic looseness from both univariate and multivariate analyses (HR = 7.05, p = 0.002 and HR = 5.93, p = 0.007 respectively). Among the lower limb amputees in Sisaket province, diabetes mellitus was the only factor associated with prosthetic looseness. Therefore, diabetic screening should be supplemented in lower limb amputee assessment protocol. In addition, we recommend that amputees with diabetes mellitus should receive prosthesis check out at approximately

  11. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Tricuspid Prosthetic Valves: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Maragiannis, MD, FASE, FACC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the diagnostic value of novel echocardiographic techniques and the clinical application of recently described algorithms to assess tricuspid prosthetic valve function.

  12. The role of osteoblasts in peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, S C

    2013-08-01

    Peri-prosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening is the most common reason for revising total hip replacements. Wear particles originating from the prosthetic components interact with multiple cell types in the peri-prosthetic region resulting in an inflammatory process that ultimately leads to peri-prosthetic bone loss. These cells include macrophages, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The majority of research in peri-prosthetic osteolysis has concentrated on the role played by osteoclasts and macrophages. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis. In peri-prosthetic osteolysis, wear particles may affect osteoblasts and contribute to the osteolytic process by two mechanisms. First, particles and metallic ions have been shown to inhibit the osteoblast in terms of its ability to secrete mineralised bone matrix, by reducing calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and its ability to proliferate. Secondly, particles and metallic ions have been shown to stimulate osteoblasts to produce pro inflammatory mediators in vitro. In vivo, these mediators have the potential to attract pro-inflammatory cells to the peri-prosthetic area and stimulate osteoclasts to absorb bone. Further research is needed to fully define the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis and to explore its potential role as a therapeutic target in this condition.

  13. Successful Management of Prosthetic Valve Brucella Endocarditis with Antibiotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Fonseca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a case of mechanical aortic prosthesis Brucella endocarditis successfully treated with antibiotics alone. Materials and methods: We describe a clinical case and present a review of the literature. Results: A 60-year-old female farmer with a mechanical aortic prosthetic valve presented with low back pain and fever. She was diagnosed with prosthetic valve Brucella mellitensis endocarditis and was cured with antibiotic therapy alone. Few cases of successfully treated prosthetic valve Brucella endocarditis without surgery have been reported. Conclusion: Prosthetic valve Brucella endocarditis usually requires surgical valve replacement. However, selected patients may be successfully treated with antibiotic therapy alone.

  14. QT Prolongation Complicated with Torsades de Pointes in Prosthetic Mitral Valve Endocarditis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tounsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 49-year-old male patient with prosthetic mitral valve endocarditis associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes. He was asymptomatic until the end of January 2012, when he was admitted to our hospital emergency unit because of syncope, fever, and suspicion of endocarditis. Cardiologic evaluation was requested and the transthoracic (TTE and transesophageal (TEE echocardiograms revealed vegetations on the prosthetic mitral valve. All cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The corrected QT (QTc interval was markedly prolonged upon admission (QTc 540 ms. He experienced torsades de pointes (TdP several times and he was recovered after bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The clinical course and the long QTc interval with deep inverted T wave were completely normalized 4 weeks after. He continued on triple antibiotic therapy for 45 days with a good revolution. The clinical features and the possible mechanisms of QT prolongation (inflammation, infection of this patient are discussed.

  15. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Jajoo Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of maxillofacial defect patients is a challenging task. The most common prosthetic treatment problem with such patients is, getting adequate retention, stability, and support. In cases of large maxillofacial defect, movement of the prosthesis is inevitable. The primary objectives in rehabilitating the maxillofacial defect patients are to restore the function of mastication, deglutition, speech, and to achieve normal orofacial appearance. This clinical report describes maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of large midfacial defect including orbit along with its contents, zygoma and soft tissues including half of the nose, cheeks, upper lip of left side, accompanying postsurgical microstomia and orofacial communication, which resulted from severe fungal infection mucormycosis. The defect in this case was restored with magnet retained two piece maxillofacial prosthesis having hollow acrylic resin framework and an overlying silicone facial prosthesis. The retention of prosthesis was further enhanced with the use of spectacles. This type of combination prosthesis enhanced the cosmesis and functional acceptability of prosthesis.

  16. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft fistula for chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, V A; Kohlberg, W I; Bhat, D J; Driscoll, B; Veith, F J

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 66 PTFE arteriovenous fistulae and 71 BCH arteriovenous fistulae for dialysis access, PTFE had a higher patency rate than BCH at 12 months (62.4 versus 32.5%). PTFE was easier to work with and easier to handle in the face of infection. The lateral upper arm approach to placement of the PTFE graft is desirable in patients who have had multiple previous access procedures because this area is usually free from scarring, is distant from neurovascular structures, and provides a greater length of graft for needle punctures.

  17. Advances in radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.A.; Kamal, H.; Kandeel, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Graft copolymerization is an attractive means for modifying base polymers because grafting frequently results in the superposition of properties relating to the backbone and pendent chains. Among the various methods for initiating the grafting reaction, ionizing radiation is the cleanest and most versatile method of grafting available. Ion-exchange membranes play an important role in modern technology, especially in separation and purification of materials. The search for improved membrane composition has considered almost every available polymeric material because of its great practical importance. Grafting of polymers with a mixture of monomers is important since different types of chains containing different functional groups are included. A great deal is focused on the waste treatment of heavy and toxic metals from wastewater because of the severe problems of environmental pollution. Functionalized polymers suitable for metal adsorption with their reactive functional groups such as carboxylic and pyridine groups suitable for waste treatment were prepared by radiation grafting method. More reactive chelating groups were further introduced to the grafted copolymer through its functional groups by chemical treatments with suitable reagents. The advances of radiation grafting and possible uses are briefly discussed

  18. Bone graft revascularization strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of avascular necrotic bone by pedicled bone grafting is a well-known treatment with little basic research supporting its application. A new canine model was used to simulate carpal bone avascular necrosis. Pedicled bone grafting proved to increase bone remodeling and bone blood flow,

  19. Using negative pressure therapy for improving skin graft taking on genital area defects following Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Erkan; Şenen, Dilek

    2017-09-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an infective necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital and perianal regions. Treatment includes aggressive surgical debridement that often results in extensive loss of genital skin. Skin grafts may be used for reconstruction but skin grafting of the male genitalia is diffucult because the penis and scrotum are mobile and deformable. A variety of methods are used to secure skin graft to recipient beds. We used negative pressure therapy (NPT) to secure skin grafts and improve skin graft taking. We used negative pressure therapy for graft fixation in 13 male patients who underwent debridements with the indication of Fournier gangrene, and whose defects formed were reconstructed with grafts between January 2009, and January 2014. Information about age of the patients, sessions of negative pressure therapy applied before, and after reconstruction, duration of hospital stay, and graft losses during postoperative period were recorded. Median age of the patients was 56.15 (46-72) years. NPT was applied to patients for an average of 6.64 sessions (4-12) before and 1 sessions after graft reconstruction. Patients were hospitalized for an average of 26.7 (20-39) days. Any graft loss was not seen after NPT. Because of the peculiar anatomy of the genital region, anchoring of grafts is difficult so graft losses are often encountered. Use of NPT for ensuring graft fixation on the genital region prevents skin graft shearing.

  20. Antibiotic treatment of biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Macià, María D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a wide range of infections, from those related to exogenous devices, such as catheters or prosthetic joints, to chronic tissue infections such as those occurring in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due ...

  1. Biofabrication and testing of a fully cellular nerve graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Christopher M; Marga, Francoise; Forgacs, Gabor; Heesch, Cheryl M

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of a nerve is a debilitating injury with devastating consequences for the individual's quality of life. The gold standard of repair is the use of an autologous graft to bridge the severed nerve ends. Such repair however involves risks due to secondary surgery at the donor site and may result in morbidity and infection. Thus the clinical approach to repair often involves non-cellular solutions, grafts composed of synthetic or natural materials. Here we report on a novel approach to biofabricate fully biological grafts composed exclusively of cells and cell secreted material. To reproducibly and reliably build such grafts of composite geometry we use bioprinting. We test our grafts in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for both motor and sensory function. In particular we compare the regenerative capacity of the biofabricated grafts with that of autologous grafts and grafts made of hollow collagen tubes by measuring the compound action potential (for motor function) and the change in mean arterial blood pressure as consequence of electrically eliciting the somatic pressor reflex. Our results provide evidence that bioprinting is a promising approach to nerve graft fabrication and as a consequence to nerve regeneration. (paper)

  2. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  3. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  4. Pre prosthetic reconstruction of alveolar ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhuji Munivenkatappa Lakshmaiahenkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dento-alveolar bony defects are common and occur due to a variety of causes, such as, pulpal pathology, traumatic tooth extraction, advanced periodontal disease, implant failure, tumor or congenital anomalies. These defects often cause a significant problem in dental treatment and rehabilitation. Many techniques exist for effective soft and hard tissue augmentation. The approach is largely based on the extent of the defect and specific procedures to be performed for the implant or prosthetic rehabilitation. This article presents case reports of soft and hard tissue ridge augmentation.

  5. Description of the rates, trends and surgical burden associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection following primary and revision knee replacements in England and Wales: an analysis of the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew D; Toms, Andrew D; Porter, Martyn L; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-07-10

    To describe the prevalence rates of revision surgery for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for patients undergoing knee replacement, their time trends, the cumulative incidence function of revision for PJI and estimate the burden of PJI at health service level. We analysed revision knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI and the linked index procedures recorded in the National Joint Registry from 2003 to 2014 for England and Wales. The cohort analysed consisted of 679 010 index primary knee replacements, 33 920 index revision knee replacements and 8247 revision total knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI. The prevalence rates, their time trends investigated by time from index surgery to revision for PJI, cumulative incidence functions and the burden of PJI (total procedures) were calculated. Overall linear trends were investigated with log-linear regression. The incidence of re