Bridging food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry using ecological stoichiometry theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Welti, Nina; Striebel, Maren; Ulseth, Amber J.
2017-01-01
process rates). ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency......, we propose that using ES to link nutrient cycling, trophic dynamics, and ecosystem metabolism would allow for a more holistic understanding of ecosystem functions in a changing environment....
Bridging Food Webs, Ecosystem Metabolism, and Biogeochemistry Using Ecological Stoichiometry Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nina Welti
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Although aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists are well aware of the crucial importance of ecosystem functions, i.e., how biota drive biogeochemical processes and vice-versa, linking these fields in conceptual models is still uncommon. Attempts to explain the variability in elemental cycling consequently miss an important biological component and thereby impede a comprehensive understanding of the underlying processes governing energy and matter flow and transformation. The fate of multiple chemical elements in ecosystems is strongly linked by biotic demand and uptake; thus, considering elemental stoichiometry is important for both biogeochemical and ecological research. Nonetheless, assessments of ecological stoichiometry (ES often focus on the elemental content of biota rather than taking a more holistic view by examining both elemental pools and fluxes (e.g., organismal stoichiometry and ecosystem process rates. ES theory holds the promise to be a unifying concept to link across hierarchical scales of patterns and processes in ecology, but this has not been fully achieved. Therefore, we propose connecting the expertise of aquatic ecologists and biogeochemists with ES theory as a common currency to connect food webs, ecosystem metabolism, and biogeochemistry, as they are inherently concatenated by the transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous through biotic and abiotic nutrient transformation and fluxes. Several new studies exist that demonstrate the connections between food web ecology, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem metabolism. In addition to a general introduction into the topic, this paper presents examples of how these fields can be combined with a focus on ES. In this review, a series of concepts have guided the discussion: (1 changing biogeochemistry affects trophic interactions and ecosystem processes by altering the elemental ratios of key species and assemblages; (2 changing trophic dynamics influences the transformation and
Deaths during apprehensions of agitated persons. A review of proposed pathophysiological theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamsen Fredrik
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The pathophysiology of sudden death during apprehension remains largely unclear. The most frequently discussed mechanisms are excited delirium, positional asphyxia, metabolic acidosis, acute and chronic drug abuse, and autonomic instability. As in most areas of forensic medicine, much of the knowledge comes from case reports, which are of little use in understanding causality. Experimental studies of some aspects have been performed, and they show somewhat divergent results and interpretations. The aim of this review is to summarize the different proposed theories, and to point out important issues for further research.
A quantitative theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate and vascularization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander B Herman
Full Text Available The relationships between cellular, structural and dynamical properties of tumors have traditionally been studied separately. Here, we construct a quantitative, predictive theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate, vascularization and necrosis that integrates the relationships between these properties. To accomplish this, we develop a comprehensive theory that describes the interface and integration of the tumor vascular network and resource supply with the cardiovascular system of the host. Our theory enables a quantitative understanding of how cells, tissues, and vascular networks act together across multiple scales by building on recent theoretical advances in modeling both healthy vasculature and the detailed processes of angiogenesis and tumor growth. The theory explicitly relates tumor vascularization and growth to metabolic rate, and yields extensive predictions for tumor properties, including growth rates, metabolic rates, degree of necrosis, blood flow rates and vessel sizes. Besides these quantitative predictions, we explain how growth rates depend on capillary density and metabolic rate, and why similar tumors grow slower and occur less frequently in larger animals, shedding light on Peto's paradox. Various implications for potential therapeutic strategies and further research are discussed.
Riel, van N.A.W.; Giuseppin, M.L.F.; Verrips, C.T.
2000-01-01
The theory of dynamic optimal metabolic control (DOMC), as developed by Giuseppin and Van Riel (Metab. Eng., 2000), is applied to model the central nitrogen metabolism (CNM) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The CNM represents a typical system encountered in advanced metabolic engineering. The CNM is the
Bays, Harold
2005-05-01
Excessive fat (adiposity) and dysfunctional fat (adiposopathy) constitute the most common worldwide epidemics of our time -- and perhaps of all time. Ongoing efforts to explain how the micro (adipocyte) and macro (body organ) biologic systems interact through function and dysfunction in promoting Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia are not unlike the mechanistic and philosophical thinking processes involved in reconciling the micro (quantum physics) and macro (general relativity) theories in physics. Currently, the term metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of consequences often associated with excess body fat and is an attempt to unify the associations known to exist between the four fundamental metabolic diseases of obesity, hyperglycemia (including Type 2 diabetes mellitus), hypertension and dyslipidemia. However, the association of adiposity with these metabolic disorders is not absolute and the metabolic syndrome does not describe underlying causality, nor does the metabolic syndrome necessarily reflect any reasonably related pathophysiologic process. Just as with quantum physics, general relativity and the four fundamental forces of the universe, the lack of an adequate unifying theory of micro causality and macro consequence is unsatisfying, and in medicine, impairs the development of agents that may globally improve both obesity and obesity-related metabolic disease. Emerging scientific and clinical evidence strongly supports the novel concept that it is not adiposity alone, but rather it is adiposopathy that is the underlying cause of most cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Adiposopathy is a plausible Theory of Everything for mankind's greatest metabolic epidemics.
Theory of Inpatient Circadian Care (TICC): A Proposal for a Middle-Range Theory
Camargo-Sanchez, Andrés; Niño, Carmen L; Sánchez, Leonardo; Echeverri, Sonia; Gutiérrez, Diana P; Duque, Andrés F; Pianeta, Oscar; Jaramillo-Gómez, Jenny A; Pilonieta, Martin A; Cataño, Nhora; Arboleda, Humberto; Agostino, Patricia V; Alvarez-Baron, Claudia P; Vargas, Rafael
2015-01-01
The circadian system controls the daily rhythms of a variety of physiological processes. Most organisms show physiological, metabolic and behavioral rhythms that are coupled to environmental signals. In humans, the main synchronizer is the light/dark cycle, although non-photic cues such as food availability, noise, and work schedules are also involved. In a continuously operating hospital, the lack of rhythmicity in these elements can alter the patient’s biological rhythms and resilience. This paper presents a Theory of Inpatient Circadian Care (TICC) grounded in circadian principles. We conducted a literature search on biological rhythms, chronobiology, nursing care, and middle-range theories in the databases PubMed, SciELO Public Health, and Google Scholar. The search was performed considering a period of 6 decades from 1950 to 2013. Information was analyzed to look for links between chronobiology concepts and characteristics of inpatient care. TICC aims to integrate multidisciplinary knowledge of biomedical sciences and apply it to clinical practice in a formal way. The conceptual points of this theory are supported by abundant literature related to disease and altered biological rhythms. Our theory will be able to enrich current and future professional practice. PMID:25767632
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hirst, Andrew G.; Glazier, Douglas S.; Atkinson, David
2014-01-01
Metabolism fuels all of life’s activities, from biochemical reactions to ecological interactions. According to two intensely debated theories, body size affects metabolism via geometrical influences on the transport of resources and wastes. However, these theories differ crucially in whether...... the size dependence of metabolism is derived from material transport across external surfaces, or through internal resource-transport networks. We show that when body shape changes during growth, these models make opposing predictions. These models are tested using pelagic invertebrates, because...... these animals exhibit highly variable intraspecific scaling relationships for metabolic rate and body shape. Metabolic scaling slopes of diverse integument-breathing species were significantly positively correlated with degree of body flattening or elongation during ontogeny, as expected from surface area...
Wulsin, Lawson; Herman, James; Thayer, Julian F
2018-03-01
Devising novel prevention strategies for metabolic disorders will depend in part on the careful elucidation of the common pathways for developing metabolic risks. The neurovisceral integration model has proposed that autonomic imbalance plays an important role in the pathway from acute and chronic stress to cardiovascular disease. Though generally overlooked by clinicians, autonomic imbalance (sympathetic overactivity and/or parasympathetic underactivity) can be measured and modified by methods that are available in primary care. This review applies the neurovisceral integration concept to the clinical setting by proposing that autonomic imbalance plays a primary role in the development of metabolic risks. We present a testable model, a systematic review of the evidence in support of autonomic imbalance as a predictor for metabolic risks, and specific approaches to test this model as a guide to future research on the role of stress in metabolic disorders. We propose that autonomic imbalance deserves consideration by researchers, clinicians, and policymakers as a target for early interventions to prevent metabolic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Metabolic activation and carcinogenicity of polycyclic hydrocarbons: A new quantum mechanical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, S.N.
1986-01-01
This investigation aims to describe a quantum mechanical theory of cancer, which, on the basis of certain electronic indices calculated for the parent compound, would give prediction of its P-450 mediated metabolic activation and would provide better representation of its relative carcinogenic potency when activated to its PUM. The author's theory is based on the assumption that electronic charge distribution of activated species resembles at least qualitatively the charge distribution of the parent compound, and a careful analysis of electronic characteristics of the parent compound would suffice to give reasonable estimation of the carcinogenic activities of the metabolic products. The details of the theoretical method is given and the results for some alternant and non-alternant PAHs are presented
Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu
2016-06-15
Highlights: • The conventional theory of superconductivity predicts no charge flow when the normal-superconductor phase boundary moves. • The theory of hole superconductivity predicts flow and counterflow of charge. • An experiment to measure a voltage is proposed. • No voltage will be measured if the conventional theory is correct. • A voltage will be measured if the theory of hole superconductivity is correct. - Abstract: The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.
Comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Jr, W A [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); Buonamano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica
1976-08-11
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity.
The necessity of a theory of biology for tissue engineering: metabolism-repair systems.
Ganguli, Suman; Hunt, C Anthony
2004-01-01
Since there is no widely accepted global theory of biology, tissue engineering and bioengineering lack a theoretical understanding of the systems being engineered. By default, tissue engineering operates with a "reductionist" theoretical approach, inherited from traditional engineering of non-living materials. Long term, that approach is inadequate, since it ignores essential aspects of biology. Metabolism-repair systems are a theoretical framework which explicitly represents two "functional" aspects of living organisms: self-repair and self-replication. Since repair and replication are central to tissue engineering, we advance metabolism-repair systems as a potential theoretical framework for tissue engineering. We present an overview of the framework, and indicate directions to pursue for extending it to the context of tissue engineering. We focus on biological networks, both metabolic and cellular, as one such direction. The construction of these networks, in turn, depends on biological protocols. Together these concepts may help point the way to a global theory of biology appropriate for tissue engineering.
A global evaluation of metabolic theory as an explanation for terrestrial species richness gradients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hawkins, Bradford A.; Albuquerque, Fabio S.; Araújo, Miguel B.
2007-01-01
We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (...
Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg
Kotliarov,Ivan
2008-01-01
Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of sp...
A comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Jr, W.A.; Buonamano, V.
1976-01-01
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity
A Proposed Model of Jazz Theory Knowledge Acquisition
Ciorba, Charles R.; Russell, Brian E.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that proposes a causal relationship between motivation and academic achievement on the acquisition of jazz theory knowledge. A reliability analysis of the latent variables ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. Confirmatory factor analyses of the motivation (standardized root mean square residual…
Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas S. Glazier
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.
Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Kotliarov
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions. This description may be a good basis for HR software and may be useful for business and management.
Proposed experimental test of an alternative electrodynamic theory of superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu
2015-01-15
Highlights: • A new experimental test of electric screening in superconductors is proposed. • The electric screening length is predicted to be much larger than in normal metals. • The reason this was not seen in earlier experiments is explained. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity. - Abstract: An alternative form of London’s electrodynamic theory of superconductors predicts that the electrostatic screening length is the same as the magnetic penetration depth. We argue that experiments performed to date do not rule out this alternative formulation and propose an experiment to test it. Experimental evidence in its favor would have fundamental implications for the understanding of superconductivity.
Critical PO2 is size-independent in insects: implications for the metabolic theory of ecology.
Harrison, Jon F; Klok, C J; Waters, James S
2014-10-01
Insects, and all animals, exhibit hypometric scaling of metabolic rate, with larger species having lower mass-specific metabolic rates. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is based on models ascribing hypometric scaling of metabolic rate to constrained O 2 supply systems in larger animals. We compiled critical PO 2 of metabolic and growth rates for more than 40 insect species with a size range spanning four orders of magnitude. Critical PO 2 values vary from far below 21kPa for resting animals to near 21kPa for growing or flying animals and are size-independent, demonstrating that supply capacity matches oxygen demand. These data suggest that hypometric scaling of resting metabolic rate in insects is not driven by constraints on oxygen availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Use of density functional theory in drug metabolism studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rydberg, Patrik; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Lars
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize many drug compounds. They catalyze a wide variety of reactions, and potentially, a large number of different metabolites can be generated. Density functional theory (DFT) has, over the past decade, been shown to be a powerful tool...... isoforms. This is probably due to the fact that the binding of the substrates is not the major determinant. When binding of the substrate plays a significant role, the well-known issue of determining the free energy of binding is the challenge. How approaches taking the protein environment into account...
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric
2011-04-01
Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.
McGill, Anne-Thea
2014-01-01
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts
The cross waveguide grating: proposal, theory and applications.
Muñoz, Pascual; Pastor, Daniel; Capmany, José
2005-04-18
In this paper a novel grating-like integrated optics device is proposed, the Cross Waveguide Grating (XWG). The device is based upon a modified configuration of a traditional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). The Arrayed Waveguides part is changed, as detailed along this document, giving the device both the ability of multi/demultiplexing and power splitting/coupling. Design examples and transfer function simulations show good agreement with the presented theory. Finally, some of the envisaged applications are outlined.
Proposed physiologic functions of boron in plants pertinent to animal and human metabolism.
Blevins, D G; Lukaszewski, K M
1994-01-01
Boron has been recognized since 1923 as an essential micronutrient element for higher plants. Over the years, many roles for boron in plants have been proposed, including functions in sugar transport, cell wall synthesis and lignification, cell wall structure, carbohydrate metabolism, RNA metabolism, respiration, indole acetic acid metabolism, phenol metabolism and membrane transport. However, the mechanism of boron involvement in each case remains unclear. Recent work has focused on two major plant-cell components: cell walls and membranes. In both, boron could play a structural role by bridging hydroxyl groups. In membranes, it could also be involved in ion transport and redox reactions by stimulating enzymes like nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and reduced (NADH) oxidase. There is a very narrow window between the levels of boron required by and toxic to plants. The mechanisms of boron toxicity are also unknown. In nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants, foliarly applied boron causes up to a 1000% increase in the concentration of allantoic acid in leaves. In vitro studies show that boron inhibits the manganese-dependent allantoate amidohydrolase, and foliar application of manganese prior to application of boron eliminates allantoic acid accumulation in leaves. Interaction between borate and divalent cations like manganese may alter metabolic pathways, which could explain why higher concentrations of boron can be toxic to plants. PMID:7889877
Nuclear theory group. Progress report and renewal proposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
The work discussed covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear and intermediate-energy physics and nuclear astrophysics. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the underlying nucleon-nucleon and meson-nucleon interactions. The research is categorized as follows: fundamental interactions; intermediate-energy physics; effective interactions, nuclear models and many-body theory; structure of finite nuclei; nuclear astrophysics; heavy-ion physics; and numerical analysis. Page-length summaries of the work are given; completed work has been or will be published. Staff vitas, recent publications, and a proposed budget complete the report
Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Yue; Berger, Uta; Grimm, Volker
2013-01-01
Metabolic scaling theory (MST) is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of 24/3 between mean individual biomass and density during densitydependent mortality (self-thinning). Empirical tests have...... processes can scale up to the population level. MST, like thermodynamics or biomechanics, sets limits within which organisms can live and function, but there may be stronger limits determined by ecological interactions. In such cases MST will not be predictive....... of plant stand development that includes three elements: a model of individual plant growth based on MST, different modes of local competition (size-symmetric vs. -asymmetric), and different resource levels. Our model is consistent with the observed variation in the slopes of self-thinning trajectories...
Marchetti, Luca; Manca, Vincenzo
2015-04-15
MpTheory Java library is an open-source project collecting a set of objects and algorithms for modeling observed dynamics by means of the Metabolic P (MP) theory, that is, a mathematical theory introduced in 2004 for modeling biological dynamics. By means of the library, it is possible to model biological systems both at continuous and at discrete time. Moreover, the library comprises a set of regression algorithms for inferring MP models starting from time series of observations. To enhance the modeling experience, beside a pure Java usage, the library can be directly used within the most popular computing environments, such as MATLAB, GNU Octave, Mathematica and R. The library is open-source and licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) Version 3.0. Source code, binaries and complete documentation are available at http://mptheory.scienze.univr.it. luca.marchetti@univr.it, marchetti@cosbi.eu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Zomorrodi, Ali R; Segrè, Daniel
2017-11-16
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system. We next perform over 80,000 in silico experiments to infer how metabolic interdependencies mediated by amino acid leakage in Escherichia coli vary across 189 amino acid pairs. While most pairs display shared patterns of inter-species interactions, multiple deviations are caused by pleiotropy and epistasis in metabolism. Furthermore, simulated invasion experiments reveal possible paths to obligate cross-feeding. Our study provides genomically driven insight into the rise of ecological interactions, with implications for microbiome research and synthetic ecology.
Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Lin
Full Text Available Metabolic scaling theory (MST is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of -4/3 between mean individual biomass and density during density-dependent mortality (self-thinning. Empirical tests have produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms' internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model of plant stand development that includes three elements: a model of individual plant growth based on MST, different modes of local competition (size-symmetric vs. -asymmetric, and different resource levels. Our model is consistent with the observed variation in the slopes of self-thinning trajectories. Slopes were significantly shallower than -4/3 if competition was size-symmetric. We conclude that when the size of survivors is influenced by strong ecological interactions, these can override predictions of MST, whereas when surviving plants are less affected by interactions, individual-level metabolic processes can scale up to the population level. MST, like thermodynamics or biomechanics, sets limits within which organisms can live and function, but there may be stronger limits determined by ecological interactions. In such cases MST will not be predictive.
A proposal for an effective interacting field theory of open and closed strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baulieu, L.; Grossman, B.
1987-01-01
We propose the use of the reggeon-pomeron vertex to obtain an effective field theory for open and closed strings. We suggest that closed string fields are necessary in order to go off-shell in an open string field theory. We then find that the closed string fields satisfy the Virasoro constraints (including equal number of left and right movers) in an appropriate choice of gauge. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, M.E.; Bjerregaard, P.; Gyntelberg, F.
2004-01-01
in Greenland. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure were measured. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, lipids and urine albumin/creatinine ratio were measured. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed...... and triglycerides, and lower mean values of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; among women, triglycerides were higher with the NCEP syndrome. CONCLUSION: The metabolic syndrome is common among Inuit using either the WHO definition or the proposed NCEP definition. The classification disagreement...
Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhl, Mie
2016-01-01
This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...
Ivan Kotliarov
2008-01-01
the present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions.
Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong
2016-01-01
Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.
Titov, V N
2013-01-01
Virchow's cellular pathology indirectly points at structural units between cells and organs in vivo and at universal mechanisms underlying the condition of health or disease. In order to substantiate similarity of pathogeneses of atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity we suggest a phylogenetic theory which includes: 1) consideration of physiological and pathological processes in vivo from the viewpoint of biological functions and biological reactions. 2) Phylogenesis of metabolic regulation at the levels of: a) cells (autocrine), b) paracrine cell communities, i.e., structural and functional units of each organ (paracrine), and c) the entire organism. Biological functions are: trophology, homeostasis, endoecology ( of the intercellular medium), adaptation, locomotion, reproduction, and cognition. 3) A three-step successive phylogenesis of biological functions and pathological responses. Methodological approaches in phylogenesis are: a) succession of biological functions and reactions and b) biological subordination where phylogenetically late humoral mediators cannot abolish the effects of phylogenetically early mediators. Incompliance of humoral regulation at different steps of phylogenesis, autocrine, paracrine and the organism levels is the basis for similarity between pathogeneses of all metabolic pandemias, including essential hypertension and insulin resistance syndrome.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Masahiro; Ishida, M.R.
1987-01-01
To evaluate the accumulated dose in human bodies due to the environmental tritium, it is of required to establish an adequate model for the tritium transfer from the environment to man and to obtain enough information on the metabolic behaviour of tritium in animal bodies using model animal system. In this report, first we describe about a proposed model for the transfer of environmental tritium to man and secondly mention briefly about the recent works on the tritium metabolism in newborn animals which have been treated as a model system of tritium intake through food chain. (author)
Patterns of knowing: proposing a theory for nursing leadership.
Jackson, Janet R; Clements, Paul T; Averill, Jennifer B; Zimbro, Kathie
2009-01-01
In a time of chaotic and unpredictable health care, it is vital for nursing to employ a nursing leadership theory that is specifically applicable to nurses and will holistically, and comprehensively address and support both the science and art of this honored profession. The authors propose that Nursing Leadership Knowing can address and impact the myriad issues confronting managers and administrators within the turbulent health care industry, with the ultimate goals of quality comprehensive patient care and improved employee satisfaction. They believe that Nursing Leadership Knowing, grounded in the realties of nursing experience, is a logical theoretical extension that can be translated into nursing leadership practice particular and specific focus on empirics and evidence-based practice will not attend to the robust and multidimensional underpinnings of the lived experience that is so vital to nursing as a caring profession. The ideal of nursing leadership theory is not a single-focused shadow of its history, but a rich, inclusive, multi-faceted network of knowing. As such, Nursing Leadership Knowing provides a forum for leaders to enhance their practice, as well as their relationship with their employees, which ultimately translates into optimal care for the patients we serve.
Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories
Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán
2017-09-01
Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.
Geček, Sunčana
2017-03-01
Jusup and colleagues in the recent review on physics of metabolic organization [1] discuss in detail motivational considerations and common assumptions of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, supply readers with a practical guide to DEB-based modeling, demonstrate the construction and dynamics of the standard DEB model, and illustrate several applications. The authors make a step forward from the existing literature by seamlessly bridging over the dichotomy between (i) thermodynamic foundations of the theory (which are often more accessible and understandable to physicists and mathematicians), and (ii) the resulting bioenergetic models (mostly used by biologists in real-world applications).
Greene, Amanda E; Todorova, Mariana T; Seyfried, Thomas N
2003-08-01
Brain cells are metabolically flexible because they can derive energy from both glucose and ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate). Metabolic control theory applies principles of bioenergetics and genome flexibility to the management of complex phenotypic traits. Epilepsy is a complex brain disorder involving excessive, synchronous, abnormal electrical firing patterns of neurons. We propose that many epilepsies with varied etiologies may ultimately involve disruptions of brain energy homeostasis and are potentially manageable through principles of metabolic control theory. This control involves moderate shifts in the availability of brain energy metabolites (glucose and ketone bodies) that alter energy metabolism through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. These shifts produce adjustments in gene-linked metabolic networks that manage or control the seizure disorder despite the continued presence of the inherited or acquired factors responsible for the epilepsy. This hypothesis is supported by information on the management of seizures with diets including fasting, the ketogenic diet and caloric restriction. A better understanding of the compensatory genetic and neurochemical networks of brain energy metabolism may produce novel antiepileptic therapies that are more effective and biologically friendly than those currently available.
Nisbet, Roger M.
2017-03-01
Jusup et al. [1] provide a comprehensive review of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory - a theory of metabolic organization that has its roots in a model by S.A.L.M Kooijman [2] and has evolved over three decades into a remarkable general theory whose use appears to be growing exponentially. The definitive text on DEB theory [3] is a challenging (though exceptionally rewarding) read, and previous reviews (e.g. [4,5]) have provided focused summaries of some of its main themes, targeted at specific groups of readers. The strong case for a further review is well captured in the abstract: ;Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work.; In response to this need, Jusup et al. provide a review that combines a lucid, rigorous exposition of the core components of DEB theory with a diverse collection of DEB applications. They also highlight some recent advances, notably the rapidly growing on-line database of DEB model parameters (451 species on 15 August 2016 according to [1], now, just a few months later, over 500 species).
Rolland, Jonathan; Loiseau, Oriane; Romiguier, Jonathan; Salamin, Nicolas
2016-05-20
The metabolic theory of ecology stipulates that molecular evolutionary rates should correlate with temperature and latitude in ectothermic organisms. Previous studies have shown that most groups of vertebrates, such as amphibians, turtles and even endothermic mammals, have higher molecular evolutionary rates in regions where temperature is high. However, the association between molecular evolutionary rates and temperature or latitude has never been tested in Squamata. We used a large dataset including the spatial distributions and environmental variables for 1,651 species of Squamata and compared the contrast of the rates of molecular evolution with the contrast of temperature and latitude between sister species. Using major axis regressions and a new algorithm to choose independent sister species pairs, we found that temperature and absolute latitude were not associated with molecular evolutionary rates. This absence of association in such a diverse ectothermic group questions the mechanisms explaining current pattern of species diversity in Squamata and challenges the presupposed universality of the metabolic theory of ecology.
Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Alonso-Sá ez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.
2017-01-01
in general lower than 0.65 eV, the value predicted by the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE). Contrary to MTE predictions, carrying capacity tended to increase with warming for all bacterial groups. Our analysis confirms that resource availability is key when
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José Martín-Albo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The postulates of self-determination theory have been frequently gauged by a measure of motivation quality called self-determination index (SDI. This index relies on an interactional hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are not independent constructs; on the contrary, when one increases the other decreases. However, the literature on the subiect has revealed that these constructs are orthogonal and thus SDI presents measurement problems. Considering these limitations, the obiective of this research was to propose and test the effectiveness of a new way to calculate a motivation quality index (PMI: positive motivation index. Two athletes' samples were used. Results of the two studies carried out showed that PMI fit better the self-determination theory postulates than SDI did. Positive correlations were found between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and PMI, and between PMI and positive emotions. Finally, results provided preliminary support for the use of the new motivation quality index proposed from the framework of self-determination theory.
[Influenza A from the rational choice theory: proposals for decision making in prevention policies].
Peña, Francisco Garrido; Fernández, Luís Andrés López; García, Eugenia Gil
2009-01-01
This article is a reflection on the social uncertainty caused by Influenza A and on the consequences that it can have on decision making in health promotion policies. We use concepts and metaphors of the Rational Choice Theory, among them, the "in gratitude effect" or the "distrust effect", as we analyse how these can become obstacles for the efficiency of prevention policies. Then, we focus on the information asymmetry of the principal-agent relationship, and we propose measures to diminish the "moral risk" that they cause. We finish by advancing some proposals for designing lines and strategies of action in health promotion policies.
Brewer, Gregory J
2010-03-01
Harman's free radical theory of aging posits that oxidized macromolecules accumulate with age to decrease function and shorten life-span. However, nutritional and genetic interventions to boost anti-oxidants have generally failed to increase life-span. Furthermore, the free radical theory fails to explain why exercise causes higher levels of oxyradical damage, but generally promotes healthy aging. The separate anti-aging paradigms of genetic or caloric reductions in the insulin signaling pathway is thought to slow the rate of living to reduce metabolism, but recent evidence from Westbrook and Bartke suggests metabolism actually increases in long-lived mice. To unify these disparate theories and data, here, we propose the epigenetic oxidative redox shift (EORS) theory of aging. According to EORS, sedentary behavior associated with age triggers an oxidized redox shift and impaired mitochondrial function. In order to maintain resting energy levels, aerobic glycolysis is upregulated by redox-sensitive transcription factors. As emphasized by DeGrey, the need to supply NAD(+) for glucose oxidation and maintain redox balance with impaired mitochondrial NADH oxidoreductase requires the upregulation of other oxidoreductases. In contrast to the 2% inefficiency of mitochondrial reduction of oxygen to the oxyradical, these other oxidoreductases enable glycolytic energy production with a deleterious 100% efficiency in generating oxyradicals. To avoid this catastrophic cycle, lactate dehydrogenase is upregulated at the expense of lactic acid acidosis. This metabolic shift is epigenetically enforced, as is insulin resistance to reduce mitochondrial turnover. The low mitochondrial capacity for efficient production of energy reinforces a downward spiral of more sedentary behavior leading to accelerated aging, increased organ failure with stress, impaired immune and vascular functions and brain aging. Several steps in the pathway are amenable to reversal for exit from the vicious
A proposed cutoff point of waist-to-height ratio for metabolic risk in African township adolescents
Kruger, H. Salomé; Faber, Mieke; Schutte, Aletta E.; Ellis, Suria M.
2013-01-01
Objective: A waist:height ratio (WHtR) higher than 0.5 has been proposed as a cutoff point for abdominal obesity in both sexes and at all ages. It is unknown if this cutoff point is appropriate for previously undernourished adolescents. We assessed the cutoff value of the WHtR associated with an increased metabolic risk in 178 black South African 14- to 18-y-old adolescents (69 boys, 109 girls). Methods: We measured weight, height, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose an...
Atherosclerosis: Hypotheses and theories
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E. A. Yuryeva
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article gives basic theories of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including inflammatory, cholesterol, lipid, lipoprotein, iron ones, as a result of metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress. In spite of carefully and deeply developed and ongoing elaborated pathogenesis theories, the etiological factors of atherosclerosis remain unknown so far. The age-related aspect of the disease is discussed; atherosclerosis is considered to be a childhood-onset disease that manifests itself at a later age. The authors propose an experimental and clinical evidence-based concept of the common etiology of syndromes of atherosclerosis, namely: the body's endogenous intoxication that is permanent or periodically progressive may be a primary cause of altered conformation of different protein molecules with their higher ability to adsorb the trace elements consolidating the structural changes. This change of proteins diminishes their functions and determines their antigenic properties, which is attended by the development of different pathogenic components in relation to the body's individual features.
Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design
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Mie Buhl
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.
Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mie Buhl
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.
Estimating the size of the solution space of metabolic networks
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Mulet Roberto
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular metabolism is one of the most investigated system of biological interactions. While the topological nature of individual reactions and pathways in the network is quite well understood there is still a lack of comprehension regarding the global functional behavior of the system. In the last few years flux-balance analysis (FBA has been the most successful and widely used technique for studying metabolism at system level. This method strongly relies on the hypothesis that the organism maximizes an objective function. However only under very specific biological conditions (e.g. maximization of biomass for E. coli in reach nutrient medium the cell seems to obey such optimization law. A more refined analysis not assuming extremization remains an elusive task for large metabolic systems due to algorithmic limitations. Results In this work we propose a novel algorithmic strategy that provides an efficient characterization of the whole set of stable fluxes compatible with the metabolic constraints. Using a technique derived from the fields of statistical physics and information theory we designed a message-passing algorithm to estimate the size of the affine space containing all possible steady-state flux distributions of metabolic networks. The algorithm, based on the well known Bethe approximation, can be used to approximately compute the volume of a non full-dimensional convex polytope in high dimensions. We first compare the accuracy of the predictions with an exact algorithm on small random metabolic networks. We also verify that the predictions of the algorithm match closely those of Monte Carlo based methods in the case of the Red Blood Cell metabolic network. Then we test the effect of gene knock-outs on the size of the solution space in the case of E. coli central metabolism. Finally we analyze the statistical properties of the average fluxes of the reactions in the E. coli metabolic network. Conclusion We propose a
A proposal of the gauge theory description of the small Schwarzschild black hole in AdS5×S5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, Masanori; Maltz, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Based on 4d N=4 SYM on ℝ 1 ×S 3 , a gauge theory description of a small black hole in AdS 5 ×S 5 is proposed. The change of the number of dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the emission of the scalar fields’ eigenvalues plays a crucial role in this description. By analyzing the microcanonical ensemble, the Hagedorn behavior of long strings at low energy is obtained. Modulo an assumption based on the AdS/CFT duality for a large black hole, the energy of the small ten-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole E∼1/(G 10,N T 7 ) is derived. A heuristic gauge theory argument supporting this assumption is also given. The same argument applied to the ABJM theory correctly reproduces the relation for the eleven-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. One of the consequences of our proposal is that the small and large black holes are very similar when seen from the gauge theory point of view.
Massive IIA string theory and Matrix theory compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, David A.; Nastase, Horatiu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2003-01-01
We propose a Matrix theory approach to Romans' massive Type IIA supergravity. It is obtained by applying the procedure of Matrix theory compactifications to Hull's proposal of the massive Type IIA string theory as M-theory on a twisted torus. The resulting Matrix theory is a super-Yang-Mills theory on large N three-branes with a space-dependent noncommutativity parameter, which is also independently derived by a T-duality approach. We give evidence showing that the energies of a class of physical excitations of the super-Yang-Mills theory show the correct symmetry expected from massive Type IIA string theory in a lightcone quantization
Comparison of Attachment theory and Cognitive-Motivational Structure theory.
Malerstein, A J
2005-01-01
Attachment theory and Cognitive-Motivational Structure (CMS) are similar in most respects. They differ primarily in their proposal of when, during development, one's sense of the self and of the outside world are formed. I propose that the theories supplement each other after about age seven years--when Attachment theory's predictions of social function become unreliable, CMS theory comes into play.
Brown, Robert B.
1999-01-01
Previous experiments have shown that space flight stimulates bacterial growth and metabolism. An explanation for these results is proposed, which may eventually lead to improved terrestrial pharmaceutical production efficiency. It is hypothesized that inertial acceleration affects bacterial growth and metabolism by altering the transport phenomena in the cells external fluid environment. It is believed that this occurs indirectly through changes in the sedimentation rate acting on the bacteria and buoyancy-driven convection acting on their excreted by-products. Experiments over a broad range of accelerations consistently supported this theory. Experiments at I g indicated that higher concentrations of excreted by products surrounding bacterial cells result in a shorter lag phase. Nineteen additional experiments simulated 0 g and 0.5 g using a clinostat, and achieved 50 g, 180 g, and 400 g using a centrifuge. These experiments showed that final cell density is inversely related to the level of acceleration. The experiments also consistently showed that acceleration affects the length of the lag phase in a non-monotonic, yet predictable, manner. Additional data indicated that E. coli metabolize glucose less efficiently at hypergravity, and more efficiently at hypogravity. A space-flight experiment was also performed. Samples on orbit had a statistically significant higher final cell density and more efficient metabolism than did ground controls. These results. which were similar to simulations of 0 g using a clinostat, support the theory that gravity only affects bacterial growth and metabolism indirectly, through changes in the bacteria's fluid environment.
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Cláudio Primo Delanoy
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to explain a teaching proposal of production of dissertative-argumentative texts, based on concepts and principles of the Theory of Argumentation within Language (ADL of Ducrot (1990, 2009, and above all in tools made available by the Theory of Semantic Blocks (TBS, Carel (1995, 2005, and Carel and Ducrot (2005. In order to do so, first, the text production proposal of Enem 2012 is analyzed, so as to find the basic semantic units of its motivational texts, which, by being associated to argumentative aspects of semantic blocks that originate those semantic units, may guide effective argumentative routes to be realized in dissertative argumentative text from semantic relations within the same block. It is verified, also, to what extent argumentative transgressive chaining are presented in argumentative essays as more convincing than the normative argumentative ones. As a result, this work may provide theoretical and methodological support for teachers that have been working directly with the teaching of reading and writing, in basic or superior education levels.
McGill, Anne-Thea
2014-01-01
The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the underlying causes are not known. MetS markers may have been mistaken for causes, thus many treatments are destined to be suboptimal. The current paper aims to critique current paradigms, give explanations for their persistence, and to return to first principles in an attempt to determine and clarify likely causes of MetS and obesity related comorbidities. A wide literature has been mined, study concepts analysed and the basics of human evolution and new biochemistry reviewed. A plausible, multifaceted composite unifying theory is formulated. The basis of the theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals, becoming highly energy efficient in humans. The still-evolving, complex human cortico-limbic-striatal system generates strong behavioural drives for energy dense food procurement, including motivating agricultural technologies and social system development. Addiction to such foods, leading to neglect of nutritious but less appetizing 'common or garden' food, appears to have occurred. Insufficient consumption of food micronutrients prevents optimal human NRF2 function. Inefficient oxidation of excess energy forces central and non-adipose cells to store excess toxic lipid. Oxidative stress and
The expectancy-value muddle in the theory of planned behaviour - and some proposed solutions.
French, David P; Hankins, Matthew
2003-02-01
The authors of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour recommended a method for statistically analysing the relationships between beliefs and the Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control constructs. This method has been used in the overwhelming majority of studies using these theories. However, there is a growing awareness that this method yields statistically uninterpretable results (Evans, 1991). Despite this, the use of this method is continuing, as is uninformed interpretation of this problematic research literature. This is probably due to the lack of a simple account of where the problem lies, and the large number of alternatives available. This paper therefore summarizes the problem as simply as possible, gives consideration to the conclusions that can be validly drawn from studies that contain this problem, and critically reviews the many alternatives that have been proposed to address this problem. Different techniques are identified as being suitable, according to the purpose of the specific research project.
Malak, Henryk; Richmond, Robert; Dicello, J F
2011-02-01
A new approach to intracellular detection and imaging of metabolic processes and pathways is presented that uses surface plasmon resonance to enhance interactions between photon-absorbing metabolites and metal nanoparticles in contact with cells in vitro or in vivo. Photon absorption in the nanoparticles creates plasmon fields, enhancing intrinsic metabolite fluorescence, thereby increasing absorption and emission rates, creating new spectral emission bands, shortening fluorescence lifetimes, becoming more photo-stable and increasing fluorescent resonance energy transfer efficiency. Because the cells remain viable, it is proposed that the method may be used to interrogate cells prior to and after irradiation, with the potential for automated analyses of intracellular interactive pathways associated with radiation exposures at lower doses than existing technologies. The design and concepts of the instrument are presented along with data for unexposed cells.
Urban metabolism: A review of research methodologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yan
2013-01-01
Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research
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Alwi Aslan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This theory attempted to explore the possibility of using regular language further in image analysis, departing from the use of string to represent the region in the image. But we are not trying to show an alternative idea about how to generate a string region, where there are many different ways how the image or region produces strings representing, in this paper we propose a way how to generate regular language or group of languages which performs both classify the set of strings generated by a group of a number of image regions. Researchers began by showing a proof that there is always a regular language that accepts a set of strings that produced the image, and then use the language to perform the classification. Research then expanded to the pixel level, on whether the regular language can be used for clustering pixels in the image, the researchers propose a systematic solution of this question. As a tool used to explore regular language is deterministic finite automata. On the end part before conclusion of this paper, we add revision version of this theory. There is another point of view to revision version, added for make this method more precision and more powerfull from before.
Theory of acoustic design of opera house and a design proposal
Ando, Yoichi
2004-05-01
First of all, the theory of subjective preference for sound fields based on the model of auditory-brain system is briefly mentioned. It consists of the temporal factors and spatial factors associated with the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The temporal criteria are the initial time delay gap between the direct sound and the first Reflection (Dt1) and the subsequent reverberation time (Tsub). These preferred conditions are related to the minimum value of effective duration of the running autocorrelation function of source signals (te)min. The spatial criteria are binaural listening level (LL) and the IACC, which may be extracted from the interaural crosscorrelation function. In the opera house, there are two different kind of sound sources, i.e., the vocal source of relatively short values of (te)min in the stage and the orchestra music of long values of (te)min in the pit. For these sources, a proposal is made here.
Metabolite secretion in microorganisms: the theory of metabolic overflow put to the test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pinu, Farhana R.; Granucci, Ninna; Daniell, James
2018-01-01
Introduction Microbial cells secrete many metabolites during growth, including important intermediates of the central carbon metabolism. This has not been taken into account by researchers when modeling microbial metabolism for metabolic engineering and systems biology studies. Materials and Meth...
Theory X and Theory Y in the Organizational Structure.
Barry, Thomas J.
This document defines contrasting assumptions about the labor force--theory X and theory Y--and shows how they apply to the pyramid organizational structure, examines the assumptions of the two theories, and finally, based on a survey and individual interviews, proposes a merger of theories X and Y to produce theory Z. Organizational structures…
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drukker, Nadav; Teschner, Joerg
2009-10-01
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S 4 - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane
2010-03-01
likely products of dioxane metabolism-2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEM or 13- hydroxyethoxyacetic acid ) and 1 ,4-dioxan-2-one (or dioxanone...Mar 10 (2) Hoch-Ligeti and coworkers (Hoch-Ligeti et al. 1974) originally proposed that dioxane was metabolized to oxalic acid by way of diglycolic... acid . This proposal was based upon chemical oxidation experiments on dioxane using nitric acid originally conducted by Fairley and coworkers (Fairley
On novel string theories from 4d gauge theories
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Kiritsis Elias
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We investigate strings theories as defined from four dimensional gauge theories. It is argued that novel (superstring theories exist up to 26 dimensions. Some of them may support weakly curved geometries. A proposal is outlined to link their local conformal invariance to the dynamics of the bulk string theory.
Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-10-15
We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)
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Painter Page R
2005-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A prominent theoretical explanation for 3/4-power allometric scaling of metabolism proposes that the nutrient exchange surface of capillaries has properties of a space-filling fractal. The theory assumes that nutrient exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 2 and less than or equal to 3 and that the volume filled by the exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 3 and less than or equal to 4. Results It is shown that contradicting predictions can be derived from the assumptions of the model. When errors in the model are corrected, it is shown to predict that metabolic rate is proportional to body mass (proportional scaling. Conclusion The presence of space-filling fractal nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide a satisfactory explanation for 3/4-power metabolic rate scaling.
Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao
2013-01-01
In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…
Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K.
2013-01-01
Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a ‘critical value’ to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). PMID:24039701
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somnath Tagore
Full Text Available Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a 'critical value' to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG.
Nuclear theory group progress report and renewal proposal. December 1, 1978--November 30, 1979
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, G.E.; Jackson, A.D.; Kuo, T.T.S.
1979-01-01
The proposed work covers a broad range of topics in theoretical nuclear and intermediate-energy physics and in nuclear astrophysics. With free nucleon--nucleon interactions as a basis, effective forces in nuclei are constructed through a chain of field-theoretic, dispersions and many-body techniques. Dynamical theories of nuclear excitations are constructed. Infinite nuclear systems at a variety of densities are studied in order to determine reliable equations of state for nuclear and neutron matter. These equations of state are applied in astrophysical problems, such as the gravitational collapse of stars, as well as in standard nuclear contexts. Brief summaries of individual projects completed and planned are given. Completed research is reported in the appropriate places
Clinical update on metabolic syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been defined as a global issue since it affects a lot of people. Numerous factors are involved in metabolic syndrome development. It has been described that metabolic syndrome has negative consequences on health. Consequently, a lot of treatments have been proposed to palliate it such as drugs, surgery or life style changes where nutritional habits have shown to be an important point in its management. The current study reviews the literature existing about the actual epidemiology of metabolic syndrome, the components involucrate in its appearance and progression, the clinical consequences of metabolic syndrome and the nutritional strategies reported in its remission. A bibliographic search in PubMed and Medline was performed to identify eligible studies. Authors obtained that metabolic syndrome is present in population from developed and undeveloped areas in a huge scale. Environmental and genetic elements are involucrate in metabolic syndrome development. Metabolic syndrome exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleep disturbances, etc. Nutritional treatments play a crucial role in metabolic syndrome prevention, treatment and recovery.
The Electrophysiological Phenomenon of Alzheimer's Disease: A Psychopathology Theory.
Holston, Ezra C
2015-08-01
The current understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the Aβ and tau pathology and the resulting neuropathological changes, which are associated with manifested clinical symptoms. However, electrophysiological brain changes may provide a more expansive understanding of AD. Hence, the objective of this systematic review is to propose a theory about the electrophysiological phenomenon of Alzheimer's disease (EPAD). The review of literature resulted from an extensive search of PubMed and MEDLINE databases. One-hundred articles were purposively selected. They provided an understanding of the concepts establishing the theory of EPAD (neuropathological changes, neurochemical changes, metabolic changes, and electrophysiological brain changes). Changes in the electrophysiology of the brain are foundational to the association or interaction of the concepts. Building on Berger's Psychophysical Model, it is evident that electrophysiological brain changes occur and affect cortical areas to generate or manifest symptoms from onset and across the stages of AD, which may be prior to pathological changes. Therefore, the interaction of the concepts demonstrates how the psychopathology results from affected electrophysiology of the brain. The theory of the EPAD provides a theoretical foundation for appropriate measurements of AD without dependence on neuropathological changes. Future research is warranted to further test this theory. Ultimately, this theory contributes to existing knowledge because it shows how electrophysiological changes are useful in understanding the risk and progression of AD across the stages.
Governance and organizational theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.
A Proposed Middle-Range Theory of Nursing in Hypertension Care
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Drevenhorn
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Nursing in hypertension care comprises counselling about lifestyle changes, blood pressure measurement, and being a translator for the physician. For the patient, changing lifestyle means performing self-care. As not much in the form of research and guidelines for nurses is available, a middle-range theory of nursing in hypertension care was developed to guide nurses in their practice, in order to improve the nursing of patients and design studies for investigating nursing in hypertension care. Concepts are presented related to the patient (attitude and beliefs regarding health and sickness, autonomy, personality and traits, level of perceived vulnerability, hardiness, sense of coherence, locus of control, self-efficacy, and access to social support and network and the nursing (applying theories and models for behavioural change in the consultation and using counselling skills, patient advocacy, empowerment, professional knowledge and health education, and supporting the patient. Then the concepts related to the consultation (communication, shared decision-making, concordance, coping, adherence, and self-care are integrated with Orem’s theory of nursing. Clinical and research implications of the theory are discussed.
Hartmann, Anita
2011-01-01
In the current economic climate, many colleges and universities face similar challenges: the need to increase external sponsorship for research activities and the need to benefit from additional indirect cost recovery. Preparing funding proposals for submission to sponsors is a faculty behavior that can be modified by applying behavioral theory to…
Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Blanco
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.
Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Schubert, Kristin A.; Visser, G. Henk
2009-01-01
The proposition that increased energy expenditure shortens life has a long history. The rate-of-living theory ( Pearl 1928) states that life span and average mass-specific metabolic rate are inversely proportional. Originally based on interspecific allometric comparisons between species of mammals,
Non-equilibrium price theories
Helbing, Dirk; Kern, Daniel
2000-11-01
We propose two theories for the formation of stock prices under the condition that the number of available stocks is fixed. Both theories consider the balance equations for cash and several kinds of stocks. They also take into account interest rates, dividends, and transaction costs. The proposed theories have the advantage that they do not require iterative procedures to determine the price, which would be inefficient for simulations with many agents.
PROPOSAL FOR A MOOC INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON THE THEORY DEVELOPMENT AND MASTERY LEARNIG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Emilio Sánchez-García
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The first massive open online courses cMOOC lacked an instructional design and have now shifted to models that have an instructional design called xMOOC. This document makes a proposal instructional design for MOOC using the simplified adaptive method SAM inspired by the theory development and strategy of Mastery Learning as part of the research method based on the design of the qualitative paradigm. The results explain and justify the procedure used for the preparation of instructional design. The conclusion that has been reached is that both SAM and strategy Mastery Learning has allowed the instructional design for MOOC easily with emphasis in practice but supported with theoretical, personalized basis by tracking post and considering the learning strategy for the domain.
Topological analysis of metabolic control.
Sen, A K
1990-12-01
A topological approach is presented for the analysis of control and regulation in metabolic pathways. In this approach, the control structure of a metabolic pathway is represented by a weighted directed graph. From an inspection of the topology of the graph, the control coefficients of the enzymes are evaluated in a heuristic manner in terms of the enzyme elasticities. The major advantage of the topological approach is that it provides a visual framework for (1) calculating the control coefficients of the enzymes, (2) analyzing the cause-effect relationships of the individual enzymes, (3) assessing the relative importance of the enzymes in metabolic regulation, and (4) simplifying the structure of a given pathway, from a regulatory viewpoint. Results are obtained for (a) an unbranched pathway in the absence of feedback the feedforward regulation and (b) an unbranched pathway with feedback inhibition. Our formulation is based on the metabolic control theory of Kacser and Burns (1973) and Heinrich and Rapoport (1974).
Size structure, not metabolic scaling rules, determines fisheries reference points
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan
2015-01-01
Impact assessments of fishing on a stock require parameterization of vital rates: growth, mortality and recruitment. For 'data-poor' stocks, vital rates may be estimated from empirical size-based relationships or from life-history invariants. However, a theoretical framework to synthesize...... these empirical relations is lacking. Here, we combine life-history invariants, metabolic scaling and size-spectrum theory to develop a general size- and trait-based theory for demography and recruitment of exploited fish stocks. Important concepts are physiological or metabolic scaled mortalities and flux...... is that larger species have a higher egg production per recruit than small species. This means that density dependence is stronger for large than for small species and has the consequence that fisheries reference points that incorporate recruitment do not obey metabolic scaling rules. This result implies...
Linear contextual modal type theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....
Physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic data for reference Indian man - a proposal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dang, H S; Jaiswal, D D; Parameswaran, M; Krishnamony, S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.
1994-12-31
The collation and generation of data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of Indian subjects were carried out to set up a Reference Indian Man for radiation protection. A comparison of the Reference Indian Man data with the corresponding data for ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that the physical, anatomical and metabolic characteristics were in general smaller for Reference Indian Man. A few of the physiological characteristics such as the daily consumption of drinking water, sweat rate were however, found to be higher, and the minute volume was similar for Reference Indian, in comparison to the ICRP Reference Man. The details of various human characteristics representative of the Indian population are reported in this paper. (author). 43 refs., 25 tabs., 6 figs.
Physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic data for reference Indian man - a proposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.
1994-01-01
The collation and generation of data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of Indian subjects were carried out to set up a Reference Indian Man for radiation protection. A comparison of the Reference Indian Man data with the corresponding data for ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that the physical, anatomical and metabolic characteristics were in general smaller for Reference Indian Man. A few of the physiological characteristics such as the daily consumption of drinking water, sweat rate were however, found to be higher, and the minute volume was similar for Reference Indian, in comparison to the ICRP Reference Man. The details of various human characteristics representative of the Indian population are reported in this paper. (author). 43 refs., 25 tabs., 6 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hes Tomáš
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Microfinance services are essential tools of formalization of shadow economics, leveraging immature entrepreneurship with external capital. Given the importance of shadow economics for the social balance of developing countries, the importance of an answer to a question of how microfinance entities come into existence, is rather essential. While decision-taking process leading to entrepreneurship were explained by the effectuation theory developed in the 90’, these explanations were not concerned with the logics of creation of microenterprises in neither developing countries nor microfinance village banks. While the abovementioned theories explain the nascence of companies in environment of developed markets, importance of a focus on emerging markets related to large share of human society of microfinance clientele is obvious. The study provides a development streak to the effectuation Theory, adding the musketeer principle to the five effectuation principles proposed by Sarasvathy. Furthermore, the hitherto not considered relationship between social capital and effectuation related concepts is another proposal of the paper focusing on description of the nature of microfinance clientele from the point of view of effectuation theory and social capital drawing a comparison of microfinance markets in four countries, Turkey, Sierra Leone, Indonesia and Afghanistan.
Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research
Newell, J. P.
2011-12-01
With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material
Methoxypyrazines biosynthesis and metabolism in grape: A review.
Lei, Yujuan; Xie, Sha; Guan, Xueqiang; Song, Changzheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei
2018-04-15
This review summarizes research on the discovery, biosynthesis, accumulation, transport, and metabolism of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in grape. The MPs are a family of potent volatile compounds distributed throughout biological kingdoms. These compounds impart herbaceous/green/vegetal sensory attributes to certain varieties of wine. Generally, high levels of MPs in wine are derived mainly from the corresponding grapes. Although two pathways for MPs biosynthesis have been proposed, only the final step and the enzymes that catalyze it has been confirmed in grape, and the metabolic intermediates and key enzymes involved in other steps are still unknown. The limited understanding of MPs metabolism has restricted research on these compounds, and some empirical results cannot be explained by the current knowledge of MPs metabolism. This review provides insights into research on MPs biosynthesis and metabolism, and proposes directions for further research on this important class of flavour/odour compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A generalized theory of carcinogenesis due to chronodisruption.
Erren, Thomas C; Reiter, Russel J
2008-12-01
For two decades, research has been suggested and conducted into the causation and development of cancers in seemingly diverse and unrelated populations such as blind individuals, shift-workers, flight personnel, Arctic residents and subsets of sleepers. One common denominator of these investigations is "melatonin". Another common denominator is that all these studies implicitly pursued the validity of the so-called "melatonin hypothesis", of a corollary and of associated predictions which can be united in our proposed theory of "carcinogenesis due to chronodisruption". The new theory suggests that the various predictions investigated between 1987 and 2008 represent different aspects of the same problem. Indeed, abundant experimental evidence supports the notion that the final common cause of many cases of cancer may be what has been termed chronodisruption (CD), a relevant disturbance of the temporal organization or order of physiology, endocrinology, metabolism and behaviour. While melatonin as a key time messenger and time keeper can be a marker of CD, it is probably only partially related to the differential cancer occurrence apparent in individuals who chronically or frequently experience an excess or deficit of chronodisruption.
Analysis of Participation Banks in Turkey in Terms of Agency Theory and a Model Proposal
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Musa GÜN
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The agency theory considers the problems between agents and principal and aims to reduce the agency costs arising from these problems. The theory could be applied in various fields and in many different areas where principal-agent relations occur. Participation banks in Turkey operating banking services based on Islamic principals are able to implement many different banking facilities. They could be regarded as supplementary alternatives to the conventional banks and thus, participation banks provide depth and financial product range in the banking sector. There are many different studies on several fields and subjects about participation banks and Islamic banks both in national and in international literature. However, the studies discussing the fatwa structure in the context of agency theory are very rare especially for the participation banks in Turkey. Thus, this study examines the Sariah advisory board mechanism of the participation banks in particular within the scope of agency problems and it focuses on a model proposal that could resolve agency cost. In Turkey, there is not a nationwide nor a Shariah agency or institution which control, regulate and/or supervise the services, operations, and activities of the participation banks, in accordance with Islamic concepts. In this context, the establishment of an independent Islamic Supervisory Council will help to reduce agency costs. Furthermore, sustainability and stability of Islamic financial markets will increase together with issuing appropriate financial products in compliance with Shariah principles and thus the Council will help Istanbul to achieve the goal of being the financial center.
Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?
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Bernt Rønning
Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.
Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?
Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus
2014-01-01
The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.
Pre- and post-natal nutritional factors in the metabolic regulation of obesity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Villanueva-Ortega
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a very significant increase in obesity in most developing countries. In addition to environmental, genetic and hormonal factors, nutritional and maternal environment factors influencing critical periods of foetal development have acquired increasing significance since the thrifty phenotype theory was described by Harles and Barker and epidemiological studies demonstrated that perinatal conditions may modify individuals’ future metabolic responses via genomic reprogramming. Perinatal programming corresponds to a critical and accelerated period of developmental plasticity from preconception through early postnatal life. This characteristic may also have a long-term influence on metabolic health and obesity. Epigenetic modifications favour the survival of the individual in critical periods when nutritional restriction is established, but exerts long-term risks, as metabolic programming tracks into infancy and adulthood and induces fat mass accumulation, particularly if energy consumption is exceeded. Although the mechanisms are not yet fully understood, it is evident that hormonal factors such as insulin and leptin may influence the programming of hypothalamic circuits for energy balance regulation. Nutritional interventions in animal models at critical stages of development have demonstrated that microenvironmental modifications might induce a permanent modulation of the progeny genome expression via epigenetic mechanisms. A transgenerational transmission of obesity has been proposed.
Acute fatal metabolic complications in alkaptonuria.
Davison, A S; Milan, A M; Gallagher, J A; Ranganath, L R
2016-03-01
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder of tyrosine metabolism that results from a defect in an enzyme called homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The result of this is that homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates in the body. HGA is central to the pathophysiology of this disease and the consequences observed; these include spondyloarthropathy, rupture of ligaments/muscle/tendons, valvular heart disease including aortic stenosis and renal stones. While AKU is considered to be a chronic progressive disorder, it is clear from published case reports that fatal acute metabolic complications can also occur. These include oxidative haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. The exact mechanisms underlying the latter are not clear, but it is proposed that disordered metabolism within the red blood cell is responsible for favouring a pro-oxidant environment that leads to the life threatening complications observed. Herein the role of red blood cell in maintaining the redox state of the body is reviewed in the context of AKU. In addition previously reported therapeutic strategies are discussed, specifically with respect to why reported treatments had little therapeutic effect. The potential use of nitisinone for the management of patients suffering from the acute metabolic decompensation in AKU is proposed as an alternative strategy.
Khan, Haider
2008-01-01
Milton Friedman’s “The Methodology of Positive Economies” is still one of the most widely read pieces on economic methodology. One reason for this might be Friedman’s attractive proposal that economists use theories and hypotheses as pragmatic devices to summarize data and make predictions over the relevant range of observations. Logically, this should lead to a fair minded comparison among many contending theories. However, Friedman's actual examples and discussion of these examples raise a ...
Contribution to a Theory of Detailed Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Niels Henrik
1999-01-01
It has been recognised, that literature actually do not propose a theory of detailed design. In this paper a theory contribution is proposed, linking part design to organ design and allowing a type of functional reasoning. The proposed theory satisfies our need for explaining the nature of a part...... structure, for support of synthesis of part structure, i.e. detailed design, and our need for digital modelling of part structures.The aim of this paper is to contribute to a design theory valid for detailed design. The proposal is based upon the theory's ability to explain the nature of machine parts...... and assemblies, to support the synthesis of parts and to allow the modelling, especially digital modelling of a part structure. The contribution is based upon Theory of Technical Systems, Hubka, and the Domain Theory, Andreasen. This paper is based on a paper presented at ICED 99, Mortensen, but focus...
Shape shifting predicts ontogenetic changes in metabolic scaling in diverse aquatic invertebrates.
Glazier, Douglas S; Hirst, Andrew G; Atkinson, David
2015-03-07
Metabolism fuels all biological activities, and thus understanding its variation is fundamentally important. Much of this variation is related to body size, which is commonly believed to follow a 3/4-power scaling law. However, during ontogeny, many kinds of animals and plants show marked shifts in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR < 1), or the reverse, are associated with significant changes in body shape (indexed by bL = the scaling exponent of the relationship between body mass and body length). The observed inverse correlations between bR and bL are predicted by metabolic scaling theory that emphasizes resource/waste fluxes across external body surfaces, but contradict theory that emphasizes resource transport through internal networks. Geometric estimates of the scaling of surface area (SA) with body mass (bA) further show that ontogenetic shifts in bR and bA are positively correlated. These results support new metabolic scaling theory based on SA influences that may be applied to ontogenetic shifts in bR shown by many kinds of animals and plants. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Investigation of possible observable e ects in a proposed theory of physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freidan, Daniel [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)
2015-03-31
The work supported by this grant produced rigorous mathematical results on what is possible in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is the well-established mathematical language for fundamental particle physics, for critical phenomena in condensed matter physics, and for Physical Mathematics (the numerous branches of Mathematics that have benefitted from ideas, constructions, and conjectures imported from Theoretical Physics). Proving rigorous constraints on what is possible in quantum field theories thus guides the field, puts actual constraints on what is physically possible in physical or mathematical systems described by quantum field theories, and saves the community the effort of trying to do what is proved impossible. Results were obtained in two dimensional qft (describing, e.g., quantum circuits) and in higher dimensional qft. Rigorous bounds were derived on basic quantities in 2d conformal field theories, i.e., in 2d critical phenomena. Conformal field theories are the basic objects in quantum field theory, the scale invariant theories describing renormalization group fixed points from which all qfts flow. The first known lower bounds on the 2d boundary entropy were found. This is the entropy- information content- in junctions in critical quantum circuits. For dimensions d > 2, a no-go theorem was proved on the possibilities of Cauchy fields, which are the analogs of the holomorphic fields in d = 2 dimensions, which have had enormously useful applications in Physics and Mathematics over the last four decades. This closed o the possibility of finding analogously rich theories in dimensions above 2. The work of two postdoctoral research fellows was partially supported by this grant. Both have gone on to tenure track positions.
Acquisition by Processing Theory: A Theory of Everything?
Carroll, Susanne E.
2004-01-01
Truscott and Sharwood Smith (henceforth T&SS) propose a novel theory of language acquisition, "Acquisition by Processing Theory" (APT), designed to account for both first and second language acquisition, monolingual and bilingual speech perception and parsing, and speech production. This is a tall order. Like any theoretically ambitious…
McFarland, Marilyn M; Eipperle, Marilyn K
2008-04-01
Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality is presented as a foundational basis for the educational preparation, primary care contextual practice, and outcomes-focused research endeavours of advanced practice nursing. Discussion emphasises the value of care and caring as the essence of advanced practice nursing through the use of three modes of care, use of the Sunrise and other enablers, and the ethnonursing method. Education, research, practice, and key concepts of the theory are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners.
Gautheron, F; Koivuniemi, J; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Bisplinghoff, J; Eversheim, D; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Joosten, R; Negrini, T; Barth, J; Klein, F; Goertz, S; Panknin, R; Pretz, J; Windmolders, R; Srnka, A; Dasgupta, S; Dhara, L; Sarkara, S; Sinha, L; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexeev, G D; Anosov, V A; Antonov, A; Efremov, A; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Guskov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Ivanov, O; Kisselev, Yu; Kouznetsov, O; Kroumchtein, Z; Meshcheryakov, G V; Nagaytsev, A; Olshevski, A; Peshekhonov, D V; Pontecorvo, G; Rossiyskaya, N; Sapozhnikov, M G; Savin, I A; Shevchenko, O Yu; Sissakian, A N; Smirnov, G I; Teryaev, O V; Tkatchev, L G; Vlassov, N V; Zemlyanichkina, E; Adolph, Ch; Braun, Ch; Eyrich, W; Lehmann, A; Richter, A; Fischer, H; Heinsius, F-H; Herrmann, F; Guthörl, T; Lauser, L; Königsmann, K; Nerling, F; Schill, Ch; Wollny, H; Schmidt, K; Schopferer, S; Mallot, G K; Nowak, W-D; Schönning, K; Schott, M; Sulc, M; Bordalo, P; Franco, C; Nunes, A S; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Silva, L; Stolarski, M; Bernhard, J; Chaberny, D; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; von Harrach, D; Jasinski, P; Kabuß, E M; Kang, D-H; Ostrick, M; Pochodzalla, J; Alexandrov, Yu; Zavertyaev, M; Böhmer, F; Dørheim, S; Friedrich, J M; Gerassimov, S; Grabmüller, S; Grube, B; Haas, F; Höppner, Ch; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Krämer, M; Mann, A; Nagel, T; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Schmitt, L; Uhl, S; Bettinelli, M; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, M A; Geyer, R; Rajotte, J-F; Schlüter, T; Uman, I; Zvyagin, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Slunecka, M; Jary, V; Virius, M; Donskov, S V; Filin, A; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu; Kolosov, V; Konstantinov, V; Lednev, A A; Mikhailov, Yu V; Nikolaenko, V I; Polyakov, V A; Ryabchikov, D; Samoylenko, V D; Bedfer, Y; Burtin, E; Ferrero, A; d’Hose, N; Kunne, F; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Marchand, C; Morreale, A; Neyret, D; Platchkov, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Lichtenstadt, J; Moinester, M A; Birsa, R; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Dalla Torre, S; Duic, V; Elia, C; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Levorato, S; Martin, A; Pesaro, G; Rocco, E; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Sozzi, F; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Alexeev, M G; Amoroso, A; Balestra, F; Bertini, R; Chiosso, M; Denisov, O; Garfagnini, R; Gnesi, I; Grasso, A; Kotzinian, A; Maggiora, A; Melis, S; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Piragino, G; Sosio, S; Takekawa, S; Badelek, B; Brona, G; Gazda, R; Klimaszewski, K; Kurek, K; Rondio, E; Sandacz, A; Sznajder, P; Wislicki, W; Marzec, J; Dziewiecki, M; Sulej, R; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Doshita, N; Iwata, T; Ishimoto, S; Horikawa, N; Kondo, K; Matsuda, T; Miyachi, Y
2010-01-01
The proposed new measurements comprise a Generalised Parton Distributions programme, an unpolarised PDF and FF programme, a transverse momentum dependent PDF programme and a programme for tests of chiral perturbation theory.
Contemporary theories of democracy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladenović Ivan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to analyze several contemporary theories of democracy, and secondly, to propose a theoretical framework for further investigations based on analyzed theories. The following four theories will be analyzed: pluralism, social choice theory, deliberative democracy and participatory democracy.
Thermodynamics of the control of metabolism
Westerhoff, H. V.; Plomp, P. J.; Groen, A. K.; Wanders, R. J.
1987-01-01
A theory is presented, describing the control analysis of metabolic systems in terms of Gibbs free energies, extending earlier work of Kacser and Burns (25), and Heinrich and Rapoport (29). It is shown that relationships exist between flux control coefficients (the degree to which enzymes control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harder, M.
2005-01-01
The chase after a world formula is presently the most iridescent task for natural science. By the development of a radical new scientistic theory, unifying not only relativity and quantum theory as also astrophysics and string theory to a common view, the author lances the first serious candidate for a TOE (Theory of Everything) in the scientific discussion. The General Theory of Duality (GDT) offers not only surprising answers to fundamental questions of physics, but also discovers the smallest component of our universe, which is still known since a longer time, which we ignored: Planck's Constant. May be possible that by this book a new world view in physics can be created. (GL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergmann, P.G.
1980-01-01
A problem of construction of the unitary field theory is discussed. The preconditions of the theory are briefly described. The main attention is paid to the geometrical interpretation of physical fields. The meaning of the conceptions of diversity and exfoliation is elucidated. Two unitary field theories are described: the Weyl conformic geometry and Calitzy five-dimensioned theory. It is proposed to consider supersymmetrical theories as a new approach to the problem of a unitary field theory. It is noted that the supergravitational theories are really unitary theories, since the fields figuring there do not assume invariant expansion
Metabolic and behavioural effects of sucrose and fructose/glucose drinks in the rat.
Sheludiakova, Anastasia; Rooney, Kieron; Boakes, Robert A
2012-06-01
Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular carbonated soft drinks, promotes the development of overweight and obesity and is associated with metabolic disturbances, including intrahepatic fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. One theory proposes that drinks sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup are particularly detrimental to health, as they contain fructose in its 'free' monosaccharide form. This experiment tested whether consuming 'free' fructose had a greater impact on body weight and metabolic abnormalities than when consumed 'bound' within the disaccharide sucrose. Male Hooded Wistar rats were given free access for 56 days to 10% sucrose (Group Suc), 10%, 50/50 fructose/glucose (Group FrucGluc) or water control drinks (Group Control), plus chow. Caloric intake and body weights were measured throughout the protocol, and the following metabolic indices were determined between days 54 and 56: serum triglycerides, liver triglycerides, retroperitoneal fat and oral glucose tolerance. Animals with access to sugar beverages consumed 20% more calories, but did not show greater weight gain than controls. Nevertheless, they developed larger abdominal fat pads, higher triglyceride levels and exhibited impaired insulin/glucose homeostasis. Comparison of the two sugars revealed increased fasting glycaemia in the FrucGluc group, but not in Suc group, whereas the Suc group was more active in an open field. A metabolic profile indicating increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease was observed in animals given access to sugar-sweetened beverages. Notably, 'free' fructose disrupted glucose homeostasis more than did 'bound' fructose, thus posing a greater risk of progression to type 2 diabetes.
Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory
Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Hollands
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new framework for quantum field theory in terms of consistency conditions. The consistency conditions that we consider are ''associativity'' or ''factorization'' conditions on the operator product expansion (OPE of the theory, and are proposed to be the defining property of any quantum field theory. Our framework is presented in the Euclidean setting, and is applicable in principle to any quantum field theory, including non-conformal ones. In our framework, we obtain a characterization of perturbations of a given quantum field theory in terms of a certain cohomology ring of Hochschild-type. We illustrate our framework by the free field, but our constructions are general and apply also to interacting quantum field theories. For such theories, we propose a new scheme to construct the OPE which is based on the use of non-linear quantized field equations.
Deepening, and repairing, the metabolic rift.
Schneider, Mindi; McMichael, Philip
2010-01-01
This paper critically assesses the metabolic rift as a social, ecological, and historical concept describing the disruption of natural cycles and processes and ruptures in material human-nature relations under capitalism. As a social concept, the metabolic rift presumes that metabolism is understood in relation to the labour process. This conception, however, privileges the organisation of labour to the exclusion of the practice of labour, which we argue challenges its utility for analysing contemporary socio-environmental crises. As an ecological concept, the metabolic rift is based on outmoded understandings of (agro) ecosystems and inadequately describes relations and interactions between labour and ecological processes. Historically, the metabolic rift is integral to debates about the definitions and relations of capitalism, industrialism, and modernity as historical concepts. At the same time, it gives rise to an epistemic rift, insofar as the separation of the natural and social worlds comes to be expressed in social thought and critical theory, which have one-sidedly focused on the social. We argue that a reunification of the social and the ecological, in historical practice and in historical thought, is the key to repairing the metabolic rift, both conceptually and practically. The food sovereignty movement in this respect is exemplary.
Chai, Jeng-Da
2017-01-28
We propose hybrid schemes incorporating exact exchange into thermally assisted-occupation-density functional theory (TAO-DFT) [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)] for an improved description of nonlocal exchange effects. With a few simple modifications, global and range-separated hybrid functionals in Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) can be combined seamlessly with TAO-DFT. In comparison with global hybrid functionals in KS-DFT, the resulting global hybrid functionals in TAO-DFT yield promising performance for systems with strong static correlation effects (e.g., the dissociation of H 2 and N 2 , twisted ethylene, and electronic properties of linear acenes), while maintaining similar performance for systems without strong static correlation effects. Besides, a reasonably accurate description of noncovalent interactions can be efficiently achieved through the inclusion of dispersion corrections in hybrid TAO-DFT. Relative to semilocal density functionals in TAO-DFT, global hybrid functionals in TAO-DFT are generally superior in performance for a wide range of applications, such as thermochemistry, kinetics, reaction energies, and optimized geometries.
The Intense World Theory – A Unifying Theory of the Neurobiology of Autism
Markram, Kamila; Markram, Henry
2010-01-01
Autism covers a wide spectrum of disorders for which there are many views, hypotheses and theories. Here we propose a unifying theory of autism, the Intense World Theory. The proposed neuropathology is hyper-functioning of local neural microcircuits, best characterized by hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity. Such hyper-functional microcircuits are speculated to become autonomous and memory trapped leading to the core cognitive consequences of hyper-perception, hyper-attention, hyper-memory and hyper-emotionality. The theory is centered on the neocortex and the amygdala, but could potentially be applied to all brain regions. The severity on each axis depends on the severity of the molecular syndrome expressed in different brain regions, which could uniquely shape the repertoire of symptoms of an autistic child. The progression of the disorder is proposed to be driven by overly strong reactions to experiences that drive the brain to a hyper-preference and overly selective state, which becomes more extreme with each new experience and may be particularly accelerated by emotionally charged experiences and trauma. This may lead to obsessively detailed information processing of fragments of the world and an involuntarily and systematic decoupling of the autist from what becomes a painfully intense world. The autistic is proposed to become trapped in a limited, but highly secure internal world with minimal extremes and surprises. We present the key studies that support this theory of autism, show how this theory can better explain past findings, and how it could resolve apparently conflicting data and interpretations. The theory also makes further predictions from the molecular to the behavioral levels, provides a treatment strategy and presents its own falsifying hypothesis. PMID:21191475
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, S.
1985-01-01
Of all supergravity theories, the maximal, i.e., N = 8 in 4-dimension or N = 1 in 11-dimension, theory should perform the unification since it owns the highest degree of symmetry. As to the N = 1 in d = 11 theory, it has been investigated how to compactify to the d = 4 theories. From the phenomenological point of view, local SUSY GUTs, i.e., N = 1 SUSY GUTs with soft breaking terms, have been studied from various angles. The structures of extended supergravity theories are less understood than those of N = 1 supergravity theories, and matter couplings in N = 2 extended supergravity theories are under investigation. The harmonic superspace was recently proposed which may be useful to investigate the quantum effects of extended supersymmetry and supergravity theories. As to the so-called Kaluza-Klein supergravity, there is another possibility. (Mori, K.)
The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.
Ha, Nathan Q
2011-01-01
At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command.
String theory duals of Lifshitz–Chern–Simons gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balasubramanian, Koushik; McGreevy, John
2012-01-01
We propose candidate gravity duals for a class of non-Abelian z = 2 Lifshitz Chern–Simons (LCS) gauge theories studied by Mulligan, Kachru and Nayak. These are nonrelativistic gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions in which parity and time-reversal symmetries are explicitly broken by the presence of a Chern–Simons term. We show that these field theories can be realized as deformations of DLCQ N=4 super Yang–Mills theory. Using the holographic dictionary, we identify the bulk fields of type IIB supergravity that are dual to these deformations. The geometries describing the groundstates of the non-Abelian LCS gauge theories realized here exhibit a mass gap. (paper)
Metabolic Control of Redox and Redox Control of Metabolism in Plants
Fernie, Alisdair R.
2014-01-01
characterizing signaling features thereof. We propose that such information will enable us to dissect the regulatory hierarchies that mediate the strict coupling of metabolism and redox status which, ultimately, determine plant growth and development. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1389–1421. PMID:24960279
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2016-06-06
We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.
Gravitation as Gauge theory of Poincare Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stedile, E.
1982-08-01
The geometrical approach to gauge theories, based on fiber-bundles, is shown in detail. Several gauge formalisms for gravitation are examined. In particular, it is shown how to build gauge theories for non-semisimple groups. A gravitational theory for the Poincare group, with all the essential characteristics of a Yang-Mills theory is proposed. Inonu-Wigner contractions of gauge theories are introduced, which provide a Lagrangian formalism, equivalent to a Lagrangian de Sitter theory supplemented by weak constraints. Yang and Einstein theories for gravitation become particular cases of a Yang-Mills theory. The classical limit of the proposed formalism leads to the Poisson equation, for the static case. (Author) [pt
Chronology protection in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyson, Lisa
2004-01-01
Many solutions of General Relativity appear to allow the possibility of time travel. This was initially a fascinating discovery, but geometries of this type violate causality, a basic physical law which is believed to be fundamental. Although string theory is a proposed fundamental theory of quantum gravity, geometries with closed timelike curves have resurfaced as solutions to its low energy equations of motion. In this paper, we will study the class of solutions to low energy effective supergravity theories related to the BMPV black hole and the rotating wave-D1-D5-brane system. Time travel appears to be possible in these geometries. We will attempt to build the causality violating regions and propose that stringy effects prohibit their construction. The proposed chronology protection agent for these geometries mirrors a mechanism string theory employs to resolve a class of naked singularities. (author)
2014-01-01
Background Abnormal states in human liver metabolism are major causes of human liver diseases ranging from hepatitis to hepatic tumor. The accumulation in relevant data makes it feasible to derive a large-scale human liver metabolic network (HLMN) and to discover important biological principles or drug-targets based on network analysis. Some studies have shown that interesting biological phenomenon and drug-targets could be discovered by applying structural controllability analysis (which is a newly prevailed concept in networks) to biological networks. The exploration on the connections between structural controllability theory and the HLMN could be used to uncover valuable information on the human liver metabolism from a fresh perspective. Results We applied structural controllability analysis to the HLMN and detected driver metabolites. The driver metabolites tend to have strong ability to influence the states of other metabolites and weak susceptibility to be influenced by the states of others. In addition, the metabolites were classified into three classes: critical, high-frequency and low-frequency driver metabolites. Among the identified 36 critical driver metabolites, 27 metabolites were found to be essential; the high-frequency driver metabolites tend to participate in different metabolic pathways, which are important in regulating the whole metabolic systems. Moreover, we explored some other possible connections between the structural controllability theory and the HLMN, and find that transport reactions and the environment play important roles in the human liver metabolism. Conclusion There are interesting connections between the structural controllability theory and the human liver metabolism: driver metabolites have essential biological functions; the crucial role of extracellular metabolites and transport reactions in controlling the HLMN highlights the importance of the environment in the health of human liver metabolism. PMID:24885538
Semiclassical methods in field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, I.
1978-10-01
A new scheme is proposed for semi-classical quantization in field theory - the expansion about the charge (EAC) - which is developed within the canonical formalism. This method is suitable for quantizing theories that are invariant under global gauge transformations. It is used in the treatment of the non relativistic logarithmic theory that was proposed by Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski - a theory we can formulate in any number of spatial dimensions. The non linear Schroedinger equation is also quantized by means of the EAC. The classical logarithmic theories - both, the non relativistic and the relativistic one - are studied in detail. It is shown that the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule(BSQR) in field theory is, in many cases, equivalent to charge quantization. This rule is then applied to the massive Thirring Model and the logarithmic theories. The BSQR can be see as a simplified and non local version of the EAC [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1983-11-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is argued that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in an earlier paper is formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity. Then it is shown that the recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce in a consistent way the quantum space-time model (the 'canonically quantized Minkowski space') proposed by Banai earlier. The main new aspect of the quantum mechanics of the quantum relativistic particles is, in this model of space-time, that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem and, that the excited mass states of such particles can be interpreted as classifically relativistic (massive) quantum particles ('elementary particles'). The question of field theory over quantum relativistic models of space-time is also discussed. Finally, it is suggested that 'quarks' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
An adaptive orienting theory of error processing.
Wessel, Jan R
2018-03-01
The ability to detect and correct action errors is paramount to safe and efficient goal-directed behaviors. Existing work on the neural underpinnings of error processing and post-error behavioral adaptations has led to the development of several mechanistic theories of error processing. These theories can be roughly grouped into adaptive and maladaptive theories. While adaptive theories propose that errors trigger a cascade of processes that will result in improved behavior after error commission, maladaptive theories hold that error commission momentarily impairs behavior. Neither group of theories can account for all available data, as different empirical studies find both impaired and improved post-error behavior. This article attempts a synthesis between the predictions made by prominent adaptive and maladaptive theories. Specifically, it is proposed that errors invoke a nonspecific cascade of processing that will rapidly interrupt and inhibit ongoing behavior and cognition, as well as orient attention toward the source of the error. It is proposed that this cascade follows all unexpected action outcomes, not just errors. In the case of errors, this cascade is followed by error-specific, controlled processing, which is specifically aimed at (re)tuning the existing task set. This theory combines existing predictions from maladaptive orienting and bottleneck theories with specific neural mechanisms from the wider field of cognitive control, including from error-specific theories of adaptive post-error processing. The article aims to describe the proposed framework and its implications for post-error slowing and post-error accuracy, propose mechanistic neural circuitry for post-error processing, and derive specific hypotheses for future empirical investigations. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.
2012-01-01
Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk
Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Nicolas Kaufmann
1998-06-01
Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.
A preferential proposal for contextual reasoning
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2012-06-01
Full Text Available and classical set theory are no longer considered adequate tools for the formalization of the conceptual structures introduced by such new proposals. In this paper, starting from a recent work by Michael Freund, we present a logical formalization for a theory...
Foley, Pamela F; Lytle, Megan C
2015-06-01
Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60-87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample.
An approach to higher dimensional theories based on lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murata, M.; So, H.
2004-01-01
A higher dimensional lattice space can be decomposed into a number of four-dimensional lattices called as layers. The higher dimensional gauge theory on the lattice can be interpreted as four-dimensional gauge theories on the multi-layer with interactions between neighboring layers. We propose the new possibility to realize the continuum limit of a five-dimensional theory based on the property of the phase diagram
Evolution of metabolic network organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonchev Danail
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of metabolic networks across species is a key to understanding how evolutionary pressures shape these networks. By selecting taxa representative of different lineages or lifestyles and using a comprehensive set of descriptors of the structure and complexity of their metabolic networks, one can highlight both qualitative and quantitative differences in the metabolic organization of species subject to distinct evolutionary paths or environmental constraints. Results We used a novel representation of metabolic networks, termed network of interacting pathways or NIP, to focus on the modular, high-level organization of the metabolic capabilities of the cell. Using machine learning techniques we identified the most relevant aspects of cellular organization that change under evolutionary pressures. We considered the transitions from prokarya to eukarya (with a focus on the transitions among the archaea, bacteria and eukarya, from unicellular to multicellular eukarya, from free living to host-associated bacteria, from anaerobic to aerobic, as well as the acquisition of cell motility or growth in an environment of various levels of salinity or temperature. Intuitively, we expect organisms with more complex lifestyles to have more complex and robust metabolic networks. Here we demonstrate for the first time that such organisms are not only characterized by larger, denser networks of metabolic pathways but also have more efficiently organized cross communications, as revealed by subtle changes in network topology. These changes are unevenly distributed among metabolic pathways, with specific categories of pathways being promoted to more central locations as an answer to environmental constraints. Conclusions Combining methods from graph theory and machine learning, we have shown here that evolutionary pressures not only affects gene and protein sequences, but also specific details of the complex wiring of functional modules
Braidotti, R.
2016-01-01
This essay proposes a genealogical cartography of the emergence of a posthuman turn in critical theory, including feminist theory, based on the convergence of posthumanism with post-anthropocentrism. The former critiques the universalist posture of the idea of ‘Man’ as the alleged ‘measure of all
Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L
1997-01-01
Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.
Classical Michaelis-Menten and system theory approach to modeling metabolite formation kinetics.
Popović, Jovan
2004-01-01
When single doses of drug are administered and kinetics are linear, techniques, which are based on the compartment approach and the linear system theory approach, in modeling the formation of the metabolite from the parent drug are proposed. Unlike the purpose-specific compartment approach, the methodical, conceptual and computational uniformity in modeling various linear biomedical systems is the dominant characteristic of the linear system approach technology. Saturation of the metabolic reaction results in nonlinear kinetics according to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The two compartment open model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics is theorethicaly basic when single doses of drug are administered. To simulate data or to fit real data using this model, one must resort to numerical integration. A biomathematical model for multiple dosage regimen calculations of nonlinear metabolic systems in steady-state and a working example with phenytoin are presented. High correlation between phenytoin steady-state serum levels calculated from individual Km and Vmax values in the 15 adult epileptic outpatients and the observed levels at the third adjustment of phenytoin daily dose (r=0.961, p<0.01) were found.
Integrable theories that are asymptotically CFT
Evans, J M; Jonathan M Evans; Timothy J Hollowood
1995-01-01
A series of sigma models with torsion are analysed which generate their mass dynamically but whose ultra-violet fixed points are non-trivial conformal field theories -- in fact SU(2) WZW models at level k. In contrast to the more familiar situation of asymptotically free theories in which the fixed points are trivial, the sigma models considered here may be termed ``asymptotically CFT''. These theories have previously been conjectured to be quantum integrable; we confirm this by proposing a factorizable S-matrix to describe their infra-red behaviour and then carrying out a stringent test of this proposal. The test involves coupling the theory to a conserved charge and evaluating the response of the free-energy both in perturbation theory to one loop and directly from the S-matrix via the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz with a chemical potential at zero temperature. Comparison of these results provides convincing evidence in favour of the proposed S-matrix; it also yields the universal coefficients of the beta-func...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanius Rodrigues Mansur; Alvaro Alvarenga Junior; Joao Mario Andrade Pinto; Wellington Antonio Soares; Ernani Sales Palma
2005-01-01
The useful life of metallic structures is many times governed by fatigue processes caused by vibrations or by application of dynamic loads, periodic or not. Many times the amplitude of the alternated stress applied to a structural component can vary during its useful life. In this situation the direct use of S-N-P curves cannot be done because they are generated on the basis of alternated stress with constant amplitude. Several theories have been developed during the last times, where some are deterministic and other probabilistic, in order to give a component designer a more efficient and correct tool for approaching the problem. They are called Theories on Damage Accumulation. The phenomenon of creating damages represents the generation of superficial discontinuities caused by micro-cracks or by volumetric cavities [Lemaitre and Chaboche, 1985]. In the continuous mechanics, the superficial density of micro-defects (micro-cracks or cavities) inside the shear plan of the representative element volume of the sample is the variable used to quantify the damage. A methodology for evaluating damage accumulation using average of stresses is proposed in this paper. Results obtained for a 50% failure probability are presented and are compared to those values obtained using the theories of Palmgren-Miner, Henry, Corten-Dolan, Marine, Manson, and Knee-point. (authors)
Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat
2017-11-01
The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reconstructing Constructivism: Causal Models, Bayesian Learning Mechanisms, and the Theory Theory
Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.
2012-01-01
We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework…
Unified theory of interspecific allometric scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Jafferson K L da; Barbosa, Lauro A; Silva, Paulo Roberto
2007-01-01
A general simple theory for the interspecific allometric scaling is developed in the d + 1-dimensional space (d biological lengths and a physiological time) of metabolic states of organisms. It is assumed that natural selection shaped the metabolic states in such a way that the mass and energy d + 1-densities are size-invariant quantities (independent of body mass). The different metabolic states (basal and maximum) are described by considering that the biological lengths and the physiological time are related by different transport processes of energy and mass. In the basal metabolism, transportation occurs by ballistic and diffusion processes. In d = 3, the 3/4 law occurs if the ballistic movement is the dominant process, while the 2/3 law appears when both transport processes are equivalent. Accelerated movement during the biological time is related to the maximum aerobic sustained metabolism, which is characterized by the scaling exponent 2d/(2d + 1) (6/7 in d = 3). The results are in good agreement with empirical data and a verifiable empirical prediction about the aorta blood velocity in maximum metabolic rate conditions is made. (fast track communication)
A metabolic switch in brain: glucose and lactate metabolism modulation by ascorbic acid.
Castro, Maite A; Beltrán, Felipe A; Brauchi, Sebastián; Concha, Ilona I
2009-07-01
In this review, we discuss a novel function of ascorbic acid in brain energetics. It has been proposed that during glutamatergic synaptic activity neurons preferably consume lactate released from glia. The key to this energetic coupling is the metabolic activation that occurs in astrocytes by glutamate and an increase in extracellular [K(+)]. Neurons are cells well equipped to consume glucose because they express glucose transporters and glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Moreover, neuronal cells express monocarboxylate transporters and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1, which is inhibited by pyruvate. As glycolysis produces an increase in pyruvate concentration and a decrease in NAD(+)/NADH, lactate and glucose consumption are not viable at the same time. In this context, we discuss ascorbic acid participation as a metabolic switch modulating neuronal metabolism between rest and activation periods. Ascorbic acid is highly concentrated in CNS. Glutamate stimulates ascorbic acid release from astrocytes. Ascorbic acid entry into neurons and within the cell can inhibit glucose consumption and stimulate lactate transport. For this switch to occur, an ascorbic acid flow is necessary between astrocytes and neurons, which is driven by neural activity and is part of vitamin C recycling. Here, we review the role of glucose and lactate as metabolic substrates and the modulation of neuronal metabolism by ascorbic acid.
Physics from multidimensional gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forgacs, P.; Lust, D.; Zoupanos, G.
1986-01-01
The authors motivate high dimensional theories by recalling the original Kaluza-Klein proposal. They review the dimensional reduction of symmetric gauge theories and they present the results of the attempts to obtain realistic description of elementary particles interactions starting from symmetric gauge theories in high dimensions
Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory
Khrennikov, Andrei
2002-01-01
We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.
Theory of photoinduced deformation of molecular films
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Ramanujam, P.S.
2002-01-01
Azobenzene-containing polymers exhibit strong surface-relief features when irradiated with polarized light. Currently proposed theories do not explain all the observed features. Here we propose a theory based on elastic deformation of the polymer due to interaction between dipoles ordered through...
Schwarz, John H.
1995-01-01
A proposed duality between type IIB superstring theory on R^9 X S^1 and a conjectured 11D fundamental theory (``M theory'') on R^9 X T^2 is investigated. Simple heuristic reasoning leads to a consistent picture relating the various p-branes and their tensions in each theory. Identifying the M theory on R^{10} X S^1 with type IIA superstring theory on R^{10}, in a similar fashion, leads to various relations among the p-branes of the IIA theory.
The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds
Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.
2006-01-01
Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.
Do People Use Their Implicit Theories of Creativity as General Theories?
Lee, Hong; Kim, Jungsik; Ryu, Yeonjae; Song, Seokjong
2015-01-01
This study examines whether people use the general implicit theories of creativity or not when applying them to themselves and others. On the basis of the actor-observer asymmetry theory, the authors propose that conception of creativity would be differently constructed depending on the targets of attention: general, self, and other. Three studies…
Differential retention of metabolic genes following whole-genome duplication.
Gout, Jean-François; Duret, Laurent; Kahn, Daniel
2009-05-01
Classical studies in Metabolic Control Theory have shown that metabolic fluxes usually exhibit little sensitivity to changes in individual enzyme activity, yet remain sensitive to global changes of all enzymes in a pathway. Therefore, little selective pressure is expected on the dosage or expression of individual metabolic genes, yet entire pathways should still be constrained. However, a direct estimate of this selective pressure had not been evaluated. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) offer a good opportunity to address this question by analyzing the fates of metabolic genes during the massive gene losses that follow. Here, we take advantage of the successive rounds of WGD that occurred in the Paramecium lineage. We show that metabolic genes exhibit different gene retention patterns than nonmetabolic genes. Contrary to what was expected for individual genes, metabolic genes appeared more retained than other genes after the recent WGD, which was best explained by selection for gene expression operating on entire pathways. Metabolic genes also tend to be less retained when present at high copy number before WGD, contrary to other genes that show a positive correlation between gene retention and preduplication copy number. This is rationalized on the basis of the classical concave relationship relating metabolic fluxes with enzyme expression.
An evolutionary theory of human motivation.
Bernard, Larry C; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R Patricia
2005-05-01
The authors review psychology's historical, competing perspectives on human motivation and propose a new comprehensive theory. The new theory is based on evolutionary principles as proposed by C. Darwin (1859) and modified by W. D. Hamilton (1964, 1996), R. L. Trivers (1971, 1972), and R. Dawkins (1989). The theory unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to motivation. The theory is neuropsychological and addresses conscious and nonconscious processes that underlie motivation, emotion, and self-control. The theory predicts a hierarchical structure of motives that are measurable as individual differences in human behavior. These motives are related to social problem domains (D. B. Bugental, 2000; D. T. Kenrick, N. P. Li, & J. Butner, 2003), and each is hypothesized to solve a particular problem of human inclusive fitness.
The metabolic score: A decision making tool in diabetes care.
Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep
2015-11-01
The heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus, and the various metabolic abnormalities associated with it, are well known. Current management guidelines used to help choose glucose-lowering drugs in diabetes mellitus describe various drug classes in detail, but do not take the overall metabolic profile into consideration. To help physicians choose appropriate oral therapy, we propose a discrete metabolic score, based upon the presence and absence of metabolic comorbidities included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. This communication describes how to choose an appropriate oral antidiabetic drug using such a score. The metabolic score based decision making aid should be able to prove its utility in all health care settings, especially resource constrained societies.
Proposed Doctrine Based Structure of the Armored Reconnaissance Squadron
2017-06-09
squadron. A new structure was proposed based on the deduced required capabilities, utilizing organizational theory and current army practices. This...squadron, which now puts greater emphasis on this analysis to link structure to doctrinally based task. Organizational Theory Since earliest...expect to find capability based discourse; there is a lack of proposed structure based on capability, task or equipment . The Armour Bulletin serves
Oriented matroid theory as a mathematical framework for M-theory
Nieto, J. A.
2006-01-01
We claim that $M$(atroid) theory may provide a mathematical framework for an underlying description of $M$-theory. Duality is the key symmetry which motivates our proposal. The definition of an oriented matroid in terms of the Farkas property plays a central role in our formalism. We outline how this definition may be carried over $M$-theory. As a consequence of our analysis we find a new type of action for extended systems which combines dually the $p$-brane and its dual $p^{\\perp}$-brane.
Revisiting a theory of negotiation: the utility of Markiewicz (2005) proposed six principles.
McDonald, Diane
2008-08-01
their differences and be willing to move on. But the problem is that evaluators are not necessarily equipped with the technical or personal skills required for effective negotiation. In addition, the time and effort that are required to undertake this mediating role are often not sufficiently understood by those who commission a review. With such issues in mind Markiewicz, A. [(2005). A balancing act: Resolving multiple stakeholder interests in program evaluation. Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 4(1-2), 13-21] has proposed six principles upon which to build a case for negotiation to be integrated into the evaluation process. This paper critiques each of these principles in the context of an evaluation undertaken of a youth program. In doing so it challenges the view that stakeholder consensus is always possible if program improvement is to be achieved. This has led to some refinement and further extension of the proposed theory of negotiation that is seen to be instrumental to the role of an evaluator.
Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain
Schwitzgebel, Eric
Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.
Temporal expression-based analysis of metabolism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara B Collins
Full Text Available Metabolic flux is frequently rerouted through cellular metabolism in response to dynamic changes in the intra- and extra-cellular environment. Capturing the mechanisms underlying these metabolic transitions in quantitative and predictive models is a prominent challenge in systems biology. Progress in this regard has been made by integrating high-throughput gene expression data into genome-scale stoichiometric models of metabolism. Here, we extend previous approaches to perform a Temporal Expression-based Analysis of Metabolism (TEAM. We apply TEAM to understanding the complex metabolic dynamics of the respiratorily versatile bacterium Shewanella oneidensis grown under aerobic, lactate-limited conditions. TEAM predicts temporal metabolic flux distributions using time-series gene expression data. Increased predictive power is achieved by supplementing these data with a large reference compendium of gene expression, which allows us to take into account the unique character of the distribution of expression of each individual gene. We further propose a straightforward method for studying the sensitivity of TEAM to changes in its fundamental free threshold parameter θ, and reveal that discrete zones of distinct metabolic behavior arise as this parameter is changed. By comparing the qualitative characteristics of these zones to additional experimental data, we are able to constrain the range of θ to a small, well-defined interval. In parallel, the sensitivity analysis reveals the inherently difficult nature of dynamic metabolic flux modeling: small errors early in the simulation propagate to relatively large changes later in the simulation. We expect that handling such "history-dependent" sensitivities will be a major challenge in the future development of dynamic metabolic-modeling techniques.
Towards a mathematical foundation of minimum-variance theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Zhang Kewei [SMS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Wei Gang [Mathematical Department, Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)
2002-08-30
The minimum-variance theory which accounts for arm and eye movements with noise signal inputs was proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4). Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the theory and analytical solutions of the theory are obtained. Furthermore, we propose a new version of the minimum-variance theory, which is more realistic for a biological system. For the new version we show numerically that the variance is considerably reduced. (author)
On negative norm states in supersymmetric theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellwanger, U.
1983-01-01
We study the effective kinetic energy of scalar fields for two classes of supersymmetric theories. In theories with very large VEVs of scalar fields, as proposed by Witten, the use of the renormalization group improved effective action prevents the appearance of negative norm states. For simpler theories a general criterium for the absence of negative norm states is given, which is violated in a model with O(N)-symmetry proposed recently. (orig.)
Fitchett, George; Altenbaumer, Mary L; Atta, Osofo Kwesi; Stowman, Sheryl Lyndes; Vlach, Kyle
2014-12-01
Revisions to the processes for training and certifying supervisors continue to be debated within the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE). In 2012 Ragsdale and colleagues published, "Mutually engaged supervisory processes," a qualitative research study utilizing grounded theory based on interviews with 19 recently certified Associate CPE Supervisors, of nine components that facilitate the development of CPE supervisory education students. In this article we critically engage this theory and the research upon which it is based. We also reflect on three issues highlighted by the theory: personal transformation in CPE supervisory education, how CPE supervisory education students develop theoretical foundations for their work, and engaging multicultural issues in supervisory education. We conclude that this theory offers ACPE the possibility of using research to guide future modifications to its practice of Supervisory education. © 2014 Journal of Pastoral Care Publications Inc.
Physics of metabolic organization
Jusup, Marko; Sousa, Tânia; Domingos, Tiago; Labinac, Velimir; Marn, Nina; Wang, Zhen; Klanjšček, Tin
2017-03-01
We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work. To bridge the gap between the two aspects of the same theory, we (i) adhere to the theoretical formalism, (ii) try to minimize the amount of information that a reader needs to process, but also (iii) invoke examples from biology to motivate the introduction of new concepts and to justify the assumptions made, and (iv) show how the careful formalism of the general theory enables modular, self-consistent extensions that capture important features of the species and the problem in question. Perhaps the most difficult among the introduced concepts, the utilization (or mobilization) energy flow, is given particular attention in the form of an original and considerably simplified derivation. Specific examples illustrate a range of possible applications-from energy budgets of individual organisms, to population dynamics, to ecotoxicology.
Esmaeili, Naseh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Tarighat Esfanjani, Ali; Kheirouri, Sorayya
2016-07-01
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as a pattern of metabolic disorders including central obesity, insulin resistance or hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Many studies show a clear relationship between diet and components of MS. The aim of the current study was to identify barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations among Iranian MS patients. The theory of reasoned action (TRA) served as the framework for this qualitative study. Data collection was conducted through six semi-structured focus group discussions, from Apr to Jun 2013. Subjects included 36 married men and women with different levels of education between the ages of 20-50 with MS diagnosed based on IDF's (International Diabetes federation) criteria. All focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed. The thematic content analysis method was used to analyze the study data. This study identified the most important barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations. MS patients have problems in their attitude toward MS components and their relationship to nutrition. They also had wrong attitudes toward fats and oils, salt, dairy products, cereals, and sugary drinks and sweets. Subjective norms that affects patient eating identifies too. We identified barriers to adherence to dietary recommendations in MS patients that could be used to prevent MS consequences and provide patients with nutrition education.
Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.
Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing
2015-07-01
To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beam structures classical and advanced theories
Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco
2011-01-01
Beam theories are exploited worldwide to analyze civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures. Many beam approaches have been proposed during the last centuries by eminent scientists such as Euler, Bernoulli, Navier, Timoshenko, Vlasov, etc. Most of these models are problem dependent: they provide reliable results for a given problem, for instance a given section and cannot be applied to a different one. Beam Structures: Classical and Advanced Theories proposes a new original unified approach to beam theory that includes practically all classical and advanced models for be
Rains, Stephen A; Tukachinsky, Riva
2015-01-01
Uncertainty management theory (UMT; Brashers, 2001, 2007) is rooted in the assumption that, as opposed to being inherently negative, health-related uncertainty is appraised for its meaning. Appraisals influence subsequent behaviors intended to manage uncertainty, such as information seeking. This study explores the connections among uncertainty, appraisal, and information-seeking behavior proposed in UMT. A laboratory study was conducted in which participants (N = 157) were primed to feel and desire more or less uncertainty about skin cancer and were given the opportunity to search for skin cancer information using the World Wide Web. The results show that desired uncertainty level predicted appraisal intensity, and appraisal intensity predicted information-seeking depth-although the latter relationship was in the opposite direction of what was expected.
Fast prediction of cytochrome P450 mediated drug metabolism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rydberg, Patrik Åke Anders; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Oostenbrink, Chris
2009-01-01
Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism of drugs is one of the major determinants of their kinetic profile, and prediction of this metabolism is therefore highly relevant during the drug discovery and development process. A new rule-based method, based on results from density functional theory...... calculations, for predicting activation energies for aliphatic and aromatic oxidations by cytochromes P450 is developed and compared with several other methods. Although the applicability of the method is currently limited to a subset of P450 reactions, these reactions describe more than 90...
Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor
2017-08-24
Although temperature is a key driver of bacterioplankton metabolism, the effect of ocean warming on different bacterial phylogenetic groups remains unclear. Here, we conducted monthly short-term incubations with natural coastal bacterial communities over an annual cycle to test the effect of experimental temperature on the growth rates and carrying capacities of four phylogenetic groups: SAR11, Rhodobacteraceae, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. SAR11 was the most abundant group year-round as analysed by CARD-FISH, with maximum abundances in summer, while the other taxa peaked in spring. All groups, including SAR11, showed high temperature-sensitivity of growth rates and/or carrying capacities in spring, under phytoplankton bloom or post-bloom conditions. In that season, Rhodobacteraceae showed the strongest temperature response in growth rates, estimated here as activation energy (E, 1.43 eV), suggesting an advantage to outcompete other groups under warmer conditions. In summer E values were in general lower than 0.65 eV, the value predicted by the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE). Contrary to MTE predictions, carrying capacity tended to increase with warming for all bacterial groups. Our analysis confirms that resource availability is key when addressing the temperature response of heterotrophic bacterioplankton. We further show that even under nutrient-sufficient conditions, warming differentially affected distinct bacterioplankton taxa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nonperturbative quantization of nonabelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavnov, A.
2011-01-01
Full text: (author)On the basis of the equivalence theorems proven earlier, a new formulation of nonabelian gauge theories is proposed. Contrary to the usual scheme this formulation allows the quantization of gauge theories beyond perturbation theory. The method is applicable both to the Yang-Mills theory and to nonabelian models with spontaneously broken symmetries
A theory of piezoelectric laminates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giangreco, E.
1997-01-01
A theory of piezoelectric laminates is rationally derived from the three-dimensional Voigt theory of piezoelectricity. The present theory is a generalization to piezoelectric laminates of the Reissner-Mindlin-type layer-wise theory of elastic laminates. Both a differential formulation and a variational formulation of the piezoelectric laminate problem are presented. The proposed theory is adopted in the analysis of simple problems, in order to verify its effectiveness. The results it provides turn out to be in good agreement with the results supplied by the Voigt theory of piezoelectricity
Vakalopoulos, Costa
2005-01-01
This paper extends the concepts introduced by the theory of premotor relations to unconscious cognitive mechanisms. According to the theory conscious mechanisms are associated with behavioural diversity, whereas unconscious output is proposed to have an obligatory association with stereotypical behaviour. The respective processes are by definition a function of the type of reafferent motor input. Concepts of simple and complex premotor networks are introduced as a means of describing unconscious and conscious processes, respectively. Evidence shows that unconscious cognitive performance differs qualitatively from conscious mechanisms suggesting parallel processes. Although the postulated anatomical substrates for conscious and unconscious processes will function in this model as parallel segregated networks, it is proposed they are distributed throughout the same cortical areas of the brain. Motor reafference is postulated to be mediated via pallidal projections to the thalamic reticular nucleus, which is known to modulate thalamocortical pathways. The role of the koniocellular pathway of the lateral geniculate nucleus remains an enigma and has some properties in common with the well-described magnocellular and parvocellular projections. There is also much speculation about the intralaminar and midline nuclei, the so-called non-specific thalamus. The paper will examine the distinctive features of thalamocortical networks and the role of the koniocellular pathway and intralaminar nuclei (ILN) of the thalamus and suggest that they form a neuroanatomical substrate for the categorizing of unconscious cognitive processes. The ILN has unique projections back to the basal ganglia, which could serve in constraining associated neocortical networks with stereotypical behaviour and thus putative unconscious processing. Only after establishing such a theoretical framework can one hope to successfully analyze the empirical literature on the syndrome of blindsight, of which a
Proctor, Kristopher Ryan
2010-01-01
This dissertation proposes theoretical formalization as a way of enhancing theory development within criminology. Differential association, social learning, social control, and general strain theories are formalized in order to identify assumptions of human nature, key theoretical concepts, theoretical knowledge claims, and scope conditions. The resulting formalization allows greater comparability between theories in terms of explanatory power, and additionally provides insights into integrat...
Maino, James L.; Kearney, Michael R.
2017-03-01
A key strength of the DEB approach, in contrast to other metabolic theories, is that its foundational principles are general to all of life. Other theories have attempted to explain patterns in metabolism in terms of taxon-specific processes, such as the geometry of vascular network supply constraints [1,2], or heat dissipation requirements of endotherms [3], but DEB theory presents constraints on metabolic processes that apply to a wide range of taxa, including bacteria, invertebrates, birds, or mammals [4]. The price of this generalisability is abstraction, but there is much to gain from a general and unifying metabolic theory. Abstracting individuals into simple energy processors would seem to overlook many other important aspects of their biology, such as their unique phylogeny, physiology, or ethology, but this strategy has facilitated great advances in one of the grand challenges in biology: making sense of interacting phenomena occurring across wide scales in space, time, and organisational complexity. The study of cells, individuals, communities and ecosystems have benefited from such a regime [5,6]. Similarly, the simple abstraction of partitioning individual organisms into compartments of reserve biomass and structural biomass allows one to account for an astounding variety of energetic transformations that occur between species and as an organism develops.
'Theory of Mind' I: a theory of knowledge?
Plastow, Michael
2012-06-01
'Theory of mind' is a cognitive notion introduced by Simon Baron-Cohen and colleagues to explain certain deficits in autistic disorders. It has, however, been extended beyond this, and applied more broadly. It proposes a means of knowing the mind of others, and suggests that this means fails in autism. The epistemological basis of 'theory of mind' will be examined critically, not just in terms of its endeavour as a theory of knowledge, but also in regard to the principles that underlie it. The proponents of 'theory of mind' eschew the rich field of psychological and phenomenological research, privileging only the biological sciences into which they endeavour to place their theorizations. In doing this, they fail to recognize the epistemological problems involved. This leads to the theory remaining hamstrung by the very Cartesian ontological problems that it seeks to avoid. For some, 'theory of mind' is but an artefact of the cognitive approach that it employs. It is argued that these difficulties are compounded by the failure of 'theory of mind' to take account of the place of language in the interpersonal encounters it attempts to describe.
Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs
2012-01-01
Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Supersymmetric gauge theories, quantization of Mflat, and conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.
2013-02-01
We propose a derivation of the correspondence between certain gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry and conformal field theory discovered by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa in the spirit of Seiberg-Witten theory. Based on certain results from the literature we argue that the quantum theory of the moduli spaces of flat SL(2,R)-connections represents a nonperturbative ''skeleton'' of the gauge theory, protected by supersymmetry. It follows that instanton partition functions can be characterized as solutions to a Riemann-Hilbert type problem. In order to solve it, we describe the quantization of the moduli spaces of flat connections explicitly in terms of two natural sets of Darboux coordinates. The kernel describing the relation between the two pictures represents the solution to the Riemann Hilbert problem, and is naturally identified with the Liouville conformal blocks.
[Gut microbiota and immune crosstalk in metabolic disease].
Burcelin, Rémy
2017-01-01
The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed. This imply comments about the process of bacterial translocation and impaired intestinal immune defense against commensals. Eventually this review sets the soil for personalized medicine. The monthly increase in the number of publications on the gut microbiota to intestinal immune defense and the control of metabolism demonstrate the importance of this field of investigation. The notion of commensal as "self or non-self" has to be reevaluated in the light of the current data. Furthermore, data demonstrate the major role played by short chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, LPS, peptidoglycans, indole derivatives, and other bacteria-related molecules on the shaping of cells involved in the intestinal protection against commensals is now becoming a central player in the incidence of metabolic diseases. The literature demonstrates that the onset of metabolic diseases and some specific co-morbidities can be explained by a gut microbiota to intestinal immune system crosstalk. Therefore, one should now consider this avenue of investigation as a putative source of biomarkers and therapeutic targets to personalize the treatment of metabolic disease and its co-morbidities. Gut microbiota is considered as a major regulator of metabolic disease. This reconciles the notion of metabolic inflammation and the epidemic development of the disease. In addition to evidence showing that a specific gut microbiota characterizes patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starrlight, A.
2012-01-01
The aim of this dissertation is to characterize the toxicity of uranium on the metabolism of zebra fish, nio rerio. The first three chapters of this manuscript are dedicated to characterizing the blank metabolism of zebra fish. I used the Dynamic Energy Budget (deb) theory for this characterisation; it is presently the only theory that covers the full life cycle of the organism and quantifies feeding, assimilation, growth, reproduction, maturation, maintenance and ageing. Any metabolic effect of uranium should appear as effects on one or more of these fundamental processes. Since the life span of zebra fish is some four and a half years, and larger individuals respond slower to chemical stress, the focus was on the early life stages. Considerable breakthroughs in the quantification of zebra fish development, growth and reproduction have been made. It turned out the zebra fish accelerates its metabolism after birth till metamorphosis, when acceleration ceases. This process is seen in some, but not all, species of fish. Another striking conclusion was that somatic maintenance was much higher than is typical for fish. We don't yet have an explanation for this funding. Further it turned out that the details of reproduction matter: allocation to reproduction (in adults) accumulates in a reproduction buffer and this buffer is used to prepare batches of eggs. We needed to detail this preparation process to understand how zebra fish can eliminate uranium via eggs. Deb theory specifies that a particular developmental stage (birth, metamorphosis, puberty) is reached at specified levels of maturity. For different temperatures and food levels, that can occur at different ages and body sizes. We extended this idea to include all the described morphologically defined developmental stages of the zebra fish in the literature; the observed variations in ages and body sizes can now be explained by deb theory. To test if deb theory can also explain perturbations of maturation, we
Cordes, Henrik; Thiel, Christoph; Baier, Vanessa; Blank, Lars M; Kuepfer, Lars
2018-01-01
Drug-induced perturbations of the endogenous metabolic network are a potential root cause of cellular toxicity. A mechanistic understanding of such unwanted side effects during drug therapy is therefore vital for patient safety. The comprehensive assessment of such drug-induced injuries requires the simultaneous consideration of both drug exposure at the whole-body and resulting biochemical responses at the cellular level. We here present a computational multi-scale workflow that combines whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and organ-specific genome-scale metabolic network (GSMN) models through shared reactions of the xenobiotic metabolism. The applicability of the proposed workflow is illustrated for isoniazid, a first-line antibacterial agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which is known to cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We combined GSMN models of a human liver with N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT2)-phenotype-specific PBPK models of isoniazid. The combined PBPK-GSMN models quantitatively describe isoniazid pharmacokinetics, as well as intracellular responses, and changes in the exometabolome in a human liver following isoniazid administration. Notably, intracellular and extracellular responses identified with the PBPK-GSMN models are in line with experimental and clinical findings. Moreover, the drug-induced metabolic perturbations are distributed and attenuated in the metabolic network in a phenotype-dependent manner. Our simulation results show that a simultaneous consideration of both drug pharmacokinetics at the whole-body and metabolism at the cellular level is mandatory to explain drug-induced injuries at the patient level. The proposed workflow extends our mechanistic understanding of the biochemistry underlying adverse events and may be used to prevent drug-induced injuries in the future.
Sun, Xing-guo
2015-07-01
Systemic mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation for human is limited. We used the new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to approach the mechanism and pattern of neurohumoral control and regulation for life. As the core of human life, there are two core axes of functions. The first one is the common goal of respiration and circulation to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide for cells, and the second one is the goal of gastrointestinal tract and circulation to transport energy material and metabolic product for cells. These two core axes maintain the metabolism. The neurohumoral regulation is holistically integrated and unified for all functions in human body. We simplified explain the mechanism of neurohumoral control and regulation life (respiration and circulation) as the example pattern of sound system. Based upon integrated regulation of life, we described the neurohumoral pattern to control respiration and circulation.
The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.
Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C
2013-09-01
1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
2006-01-01
aware of, I demonstrate how 'insidious inconsistency ' may infect design theory if we ignore this admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound methaphysical foundations ('worldviews') for design theory - and obtain philosophical insights......I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically...
An Agency Theory View of the Military Advisor
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Petrina, Gilbert E
2005-01-01
...: Agency, Oversight, and Civil-Military Relations, political scientist Peter Feaver proposes a theory of civil- military relations based on principal-agent theory called Agency theory which defines...
F-theory and 2d (0,2) theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-05-11
F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N=(0,2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0,2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0,2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0,2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.
Strings - Links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troost, J.
2009-05-01
String theory is a candidate framework for unifying the gauge theories of interacting elementary particles with a quantum theory of gravity. The last years we have made considerable progress in understanding non-perturbative aspects of string theory, and in bringing string theory closer to experiment, via the search for the Standard Model within string theory, but also via phenomenological models inspired by the physics of strings. Despite these advances, many deep problems remain, amongst which a non-perturbative definition of string theory, a better understanding of holography, and the cosmological constant problem. My research has concentrated on various theoretical aspects of quantum theories of gravity, including holography, black holes physics and cosmology. In this Habilitation thesis I have laid bare many more links between conformal field theory, gauge theory and gravity. Most contributions were motivated by string theory, like the analysis of supersymmetry preserving states in compactified gauge theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between quantum gravity in anti-de-Sitter space and conformal field theories in the bulk, the direct quantization of strings on black hole backgrounds, the embedding of the no-boundary proposal for a wave-function of the universe in string theory, a non-rational Verlinde formula and the construction of non-geometric solutions to supergravity
A bi-metric theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen, N.
1975-01-01
The bi-metric theory of gravitation proposed previously is simplified in that the auxiliary conditions are discarded, the two metric tensors being tied together only by means of the boundary conditions. Some of the properties of the field of a particle are investigated; there is no black hole, and it appears that no gravitational collapse can take place. Although the proposed theory and general relativity are at present observationally indistinguishable, some differences are pointed out which may some day be susceptible of observation. An alternative bi-metric theory is considered which gives for the precession of the perihelion 5/6 of the value given by general relativity; it seems less satisfactory than the present theory from the aesthetic point of view. (author)
Comment on Gallistel: behavior theory and information theory: some parallels.
Nevin, John A
2012-05-01
In this article, Gallistel proposes information theory as an approach to some enduring problems in the study of operant and classical conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neuro-fuzzy model of homocysteine metabolism
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In view of well-documented association of hyperhomocysteinaemia with a wide spectrum of diseases and higher incidence of vitamin deficiencies in Indians, we proposed a mathematical model to forecast the role of demographic and geneticvariables in influencing homocysteine metabolism and investigated the influence ...
The role of time in relational quantum theories
Gryb, S.; Thebault, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the classical dynamics of the full system. We propose a new strategy for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.
1976-01-01
Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework
Determining the Control Circuitry of Redox Metabolism at the Genome-Scale
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Federowicz, Stephen; Kim, Donghyuk; Ebrahim, Ali
2014-01-01
-scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes...
Intrinsic and Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction in Schizophrenia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zachary Freyberg
2017-07-01
Full Text Available For decades, there have been observations demonstrating significant metabolic disturbances in people with schizophrenia including clinically relevant weight gain, hypertension, and disturbances in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Many of these findings pre-date the use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs which on their own are also strongly associated with metabolic side effects. The combination of APD-induced metabolic changes and common adverse environmental factors associated with schizophrenia have made it difficult to determine the specific contributions of each to the overall metabolic picture. Data from drug-naïve patients, both from the pre-APD era and more recently, suggest that there may be an intrinsic metabolic risk associated with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, these findings remain controversial due to significant clinical variability in both psychiatric and metabolic symptoms throughout patients' disease courses. Here, we provide an extensive review of classic and more recent literature describing the metabolic phenotype associated with schizophrenia. We also suggest potential mechanistic links between signaling pathways associated with schizophrenia and metabolic dysfunction. We propose that, beyond its symptomatology in the central nervous system, schizophrenia is also characterized by pathophysiology in other organ systems directly related to metabolic control.
Energetics of glucose metabolism: a phenomenological approach to metabolic network modeling.
Diederichs, Frank
2010-08-12
A new formalism to describe metabolic fluxes as well as membrane transport processes was developed. The new flux equations are comparable to other phenomenological laws. Michaelis-Menten like expressions, as well as flux equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, can be regarded as special cases of these new equations. For metabolic network modeling, variable conductances and driving forces are required to enable pathway control and to allow a rapid response to perturbations. When applied to oxidative phosphorylation, results of simulations show that whole oxidative phosphorylation cannot be described as a two-flux-system according to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, although all coupled reactions per se fulfill the equations of this theory. Simulations show that activation of ATP-coupled load reactions plus glucose oxidation is brought about by an increase of only two different conductances: a [Ca(2+)] dependent increase of cytosolic load conductances, and an increase of phosphofructokinase conductance by [AMP], which in turn becomes increased through [ADP] generation by those load reactions. In ventricular myocytes, this feedback mechanism is sufficient to increase cellular power output and O(2) consumption several fold, without any appreciable impairment of energetic parameters. Glucose oxidation proceeds near maximal power output, since transformed input and output conductances are nearly equal, yielding an efficiency of about 0.5. This conductance matching is fulfilled also by glucose oxidation of β-cells. But, as a price for the metabolic mechanism of glucose recognition, β-cells have only a limited capability to increase their power output.
Leaper, Campbell
2011-01-01
Many contemporary theories of social development are similar and/or share complementary constructs. Yet, there have been relatively few efforts toward theoretical integration. The present chapter represents a call for increased theory bridging. The problem of theoretical fragmentation in psychology is reviewed. Seven highlighted reasons for this predicament include differences between behavioral sciences and other sciences, theoretical paradigms as social identities, the uniqueness assumption, information overload, field fixation, linguistic fragmentation, and few incentives for theoretical integration. Afterward, the feasibility of theoretical synthesis is considered. Finally, some possible directions are proposed for theoretical integration among five contemporary theories of social and gender development: social cognitive theory, expectancy-value theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory, and self-categorization theory.
Towards Extended Vantage Theory
Glaz, Adam
2010-01-01
The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…
Dithiobiuret metabolism in the rat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, K.D.; Porter, W.R.; Peterson, R.E.
1982-01-01
Our main objective was to describe the metabolism of dithiobiuret (DTB) in the adult, male rat. Based on the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of urine from animals treated with [ 14 C] or [ 35 S] labeled DTB, two pathways for metabolism are proposed. One pathway is reversible and involves the oxidation of DTB to thiuret and the reduction of thiuret back to DTB. The other pathway consists of the desulfurization of DTB to monothiobiuret. The liver appears to desulfurate DTB because DTB-derived [35S] was eliminated from the liver more rapidly than [ 14 C]. The liver was the only tissue where the elimination kinetics of [ 35 S] and [ 14 C] DTB were different. DTB-derived radioactivity in urine that co-chromatographed with DTB, monothiobiuret, thiuret and sulfate was quantitated along with that of three uncharacterized metabolites. The presence of these unknown metabolites suggests that DTB metabolism is complex. The present study is the first description of the metabolic fate of DTB in the rat and serves as a starting point for determining whether DTB neurotoxicity is caused by the parent compound or a metabolite
Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Hilger, Eva; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Asenbaum-Nan, Susanne
2016-06-28
The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [(18)F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [(18)F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis. Comparing LTLE and RTLE and patient groups separately to HC, we observed higher lobar connectivity weights in RTLE compared to LTLE for connections of the temporal and the parietal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere (CH). Moreover, especially in RTLE compared to LTLE higher local efficiency were found in the temporal cortices and other brain regions of the CH. The results of this investigation implicate altered metabolic networks in patients with TLE specific to the lateralization of seizure focus, and describe compensatory mechanisms especially in the CH of patients with RTLE. We propose that graph theoretical analysis of metabolic connectivity using [(18)F]FDG-PET offers an important additional modality to explore brain networks.
2011-08-02
.... Formative research in the area of theory development and validation would provide the basis for developing...) Develop and refine integrative theories; (3) Identify and observe theoretical and innovative trends in... Request; A Generic Submission for Theory Development and Validation (NCI) SUMMARY: Under the provisions of...
Preadipocyte factor-1 is associated with metabolic profile in severe obesity.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
O'Connell, J
2011-04-01
Dysfunctional adipose tissue has been proposed as a key pathological process linking obesity and metabolic disease. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) has been shown to inhibit differentiation in adipocyte precursor cells and could thereby play a role in determining adipocyte size, adipose tissue functioning, and metabolic profile in obese individuals.
Alternative probability theories for cognitive psychology.
Narens, Louis
2014-01-01
Various proposals for generalizing event spaces for probability functions have been put forth in the mathematical, scientific, and philosophic literatures. In cognitive psychology such generalizations are used for explaining puzzling results in decision theory and for modeling the influence of context effects. This commentary discusses proposals for generalizing probability theory to event spaces that are not necessarily boolean algebras. Two prominent examples are quantum probability theory, which is based on the set of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and topological probability theory, which is based on the set of open sets of a topology. Both have been applied to a variety of cognitive situations. This commentary focuses on how event space properties can influence probability concepts and impact cognitive modeling. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Grounded theory: building a middle-range theory in nursing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria João Fernandes
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The development of nursing as a discipline results from a boom of investigations underway for nearly a century, and of the construction of theories that have arisen during the 1950’s, with greater relevance since the 1960’s. Giving continuation to the production of knowledge in nursing and seeking to contribute to the increase in the number of explanatory theories of the functional content of nurses, there is interest in answering the question: how can a middle-range theory in nursing be built that explains the nurse-elderly interaction in a successful aging process? As well, we address the goal of describing the process of building a middle-range theory in nursing. Middle-range theory refers to a qualitative paradigm study of inductive thinking, developed in the context of primary health care. The information was collected through participant observation and interviews. Method of analysis grounded theory by Corbin and Strauss(1 was followed, utilizing the triangulation of data and theoretical sampling. Grounded theory has become a method of analysis which facilitates the understanding and explanation of the phenomenon under study. By making clear the nature and process of the nurse-elderly interaction in the selected context and within the context of successful aging, a middle-range theory proposal emerged.
Franks, Bradley; Bangerter, Adrian; Bauer, Martin W
2013-01-01
Conspiracy theories (CTs) can take many forms and vary widely in popularity, the intensity with which they are believed and their effects on individual and collective behavior. An integrated account of CTs thus needs to explain how they come to appeal to potential believers, how they spread from one person to the next via communication, and how they motivate collective action. We summarize these aspects under the labels of stick, spread, and action. We propose the quasi-religious hypothesis for CTs: drawing on cognitive science of religion, social representations theory, and frame theory. We use cognitive science of religion to describe the main features of the content of CTs that explain how they come to stick: CTs are quasi-religious representations in that their contents, forms and functions parallel those found in beliefs of institutionalized religions. However, CTs are quasi-religious in that CTs and the communities that support them, lack many of the institutional features of organized religions. We use social representations theory to explain how CTs spread as devices for making sense of sudden events that threaten existing worldviews. CTs allow laypersons to interpret such events by relating them to common sense, thereby defusing some of the anxiety that those events generate. We use frame theory to explain how some, but not all CTs mobilize collective counter-conspiratorial action by identifying a target and by proposing credible and concrete rationales for action. We specify our integrated account in 13 propositions.
Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.
1980-01-01
We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions
Theory and Contrastive Explanation in Ethnography
Lichterman, Paul; Reed, Isaac Ariail
2015-01-01
We propose three interlinked ways that theory helps researchers build causal claims from ethnographic research. First, theory guides the casing and re-casing of a topic of study. Second, theoretical work helps craft a clear causal question via the construction of a contrast space of the topic of investigation. Third, the researcher uses theory to…
28 CFR 512.14 - Submission and processing of proposal.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission and processing of proposal... development and studies of perception, cognition, or game theory. If a proposal is processed under expedited... proposals. The Director may delegate this authority to the Assistant Director, Information, Policy, and...
Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan W.E. Jocken
2014-10-01
Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.
Computational systems analysis of dopamine metabolism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhen Qi
2008-06-01
Full Text Available A prominent feature of Parkinson's disease (PD is the loss of dopamine in the striatum, and many therapeutic interventions for the disease are aimed at restoring dopamine signaling. Dopamine signaling includes the synthesis, storage, release, and recycling of dopamine in the presynaptic terminal and activation of pre- and post-synaptic receptors and various downstream signaling cascades. As an aid that might facilitate our understanding of dopamine dynamics in the pathogenesis and treatment in PD, we have begun to merge currently available information and expert knowledge regarding presynaptic dopamine homeostasis into a computational model, following the guidelines of biochemical systems theory. After subjecting our model to mathematical diagnosis and analysis, we made direct comparisons between model predictions and experimental observations and found that the model exhibited a high degree of predictive capacity with respect to genetic and pharmacological changes in gene expression or function. Our results suggest potential approaches to restoring the dopamine imbalance and the associated generation of oxidative stress. While the proposed model of dopamine metabolism is preliminary, future extensions and refinements may eventually serve as an in silico platform for prescreening potential therapeutics, identifying immediate side effects, screening for biomarkers, and assessing the impact of risk factors of the disease.
Vectorial-tensorial conservative theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mociutchi, C.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.
1975-01-01
Gravitation is considered as a mixing of interactions and a suggestion for a vectorial-tensorial theory with parametric coupling is given. The self consistent character of the theory leads to a system of equations for the proposed tensorial-vectorial theory of gravitation. If the weight of the vectorial component is low enough i.e. epsilon much smaller than 1, then this theory can correctly reproduce all the experimental verifications
Adler, Stephen L
2004-01-01
Quantum mechanics is our most successful physical theory. However, it raises conceptual issues that have perplexed physicists and philosophers of science for decades. This 2004 book develops an approach, based on the proposal that quantum theory is not a complete, final theory, but is in fact an emergent phenomenon arising from a deeper level of dynamics. The dynamics at this deeper level are taken to be an extension of classical dynamics to non-commuting matrix variables, with cyclic permutation inside a trace used as the basic calculational tool. With plausible assumptions, quantum theory is shown to emerge as the statistical thermodynamics of this underlying theory, with the canonical commutation/anticommutation relations derived from a generalized equipartition theorem. Brownian motion corrections to this thermodynamics are argued to lead to state vector reduction and to the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, making contact with phenomenological proposals for stochastic modifications to Schr�...
Discovery of Boolean metabolic networks: integer linear programming based approach.
Qiu, Yushan; Jiang, Hao; Ching, Wai-Ki; Cheng, Xiaoqing
2018-04-11
Traditional drug discovery methods focused on the efficacy of drugs rather than their toxicity. However, toxicity and/or lack of efficacy are produced when unintended targets are affected in metabolic networks. Thus, identification of biological targets which can be manipulated to produce the desired effect with minimum side-effects has become an important and challenging topic. Efficient computational methods are required to identify the drug targets while incurring minimal side-effects. In this paper, we propose a graph-based computational damage model that summarizes the impact of enzymes on compounds in metabolic networks. An efficient method based on Integer Linear Programming formalism is then developed to identify the optimal enzyme-combination so as to minimize the side-effects. The identified target enzymes for known successful drugs are then verified by comparing the results with those in the existing literature. Side-effects reduction plays a crucial role in the study of drug development. A graph-based computational damage model is proposed and the theoretical analysis states the captured problem is NP-completeness. The proposed approaches can therefore contribute to the discovery of drug targets. Our developed software is available at " http://hkumath.hku.hk/~wkc/APBC2018-metabolic-network.zip ".
On multiscale moving contact line theory.
Li, Shaofan; Fan, Houfu
2015-07-08
In this paper, a multiscale moving contact line (MMCL) theory is presented and employed to simulate liquid droplet spreading and capillary motion. The proposed MMCL theory combines a coarse-grained adhesive contact model with a fluid interface membrane theory, so that it can couple molecular scale adhesive interaction and surface tension with hydrodynamics of microscale flow. By doing so, the intermolecular force, the van der Waals or double layer force, separates and levitates the liquid droplet from the supporting solid substrate, which avoids the shear stress singularity caused by the no-slip condition in conventional hydrodynamics theory of moving contact line. Thus, the MMCL allows the difference of the surface energies and surface stresses to drive droplet spreading naturally. To validate the proposed MMCL theory, we have employed it to simulate droplet spreading over various elastic substrates. The numerical simulation results obtained by using MMCL are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results reported in the literature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baskerville, Richard; Pries-Heje, Jan
2014-01-01
design science research is materially prescriptive, it requires a different perspective in developing the breadth of applications of design theories. In this paper we propose different concepts that embody forms of general technological knowledge The concept of projectability, developed originally......Technological knowledge has been characterized as having a scope that is specific to a particular problem. However, the information systems community is exploring forms of design science research that provide a promising avenue to technological knowledge with broader scope: design theories. Because...... as a means of distinguishing realized generalizations from unrealized generalizations, helps explain how design theories, being prescriptive, possess a different form of applicability. The concept of entrenchment describes the use of a theory in many projections. Together these concepts provide a means...
Evolutionary game theory: cells as players.
Hummert, Sabine; Bohl, Katrin; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Werner, Sarah; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja; Schuster, Stefan
2014-12-01
In two papers we review game theory applications in biology below the level of cognitive living beings. It can be seen that evolution and natural selection replace the rationality of the actors appropriately. Even in these micro worlds, competing situations and cooperative relationships can be found and modeled by evolutionary game theory. Also those units of the lowest levels of life show different strategies for different environmental situations or different partners. We give a wide overview of evolutionary game theory applications to microscopic units. In this first review situations on the cellular level are tackled. In particular metabolic problems are discussed, such as ATP-producing pathways, secretion of public goods and cross-feeding. Further topics are cyclic competition among more than two partners, intra- and inter-cellular signalling, the struggle between pathogens and the immune system, and the interactions of cancer cells. Moreover, we introduce the theoretical basics to encourage scientists to investigate problems in cell biology and molecular biology by evolutionary game theory.
Revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sar-El, H.Z.
1982-01-01
Attempts to date to obtain the shape of the beam forming electrodes of various Pierce-type electron guns are briefly discussed with emphasis on the many discrepansis in the results of previous works. A revised theory of Pierce-type electron guns is proposed. The shapes of the beam-forming electrodes for all known configurations of Pierce guns were computed on the basis of the proposed theory. (orig.)
The renaissance of gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriyasu, K.
1982-01-01
Gauge theory is a classic example of a good idea proposed before its time. A brief historical review of gauge theory is presented to see why it required over 50 years for gauge invariance to be rediscovered as the basic principle governing the fundamental forces of Nature. (author)
Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas
2011-01-01
The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... and insulin signalling transduction remain elusive. We believe that one of the reasons is that the role of intracellular compartmentalization as a regulator of metabolic pathways and signalling transduction has been rather ignored. This paper briefly reviews the literature to discuss the role of intracellular...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...
Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism
Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Barros, L. Felipe
2016-01-01
The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sodium signaling and astrocyte energy metabolism
Chatton, Jean-Yves
2016-03-31
The Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane is constantly exploited by astrocytes as a secondary energy source to regulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu, and discard waste products. One of the most prominent roles of astrocytes in the brain is the Na+-dependent clearance of glutamate released by neurons during synaptic transmission. The intracellular Na+ load collectively generated by these processes converges at the Na,K-ATPase pump, responsible for Na+ extrusion from the cell, which is achieved at the expense of cellular ATP. These processes represent pivotal mechanisms enabling astrocytes to increase the local availability of metabolic substrates in response to neuronal activity. This review presents basic principles linking the intracellular handling of Na+ following activity-related transmembrane fluxes in astrocytes and the energy metabolic pathways involved. We propose a role of Na+ as an energy currency and as a mediator of metabolic signals in the context of neuron-glia interactions. We further discuss the possible impact of the astrocytic syncytium for the distribution and coordination of the metabolic response, and the compartmentation of these processes in cellular microdomains and subcellular organelles. Finally, we illustrate future avenues of investigation into signaling mechanisms aimed at bridging the gap between Na+ and the metabolic machinery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Institutional Theory as a Framework for Practitioners of Social Entrepreneurship
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agrawal, Anirudh; Hockerts, Kai
2013-01-01
The chapter proposes institutional theory as a framework for reflecting on social entrepreneurship. We advocate institutional theory as a tool for practitioners to reflect upon the legitimacy, survivability and scalability of social enterprises because institutional theory frameworks can reduce...... risks associated with emerging fields such as social entrepreneurship. In order to illustrate our claim, we present four cases of social entrepreneurship and reflect on them through different institutional theory frameworks. At the end of the chapter, we propose a future agenda for practitioners...... interested in social entrepreneurship from an institutional theory perspective....
Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate
Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha
2015-01-01
As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases. PMID:26134242
Rishabh Kapila; KS Nagesh; Asha R. Iyengar; Subash BV. Adiga
2011-01-01
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characte-rized by dysregulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Diabetes could result, in part, in activation of tryptophan metabolism. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to gingivitis and periodontitis than healthy subjects. The salivary kynurenine derivatives are also implicated in the onset and development of periodontal dis-ease in humans.The hypothesis: We propose that the tryptophan metabolites via kynurenine path...
Reconstructing constructivism: Causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms and the theory theory
Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M.
2012-01-01
We propose a new version of the “theory theory” grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and non-technical way, and review an extensive but ...
Towards deconstruction of the type D(2,0) theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourget, Antoine; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Pini, Alessandro
2017-10-01
We propose a four-dimensional supersymmetric theory that deconstructs, in a particular limit, the six-dimensional (2,0) theory of type D k . This 4d theory is defined by a necklace quiver with alternating gauge nodes O(2k) and Sp(k). We test this proposal by comparing the 6d half-BPS index to the Higgs branch Hilbert series of the 4d theory. In the process, we overcome several technical difficulties, such as Hilbert series calculations for non-complete intersections, and the choice of O versus SO gauge groups. Consistently, the result matches the Coulomb branch formula for the mirror theory upon reduction to 3d.
Choi, Hyun B.; Gordon, Grant R.J.; Zhou, Ning; Tai, Chao; Rungta, Ravi L.; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A.; Ryu, Jae K.; McLarnon, James G.; Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; MacVicar, Brian A.
2012-01-01
Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO3−) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maxfield, Travis [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Robbins, Daniel [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2016-11-28
Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.
Historical perspectives of the metabolic syndrome.
Oda, Eiji
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance syndrome is a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of MetS. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of MetS were proposed. Different criteria were issued by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, making abdominal obesity a necessary component. Several international societies, including The International Diabetes Federation, jointly adopted the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria as harmonizing criteria of MetS in 2009. WHO warned the next year that MetS has limited practical utility as a management tool. Adipose tissue inflammation has been shown to be a fundamental mechanism of metabolic derangements, associated with ectopic lipid deposit and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Qing-wu
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS has been increasing in China in recent years. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the prevalence of MS among Chinese adults in Shanghai, one of the most economic developed areas in China, using definitions proposed by World Health Organization (WHO, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (modified ATP III and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Methods This cross-sectional study included 5,584 adults at age 20-79 randomly selected from Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China, through a three-stage sampling. All participants were interviewed in-person between April and July of 2008 to collect information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics. At the interview, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured and bio-specimens were collected. Results The prevalence estimates for the MS increased with age for each definition in men and women, but the estimates varied greatly between the definitions and by sex. The prevalence of the MS was higher in men (20.2% than in women (18.7% using WHO definition but this sex difference was reversed when using the modified ATP III (28.4% for men vs. 35.1% for women and the IDF (15.9% for men vs. 26.7% for women criteria. The most common metabolic disorder in this population was dyslipidaemia, regardless of the definition used. Substantial agreement, estimated using the kappa statistic, was found between the modified ATP III and IDF definition, whereas the lowest agreement was observed between the WHO and ATP III criteria. Conclusions The MS is highly prevalent among Chinese adults in Pudong New Area of Shanghai and the most prevalent component was dyslipidemia. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and control efforts for the MS in this area and the need for a unified predictive definition for the syndrome for use by clinical practitioners and public health agencies.
Constructor theory of probability
2016-01-01
Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francaviglia, M.
1990-01-01
Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola
2014-01-01
What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from...... from a “socio-cultural” approach to learning and rather deploy sociological theories in the analysis of mathematics education practices. In this commentary paper, we will point to what we see to be the contributions of these papers to the field. We will do so by highlighting issues that run through...... the six papers. We will try to synthetize what we think are the benchmarks of the social approach to mathematics education that they propose. We will also take a critical stance and indicate some possible extensions of the use of social theory that are not addressed in this special issue but nonetheless...
Toward A Theory of Experiential Education.
Druian, Greg
1979-01-01
A theory of experiential instruction based on the ideas of Jerome Bruner is proposed. Four general requirements of instructional theory are examined and it is recommended that research and development refine and improve the practice of experiential instruction. (Author/SF)
Contour integral representations for the characters of rational conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhi, S.; Panda, S.; Sen, A.
1989-01-01
We propose simple Feigin-Fuchs contour integral representations for the characters of a large class of rational conformal field theories. These include the A, D and E series SU(2) WZW theories, the A and D series c<1 minimal theories, and the k=1 SU(N) WZW theories. All these theories are characterized by the absence of the zeroes in the wronskian determinant of the characters in the interior of moduli space. This proposal is verified by several calculations. (orig.)
Interpolating string field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiebach, B.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that a minimal area problem imposing different length conditions on open and closed curves is shown to define a one-parameter family of covariant open-closed quantum string field theories. These interpolate from a recently proposed factorizable open-closed theory up to an extended version of Witten's open string field theory capable of incorporating on shell closed strings. The string diagrams of the latter define a new decomposition of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with punctures and boundaries based on quadratic differentials with both first order and second order poles
Theories of information behavior
Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne
2005-01-01
This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.
Extended vector-tensor theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke, E-mail: rampei@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: naruko@th.phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@th.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2017-01-01
Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.
Candidate worldviews for design theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
2008-01-01
Our growing body of design theory risks being infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design theorists. Taking my cue from C. S. Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basic metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critically aware of......, I demonstrate how ‘insidious inconsistency’ may infect design theory if we ignore his admonition. As a possible remedy, I propose a method by which the philosophy of design may develop sound metaphysical foundations (‘worldviews’) for design theory – and generate philosophical insights into design...... to the metaphysical (pre-empirical) and conceptual foundations of design theory....
Demystifying Nursing Theory: A Christian Nursing Perspective.
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Sandau, Kristin; Missal, Bernita
How does nursing theory apply to nursing practice? Nursing theory can explain the why and how of nursing practice, guide nursing interventions, and provide a framework for measuring outcomes. This article briefly explains nursing theory, provides examples for applying theory to nursing practice, and proposes questions for examining the consistency of nursing theories with Christian perspectives. A helpful table illustrating grand, middle-range, and situation-specific theories and their application to nursing practice and research, along with references, is provided online as supplemental digital content. Three caring theories are analyzed from biblical beliefs.
An Ar threesome: Matrix models, 2d conformal field theories, and 4dN=2 gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiappa, Ricardo; Wyllard, Niclas
2010-01-01
We explore the connections between three classes of theories: A r quiver matrix models, d=2 conformal A r Toda field theories, and d=4N=2 supersymmetric conformal A r quiver gauge theories. In particular, we analyze the quiver matrix models recently introduced by Dijkgraaf and Vafa (unpublished) and make detailed comparisons with the corresponding quantities in the Toda field theories and the N=2 quiver gauge theories. We also make a speculative proposal for how the matrix models should be modified in order for them to reproduce the instanton partition functions in quiver gauge theories in five dimensions.
Long-lived mitochondrial (Mit) mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans utilize a novel metabolism.
Butler, Jeffrey A; Ventura, Natascia; Johnson, Thomas E; Rea, Shane L
2010-12-01
The Caenorhabditis elegans mitochondrial (Mit) mutants have disrupted mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) functionality, yet, surprisingly, they are long lived. We have previously proposed that Mit mutants supplement their energy needs by exploiting alternate energy production pathways normally used by wild-type animals only when exposed to hypoxic conditions. We have also proposed that longevity in the Mit mutants arises as a property of their new metabolic state. If longevity does arise as a function of metabolic state, we would expect to find a common metabolic signature among these animals. To test these predictions, we established a novel approach monitoring the C. elegans exometabolism as a surrogate marker for internal metabolic events. Using HPLC-ultraviolet-based metabolomics and multivariate analyses, we show that long-lived clk-1(qm30) and isp-1(qm150) Mit mutants have a common metabolic profile that is distinct from that of aerobically cultured wild-type animals and, unexpectedly, wild-type animals cultured under severe oxygen deprivation. Moreover, we show that 2 short-lived mitochondrial ETC mutants, mev-1(kn1) and ucr-2.3(pk732), also share a common metabolic signature that is unique. We show that removal of soluble fumarate reductase unexpectedly increases health span in several genetically defined Mit mutants, identifying at least 1 alternate energy production pathway, malate dismutation, that is operative in these animals. Our study suggests long-lived, genetically specified Mit mutants employ a novel metabolism and that life span may well arise as a function of metabolic state.
Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J
2015-01-01
Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.
A proposal of the proteome before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)
de Farias, Sávio Torres; Rêgo, Thais Gaudêncio; José, Marco V.
2016-01-01
The search for understanding the biological nature of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) has been a theoretical challenge and has sparked intense debate in the scientific community. We reconstructed the ancestral sequences of tRNAs in order to test the hypothesis that these molecules originated the first genes. The results showed that the proteome before LUCA may have been composed of basal energy metabolism, namely, compounds with three carbons in the glycolytic pathway, which operated as a distribution centre of substrates for the development of metabolic pathways of nucleotides, lipids and amino acids. Thus, we present a proposal for metabolism in organisms before LUCA that was the initial core for the assembly of further metabolic pathways.
A modal specification theory for components with data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bauer, Sebastian S.; Larsen, Kim G.; Legay, Axel
2014-01-01
of transitions allows for developing a unique approach for both logical and structural compositions, and eases the step-wise refine- ment process for building implementations. We propose Modal Specifications with Data (MSDs), the first modal specification theory with explicit representation of data. Our new...... theory includes the most commonly seen ingredients of a specification the- ory; that is parallel composition, conjunction and quotient. As MSDs are by nature potentially infinite-state systems, we propose symbolic representations based on effec- tive predicates. Our theory serves as a new abstraction...
MaxEnt-Based Ecological Theory: A Template for Integrated Catchment Theory
Harte, J.
2017-12-01
The maximum information entropy procedure (MaxEnt) is both a powerful tool for inferring least-biased probability distributions from limited data and a framework for the construction of complex systems theory. The maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE) describes remarkably well widely observed patterns in the distribution, abundance and energetics of individuals and taxa in relatively static ecosystems. An extension to ecosystems undergoing change in response to disturbance or natural succession (DynaMETE) is in progress. I describe the structure of both the static and the dynamic theory and show a range of comparisons with census data. I then propose a generalization of the MaxEnt approach that could provide a framework for a predictive theory of both static and dynamic, fully-coupled, eco-socio-hydrological catchment systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: chjy@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Son, Dam Thanh, E-mail: dtson@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-02-15
We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current–current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory. - Highlights: • We extend Landau’s kinetic theory of Fermi liquid to incorporate Berry phase. • Berry phase effects in Fermi liquid take exactly the same form as in Fermi gas. • There is a new “emergent electric dipole” contribution to the anomalous Hall effect. • Our kinetic theory is matched to field theory to all orders in Feynman diagrams.
Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier
2014-01-01
Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caroline Baroukh
Full Text Available Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.
Supersymmetric gauge theories, quantization of M{sub flat}, and conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.
2013-02-15
We propose a derivation of the correspondence between certain gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry and conformal field theory discovered by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa in the spirit of Seiberg-Witten theory. Based on certain results from the literature we argue that the quantum theory of the moduli spaces of flat SL(2,R)-connections represents a nonperturbative ''skeleton'' of the gauge theory, protected by supersymmetry. It follows that instanton partition functions can be characterized as solutions to a Riemann-Hilbert type problem. In order to solve it, we describe the quantization of the moduli spaces of flat connections explicitly in terms of two natural sets of Darboux coordinates. The kernel describing the relation between the two pictures represents the solution to the Riemann Hilbert problem, and is naturally identified with the Liouville conformal blocks.
A Chern-Simons-like action for closed-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, C.C.
1989-01-01
A Chern-Simons-like action is proposed for closed-string field theory. The action involves auxiliary fields of arbitrary ghost number and is defined in terms of the closed-string operations ∫, Q and *, analogous to those introduced by Witten in the construction of open-string field theory. The action is an extension of one proposed for free closed strings and bears a formal relationship to 2 + 1 gravity analogous to that between open-string field theory and (2 + 1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. (author)
14C and tritium dynamics in wild mammals: a metabolic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeriu, D.; Beresford, N.A.; Melintescu, A.; Crout, N.M.J.; Takeda, H.
2004-01-01
The protection of biota from ionising radiations needs reliable predictions of radionuclide dynamics in wild animals. Data specific for many wild animals radionuclide combinations is lacking and a number of approaches including allometry have been proposed to address this. However, for 14 C and tritium, which are integral components of animals tissues and their diets, a different approach is needed in the absence of experimental data. Here we propose a metabolically based model which can be parameterized predominantly on the basis of published metabolic data. We begin with a metabolic definition of the 14 C and OBT loss rate (assumed to be the same) from the whole body and also specific organs, using available information on field metabolic rate and body composition. The mammalian body is conceptually partitioned into compartments (body water, viscera, adipose, muscle, blood and remainder) and a simple model defined using net maintenance and growth needs of mammals. Intake and excretion, and transfer to body water are modelled using basic metabolic knowledge and published relationships. The model is tested with data from studies using rats and sheep. It provides a reliable prediction for whole body and muscle activity concentrations without the requirement for any calibration specific to 3 H and 14 C. Predictions from the model for representative wild mammals (as selected to be reference organisms within international programmes) are presented. Potential developments of a metabolic model for birds and the application of our work to human food chain modelling are also discussed. (author)
K-theory, reality, and orientifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gukov, S.
2000-01-01
We use equivariant K-theory to classify charges of new (possibly non-supersymmetric) states localized on various orientifolds in type II string theory. We also comment on the stringy construction of new D-branes and demonstrate the discrete electric-magnetic duality in type I brane systems with p+q=7, as proposed by Witten. (orig.)
Performativity: The Special and the General Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Reverter-Bañón
2017-07-01
Full Text Available If in Gender Trouble (1990 Butler presented a proposal of the theory of performativity of speech acts applied to the construction of gender, in her last book, Notes towards a Performative Theory of Assembly (2015, she articulates a theory of performativity applied to collective and concerted action of minorities or populations that are estimated to be “disposable”. The interest of the proposal that we present in this paper is to analyze how the theory of performativity of gender is now extended to the forms of democratic action; going from being a structure that explains the possibilities of gender to explain the possibilities for a livable life. It is what we call here the extension of performativity, from the special case of gender to the general case of a livable life.
Kline, A David
2006-04-01
The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper examines the Complicity Theory. The supposed anomalies rest on misunderstandings of the received view or misreadings of model cases of whistleblowing, for example, the Challenger disaster and the Ford Pinto. Nevertheless, the Complicity Theory is important for as in science the contrast with alternative competing accounts often helps us better understand the received view. Several aspects of the received view are reviewed and strengthened through comparison with Complicity Theory, including why whistleblowing needs moral justification. Complicity Theory is also critiqued. The fundamental failure of Complicity Theory is its failure to explain why government and the public encourage and protect whistleblowers despite the possibility of considerable harm to the relevant company in reputation, lost jobs, and lost shareholder value.
Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.
Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Ling; Mitev, Vladimir
2013-10-01
In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T N SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W N Toda theories.
Metabolic Profiling of Impaired Cognitive Function in Patients Receiving Dialysis
Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Chertow, Glenn M.; Depner, Thomas A.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Schiller, Brigitte; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Liu, Sai; Sirich, Tammy L.
2016-01-01
Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients partici...
Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo
2017-09-01
The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.
Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.
Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu
2016-09-01
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.
M Theory on AdSp x S11-p and superconformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharony, Ofer; Yaron, Oz; Zheng, Yin
1998-01-01
We study the large N limit of the interacting superconformal field theories associated with N M5 branes or M2 branes using the recently proposed relation between these theories and M theory on AdS spaces. We first analyze the spectrum of chiral operators of the 6d (0, 2) theory associated with M5 branes in flat space, and find full agreement with earlier results obtained using its DLCQ description as quantum mechanics on a moduli space of instantons. We then perform a similar analysis for the D N type 6d (0, 2) theories associated with M5 branes at an R 5 /Z 2 singularity, and for the 3d N = 8 superconformal field theories associated with M2 branes in flat space and at an R 8 /Z 2 singularity respectively. Little is known about these three theories, and our study yields for the first time their spectrum of chiral operators (in the large N limit)
Quantum set theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, E.
1984-01-01
The work of von Neumann tells us that the logic of quantum mechanics is not Boolenan. This suggests the formulation of a quantum theory of sets based on quantum logic much as modern set theory is based on Boolean logic. In the first part of this dissertation such a quantum set theory is developed. In the second part, quantum set theory is proposed as a universal language for physics. A quantum topology and the beginnings of a quantum geometry are developed in this language. Finally, a toy model is studied. It gives indications of possible lines for progress in this program
Evolutionary programming as a platform for in silico metabolic engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Förster Jochen
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Through genetic engineering it is possible to introduce targeted genetic changes and hereby engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, owing to the complexity of metabolic networks, both in terms of structure and regulation, it is often difficult to predict the effects of genetic modifications on the resulting phenotype. Recently genome-scale metabolic models have been compiled for several different microorganisms where structural and stoichiometric complexity is inherently accounted for. New algorithms are being developed by using genome-scale metabolic models that enable identification of gene knockout strategies for obtaining improved phenotypes. However, the problem of finding optimal gene deletion strategy is combinatorial and consequently the computational time increases exponentially with the size of the problem, and it is therefore interesting to develop new faster algorithms. Results In this study we report an evolutionary programming based method to rapidly identify gene deletion strategies for optimization of a desired phenotypic objective function. We illustrate the proposed method for two important design parameters in industrial fermentations, one linear and other non-linear, by using a genome-scale model of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potential metabolic engineering targets for improved production of succinic acid, glycerol and vanillin are identified and underlying flux changes for the predicted mutants are discussed. Conclusion We show that evolutionary programming enables solving large gene knockout problems in relatively short computational time. The proposed algorithm also allows the optimization of non-linear objective functions or incorporation of non-linear constraints and additionally provides a family of close to optimal solutions. The identified metabolic engineering strategies suggest that non-intuitive genetic modifications span
A relativistic theory for continuous measurement of quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diosi, L.
1990-04-01
A formal theory for the continuous measurement of relativistic quantum fields is proposed. The corresponding scattering equations were derived. The proposed formalism reduces to known equations in the Markovian case. Two recent models for spontaneous quantum state reduction have been recovered in the framework of this theory. A possible example of the relativistic continuous measurement has been outlined in standard Quantum Electrodynamics. The continuous measurement theory possesses an alternative formulation in terms of interacting quantum and stochastic fields. (author) 23 refs
The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Urolithiasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yee V. Wong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall’s plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.
A High Order Theory for Linear Thermoelastic Shells: Comparison with Classical Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Zozulya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A high order theory for linear thermoelasticity and heat conductivity of shells has been developed. The proposed theory is based on expansion of the 3-D equations of theory of thermoelasticity and heat conductivity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. The first physical quantities that describe thermodynamic state have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate. Thereby all equations of elasticity and heat conductivity including generalized Hooke's and Fourier's laws have been transformed to the corresponding equations for coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Then in the same way as in the 3D theories system of differential equations in terms of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. First approximation theory is considered in more detail. The obtained equations for the first approximation theory are compared with the corresponding equations for Timoshenko's and Kirchhoff-Love's theories. Special case of plates and cylindrical shell is also considered, and corresponding equations in displacements are presented.
On the Theory of Sunspots Proposed by Signor Kirchoff
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Secchi A.
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Eileen Reeves (Department of Comparative Literature, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 08544 and Mary Posani (Department of French and Italian, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43221 provide a translation of Father Pietro Angelo Secchi’s classic work “ Secchi A. Sulla Teoria Delle Macchie Solari: Proposta dal sig. Kirchoff” as it appeared in Bullettino Meteorologico dell’ Osservatorio del Collegio Romano , 31 January 1864, v.3(4, 1–4. This was the first treatise to propose a partic- ulate photosphere floating on the gaseous body of the Sun. The idea would dominate astrophysical thought for the next 50 years. Secchi appears to have drafted the article, as a response to Gustav Kirchhoff’s proposal, echoing early Galilean ideas, that sunspots represented clouds which floated above the photosphere. Other than presenting a new solar model, noteworthy aspects of this work include Secchi’s appropriate insistence that materials do not emit the same light at the same temperature and his gentle rebuke of Kirchhoff relative to commenting on questions of astronomy.
The space-time operator product expansion in string theory duals of field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar
2008-01-01
We study the operator product expansion (OPE) limit of correlation functions in field theories which possess string theory duals, from the point of view of the string worldsheet. We show how the interesting ('single-trace') terms in the OPE of the field theory arise in this limit from the OPE of the worldsheet theory of the string dual, using a dominant saddle point which appears in computations of worldsheet correlation functions in the space-time OPE limit. The worldsheet OPE generically contains only non-physical operators, but all the non-physical contributions are resummed by the saddle point to a contribution similar to that of a physical operator, which exactly matches the field theory expectations. We verify that the OPE limit of the worldsheet theory does not have any other contributions to the OPE limit of space-time correlation functions. Our discussion is completely general and applies to any local field theory (conformal at high energies) that has a weakly coupled string theory dual (with arbitrary curvature). As a first application, we compare our results to a proposal of R. Gopakumar for the string theory dual of free gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westenholz, Ann
I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...
Holographic stress tensor for non-relativistic theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, Simon F.; Saremi, Omid
2009-01-01
We discuss the calculation of the field theory stress tensor from the dual geometry for two recent proposals for gravity duals of non-relativistic conformal field theories. The first of these has a Schroedinger symmetry including Galilean boosts, while the second has just an anisotropic scale invariance (the Lifshitz case). For the Lifshitz case, we construct an appropriate action principle. We propose a definition of the non-relativistic stress tensor complex for the field theory as an appropriate variation of the action in both cases. In the Schroedinger case, we show that this gives physically reasonable results for a simple black hole solution and agrees with an earlier proposal to determine the stress tensor from the familiar AdS prescription. In the Lifshitz case, we solve the linearised equations of motion for a general perturbation around the background, showing that our stress tensor is finite on-shell.
Analytical theory of noncollinear amorphous metallic magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakehashi, Y.; Uchida, T.
2001-01-01
Analytical theory of noncollinear magnetism in amorphous metals is proposed on the basis of the Gaussian model for the distribution of the interatomic distance and the saddle-point approximation. The theory removes the numerical difficulty in the previous theory based on the Monte-Carlo sampling method, and reasonably describes the magnetic properties of amorphous transition metals
Schur indices, BPS particles, and Argyres-Douglas theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Córdova, Clay; Shao, Shu-Heng
2016-01-01
We conjecture a precise relationship between the Schur limit of the superconformal index of four-dimensional N=2 field theories, which counts local operators, and the spectrum of BPS particles on the Coulomb branch. We verify this conjecture for the special case of free field theories, N=2 QED, and SU(2) gauge theory coupled to fundamental matter. Assuming the validity of our proposal, we compute the Schur index of all Argyres-Douglas theories. Our answers match expectations from the connection of Schur operators with two-dimensional chiral algebras. Based on our results we propose that the chiral algebra of the generalized Argyres-Douglas theory (A_k_−_1,A_N_−_1) with k and N coprime, is the vacuum sector of the (k,k+N)W_k minimal model, and that the Schur index is the associated vacuum character.
Tsai, Chung-Hung
2014-05-07
Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung-Hung Tsai
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.
Blackett, Piers R; Sanghera, Dharambir K
2012-01-01
This review provides a translational and unifying summary of metabolic syndrome genetics and highlights evidence that genetic studies are starting to unravel and untangle origins of the complex and challenging cluster of disease phenotypes. The associated genes effectively express in the brain, liver, kidney, arterial endothelium, adipocytes, myocytes and β cells. Progression of syndrome traits has been associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, visceral adipocytes, myocytes, and liver. Thus it follows that the genetics of dyslipidemia, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease are central in triggering progression of the syndrome to overt expression of disease traits, and have become a key focus of interest for early detection and for designing prevention and treatments. To support the “birds’ eye view” approach we provide a road-map depicting commonality and interrelationships between the traits and their genetic and environmental determinants based on known risk factors, metabolic pathways, pharmacological targets, treatment responses, gene networks, pleiotropy, and association with circadian rhythm. Although only a small portion of the known heritability is accounted for and there is insufficient support for clinical application of gene-based prediction models, there is direction and encouraging progress in a rapidly moving field that is beginning to show clinical relevance. PMID:23351585
A folk theory of meetings -- and beyond
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ravn, Ib
2013-01-01
with managers and employees we extracted six common assumptions about meetings, termed a folk theory of meetings, which most office workers seem to carry in the back of their minds. Findings This folk theory holds meetings to be places for excessive talk, whether by a domineering leader or highly vocal...... participants, the purpose of which is to walk through the items on the agenda and dispose of each. This bleak and conservative concept of a meeting impedes intellectual as well as practical progress. Practical implications An alternative theory of meetings is proposed, one based on the group facilitation...... training, this view of meetings—and the widely available facilitation tools that go with it—may render meetings at work the subject of conscious organizational development. Originality/value The proposed "folk theory of meetings" is novel, as is the contrast provided with the facilitation approach...
Basal metabolic rate and the rate of senescence in the great tit
Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon; Koteja, Pawel
1. Between-individual variation in rates of senescence has recently been found to relate to natal and early-life conditions in several natural populations. Mechanistic theories of senescence have predicted between-individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) to also underlie such variation in
Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism
Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.
2014-01-01
While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264
Evolutionary programming as a platform for in silico metabolic engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Rocha, Isabel; Förster, Jochen
2005-01-01
, and it is therefore interesting to develop new faster algorithms. Results In this study we report an evolutionary programming based method to rapidly identify gene deletion strategies for optimization of a desired phenotypic objective function. We illustrate the proposed method for two important design parameters...... of close to optimal solutions. The identified metabolic engineering strategies suggest that non-intuitive genetic modifications span several different pathways and may be necessary for solving challenging metabolic engineering problems....
Bootstrapping non-commutative gauge theories from L∞ algebras
Blumenhagen, Ralph; Brunner, Ilka; Kupriyanov, Vladislav; Lüst, Dieter
2018-05-01
Non-commutative gauge theories with a non-constant NC-parameter are investigated. As a novel approach, we propose that such theories should admit an underlying L∞ algebra, that governs not only the action of the symmetries but also the dynamics of the theory. Our approach is well motivated from string theory. We recall that such field theories arise in the context of branes in WZW models and briefly comment on its appearance for integrable deformations of AdS5 sigma models. For the SU(2) WZW model, we show that the earlier proposed matrix valued gauge theory on the fuzzy 2-sphere can be bootstrapped via an L∞ algebra. We then apply this approach to the construction of non-commutative Chern-Simons and Yang-Mills theories on flat and curved backgrounds with non-constant NC-structure. More concretely, up to the second order, we demonstrate how derivative and curvature corrections to the equations of motion can be bootstrapped in an algebraic way from the L∞ algebra. The appearance of a non-trivial A∞ algebra is discussed, as well.
Theories on the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samer Sourial
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Endometriosis is a common, chronic inflammatory disease defined by the presence of extrauterine endometrial tissue. The aetiology of endometriosis is complex and multifactorial, where several not fully confirmed theories describe its pathogenesis. This review examines existing theories on the initiation and propagation of different types of endometriotic lesions, as well as critically appraises the myriad of biologically relevant evidence that support or oppose each of the proposed theories. The current literature suggests that stem cells, dysfunctional immune response, genetic predisposition, and aberrant peritoneal environment may all be involved in the establishment and propagation of endometriotic lesions. An orchestrated scientific and clinical effort is needed to consider all factors involved in the pathogenesis of this multifaceted disease and to propose novel therapeutic targets to reach effective treatments for this distressing condition.
Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate
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Douglas S. Glazier
2018-01-01
Full Text Available I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints.
Digital lattice gauge theories
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
GH and IGF1: Roles in Energy Metabolism of Long-Living GH Mutant Mice
Brown-Borg, Holly M.; Bartke, Andrzej
2012-01-01
Of the multiple theories to explain exceptional longevity, the most robust of these has centered on the reduction of three anabolic protein hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor, and insulin. GH mutant mice live 50% longer and exhibit significant differences in several aspects of energy metabolism as compared with wild-type mice. Mitochondrial metabolism is upregulated in the absence of GH, whereas in GH transgenic mice and dwarf mice treated with GH, multiple aspects of t...
Possible Experiments to test Einstein's Special Relativity Theory
de Haan, Victor Otto
2011-01-01
All of the experiments supporting Einstein's Special Relativity Theory are also supportive of the Lorentz ether theory, or many other ether theories. However, a growing number of experiments show deviations from Einstein's Special Relativity Theory, but are supporting more extended theories. Some of these experiments are reviewed and analyzed. Unfortunately, many experiments are not of high quality, never repeated and mostly both. It is proposed that the most promising experiments should be r...
Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2014-09-12
Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds
Quantizing non-Lagrangian gauge theories: an augmentation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyakhovich, Simon L.; Sharapov, Alexei A.
2007-01-01
We discuss a recently proposed method of quantizing general non-Lagrangian gauge theories. The method can be implemented in many different ways, in particular, it can employ a conversion procedure that turns an original non-Lagrangian field theory in d dimensions into an equivalent Lagrangian, topological field theory in d+1 dimensions. The method involves, besides the classical equations of motion, one more geometric ingredient called the Lagrange anchor. Different Lagrange anchors result in different quantizations of one and the same classical theory. Given the classical equations of motion and Lagrange anchor as input data, a new procedure, called the augmentation, is proposed to quantize non-Lagrangian dynamics. Within the augmentation procedure, the originally non-Lagrangian theory is absorbed by a wider Lagrangian theory on the same space-time manifold. The augmented theory is not generally equivalent to the original one as it has more physical degrees of freedom than the original theory. However, the extra degrees of freedom are factorized out in a certain regular way both at classical and quantum levels. The general techniques are exemplified by quantizing two non-Lagrangian models of physical interest
Superstrings: a theory of everything
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehntoni, S.
1986-01-01
A possibility of developing the superstring comprehensive theory and its application for a full description of all physical phenomena, occuring in the Universe, is discussed. For this purpose principles of supersymmetric string theories and supergravity theories as well as their expected properties and effects are briefly described. The most interesting superstring theory prediction is mentioned, concerning a possibility of existence in the Universe of two matter forms with similar particles and interactions, but the second one, which is like the one we know, practically cannot be discovered by convevtional means. This quasipotential mass phenomenon is proposed as an explanation of the problem, related to the ''lacking'' mass in the Universe
Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus
Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.
2003-01-01
A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out,
Pluripotent Stem Cell Metabolism and Mitochondria: Beyond ATP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jarmon G. Lees
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Metabolism is central to embryonic stem cell (ESC pluripotency and differentiation, with distinct profiles apparent under different nutrient milieu, and conditions that maintain alternate cell states. The significance of altered nutrient availability, particularly oxygen, and metabolic pathway activity has been highlighted by extensive studies of their impact on preimplantation embryo development, physiology, and viability. ESC similarly modulate their metabolism in response to altered metabolite levels, with changes in nutrient availability shown to have a lasting impact on derived cell identity through the regulation of the epigenetic landscape. Further, the preferential use of glucose and anaplerotic glutamine metabolism serves to not only support cell growth and proliferation but also minimise reactive oxygen species production. However, the perinuclear localisation of spherical, electron-poor mitochondria in ESC is proposed to sustain ESC nuclear-mitochondrial crosstalk and a mitochondrial-H2O2 presence, to facilitate signalling to support self-renewal through the stabilisation of HIFα, a process that may be favoured under physiological oxygen. The environment in which a cell is grown is therefore a critical regulator and determinant of cell fate, with metabolism, and particularly mitochondria, acting as an interface between the environment and the epigenome.
Toward an Integrative Theory of the Firm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xin
understand the nature and behaviors of the firm, we need a comprehensive yet integrative theory. Toward this end, this paper proposes a relationship-based theory of the firm (R’BT) which claims that it is the relationships between the entrepreneur and other individuals or firms that determine the existence......This paper argues that the existing four major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, resource-based view, the entrepreneurial theory, and the stakeholder theory, are all insightful yet partial because each of them has a particular focus on the phenomenon of the firm. To better...
Should children with inherited metabolic disorders receive varicella vaccination?
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Varghese, M
2011-01-01
The aim was to determine the rate of varicella infection and complications in children with disorders of intermediary metabolism (IEM) between the ages of 1 and 16 years attending our national metabolic referral centre. Of 126 children identified, a response was received from 122. A history of previous varicella infection was identified in 64 cases (53%) and of varicella vaccination in 5 (4%). Fifty-three (43%) patients apparently did not have a history of clinical varicella infection. Of the 64 children with a history of varicella infection, five required hospitalisation for complications, including life-threatening lactic acidosis in one patient with mitochondrial disease and metabolic decompensation in four patients. In conclusion, varicella infection may cause an increased risk of metabolic decompensation in patients with IEMs. We propose that a trial of varicella vaccination be considered for this cohort of patients with monitoring of its safety and efficacy.
A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Z.L.
1989-01-01
A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)
Quantum theory of massive Yang-Mills fields, 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Takashi; Matsuda, Hiroaki; Seki, Yoshinori; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi
1983-01-01
The renormalizable structure of a massive Yang-Mills field theory proposed previously is revealed in view of nonpolynomial Lagrangian theories. Analytic properties of several relevant superpropagators are elucidated in the sense of distributions. It is shown that these regularized superpropagators exhibit a strong infinity-suppression mechanism making the theory renormalizable. There appears a divergence-free model as a subcase of the present theory. (author)
On background-independent open-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1992-01-01
A framework for background-independent open-string field theory is proposed. The approach involves using the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, in a way suggested by recent developments in closed-string field theory, to implicitly define a gauge-invariant Lagrangian in a hypothetical ''space of all open-string world-sheet theories.'' It is built into the formalism that classical solutions of the string field theory are Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin- (BRST-) invariant open-string world-sheet theories and that, when expanding around a classical solution, the infinitesimal gauge transformations are generated by the world-sheet BRST operator
Metabolic rate determines haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal.
Sastry, P S R K
2004-01-01
The number of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) per animal is conserved across species. This means the HSCs need to maintain hematopoiesis over a longer period in larger animals. This would result in the requirement of stem cell self-renewal. At present the three existing models are the stochastic model, instructive model and the third more recently proposed is the chiaro-scuro model. It is a well known allometric law that metabolic rate scales to the three quarter power. Larger animals have a lower metabolic rate, compared to smaller animals. Here it is being hypothesized that metabolic rate determines haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. At lower metabolic rate the stem cells commit for self-renewal, where as at higher metabolic rate they become committed to different lineages. The present hypothesis can explain the salient features of the different models. Recent findings regarding stem cell self-renewal suggest an important role for Wnt proteins and their receptors known as frizzleds, which are an important component of cell signaling pathway. The role of cGMP in the Wnts action provides further justification for the present hypothesis as cGMP is intricately linked to metabolic rate. One can also explain the telomere homeostasis by the present hypothesis. One prediction of the present hypothesis is with reference to the limit of cell divisions known as Hayflick limit, here it is being suggested that this is the result of metabolic rate in laboratory conditions and there can be higher number of cell divisions in vivo if the metabolic rate is lower. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.
Duality walls and defects in 5dN=1 theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kim, Hee-Cheol
2017-01-01
We propose an explicit description of “duality walls” which encode at low energy the global symmetry enhancement expected in the UV completion of certain five-dimensional gauge theories. The proposal is supported by explicit localization computations and implies that the instanton partition function of these theories satisfies novel and unexpected integral equations.
Duality walls and defects in 5dN=1 theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kim, Hee-Cheol [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2017-01-05
We propose an explicit description of “duality walls” which encode at low energy the global symmetry enhancement expected in the UV completion of certain five-dimensional gauge theories. The proposal is supported by explicit localization computations and implies that the instanton partition function of these theories satisfies novel and unexpected integral equations.
Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories
Monnier, Samuel
2015-09-01
We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.
Cosmology in Gauge Field Theory and String Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Compean, H
2005-01-01
the dark matter proposal in terms of the WIMPS arising in supersymmetric gauge theory, in particular, from the MSSM. A modern overview of the different mechanisms involved in the process of inflation is the aim of chapter 7. This is a preliminary to the well written discussion of inflation in the context of four-dimensional supergravity in chapter 8. In the remaining chapters, the authors focus on more recent subjects that are the arena of intense research, such as cosmology and black holes in string theory. From the different proposals in the literature, the authors have captured the more basic and relevant material without engaging in discussion of any particular recent proposal, for instance, the new results of string compactifications with fluxes and their application to cosmological models or the study of cosmological models driven by tachyonic matter. Both are open problems. I have no doubt that this book will be valuable for students of high-energy physics and gravitation taking courses in modern aspects of cosmology, and for people preparing their PhD in this subject. The other books by the authors that I have mentioned have been present in introductory courses of the subject as text or reference books for many years. Their new book will surely follow this same fate. (book review)
A Thermodynamically General Theory for Convective Circulations and Vortices
Renno, N. O.
2007-12-01
Convective circulations and vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb low-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject high-entropy-energy to space. These circulations range from small to planetary-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective phenomena is important to our understanding of many basic features of planetary atmospheres. A thermodynamically general theory for convective circulations and vortices is proposed. The theory includes irreversible processes and quantifies the pressure drop between the environment and any point in a convective updraft. The article's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines or streamtubes that is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. We speculate that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also shed light on other basic features of convective circulations and vortices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, A. Ya.
2007-01-01
A group theory approach to description of phase transitions to an inhomogeneous ordered state, proposed in the preceding paper, is applied to two problems. First, a theory of the state of a liquid-crystalline smectic type-A phase under the action of uniaxial pressure is developed. Second, a model of strengthening in quasicrystals is constructed. According to the proposed approach, the so-called elastic dislocations always appear during the phase transitions in an inhomogeneous deformed state in addition to static dislocations, which are caused by peculiarities of the crystal growth or by other features in the prehistory of a sample. The density of static dislocations weakly depends on the external factors, whereas the density of elastic dislocations depends on the state. An analogy between the proposed theory of the inhomogeneous ordered state and the quantum-field theory of interaction between material fields is considered. On this basis, the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau equation for the superconducting state is derived using the principle of locality of the transformation properties of the superconducting order parameter with respect to temporal translations
Determining the control circuitry of redox metabolism at the genome-scale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Federowicz
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Determining how facultative anaerobic organisms sense and direct cellular responses to electron acceptor availability has been a subject of intense study. However, even in the model organism Escherichia coli, established mechanisms only explain a small fraction of the hundreds of genes that are regulated during electron acceptor shifts. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs, ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome-scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate >80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Based on the data, we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme, given the extensive repression of catabolic genes by ArcA and extensive activation of chemiosmotic genes by Fnr. We further corroborated this regulatory scheme by showing a 0.71 r(2 (p<1e-6 correlation between changes in metabolic flux and changes in regulatory activity across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Finally, we are able to relate the proposed model to a wealth of previously generated data by contextualizing the existing transcriptional regulatory network.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geng, Jun; Nielsen, Jens
2017-01-01
The arising prevalence of metabolic diseases calls for a holistic approach for analysis of the underlying nature of abnormalities in cellular functions. Through mathematic representation and topological analysis of cellular metabolism, GEnome scale metabolic Models (GEMs) provide a promising fram...... that correctly describe interactions between cells or tissues, and we therefore discuss how GEMs can be integrated with blood circulation models. Finally, we end the review with proposing some possible future research directions....
Gauge-invariant charged, monopole and dyon fields in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froehlich, J.; Marchetti, P.A.
1999-01-01
We propose explicit recipes to construct the Euclidean Green functions of gauge-invariant charged, monopole and dyon fields in four-dimensional gauge theories whose phase diagram contains phases with deconfined electric and/or magnetic charges. In theories with only either abelian electric or magnetic charges, our construction is an Euclidean version of Dirac's original proposal, the magnetic dual of his proposal, respectively. Rigorous mathematical control is achieved for a class of abelian lattice theories. In theories where electric and magnetic charges coexist, our construction of Green functions of electrically or magnetically charged fields involves taking an average over Mandelstam strings or the dual magnetic flux tubes, in accordance with Dirac's flux quantization condition. We apply our construction to 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles and Julia-Zee dyons. Connections between our construction and the semiclassical approach are discussed
Metabolic pathway analysis using a nash equilibrium approach
Lucia, Angelo; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Alonso-Martinez, Diego
2018-01-01
A novel approach to metabolic network analysis using a Nash Equilibrium (NE) formulation is proposed in which enzymes are considered players in a multi-player game. Each player has its own payoff function with the objective of minimizing the Gibbs free energy associated with the biochemical
Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…
Plant metabolic modeling: achieving new insight into metabolism and metabolic engineering.
Baghalian, Kambiz; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Schreiber, Falk
2014-10-01
Models are used to represent aspects of the real world for specific purposes, and mathematical models have opened up new approaches in studying the behavior and complexity of biological systems. However, modeling is often time-consuming and requires significant computational resources for data development, data analysis, and simulation. Computational modeling has been successfully applied as an aid for metabolic engineering in microorganisms. But such model-based approaches have only recently been extended to plant metabolic engineering, mainly due to greater pathway complexity in plants and their highly compartmentalized cellular structure. Recent progress in plant systems biology and bioinformatics has begun to disentangle this complexity and facilitate the creation of efficient plant metabolic models. This review highlights several aspects of plant metabolic modeling in the context of understanding, predicting and modifying complex plant metabolism. We discuss opportunities for engineering photosynthetic carbon metabolism, sucrose synthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in leaves and oil synthesis in seeds and the application of metabolic modeling to the study of plant acclimation to the environment. The aim of the review is to offer a current perspective for plant biologists without requiring specialized knowledge of bioinformatics or systems biology. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities
Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo
2013-08-01
Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.
Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo
2013-08-21
Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.
A superstring field theory for supergravity
Reid-Edwards, R. A.; Riccombeni, D. A.
2017-09-01
A covariant closed superstring field theory, equivalent to classical tendimensional Type II supergravity, is presented. The defining conformal field theory is the ambitwistor string worldsheet theory of Mason and Skinner. This theory is known to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of Cachazo, He and Yuan in which the scattering equations play an important role and the string field theory naturally incorporates these results. We investigate the operator formalism description of the ambitwsitor string and propose an action for the string field theory of the bosonic and supersymmetric theories. The correct linearised gauge symmetries and spacetime actions are explicitly reproduced and evidence is given that the action is correct to all orders. The focus is on the NeveuSchwarz sector and the explicit description of tree level perturbation theory about flat spacetime. Application of the string field theory to general supergravity backgrounds and the inclusion of the Ramond sector are briefly discussed.
Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-03-15
Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)
Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, D.; Teschner, J.
2012-03-01
Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S 4 . (orig.)
Predictions of a theory of quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1980-03-01
We propose a theory of quark confinement which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) resp. Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement. (orig.)
Predictions of a theory of quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1980-01-01
A theory of quark confinement is proposed which uses only the simplest of approximations. It explains persistence of quark confinement in Yang-Mills theories with gauge group SU(2) or SU(3) as a consequence of asymptotic freedom in perturbation theory and of the known phase structure of Z(2) and Z(3) lattice gauge theory. Predictions are derived which can in principle be tested by computer simulation. Some are are already tested by results of Creutz. They are in good agreement
Microscopic Cluster Theory for Exotic Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomaselli, M; Kuehl, T; Ursescu, D; Fritzsche, S
2006-01-01
For a better understanding of the dynamics of complex exotic nuclei it is of crucial importance to develop a practical microscopic theory easy to be applied to a wide range of masses. In this paper we propose to calculate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei within a dynamic model based on the EoM theory
Teichmüller TQFT vs. Chern-Simons theory
Mikhaylov, Victor
2018-04-01
Teichmüller TQFT is a unitary 3d topological theory whose Hilbert spaces are spanned by Liouville conformal blocks. It is related but not identical to PSL(2, ℝ) Chern-Simons theory. To physicists, it is known in particular in the context of 3d-3d correspondence and also in the holographic description of Virasoro conformal blocks. We propose that this theory can be defined by an analytically-continued Chern-Simons path-integral with an unusual integration cycle. On hyperbolic three-manifolds, this cycle is singled out by the requirement of invertible vielbein. Mathematically, our proposal translates a known conjecture by Andersen and Kashaev into a conjecture about the Kapustin-Witten equations. We further explain that Teichmüller TQFT is dual to complex SL(2, ℂ) Chern-Simons theory at integer level k = 1, clarifying some puzzles previously encountered in the 3d-3d correspondence literature. We also present a new simple derivation of complex Chern-Simons theories from the 6d (2,0) theory on a lens space with a transversely-holomorphic foliation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brambilla, P; Lissau, I; Flodmark, C-E
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MS) have been applied in studies of obese adults to estimate the metabolic risk-associated with obesity, even though no general consensus exists concerning its definition and clinical value. We reviewed the current literature on the MS......, focusing on those studies that used the MS diagnostic criteria to analyze children, and we observed extreme heterogeneity for the sets of variables and cutoff values chosen. OBJECTIVES: To discuss concerns regarding the use of the existing definition of the MS (as defined in adults) in children...... derived from a child's family and personal history; the lack of consensus on insulin levels, lipid parameters, markers of inflammation or steato-hepatitis; the lack of an additive relevant effect of the MS definition to obesity per se. We propose the adoption of 10 evidence-based items from which...
[Obesity and metabolic syndrome in adolescents].
Cárdenas Villarreal, Velia Margarita; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Cortés Castell, Ernesto
2009-03-01
In spite of the lack of a uniform definition for metabolic syndrome in pediatry, recent studies have shown that it develops during childhood and is highly prevalent among children and adolescents who suffer from obesity. In light of the current epidemic of obesity in this age category in western countries, and specifically in Mexico, it becomes essential to know the means to prevent, detect and treat this syndrome. Nurses play an important role in promoting childhood health with regards to metabolic syndrome. To put into practice the strategies which resolve underlying problems related with this syndrome is a priority for the well-being of this age group. These strategies should include the application and management of public policies; the collaboration by health services, social services and schools; but, furthermore, the prevention and the management of this syndrome require a family commitment, while the changes in living habits benefit the entire family. This review article proposes to introduce prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies which nursing personnel can carry out while dealing with metabolic syndrome in adolescents.
Multiobjective flux balancing using the NISE method for metabolic network analysis.
Oh, Young-Gyun; Lee, Dong-Yup; Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Sunwon
2009-01-01
Flux balance analysis (FBA) is well acknowledged as an analysis tool of metabolic networks in the framework of metabolic engineering. However, FBA has a limitation for solving a multiobjective optimization problem which considers multiple conflicting objectives. In this study, we propose a novel multiobjective flux balance analysis method, which adapts the noninferior set estimation (NISE) method (Solanki et al., 1993) for multiobjective linear programming (MOLP) problems. NISE method can generate an approximation of the Pareto curve for conflicting objectives without redundant iterations of single objective optimization. Furthermore, the flux distributions at each Pareto optimal solution can be obtained for understanding the internal flux changes in the metabolic network. The functionality of this approach is shown by applying it to a genome-scale in silico model of E. coli. Multiple objectives for the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] production are considered simultaneously, and relationships among them are identified. The Pareto curve for maximizing succinic acid production vs. maximizing biomass production is used for the in silico analysis of various combinatorial knockout strains. This proposed method accelerates the strain improvement in the metabolic engineering by reducing computation time of obtaining the Pareto curve and analysis time of flux distribution at each Pareto optimal solution. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.
The relationship of omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size to metabolic disease in severe obesity.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
O'Connell, Jean
2010-01-01
Several studies have reported the existence of a subgroup of obese individuals with normal metabolic profiles. It remains unclear what factors are responsible for this phenomenon. We proposed that adipocyte size might be a key factor in the protection of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals from the adverse effects of obesity.
Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design.
Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G; Henry, Christopher S; Bruner, Steven D; Hanson, Andrew D
2017-11-01
The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields, and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shweiki E
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement
Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Slagboom, Eline; Chen-An, Pingping; Alexandersen, Peter; Qvist, Per; Christiansen, Claus; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Karsdal, Morten A
2013-05-01
Joint health is affected by local and systemic hormones. It is well accepted that systemic factors regulate the metabolism of joint tissues, and that substantial cross-talk between tissues actively contributes to homeostasis. In the current review, we try to define a subtype of osteoarthritis (OA), metabolic OA, which is dependent on an unhealthy phenotype. Peer-reviewed research articles and reviews were reviewed and summarized. Only literature readily available online, either by download or by purchase order, was included. OA is the most common joint disease and is more common in women after menopause. OA is a disease that affects the whole joint, including cartilage, subchondral bone, synovium, tendons, and muscles. The clinical endpoints of OA are pain and joint space narrowing, which is characterized by cartilage erosion and subchondral sclerosis, suggesting that cartilage is a central tissue of joint health. Thus, the joint, more specifically the cartilage, may be considered a target of endocrine function in addition to the well-described traditional risk factors of disease initiation and progression such as long-term loading of the joint due to obesity. Metabolic syndrome affects a range of tissues and may in part be molecularly described as a dysregulation of cytokines, adipokines, and hormones (e.g., estrogen and thyroid hormone). Consequently, metabolic imbalance may both directly and indirectly influence joint health and cartilage turnover, altering the progression of diseases such as OA. There is substantial evidence for a connection between metabolic health and development of OA. We propose that more focus be directed to understanding this connection to improve the management of menopausal health and associated comorbidities.
Toward a theory of holistic needs and the brain.
Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Laura T; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen
2011-01-01
This article reviews Maslow's theory of motivation wherein he proposes a hierarchy of human needs. First, it describes the principal elements of Maslow's theory and discusses considerations relating to the flexibility of the hierarchy. Second, it explains the relationship among Maslow's theory of human needs, attachment theory, and evolutionary threat assessment system theory. Third, it provides an overview of the brain structures posited to be involved in attachment and evolutionary threat assessment system theory and their relation to Maslow's hierarchy. Finally, it explains how the 3 theories converge to form a theory of holistic needs.
The de Sitter relativistic top theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenta, J.; Nieto, J.A.
2005-01-01
We discuss the relativistic top theory from the point of view of the de Sitter (or anti-de Sitter) group. Our treatment rests on the Hanson-Regge spherical relativistic top Lagrangian formulation. We propose an alternative method for studying spinning objects via Kaluza-Klein theory. In particular, we derive the relativistic top equations of motion starting with the geodesic equation for a point particle in 4+N dimensions. We compare our approach with Fukuyama's formulation of spinning objects, which is also based on Kaluza-Klein theory. We also report a generalization of our approach to a 4+N+D dimensional theory
Density functional theory for polymeric systems in 2D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Słyk, Edyta; Bryk, Paweł; Roth, Roland
2016-01-01
We propose density functional theory for polymeric fluids in two dimensions. The approach is based on Wertheim’s first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and closely follows density functional theory for polymers proposed by Yu and Wu (2002 J. Chem. Phys . 117 2368). As a simple application we evaluate the density profiles of tangent hard-disk polymers at hard walls. The theoretical predictions are compared against the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. We find that for short chain lengths the theoretical density profiles are in an excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. The agreement is less satisfactory for longer chains. The performance of the theory can be improved by recasting the approach using the self-consistent field theory formalism. When the self-avoiding chain statistics is used, the theory yields a marked improvement in the low density limit. Further improvements for long chains could be reached by going beyond the first order of TPT. (paper)
Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence
Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona
2013-01-01
The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…
The Xenopus oocyte: a model for studying the metabolic regulation of cancer cell death.
Nutt, Leta K
2012-06-01
Abnormal metabolism and the evasion of apoptosis are both considered hallmarks of cancer. A remarkable biochemical model system, the Xenopus laevis oocyte, exhibits altered metabolism coupled to its apoptotic machinery in a similar fashion to cancer cells. This review considers the theory that these two hallmarks of cancer are coupled in tumor cells and provides strong proof that the Xenopus laevis oocyte system is an appropriate model in which to dissect the biochemical events underlying the connection between the two hallmarks. By further elucidating the mechanisms through which metabolism suppresses apoptotic machinery, we may gain a better understanding about how normal cells transform into cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braided quantum field theories and their symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki
2007-01-01
Braided quantum field theories, proposed by Oeckl, can provide a framework for quantum field theories that possess Hopf algebra symmetries. In quantum field theories, symmetries lead to non-perturbative relations among correlation functions. We study Hopf algebra symmetries and such relations in the context of braided quantum field theories. We give the four algebraic conditions among Hopf algebra symmetries and braided quantum field theories that are required for the relations to hold. As concrete examples, we apply our analysis to the Poincare symmetries of two examples of noncommutative field theories. One is the effective quantum field theory of three-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to spinless particles formulated by Freidel and Livine, and the other is noncommutative field theory on the Moyal plane. We also comment on quantum field theory in κ-Minkowski spacetime. (author)
Metabolism of para-aminophenol by rat hepatocytes.
Yan, Z; Nikelly, J G; Killmer, L; Tarloff, J B
2000-08-01
Autoxidation of para-aminophenol (PAP) has been proposed to account for the selective nephrotoxicity of this compound. However, other studies suggest that hepatic metabolites of PAP rather than the parent compound may be responsible for renal damage. These studies were designed to investigate PAP metabolism in isolated hepatocytes. We synthesized several proposed metabolites for analysis by HPLC/mass spectrometry and compared those results with HPLC/mass spectrometric analyses of metabolites found after incubating hepatocytes with PAP. Hepatocytes prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C for 5 h with 2.3 mM PAP under an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% O2. Aliquots were withdrawn at 0.1 h of incubation and then hourly through 5 h of incubation. Reactions were terminated by the addition of acetonitrile. Hepatocyte viability was unaltered with PAP present in the incubation medium. We found that hepatocytes converted PAP to two major metabolites (PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates) and several minor metabolites [PAP-O-glucuronide, acetaminophen (APAP), APAP-O-glucuronide, APAP-GSH conjugates, and 4-hydroxyformanilide]. Preincubating hepatoyctes with 1-aminobenzotriazole, an inhibitor of cytochromes P450, did not alter the pattern of PAP metabolism. In conclusion, we found that PAP was metabolized in hepatocytes predominantly to PAP-GSH conjugates and PAP-N-acetylcysteine conjugates in sufficient quantities to account for the nephrotoxicity of PAP.
Abelian gauge theories on homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassilevich, D.V.
1992-07-01
An algebraic technique of separation of gauge modes in Abelian gauge theories on homogeneous spaces is proposed. An effective potential for the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory on S 3 is calculated. A generalization of the Chern-Simons action is suggested and analysed with the example of SU(3)/U(1) x U(1). (author). 11 refs
A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices
Renno, Nilton O.
2008-08-01
Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.
van Nes, A.
2017-01-01
This contribution shows various approaches from the theory of science for revealing the explanatory power of the Space Syntax. In this contribution Bhaskar's critical realistic model of science and Georg Henrik von Wright's account of explanation and understanding are used to assess the explanatory power of Space Syntax research. In essence subsequent considerations distinguishes between a theory able to offer an explanation of phenomena and a theory proposing an understanding thereof. It wil...
Queer Theory and Discourses of Desire
Vasvári, Louise O.
2006-01-01
In her paper "Queer Theory and Discourses of Desire," Louise O. Vasvári proposes that the multiplicity of ways that language constructs -- or silences -- the socially constructed expression of erotic desire is a necessary complement to the study of gendered and of sexual identity. Vasvári contributes to queer theory and its subfield, queer linguistics, with the term "queer" understood as more inclusive and less male-oriented than "gay" where queer theory seeks to read between and outside the ...
Causal theory in (2+1)-dimensional Qed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharf, G.; Wreszinski, W.F.
1994-01-01
The program of constructing the S-matrix by means of causality in quantum field theory goes back to Stueckelberg and Bogoliubov. Epstein and Glaser proposed an axiomatic construct where ultraviolet divergences do not appear, leading directly to the renormalized perturbation series. They have shown that in the causal theory the UV problem is a consequence of incorrect distribution splitting. This paper studies the causal theory in (2+1)D Qed
Statistical theory of breakup reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, Carlos A.; Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S.
2014-01-01
We propose an alternative for Coupled-Channels calculations with loosely bound exotic nuclei (CDCC), based on the the Random Matrix Model of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The coupled channels equations are divided into two sets. The first set, described by the CDCC, and the other set treated with RMT. The resulting theory is a Statistical CDCC (CDCC s ), able in principle to take into account many pseudo channels. (author)
Mona Schweizer
2008-01-01
Visit of Peters Higgs at Point 2 ALICE Experiment - British theoretical physicist, He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.
An empirical test of reference price theories using a semiparametric approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz
In this paper we estimate and empirically test different behavioral theories of consumer reference price formation. Two major theories are proposed to model the reference price reaction: assimilation contrast theory and prospect theory. We assume that different consumer segments will use...
Near edge x-ray spectroscopy theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
We propose to develop a quantitative theory of x-ray spectroscopies in the near edge region, within about 100 eV of threshold. These spectroscopies include XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), photoelectron diffraction (PD), and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), all of which are important tools for structural studies using synchrotron radiation x-ray sources. Of primary importance in these studies are many-body effects, such as the photoelectron self-energy, and inelastic losses. A better understanding of these quantities is needed to obtain theories without adjustable parameters. We propose both analytical and numerical calculations, the latter based on our x-ray spectroscopy codes FEFF
Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.
Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K
2016-01-01
Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G.; Henry, Christopher S.; Bruner, Steven D.; Hanson, Andrew D.
2017-11-01
The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields, and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects.
On a broken - symmetric theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleming, H.
1979-09-01
A theory of gravity recently proposed by Zee is examined. The propagation of the special scalar field introduced by this theory is studied in cosmological models, and some problems are pointed out, connected with the possibility of a time-dependent vacuum expectation value for this scalar field. (Author) [pt
A Framework for Theory Development in Foresight
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piirainen, Kalle
The academic literature has frequently observed that foresight lacks a coherent theoretical basis. The discussion on theory of foresight calls for ‘a theory’, but it rarely expounds what the scope of theorizing is or should be. We propose that ‘theory of foresight’ has three overlapping meanings...
Gauge theory of amorphous magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterov, A.I.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.
1989-01-01
A gauge theory of disordered magnets as a field theory in the principal fiber bundle with structure group SL(3, R) is constructed. The gauge field interacting with a vector field (the magnetization) is responsible for the disorder. A complete system of equations, valid for arbitrary disordered magnets, is obtained. In the limiting case of a free gauge field the proposed approach leads to the well-known Volovik-Dzyaloshinskii theory, which describes isotropic spin glasses. In the other limiting case when the curvature is zero the results of Ignatchenko and Iskhakov for weakly disordered ferromagnets are reproduced
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bossard, G
2007-10-15
This thesis contains 2 parts based on scientific contributions that have led to 2 series of publications. The first one concerns the introduction of vector symmetry in cohomological theories, through a generalization of the so-called Baulieu-Singer equation. Together with the topological BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin) operator, this symmetry gives an off-shell closed sub-sector of supersymmetry that permits to determine the action uniquely. The second part proposes a methodology for re-normalizing supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory without assuming a regularization scheme which is both supersymmetry and gauge invariance preserving. The renormalization prescription is derived thanks to the definition of 2 consistent Slavnov-Taylor operators for supersymmetry and gauge invariance, whose construction requires the introduction of the so-called shadow fields. We demonstrate the renormalizability of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. We give a fully consistent, regularization scheme independent, proof of the vanishing of the {beta} function and of the anomalous dimensions of the one half BPS operators in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. After a short introduction, in chapter two, we give a review of the cohomological Yang-Mills theory in eight dimensions. We then study its dimensional reductions in seven and six dimensions. The last chapter gives quite independent results, about a geometrical interpretation of the shadow fields, an unpublished work about topological gravity in four dimensions, an extension of the shadow formalism to superconformal invariance, and finally the solution of the constraints in a twisted superspace. (author)
PEDF-induced alteration of metabolism leading to insulin resistance.
Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Dass, Crispin R
2015-02-05
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jillian Hagel
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.
Hendriks, A.; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McEnteggart, Ciara; de Mey, H.; Witteman, C.; Janssen, G.; Egger, J.
2016-01-01
Objective: Perspective-taking difficulties have been demonstrated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, among other clinical presentations, and are traditionally examined from a Theory of Mind (ToM) point of view. Relational Frame Theory (RFT) offers a behavioural and contextual interpretation of perspective-taking, proposing that this ability can be studied in more detail by examining specific perspective-taking relations. To implement relational perspective-taking measures in clin...
Probing noncommutative theories with quantum optical experiments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjib Dey
2017-11-01
Full Text Available One of the major difficulties of modern science underlies at the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics. Different approaches towards such theory have been proposed. Noncommutative theories serve as the root of almost all such approaches. However, the identification of the appropriate passage to quantum gravity is suffering from the inadequacy of experimental techniques. It is beyond our ability to test the effects of quantum gravity thorough the available scattering experiments, as it is unattainable to probe such high energy scale at which the effects of quantum gravity appear. Here we propose an elegant alternative scheme to test such theories by detecting the deformations emerging from the noncommutative structures. Our protocol relies on the novelty of an opto-mechanical experimental setup where the information of the noncommutative oscillator is exchanged via the interaction with an optical pulse inside an optical cavity. We also demonstrate that our proposal is within the reach of current technology and, thus, it could uncover a feasible route towards the realization of quantum gravitational phenomena thorough a simple table-top experiment.
Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amanda Oliva Gobato
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032 and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006. All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01. In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance.
Williams, B; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; McGhee, J
2012-12-01
Nurses are increasingly involved in a range of strategies to encourage patient behaviours that improve self-management. If nurses are to be involved in, or indeed lead, the development of such interventions then processes that enhance the likelihood that they will lead to evidence that is both robust and usable in practice are required. Although behavioural interventions have been predominantly based on written text or the spoken word increasing numbers are now drawing on visual media to communicate their message, despite only a growing evidence base to support it. The use of such media in health interventions is likely to increase due to technological advances enabling easier and cheaper production, and an increasing social preference for visual forms of communication. However, the development of such media is often highly pragmatic and developed intuitively rather than with theory and evidence informing their content and form. Such a process may be at best inefficient and at worst potentially harmful. This paper performs two functions. Firstly, it discusses and argues why visual based interventions may be a powerful media for behaviour change; and secondly, it proposes a model, developed from the MRC Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions, to guide the creation of theory informed visual interventions. It employs a case study of the development of an intervention to motivate involvement in a lifestyle intervention among people with increased cardiovascular risk. In doing this we argue for a step-wise model which includes: (1) the identification of a theoretical basis and associated concepts; (2) the development of visual narrative to establish structure; (3) the visual rendering of narrative and concepts; and (4) the assessment of interpretation and impact among the intended patient group. We go on to discuss the theoretical and methodological limitations of the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Therapeutic Theory and Social Context: A Social Constructionist Perspective.
Lynch, Gordon
1997-01-01
Explores the foundation of therapeutic theory from the perspective of social constructionism. Proposes a theoretical description of the interaction between an individual and the social context in the formation of therapeutic theory. Then explores this description in relation to the early life and subsequent therapeutic theory of Carl Rogers. (RJM)
Towards chaos criterion in quantum field theory
Kuvshinov, V. I.; Kuzmin, A. V.
2002-01-01
Chaos criterion for quantum field theory is proposed. Its correspondence with classical chaos criterion in semi-classical regime is shown. It is demonstrated for real scalar field that proposed chaos criterion can be used to investigate stability of classical solutions of field equations.
Metabolic network prediction through pairwise rational kernels.
Roche-Lima, Abiel; Domaratzki, Michael; Fristensky, Brian
2014-09-26
Metabolic networks are represented by the set of metabolic pathways. Metabolic pathways are a series of biochemical reactions, in which the product (output) from one reaction serves as the substrate (input) to another reaction. Many pathways remain incompletely characterized. One of the major challenges of computational biology is to obtain better models of metabolic pathways. Existing models are dependent on the annotation of the genes. This propagates error accumulation when the pathways are predicted by incorrectly annotated genes. Pairwise classification methods are supervised learning methods used to classify new pair of entities. Some of these classification methods, e.g., Pairwise Support Vector Machines (SVMs), use pairwise kernels. Pairwise kernels describe similarity measures between two pairs of entities. Using pairwise kernels to handle sequence data requires long processing times and large storage. Rational kernels are kernels based on weighted finite-state transducers that represent similarity measures between sequences or automata. They have been effectively used in problems that handle large amount of sequence information such as protein essentiality, natural language processing and machine translations. We create a new family of pairwise kernels using weighted finite-state transducers (called Pairwise Rational Kernel (PRK)) to predict metabolic pathways from a variety of biological data. PRKs take advantage of the simpler representations and faster algorithms of transducers. Because raw sequence data can be used, the predictor model avoids the errors introduced by incorrect gene annotations. We then developed several experiments with PRKs and Pairwise SVM to validate our methods using the metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a result, when PRKs are used, our method executes faster in comparison with other pairwise kernels. Also, when we use PRKs combined with other simple kernels that include evolutionary information, the accuracy
Selfduality and topological-like properties of lattice gauge field theories. A proposal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cotta-Ramusino, P; Dell' Antonio, G [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rome Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica)
1979-11-01
We introduce for lattice gauge theories an analogue of the Pontrjagin index and a notion of 'selfduality' and 'antiselfduality'. Selfdual and antiselfdual configurations on the lattice have much of the same properties (with some remarkable differences) as the corresponding configurations on the continuum, to which they converge when the lattice spacing goes to zero.
Clifford algebra in finite quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moser, M.
1997-12-01
We consider the most general power counting renormalizable and gauge invariant Lagrangean density L invariant with respect to some non-Abelian, compact, and semisimple gauge group G. The particle content of this quantum field theory consists of gauge vector bosons, real scalar bosons, fermions, and ghost fields. We assume that the ultimate grand unified theory needs no cutoff. This yields so-called finiteness conditions, resulting from the demand for finite physical quantities calculated by the bare Lagrangean. In lower loop order, necessary conditions for finiteness are thus vanishing beta functions for dimensionless couplings. The complexity of the finiteness conditions for a general quantum field theory makes the discussion of non-supersymmetric theories rather cumbersome. Recently, the F = 1 class of finite quantum field theories has been proposed embracing all supersymmetric theories. A special type of F = 1 theories proposed turns out to have Yukawa couplings which are equivalent to generators of a Clifford algebra representation. These algebraic structures are remarkable all the more than in the context of a well-known conjecture which states that finiteness is maybe related to global symmetries (such as supersymmetry) of the Lagrangean density. We can prove that supersymmetric theories can never be of this Clifford-type. It turns out that these Clifford algebra representations found recently are a consequence of certain invariances of the finiteness conditions resulting from a vanishing of the renormalization group β-function for the Yukawa couplings. We are able to exclude almost all such Clifford-like theories. (author)
Minimal theory of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-01-01
We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than) −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.
On discrete geometrodynamical theories in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Towe, J.P.
1988-01-01
In this dissertation the author considers two topological-geometrical models (based upon a single suggestive formalism) in which a geometrodynamics is both feasible and pedagogically advantageous. Specifically he considers the topology which is constituted by the real domains of the two broad classes of rotation groups: those characterized by the commutator and anti-commutator algebras. He then adopts a Riemannian geometric structure and shows that the monistically geometric interpretation of this formalism restricts displacements on the proposed manifold to integral multiples of universal constant. Secondly, he demonstrates that in the context under consideration, this constraint affects a very interesting ontological reduction: the unification of quantum mechanics with a discrete, multidimensional extension of general relativity. A particularly interesting features of this unification is that is includes and requires the choice of an SL (2,R) direct-product SU (3)-symmetric realization of the proposed, generic formalism which is a lattice of spins ℎ and ℎ/2. If the vertices of this lattice are associated with the fundamental particles, then the resulting theory predicts and precludes the same interactions as the standard supersymmetry theory. In addition to the ontological reduction which is provided, and the restriction to supersymmetry, the proposed theory may also represent a scientifically useful extension of conventional theory in that it suggests a means of understanding the apparently large energy productions of the quasars and relates Planck's constant to the size of the universe
Sense and nonsense in metabolic control of reproduction.
Schneider, Jill E; Klingerman, Candice M; Abdulhay, Amir
2012-01-01
An exciting synergistic interaction occurs among researchers working at the interface of reproductive biology and energy homeostasis. Reproductive biologists benefit from the theories, experimental designs, and methodologies used by experts on energy homeostasis while they bring context and meaning to the study of energy homeostasis. There is a growing recognition that identification of candidate genes for obesity is little more than meaningless reductionism unless those genes and their expression are placed in a developmental, environmental, and evolutionary context. Reproductive biology provides this context because metabolic energy is the most important factor that controls reproductive success and gonadal hormones affect energy intake, storage, and expenditure. Reproductive hormone secretion changes during development, and reproductive success is key to evolutionary adaptation, the process that most likely molded the mechanisms that control energy balance. It is likely that by viewing energy intake, storage, and expenditure in the context of reproductive success, we will gain insight into human obesity, eating disorders, diabetes, and other pathologies related to fuel homeostasis. This review emphasizes the metabolic hypothesis: a sensory system monitors the availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels and orchestrates behavioral motivation to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy availability fluctuates or is unpredictable.
Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.
We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
A unified field theory of mesons and their particle sources is proposed and considered in its classical aspects. The theory has static solutions of a singular nature, but finite energy, characterized by spin directions; the number of such entities is a rigorously conserved constant of motion; they interact with an external meson field through a derivative-type coupling with the spins, akin to the formalism of strong-coupling meson theory. There is a conserved current identifiable with isobaric spin, and another that may be related to hypercharge. The postulates include one constant of the dimensions of length, and another that is conjecture necessarily to have the value (h/2π)c, or perhaps 1/2(h/2π)c, in the quantized theory. (author). 5 refs
Field theories with subcanonical fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigi, I.I.Y.
1976-01-01
The properties of quantum field theories with spinor fields of dimension less than the canonical value of 3/2 are studied. As a starting point for the application of common perturbation theory we look for the linear version of these theories. A gange-interaction is introduced and with the aid of power counting the renormalizability of the theory is shown. It follows that in the case of a spinor-field with negative dimension renormalization can only be attained if the interaction has a further symmetry. By this symmetry the theory is determined in an unequivocal way. The gange-interaction introduced in the theory leads to a spontaneous breakdown of scale invariance whereby masses are produced. At the same time the spinor-field operators can now be separated in two orthogonal sections with opposite norm. It is proposed to use the section with negative (positive) norm to describe hadrons (leptons) respectively. (orig./WL) [de
Erwin Schrödinger's color theory translated with modern commentary
2017-01-01
This book presents the most complete translation to date of Erwin Schrödinger’s work on colorimetry. In his work Schrödinger proposed a projective geometry of color space, rather than a Euclidean line-element. He also proposed new (at the time) colorimetric methods – in detail and at length - which represented a dramatic conceptual shift in colorimetry. Schrödinger shows how the trichromatic (or Young-Helmholtz) theory of color and the opponent-process (or Hering) theory of color are formally the same theory, or at least only trivially different. These translations of Schrödinger’s bold concepts for color space have a fresh resonance and importance for contemporary color theory.
Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism.
Lacombe, R J Scott; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Bazinet, Richard P
2018-02-08
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources. The uptake of DHA into the brain appears to be regulated by a number of complementary pathways associated with the activation and metabolism of DHA, and may provide mechanisms for enrichment of DHA within the brain. Following entry into the brain, DHA is esterified into and recycled amongst membrane phospholipids contributing the distribution of DHA in brain phospholipids. During neurotransmission and following brain injury, DHA is released from membrane phospholipids and converted to bioactive mediators which regulate signaling pathways important to synaptogenesis, cell survival, and neuroinflammation, and may be relevant to treating neurological diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive overview of brain DHA metabolism, encompassing many of the pathways and key enzymatic regulators governing brain DHA uptake and metabolism. In addition, we focus on the release of non-esterified DHA and subsequent production of bioactive mediators and the evidence of their proposed activity within the brain. We also provide a brief review of the evidence from post-mortem brain analyses investigating DHA levels in the context of neurological disease and mood disorder, highlighting the current disparities within the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banai, M.
1984-01-01
A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)
Statistical theory of breakup reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertulani, Carlos A., E-mail: carlos.bertulani@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX (United States); Descouvemont, Pierre, E-mail: pdesc@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Avancados
2014-07-01
We propose an alternative for Coupled-Channels calculations with loosely bound exotic nuclei (CDCC), based on the the Random Matrix Model of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The coupled channels equations are divided into two sets. The first set, described by the CDCC, and the other set treated with RMT. The resulting theory is a Statistical CDCC (CDCC{sub s}), able in principle to take into account many pseudo channels. (author)
A Unifying Theory of Biological Function.
van Hateren, J H
2017-01-01
A new theory that naturalizes biological function is explained and compared with earlier etiological and causal role theories. Etiological (or selected effects) theories explain functions from how they are caused over their evolutionary history. Causal role theories analyze how functional mechanisms serve the current capacities of their containing system. The new proposal unifies the key notions of both kinds of theories, but goes beyond them by explaining how functions in an organism can exist as factors with autonomous causal efficacy. The goal-directedness and normativity of functions exist in this strict sense as well. The theory depends on an internal physiological or neural process that mimics an organism's fitness, and modulates the organism's variability accordingly. The structure of the internal process can be subdivided into subprocesses that monitor specific functions in an organism. The theory matches well with each intuition on a previously published list of intuited ideas about biological functions, including intuitions that have posed difficulties for other theories.
Cancer Stem Cell Theory and the Warburg Effect, Two Sides of the Same Coin?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicola Pacini
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Over the last 100 years, many studies have been performed to determine the biochemical and histopathological phenomena that mark the origin of neoplasms. At the end of the last century, the leading paradigm, which is currently well rooted, considered the origin of neoplasms to be a set of genetic and/or epigenetic mutations, stochastic and independent in a single cell, or rather, a stochastic monoclonal pattern. However, in the last 20 years, two important areas of research have underlined numerous limitations and incongruities of this pattern, the hypothesis of the so-called cancer stem cell theory and a revaluation of several alterations in metabolic networks that are typical of the neoplastic cell, the so-called Warburg effect. Even if this specific “metabolic sign” has been known for more than 85 years, only in the last few years has it been given more attention; therefore, the so-called Warburg hypothesis has been used in multiple and independent surveys. Based on an accurate analysis of a series of considerations and of biophysical thermodynamic events in the literature, we will demonstrate a homogeneous pattern of the cancer stem cell theory, of the Warburg hypothesis and of the stochastic monoclonal pattern; this pattern could contribute considerably as the first basis of the development of a new uniform theory on the origin of neoplasms. Thus, a new possible epistemological paradigm is represented; this paradigm considers the Warburg effect as a specific “metabolic sign” reflecting the stem origin of the neoplastic cell, where, in this specific metabolic order, an essential reason for the genetic instability that is intrinsic to the neoplastic cell is defined.
A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.
Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A
2016-02-01
The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional
Effective actions for F-theory compactifications and tensor theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonetti, Federico
2014-01-01
propose a Lagrangian that is formulated in five dimensions but has the potential to capture the six-dimensional interactions of (2,0) theories. This investigation leads us to explore in closer detail the relation between physics in five and in six dimensions. One of the outcomes of our exploration is a general result for one-loop corrections to Chern-Simons couplings in five dimensions.
Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles
Burini, D.; De Lillo, S.; Gibelli, L.
2016-03-01
This paper proposes a systems approach to the theory of perception and learning in populations composed of many living entities. Starting from a phenomenological description of these processes, a mathematical structure is derived which is deemed to incorporate their complexity features. The modeling is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods where interactions are described by theoretical tools of game theory. As an application, the proposed approach is used to model the learning processes that take place in a classroom.
Organic unity theory: an integrative mind-body theory for psychiatry.
Goodman, A
1997-12-01
The potential of psychiatry as an integrative science has been impeded by an internal schism that derives from the duality of mental and physical. Organic unity theory is proposed as a conceptual framework that brings together the terms of the mind-body duality in one coherent perspective. Organic unity theory is braided of three strands: identity, which describes the relationship between mentally described events and corresponding physically described events; continuity, which describes the linguistic-conceptual system that contains both mental and physical terms; and dialectic, which describes the relationship between the empirical way of knowing that is associated with the physical domain of the linguistic-conceptual system and the hermeneutic way of knowing that is associated with the mental domain. Each strand represents an integrative formulation that resolves an aspect of mental-physical dualism into an underlying unity. After the theory is presented, its implications for psychiatry are briefly considered.
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-03-07
The theory of summability of divergent series is a major branch of mathematical analysis that has found important applications in engineering and science. It addresses methods of assigning natural values to divergent sums, whose prototypical examples include the Abel summation method, the Cesaro means, and the Borel summability method. As will be established in subsequent chapters, the theory of summability of divergent series is intimately connected to the theory of fractional finite sums. In this chapter, we introduce a generalized definition of series as well as a new summability method for computing the value of series according to such a definition. We show that the proposed summability method is both regular and linear, and that it arises quite naturally in the study of local polynomial approximations of analytic functions. The materials presented in this chapter will be foundational to all subsequent chapters.
Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.
2018-01-01
The theory of summability of divergent series is a major branch of mathematical analysis that has found important applications in engineering and science. It addresses methods of assigning natural values to divergent sums, whose prototypical examples include the Abel summation method, the Cesaro means, and the Borel summability method. As will be established in subsequent chapters, the theory of summability of divergent series is intimately connected to the theory of fractional finite sums. In this chapter, we introduce a generalized definition of series as well as a new summability method for computing the value of series according to such a definition. We show that the proposed summability method is both regular and linear, and that it arises quite naturally in the study of local polynomial approximations of analytic functions. The materials presented in this chapter will be foundational to all subsequent chapters.
Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory.
Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry M
2012-11-01
We propose a new version of the "theory theory" grounded in the computational framework of probabilistic causal models and Bayesian learning. Probabilistic models allow a constructivist but rigorous and detailed approach to cognitive development. They also explain the learning of both more specific causal hypotheses and more abstract framework theories. We outline the new theoretical ideas, explain the computational framework in an intuitive and nontechnical way, and review an extensive but relatively recent body of empirical results that supports these ideas. These include new studies of the mechanisms of learning. Children infer causal structure from statistical information, through their own actions on the world and through observations of the actions of others. Studies demonstrate these learning mechanisms in children from 16 months to 4 years old and include research on causal statistical learning, informal experimentation through play, and imitation and informal pedagogy. They also include studies of the variability and progressive character of intuitive theory change, particularly theory of mind. These studies investigate both the physical and the psychological and social domains. We conclude with suggestions for further collaborative projects between developmental and computational cognitive scientists.
Asakura, Nobuhiko; Inui, Toshio
2016-01-01
Two apparently contrasting theories have been proposed to account for the development of children's theory of mind (ToM): theory-theory and simulation theory. We present a Bayesian framework that rationally integrates both theories for false belief reasoning. This framework exploits two internal models for predicting the belief states of others: one of self and one of others. These internal models are responsible for simulation-based and theory-based reasoning, respectively. The framework further takes into account empirical studies of a developmental ToM scale (e.g., Wellman and Liu, 2004): developmental progressions of various mental state understandings leading up to false belief understanding. By representing the internal models and their interactions as a causal Bayesian network, we formalize the model of children's false belief reasoning as probabilistic computations on the Bayesian network. This model probabilistically weighs and combines the two internal models and predicts children's false belief ability as a multiplicative effect of their early-developed abilities to understand the mental concepts of diverse beliefs and knowledge access. Specifically, the model predicts that children's proportion of correct responses on a false belief task can be closely approximated as the product of their proportions correct on the diverse belief and knowledge access tasks. To validate this prediction, we illustrate that our model provides good fits to a variety of ToM scale data for preschool children. We discuss the implications and extensions of our model for a deeper understanding of developmental progressions of children's ToM abilities.
Theory of and within foresight – “What does a theory of foresight even mean?”
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.
2015-01-01
of foresight mean?” We fist draw on the literature on theory development in social sciences to discuss a framework for theorizing and then examine the scope of theorizing through it. Our main argument is that when we propose developing (a) theory of foresight, we need to separate three levels of analysis: one......There has been an argument for a while now that foresight lacks a coherent theoretical basis. The discussion on theory of foresight calls for a theory, but rarely expounds on what the scope of theorizing is. The discussion has been centered on philosophy and different frameworks for theorizing......, but the scope and form of theorizing have not been explored. We contribute to this discussion by examining foresight through the lens of established theory building literature to map what constitutes a theory in the first place and how it applies in foresight. The main guiding question is “What does a theory...
arXiv The Infrared Physics of Bad Theories
Assel, Benjamin
2017-09-28
We study the complete moduli space of vacua of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $U(N)$ SQCDtheories with $N_f$ fundamentals, building on the algebraic description of theCoulomb branch, and deduce the low energy physics in any vacuum from the localgeometry of the moduli space. We confirm previous claims for good and ugly SQCDtheories, and show that bad theories flow to the same interacting fixed pointsas good theories with additional free twisted hypermultiplets. A Seiberg-likeduality proposed for bad theories with $N \\le N_f \\le 2N-2$ is ruled out: thespaces of vacua of the putative dual theories are different. However such badtheories have a distinguished vacuum, which preserves all the globalsymmetries, whose infrared physics is that of the proposed dual. We finallyexplain previous results on sphere partition functions and elucidate therelation between the UV and IR $R$-symmetry in this symmetric vacuum.
Statistical theory of electron densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, L.R.; Hoffman, G.G.; Harris, R.A.
1988-01-01
An optimized Thomas--Fermi theory is proposed which retains the simplicity of the original theory and is a suitable reference theory for Monte Carlo density functional treatments of condensed materials. The key ingredient of the optimized theory is a neighborhood sampled potential which contains effects of the inhomogeneities in the one-electron potential. In contrast to the traditional Thomas--Fermi approach, the optimized theory predicts a finite electron density in the vicinity of a nucleus. Consideration of the example of an ideal electron gas subject to a central Coulomb field indicates that implementation of the approach is straightforward. The optimized theory is found to fail completely when a classically forbidden region is approached. However, these circumstances are not of primary interest for calculations of interatomic forces. It is shown how the energy functional of the density may be constructed by integration of a generalized Hellmann--Feynman relation. This generalized Hellmann--Feynman relation proves to be equivalent to the variational principle of density functional quantum mechanics, and, therefore, the present density theory can be viewed as a variational consequence of the constructed energy functional
Kostal, Lubomir; Kobayashi, Ryota
2015-10-01
Information theory quantifies the ultimate limits on reliable information transfer by means of the channel capacity. However, the channel capacity is known to be an asymptotic quantity, assuming unlimited metabolic cost and computational power. We investigate a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal model under the spike-rate coding scheme and address how the metabolic cost and the decoding complexity affects the optimal information transmission. We find that the sub-threshold stimulation regime, although attaining the smallest capacity, allows for the most efficient balance between the information transmission and the metabolic cost. Furthermore, we determine post-synaptic firing rate histograms that are optimal from the information-theoretic point of view, which enables the comparison of our results with experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Self-knowledge and attribution of mental states in Theory of Mind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skidelsky, Liza
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Many philosophers consider that self-knowledge reflects the particularity that we can know what we think, believe, desire, in a different way in which we know the mental states of other people. This is the claim of an asymmetry between first and third person. Several approaches han been offered in the epistemological literature in order to account for this asymmetry. Nonetheless, unlike the expected compatibility between adjacent fields, the literature related to the attribution and self-attribution of mental states or, in general, what is called Theory of Mind, does not seem either to preserve this asymmetry or the attempt to preserve it undermines the fundamental role of the different Theory of Mind proposals. This paper will show this in two parts. Firstly, it addresses how the asymmetry thesis han been defended in the epistemological literature. The aim of this section is to offer a geography of the different approaches. Secondly, two proposals in Theory of Mind, the theory theory and simulation theory, will be evaluated in order to show why they do not account for the asymmetry thesis, and some of the consequences that would be gather from the attempt to conciliate these Theory of Mind proposals with the epistemological approaches that defend the asymmetry thesis will be analized.
Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura
2015-08-11
The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.
Molecular Electron Density Theory: A Modern View of Reactivity in Organic Chemistry
Luis R. Domingo
2016-01-01
A new theory for the study of the reactivity in Organic Chemistry, named Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT), is proposed herein. MEDT is based on the idea that while the electron density distribution at the ground state is responsible for physical and chemical molecular properties, as proposed by the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the capability for changes in electron density is responsible for molecular reactivity. Within MEDT, the reactivity in Organic Chemistry is studied through ...
A theory of strong interactions ''from'' general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldirola, P.; Recami, E.
1979-01-01
In this paper a previous letter (where, among other things, a classical ''quark confinement'' was derived from general relativity plus dilatation-covariance), is completed by showing that the theory is compatible also with quarks ''asymptotic freedom''. Then -within a bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions- a classical field theory is proposed for the (strong) interactions between hadrons. Various consequences are briefly analysed
Intentionality forms the matrix of healing: a theory.
Zahourek, Rothlyn P
2004-01-01
The understanding of intentionality in a healing context has been incomplete and confusing. Attempts have been made to describe it as a concrete mental force in healing while healing has been accepted as a nonlocal phenomenon. This paper reviews several definitions and theoretical frameworks of intentionality. It proposes a new integrative theory of intentionality, Intentionality: the Matrix of Healing. The theory proposes definitions, forms, and phases of intentionality, a process of development and mediators that sculpt intentionality in healing. The theory has implications for conceptualizing intentionality and provides a framework for continued exploration of the nature of intentionality in healing for scholars as well as clinicians. This study was done as a Doctoral dissertation at New York University, School of Education, Division of Nursing.
Contraction theory based adaptive synchronization of chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, B.B.; Kar, I.N.
2009-01-01
Contraction theory based stability analysis exploits the incremental behavior of trajectories of a system with respect to each other. Application of contraction theory provides an alternative way for stability analysis of nonlinear systems. This paper considers the design of a control law for synchronization of certain class of chaotic systems based on backstepping technique. The controller is selected so as to make the error dynamics between the two systems contracting. Synchronization problem with and without uncertainty in system parameters is discussed and necessary stability proofs are worked out using contraction theory. Suitable adaptation laws for unknown parameters are proposed based on the contraction principle. The numerical simulations verify the synchronization of the chaotic systems. Also parameter estimates converge to their true values with the proposed adaptation laws.
Theories of blood coagulation.
Riddel, James P; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine; Lillicrap, David P
2007-01-01
Although the concept of the coagulation cascade represented a significant advance in the understanding of coagulation and served for many years as a useful model, more recent clinical and experimental observations demonstrate that the cascade/waterfall hypothesis does not fully and completely reflect the events of hemostasis in vivo. The goal of this article is to review the evolution of the theories of coagulation and their proposed models to serve as a tool when reviewing the research and practice literature that was published in the context of these different theories over time.
Chern-Simons theory from first principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marino, E.C.
1994-01-01
A review is made of the main properties of the Chern-Simons field theory. These include the dynamical mass generation to the photon without a Higgs field, the statistical transmutation of charged particles coupled to it and the natural appearance of a transverse conductivity. A review of standard theories proposed for the Quantum Hall Effect which use the Chern-Simons term is also made, emphasizing the fact that this terms is put in an artificial manner. A physical origin for the Chern-Simons term is proposed, starting from QED in 3+1 D with the topological term and imposing that the motion of charged matter is restricted to an infinite plane. (author). 12 refs
Higher-dimensional analogues of Donaldson-Witten theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acharya, B.S.; Spence, B.
1997-01-01
We present a Donaldson-Witten-type field theory in eight dimensions on manifolds with Spin(7) holonomy. We prove that the stress tensor is BRST exact for metric variations preserving the holonomy and we give the invariants for this class of variations. In six and seven dimensions we propose similar theories on Calabi-Yau threefolds and manifolds of G 2 holonomy, respectively. We point out that these theories arise by considering supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory defined on such manifolds. The theories are invariant under metric variations preserving the holonomy structure without the need for twisting. This statement is a higher-dimensional analogue of the fact that Donaldson-Witten field theory on hyper-Kaehler 4-manifolds is topological without twisting. Higher-dimensional analogues of Floer cohomology are briefly outlined. All of these theories arise naturally within the context of string theory. (orig.)
Nonperturbative perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, C.M.
1989-01-01
In this talk we describe a recently proposed graphical perturbative calculational scheme for quantum field theory. The basic idea is to expand in the power of the interaction term. For example, to solve a λφ 4 theory in d-dimensional space-time, we introduce a small parameter δ and consider a λ(φ 2 ) 1+δ field theory. We show how to expand such a theory as a series in powers of δ. The resulting perturbation series appears to have a finite radius of convergence and numerical results for low-dimensional models are good. We have computed the two-point and four-point Green's functions to second order in powers of δ and the 2n-point Green's functions (n>2) to order δ. We explain how to renormalize the theory and show that, to first order in powers of δ, when δ>0 and d≥4 the theory is free. This conclusion remains valid to second order in powers of δ, and we believe that it remains valid to all orders in powers of δ. The new perturbative scheme is consistent with global supersymmetry invariance. We examine a two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theory in which we do not know of any other means for doing analytical calculations. We illustrate the power of this new technique by computing the ground-state energy density E to second order in this new perturbation theory. We show that there is a beautiful and delicate cancellation between infinite classes of graphs which leads to the result that E=0. (orig.)
Problems in particle theory. Technical report - 1993--1994
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.; Wilczek, F.
1994-10-01
This report is a progress report on the work of two principal investigators in the broad area of particle physics theory, covering their personal work, that of their coworkers, and their proposed work for the future. One author has worked in the past on various topics in field theory and particle physics, among them current algebras, the physics of neutrino induced reactions, quantum electrodynamics (including strong magnetic field processes), the theory of the axial-vector current anomaly, topics in quantum gravity, and nonlinear models for quark confinement. While much of his work has been analytical, all of the projects listed above (except for the work on gravity) had phases which required considerable computer work as well. Over the next several years, he proposes to continue or initiate research on the following problems: (1) Acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, and more generally, new research in computational neuroscience and pattern recognition. (2) Construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, and their application to composite models of quarks and leptons, and to the problem of unifying quantum theories of matter with general relativity. One author has worked on problems in exotic quantum statistics and its applications to condensed matter systems. His work has also continued on the quantum theory of black holes. This has evolved toward understanding properties of quantum field theory and string theory in incomplete regions of flat space
Henriksen, Roger Ekeberg; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode
2014-01-01
Social Baseline Theory (SBT) proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake. Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084), information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices. Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage. This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social isolation leads
Speech act theory and New Testament exegesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Botha
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Speech act theory offers New Testament exegesis some additional ways and means of approaching the text of the New Testament. This, the second in a series of two articles that make a plea for the continued utilisation and application of this theory to the text of the New Testament, deals with some of the possibilities and potential this theory holds for reading biblical texts. Advantages are pointed out and a few suggestions for the future proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.
1989-01-01
This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of research: Pion charge exchange reactions, including a theory of the contribution of pion absorption and correlated double scattering to double charge exchange, new coupled channel calculations for single and double charge exchange from 14 C. Nuclear inelastic scattering, using quark models to calculate nuclear structure functions, and test for sensitivity to the substructure of nucleons in nuclei. Fluctuation-free statistical spectroscopy including the theory and computer programs for interacting-particle densities, spin cutoff factors, occupancies, strength sums, and other expectation values. Proposed research for the coming year in each area is presented
Theories of intelligence in children with reading disabilities: a training proposal.
Pepi, Annamaria; Alesi, Marianna; Geraci, Maria
2004-12-01
A recent trend in the study of reading difficulties promotes multidimensional intervention, focusing on the reciprocal influences exerted by cognitive and emotional-motivational variables. This study evaluated improvements in reading performance as a function of metacognitive training in 36 children (M age = 8.7 yr.) with different representations of intelligence. Posttest evaluations show significantly more improvement in reading comprehension in children with an incremental theory of intelligence. These results indicate the importance of treatment programmes that take into account both the specificity of deficits and factors relating to the domain of motivation.
All in the family: integrating attachment and family systems theories.
Crittenden, Patricia McKinsey; Dallos, Rudi
2009-07-01
This article brings together ideas from attachment and systemic family therapy. There is both growing interest among systemic practitioners in the conceptual and empirical base of attachment theory and also the need for attachment theory to expand dyadic patterning to include its context in family functioning. We propose the Dynamic-Maturational Model (DMM) as being the most compatible and useful variant of attachment theory. With its emphasis on the functional nature of behavior, a dynamic view of development and change, and a focus on multiple attachments and representational systems, the DMM fits systemic concepts well. We propose that many apparent discrepancies between the theories will disappear if careful distinctions are made between observed behavior, functional explanations, and attributions. We conclude with theory-based recommendations for selecting treatment strategies. Several case examples that are theory based, counterintuitive, and tied to disorders that are difficult to treat are offered to give substance to our ideas.
Minimal theory of massive gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio De Felice
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.
Astrocytes take the stage in a tale of signaling-metabolism coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Lasse K
2017-01-01
Astrocytes are crucial cells in the brain that are intimately coupled with neuronal metabolism. A new paper from San Martín et al. provides evidence that physiological levels of the gaseous signal molecule NO can rapidly and reversibly increase astrocyte metabolism of glucose and production...... of lactate. A proposed neurological coupling-from the potential source of NO, endothelial cells, to the potential beneficiary from the lactate, neurons-prompts new questions regarding the controversial role of lactate in the brain....
Can Innate, modular "foundations" explain morality? Challenges for Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory.
Suhler, Christopher L; Churchland, Patricia
2011-09-01
Jonathan Haidt's Moral Foundations Theory is an influential scientific account of morality incorporating psychological, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. The theory proposes that morality is built upon five innate "foundations," each of which is believed to have been selected for during human evolution and, subsequently, tuned-up by learning during development. We argue here that although some general elements of Haidt's theory are plausible, many other important aspects of his account are seriously flawed. First, innateness and modularity figure centrally in Haidt's account, but terminological and conceptual problems foster confusion and ambiguities. Second, both the theory's proposed number of moral foundations and its taxonomy of the moral domain appear contrived, ignoring equally good candidate foundations and the possibility of substantial intergroup differences in the foundations' contents. Third, the mechanisms (viz., modules) and categorical distinctions (viz., between foundations) proposed by the theory are not consilient with discoveries in contemporary neuroscience concerning the organization, functioning, and development of the brain. In light of these difficulties, we suggest that Haidt's theory is inadequate as a scientific account of morality. Nevertheless, the theory's weaknesses are instructive, and hence, criticism may be useful to psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers attempting to advance theories of morality, as well as to researchers wishing to invoke concepts such as innateness and modularity more generally.
Maximum Entropy and Theory Construction: A Reply to Favretti
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Harte
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In the maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE, the form of a function describing the distribution of abundances over species and metabolic rates over individuals in an ecosystem is inferred using the maximum entropy inference procedure. Favretti shows that an alternative maximum entropy model exists that assumes the same prior knowledge and makes predictions that differ from METE’s. He shows that both cannot be correct and asserts that his is the correct one because it can be derived from a classic microstate-counting calculation. I clarify here exactly what the core entities and definitions are for METE, and discuss the relevance of two critical issues raised by Favretti: the existence of a counting procedure for microstates and the choices of definition of the core elements of a theory. I emphasize that a theorist controls how the core entities of his or her theory are defined, and that nature is the final arbiter of the validity of a theory.
The glutathione cycle: Glutathione metabolism beyond the γ-glutamyl cycle.
Bachhawat, Anand Kumar; Yadav, Shambhu
2018-04-17
Glutathione was discovered in 1888, over 125 years ago. Since then, our understanding of various functions and metabolism of this important molecule has grown over these years. But it is only now, in the last decade, that a somewhat complete picture of its metabolism has emerged. Glutathione metabolism has till now been largely depicted and understood by the γ-glutamyl cycle that was proposed in 1970. However, new findings and knowledge particularly on the transport and degradation of glutathione have revealed that many aspects of the γ-glutamyl cycle are incorrect. Despite this, an integrated critical analysis of the cycle has never been undertaken and this has led to the cycle and its errors perpetuating in the literature. This review takes a careful look at the γ-glutamyl cycle and its shortcomings and presents a "glutathione cycle" that captures the current understanding of glutathione metabolism. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Toward a General Research Process for Using Dubin's Theory Building Model
Holton, Elwood F.; Lowe, Janis S.
2007-01-01
Dubin developed a widely used methodology for theory building, which describes the components of the theory building process. Unfortunately, he does not define a research process for implementing his theory building model. This article proposes a seven-step general research process for implementing Dubin's theory building model. An example of a…
Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xin
In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brochado, Ana Rita
processes. Metabolism is an extensively studied and characterised subcellular system, for which several modeling approaches have been proposed over the last 20 years. Nowadays, stoichiometric modeling of metabolism is done at the genome scale and it has diverse applications, many of them for helping....... This chapter aims at providing the reader with relevant state-of-the-art information concerning Systems Biology, Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling and Metabolic Engineering. Particular attention is given to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the eukaryotic model organism used thought the thesis.......A holistic view of the cell is fundamental for gaining insights into genotype to phenotype relationships. Systems Biology is a discipline within Biology, which uses such holistic approach by focusing on the development and application of tools for studying the structure and dynamics of cellular...
A Note on Supergravity Duals of Noncommutative Yang-Mills Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Banhiman
2000-01-01
A class of supergravity backgrounds have been proposed as dual descriptions of strong coupling large-N noncommutative Yang-Mills (NCYM) theories in 3+1 dimensions. However calculations of correlation functions in supergravity from an evaluation of relevant classical actions appear ambiguous. We propose a resolution of this ambiguity. Assuming that holographic description exists - regardless of whether it is the NCYM theory - we argue that there should be operators in the holographic boundary theory which create normalized states of definite energy and momenta. An operator version of the dual correspondence then provides a calculation of correlators of these operators in terms of bulk Green's functions. We show that in the low energy limit the correlators reproduce expected answers of the ordinary Yang-Mills theory. (author)
The rate of metabolism as a factor determining longevity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.
Molon, Mateusz; Szajwaj, Monika; Tchorzewski, Marek; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata
2016-02-01
Despite many controversies, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be used as a model organism for the study of aging. Numerous theories and hypotheses have been created for several decades, yet basic mechanisms of aging have remained unclear. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is to propose a possible mechanism leading to increased longevity in yeast. In this paper, we suggest for the first time that there is a link between decreased metabolic activity, fertility and longevity expressed as time of life in yeast. Determination of reproductive potential and total lifespan with the use of fob1Δ and sfp1Δ mutants allows us to compare the "longevity" presented as the number of produced daughters with the longevity expressed as the time of life. The results of analyses presented in this paper suggest the need for a change in the definition of longevity of yeast by taking into consideration the time parameter. The mutants that have been described as "long-lived" in the literature, such as the fob1Δ mutant, have an increased reproductive potential but live no longer than their standard counterparts. On the other hand, the sfp1Δ mutant and the wild-type strain produce a similar number of daughter cells, but the former lives much longer. Our results demonstrate a correlation between the decreased efficiency of the translational apparatus and the longevity of the sfp1Δ mutant. We suggest that a possible factor regulating the lifespan is the rate of cell metabolism. To measure the basic metabolism of the yeast cells, we used the isothermal microcalorimetry method. In the case of sfp1Δ, the flow of energy, ATP concentration, polysome profile and translational fitness are significantly lower in comparison with the wild-type strain and the fob1Δ mutant.
Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?
Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran
2018-05-15
There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hierarchical multivariate covariance analysis of metabolic connectivity.
Carbonell, Felix; Charil, Arnaud; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C; Bedell, Barry J
2014-12-01
Conventional brain connectivity analysis is typically based on the assessment of interregional correlations. Given that correlation coefficients are derived from both covariance and variance, group differences in covariance may be obscured by differences in the variance terms. To facilitate a comprehensive assessment of connectivity, we propose a unified statistical framework that interrogates the individual terms of the correlation coefficient. We have evaluated the utility of this method for metabolic connectivity analysis using [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. As an illustrative example of the utility of this approach, we examined metabolic connectivity in angular gyrus and precuneus seed regions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with low and high β-amyloid burdens. This new multivariate method allowed us to identify alterations in the metabolic connectome, which would not have been detected using classic seed-based correlation analysis. Ultimately, this novel approach should be extensible to brain network analysis and broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Huete-Stauffer, Tamara Megan; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Dí az-Pé rez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.
2015-01-01
Using the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework, we evaluated over a whole annual cycle the monthly responses to temperature of the growth rates (μ) and carrying capacities (K) of heterotrophic bacterioplankton at a temperate coastal site. We
Detector response theory and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keijzer, J.
1992-11-01
Some methods to describe the dynamics of fission reactors are investigated. First the reactivity of a reactor is regarded. The values of an exact calculation of the reactivity are compared with values obtained by first-order perturbation theory. Then a description of the point reactor kinetic theory and the detector response theory is given. A comparison of the two methods is made, using models of some well defined perturbations. Two of the perturbations are such that a physical movement of some absorber is regarded. A new way of modelling these moving objects is proposed. The result of the point reactor kinetic theory and the detecor response theory did not differ too much for perturbations which were far from the detector position. Locally however point reactor kinetic theory was not, in contrast with detector response theory, able to produce reliable results. The results of these calculations are to be compared with experiments, which will be performed later. (orig.)
Effective medium theory principles and applications
Choy, Tuck C
2015-01-01
Effective medium theory dates back to the early days of the theory of electricity. Faraday in 1837 proposed one of the earliest models for a composite metal-insulator dielectric and around 1870 Maxwell and later Garnett (1904) developed models to describe a composite or mixed material medium. The subject has been developed considerably since and while the results are useful for predicting materials performance, the theory can also be used in a wide range of problems in physics and materials engineering. This book develops the topic of effective medium theory by bringing together the essentials of both the static and the dynamical theory. Electromagnetic systems are thoroughly dealt with, as well as related areas such as the CPA theory of alloys, liquids, the density functional theory etc., with applications to ultrasonics, hydrodynamics, superconductors, porous media and others, where the unifying aspects of the effective medium concept are emphasized. In this new second edition two further chapters have been...
Job Satisfaction: A Possible Integration of Two Theories
Hazer, John T.
1976-01-01
The author proposes an integration of Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction (job satisfaction/dissatisfaction as two separate, parallel continua) and traditional theory (job satisfaction/dissatisfaction sharing the same continuum) and a rationale for deciding which motivation methods to use for employees with differeing levels of…
Premigratory fat metabolism in hummingbirds: A rumsfeldian approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raul K. SUAREZ
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Hummingbird migration is a remarkable feat, given the small body sizes of migratory species, their high metabolic rates during flight and the long distances traveled using fat to fuel the effort. Equally remarkable is the ability of premigratory hummingbirds in the wild to accumulate fat, synthesized from sugar, at rates as high as 10% of body mass per day. This paper summarizes, using Rumsfeldian terminology, “known knowns” concerning the energetics of hummingbird migration and premigratory fattening. Energy metabolism during hover-feeding on floral nectar is fueled directly by dietary sugar through the pathway recently named the “sugar oxidation cascade”. However, flight without feeding for more than a few minutes requires shifting to fat as a fuel. It is proposed that behavior and metabolic fuel choice are coadapted to maximize the rate of fat deposition during premigratory fattening. The hummingbird liver appears to possess extraordinarily high capacities for fatty acid synthesis. The analysis of “known knowns” leads to identification of “known unknowns”, e.g., the fates of dietary glucose and fructose, the regulation of fat metabolism and metabolic interactions between liver and adipose tissue. The history of science behooves recognition of “unknown unknowns” that, when discovered serendipitously, might shed new light on fundamental mechanisms as well as human pathological conditions [Current Zoology 59 (3: 371–380, 2013].
Stevens, Tyler; Conwell, Darwin L; Zuccaro, Gregory
2004-11-01
In the past several decades, four prominent theories of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis have emerged: the toxic-metabolic theory, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the stone and duct obstruction theory, and the necrosis-fibrosis hypothesis. Although these traditional theories are formulated based on compelling scientific observations, substantial contradictory data also exist for each. Furthermore, the basic premises of some of these theories are directly contradictory. Because of the recent scientific progress in the underlying genetic, cellular, and molecular pathophysiology, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis. This paper will provide an evidence-based review and critique of the traditional pathogenic theories, followed by a discussion of the new advances in pancreatic fibrogenesis. Moreover, we will discuss plausible pathogenic sequences applied to each of the known etiologies.
Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn; Vankerschaver, Joris
2009-01-01
The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abad, J.; Esteve, J.G.; Pacheco, A.F.
1985-01-01
An approximation technique to construct the low-lying energy eigenstates of any bosonic field theory on the lattice is proposed. It is based on the SLAC blocking method, after performing a finite-spin approximation to the individual degrees of freedom of the problem. General expressions for any polynomial self-interacting theory are given. Numerical results for phi 2 and phi 4 theories in 1+1 dimensions are offered; they exhibit a fast convergence rate. The complete low-lying energy spectrum of the phi 4 theory in 1+1 dimensions is calculated
A quantization scheme for scale-invariant pure gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hortacsu, M.
1988-01-01
A scheme is suggested for the quantization of the recently proposed scale-invariant gauge theories in higher dimensions. The model is minimally coupled to a spinor field. Regularization algorithms are proposed. (orig.)
Reassessment of the theory of stimulated Raman scattering
Fralick, G. C.; Deck, R. T.
1985-01-01
A modification of the standard theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) first proposed by Sparks (1974, 1975) is analyzed and shown to incorporate a possibly important physical effect; however, its original formulation is incorrect. The analysis is based on an exact numerical integration of the coupled equations of the modified theory, the results of which are compared with both the conventional theory of SRS and with one set of experimental data. A reformulation of the modified theory is suggested that leads to a gain which is in somewhat better agreement with the data than is the conventional theory.
The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories
Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide
2017-09-01
We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.
Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K
2015-01-01
Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative.
Capital Market Theories: Market Efficiency Versus Investor Prospects
Kathleen Hodnett; Heng-Hsing Hsieh
2012-01-01
This paper reviews the development of capital market theories based on the assumption of capital market efficiency, which includes the efficient market hypothesis (EMH), modern portfolio theory (MPT), the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the implications of MPT in asset allocation decisions, criticisms regarding the market portfolio and the development of the arbitrage pricing theory (APT). An alternative school of thought proposes that investors are irrational and that their trading behav...
Evolutionary game theory: molecules as players.
Bohl, Katrin; Hummert, Sabine; Werner, Sarah; Basanta, David; Deutsch, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan; Theissen, Günter; Schroeter, Anja
2014-12-01
In this and an accompanying paper we review the use of game theoretical concepts in cell biology and molecular biology. This review focuses on the subcellular level by considering viruses, genes, and molecules as players. We discuss in which way catalytic RNA can be treated by game theory. Moreover, genes can compete for success in replication and can have different strategies in interactions with other genetic elements. Also transposable elements, or "jumping genes", can act as players because they usually bear different traits or strategies. Viruses compete in the case of co-infecting a host cell. Proteins interact in a game theoretical sense when forming heterodimers. Finally, we describe how the Shapley value can be applied to enzymes in metabolic pathways. We show that game theory can be successfully applied to describe and analyse scenarios at the molecular level resulting in counterintuitive conclusions.
Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, Y.
2015-01-01
The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.
The footprint of metabolism in the organization of mammalian genomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berná Luisa
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background At present five evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the great variability of the genomic GC content among and within genomes: the mutational bias, the biased gene conversion, the DNA breakpoints distribution, the thermal stability and the metabolic rate. Several studies carried out on bacteria and teleostean fish pointed towards the critical role played by the environment on the metabolic rate in shaping the base composition of genomes. In mammals the debate is still open, and evidences have been produced in favor of each evolutionary hypothesis. Human genes were assigned to three large functional categories (as well as to the corresponding functional classes according to the KOG database: (i information storage and processing, (ii cellular processes and signaling, and (iii metabolism. The classification was extended to the organisms so far analyzed performing a reciprocal Blastp and selecting the best reciprocal hit. The base composition was calculated for each sequence of the whole CDS dataset. Results The GC3 level of the above functional categories was increasing from (i to (iii. This specific compositional pattern was found, as footprint, in all mammalian genomes, but not in frog and lizard ones. Comparative analysis of human versus both frog and lizard functional categories showed that genes involved in the metabolic processes underwent the highest GC3 increment. Analyzing the KOG functional classes of genes, again a well defined intra-genomic pattern was found in all mammals. Not only genes of metabolic pathways, but also genes involved in chromatin structure and dynamics, transcription, signal transduction mechanisms and cytoskeleton, showed an average GC3 level higher than that of the whole genome. In the case of the human genome, the genes of the aforementioned functional categories showed a high probability to be associated with the chromosomal bands. Conclusions In the light of different
Collective learning modeling based on the kinetic theory of active particles.
Burini, D; De Lillo, S; Gibelli, L
2016-03-01
This paper proposes a systems approach to the theory of perception and learning in populations composed of many living entities. Starting from a phenomenological description of these processes, a mathematical structure is derived which is deemed to incorporate their complexity features. The modeling is based on a generalization of kinetic theory methods where interactions are described by theoretical tools of game theory. As an application, the proposed approach is used to model the learning processes that take place in a classroom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Metabolic Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Experience from Asia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Jei Lee
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a current global health priority and Asia is the epicenter of this epidemic disease. Unlike in the west, where older population is most affected, the burden of diabetes in Asian countries is disproportionately high in young to middle-age adults. The incidence of diabetic nephropathy is alarmingly high in patients with early onset T2DM, especially in those with poor glycemic control. How to control this chronic and debilitating disease is currently a very important health issue in Asia. Bariatric surgery has proven successful in treating not just obesity but also T2DM in morbid obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >35 kg/m2. Gastrointestinal metabolic surgery recently has been proposed as a new treatment modality for obesity related T2DM for patients with BMI <35 kg/m2. Many studies from Asia reported promising results of metabolic surgery to treat obese patients with T2DM which is not well controlled. It has been demonstrated that changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion after gastrointestinal surgery would favor an early improvement of T2DM in Asians. New procedures have also been designed and proposed specifically for the treatment of diabetes in Asia. This article examines clinical trial data and accepted algorithms with a view toward elucidating the application of metabolic surgery for the treatment of T2DM in the Asia. We propose a systematic approach to surgical treatment, addressing current evidences, patient selection, procedure of choice, and timing and guideline for new procedures.
Metabolic acclimation to excess light intensity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Davis, Maria C; Fiehn, Oliver; Durnford, Dion G
2013-07-01
There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear metabolic response to HL intensity was observed on global metabolite pools, with major changes in the levels of amino acids and related nitrogen metabolites. Amino acid pools increased during short-term photoacclimation, but were especially prominent in HL-acclimated cultures. Unexpectedly, we observed an increase in mitochondrial metabolism through downstream photorespiratory pathways. The expression of two genes encoding key enzymes in the photorespiratory pathway, glycolate dehydrogenase and malate synthase, were highly responsive to the HL stress. We propose that this pathway contributes to metabolite pools involved in nitrogen assimilation and may play a direct role in photoacclimation. Our results suggest that primary and secondary metabolism is highly pliable and plays a critical role in coping with the energetic imbalance during HL exposure and a necessary adjustment to support an increased growth rate that is an effective energy sink for the excess reducing power generated during HL stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
GH and IGF1: roles in energy metabolism of long-living GH mutant mice.
Brown-Borg, Holly M; Bartke, Andrzej
2012-06-01
Of the multiple theories to explain exceptional longevity, the most robust of these has centered on the reduction of three anabolic protein hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor, and insulin. GH mutant mice live 50% longer and exhibit significant differences in several aspects of energy metabolism as compared with wild-type mice. Mitochondrial metabolism is upregulated in the absence of GH, whereas in GH transgenic mice and dwarf mice treated with GH, multiple aspects of these pathways are suppressed. Core body temperature is markedly lower in dwarf mice, yet whole-body metabolism, as measured by indirect calorimetry, is surprisingly higher in Ames dwarf and Ghr-/- mice compared with normal controls. Elevated adiponectin, a key antiinflammatory cytokine, is also very likely to contribute to longevity in these mice. Thus, several important components related to energy metabolism are altered in GH mutant mice, and these differences are likely critical in aging processes and life-span extension.
A density functional theory-based chemical potential equalisation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A chemical potential equalisation scheme is proposed for the calculation of these quantities and hence the dipole polarizability within the framework of density functional theory based linear response theory. The resulting polarizability is expressed in terms of the contributions from individual atoms in the molecule. A few ...
Another scheme for quantization of scale invariant gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hortacsu, M.
1987-10-01
A new scheme is proposed for the quantization of scale invariant gauge theories for all even dimensions when they are minimally coupled to a spinor field. A cut-off procedure suggests an algorithm which may regularize the theory. (author). 10 refs
Population thinking and natural selection in dual-inheritance theory
Houkes, W.N.
2012-01-01
A deflationary perspective on theories of cultural evolution, in particular dual-inheritance theory, has recently been proposed by Lewens. On this ‘pop-culture’ analysis, dual-inheritance theorists apply population thinking to cultural phenomena, without claiming that cultural items evolve by
Klamt, Steffen; Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Zanghellini, Jürgen
2018-02-07
The optimization of metabolic rates (as linear objective functions) represents the methodical core of flux-balance analysis techniques which have become a standard tool for the study of genome-scale metabolic models. Besides (growth and synthesis) rates, metabolic yields are key parameters for the characterization of biochemical transformation processes, especially in the context of biotechnological applications. However, yields are ratios of rates, and hence the optimization of yields (as nonlinear objective functions) under arbitrary linear constraints is not possible with current flux-balance analysis techniques. Despite the fundamental importance of yields in constraint-based modeling, a comprehensive mathematical framework for yield optimization is still missing. We present a mathematical theory that allows one to systematically compute and analyze yield-optimal solutions of metabolic models under arbitrary linear constraints. In particular, we formulate yield optimization as a linear-fractional program. For practical computations, we transform the linear-fractional yield optimization problem to a (higher-dimensional) linear problem. Its solutions determine the solutions of the original problem and can be used to predict yield-optimal flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models. For the theoretical analysis, we consider the linear-fractional problem directly. Most importantly, we show that the yield-optimal solution set (like the rate-optimal solution set) is determined by (yield-optimal) elementary flux vectors of the underlying metabolic model. However, yield- and rate-optimal solutions may differ from each other, and hence optimal (biomass or product) yields are not necessarily obtained at solutions with optimal (growth or synthesis) rates. Moreover, we discuss phase planes/production envelopes and yield spaces, in particular, we prove that yield spaces are convex and provide algorithms for their computation. We illustrate our findings by a small
Towards a General Theory of Immunity?
Eberl, Gérard; Pradeu, Thomas
2018-04-01
Theories are indispensable to organize immunological data into coherent, explanatory, and predictive frameworks. We propose to combine different models to develop a unifying theory of immunity which situates immunology in the wider context of physiology. We believe that the immune system will be increasingly understood as a central component of a network of partner physiological systems that interconnect to maintain homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hideo Nitta
2010-08-01
Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.
Films from the Couch: Film Theory and Psychoanalysis
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Pedro Sangro Colón
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Different disciplines have contributed to weaving a theory of psychoanalysis in the cinema: ranging from the loans from anthropology and experimental psychology, to proposals belonging to the specific sphere of film theory, such as Filmology, Text Analysis or Feminist Theory in films. In all cases, the aim is to establish a relationship between the significance structure that governs the cinema and psychology, so as to confirm that the cinema’s system of representation is modelled on our unconscious psychological apparatus, as was explained by the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, among others. The arrival of psychoanalysis in film thought forges the idea that considers the cinema as an auxiliary psychological device capable of making us subjects and submerging us in the emotions in play in the conflicts proposed by any audiovisual story.
A unifying framework for ghost-free Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories
Li, Wenliang
2018-04-01
We propose a framework for Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian field theories where Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts could be absent. A key ingredient is the generalized Kronecker delta. The general Lagrangians are reformulated in the language of differential forms. The absence of higher order equations of motion for the scalar modes stems from the basic fact that every exact form is closed. The well-established Lagrangian theories for spin-0, spin-1, p-form, spin-2 fields have natural formulations in this framework. We also propose novel building blocks for Lagrangian field theories. Some of them are novel nonlinear derivative terms for spin-2 fields. It is nontrivial that Ostrogradsky's scalar ghosts are absent in these fully nonlinear theories.
Portfolio selection between rational and behavioral theories emergent markets case
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Bouri Abdelfatteh
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of Portfolio Choice under the investors, professionals and academics’ perception. We introduce an approach based on cognitive mapping technique with a series of semi-directive interviews. Among a sample of 30 Tunisian individuals, we propose tow different frameworks: a mean-variance framework and a behavioral framework. Each framework is oriented to capture the effect of some concepts as proposed by the mean-variance portfolio theory and the behavioral portfolio theory on the portfolio choice decision. The originality of this research paper is guaranteed since it traits the behavioral portfolio choice in emergent markets. In the best of our knowledge this is the first study in the Tunisian context that explores such area of research. Ours results show that the Tunisian investors behave as it prescribed by the behavioral portfolio theory. They use some concepts proposed by the rational mean-variance theory of portfolio choice but they are affected by their emotions and some others cognitive bias when constructing and managing they portfolio of assets.
Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nekvasil, N.P.; Olson, K.R.
1986-01-01
Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases
Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore
2010-01-01
Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in
From topological quantum field theories to supersymmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bossard, G.
2007-10-01
This thesis contains 2 parts based on scientific contributions that have led to 2 series of publications. The first one concerns the introduction of vector symmetry in cohomological theories, through a generalization of the so-called Baulieu-Singer equation. Together with the topological BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin) operator, this symmetry gives an off-shell closed sub-sector of supersymmetry that permits to determine the action uniquely. The second part proposes a methodology for re-normalizing supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory without assuming a regularization scheme which is both supersymmetry and gauge invariance preserving. The renormalization prescription is derived thanks to the definition of 2 consistent Slavnov-Taylor operators for supersymmetry and gauge invariance, whose construction requires the introduction of the so-called shadow fields. We demonstrate the renormalizability of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. We give a fully consistent, regularization scheme independent, proof of the vanishing of the β function and of the anomalous dimensions of the one half BPS operators in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. After a short introduction, in chapter two, we give a review of the cohomological Yang-Mills theory in eight dimensions. We then study its dimensional reductions in seven and six dimensions. The last chapter gives quite independent results, about a geometrical interpretation of the shadow fields, an unpublished work about topological gravity in four dimensions, an extension of the shadow formalism to superconformal invariance, and finally the solution of the constraints in a twisted superspace. (author)
Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.
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Mkael Symmonds
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans.We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively.We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that this sensitivity in human risk-preference to current metabolic state has
Venkatapuram's Capability theory of Health: A Critical Discussion.
Tengland, Per-Anders
2016-01-01
The discussion about theories of health has recently had an important new input through the work of Sridhar Venkatapuram. He proposes a combination of Lennart Nordenfelt's holistic theory of health and Martha Nussbaum's version of the capability approach. The aim of the present article is to discuss and evaluate this proposal. The article starts with a discussion of Nordenfelt's theory and evaluates Venkatapuram' critique of it, that is, of its relativism, both regarding goals and environment, and of the subjectivist theory of happiness used. Then the article explains why Nordenfelt's idea of a reasonable environment is not a problem for the theory, and it critiques Venkatapuram's own incorporation of the environment into the concept of health, suggesting that this makes the concept too wide. It contends, moreover, that Venkatapuram's alternative theory retains a problem inherent in Nordenfelt's theory, namely, that health is conceived of as a second-order ability. It is argued that health should, instead, be defined as first-order abilities. This means that health cannot be seen as a capability, and also that health cannot be seen as a meta-capability of the kind envisioned by Venkatapuram. It is, furthermore, argued that the theory lacks one crucial aspect of health, namely, subjective wellbeing. Finally, the article tries to illustrate how health, in the suggested alternative sense, as first-order abilities, fits into Nussbaum's capability theory, since health as an 'actuality' is part of all the 'combined capabilities' suggested by Nussbaum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The coherence problem with th Unified Neutral Theory of biodiversity
James S. Clark
2012-01-01
The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity (UNTB), proposed as an alternative to niche theory, has been viewed as a theory that species coexist without niche differences, without fitness differences, or with equal probability of success. Support is claimed when models lacking species differences predict highly aggregated metrics, such as species abundance distributions...
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Naseh Esmaeili
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Background : A number of studies have shown a clear relationship between diet and component of metabolic syndrome. Based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA, attitude and subjective norm are factors affecting behavioral intention and subsequently behavior. The aim of the present study is to design a valid questionnaire identifying factors affecting nutritional behavior among patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Via literature review, six focus group discussion and interview with nutrition specialists were performed to develop an instrument based on the theory of reasoned action. To determine validity of the instrument, content and face validity analyses with 15 expert panels conducted and also to determine reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient performed. Results: A draft of 100 items questionnaire was developed and after evaluation of validity and reliability, final questionnaire included 46 items: 17 items for attitude, 13 items for subjective norms and 16 items for behavioral intention. For the final questionnaire average of content validity index was 0/92 and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was 0/85. Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study the developed questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument and it can be used to identify factors affecting nutritional behavior among people with metabolic syndrome based on the theory of reasoned action.
A generalized Yang-Mills Theory I: general aspects of the classical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, C.A.P.
1987-01-01
A generalized Yang-Mills theory which is the non-Abelian version of the generalized eletrodinamics proposed by Podolsky is analysed both in the Lagrangian an Hamiltonian formulation. A simple class of solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations is presented and the structure of the Hamiltonian constraints is studied in details. (Author) [pt
Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.
2007-11-01
Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.
Linear and Nonlinear Theories of Cosmic Ray Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalchi, A.
2005-01-01
The transport of charged cosmic rays in plasmawave turbulence is a modern and interesting field of research. We are mainly interested in spatial diffusion parallel and perpendicular to a large scale magnetic field. During the last decades quasilinear theory was the standard tool for the calculation of diffusion coefficients. Through comparison with numerical simulations we found several cases where quasilinear theory is invalid. On could define three major problems of transport theory. I will demonstrate that new nonlinear theories which were proposed recently can solve at least some to these problems
Proposal for a source of polarized protons; Projet de source de protons polarises
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abragam, A.; Winter, J. M. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, BP2, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1959-07-01
Proposal for a source of polarized protons based on the theory of adiabatic fast passage due to F. Bloch. Reprint of a paper published in 'Physical review letters', vol 1, n. 10, 15 Nov 1958, p. 374-375 [French] On propose une methode nouvelle pour la realisation d'une source de protons polarises basee sur la theorie du passage adiabatique de F. Bloch. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'Physical review letters', vol 1, n. 10, 15 nov 1958, p. 374-375.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rishabh Kapila
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characte-rized by dysregulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Diabetes could result, in part, in activation of tryptophan metabolism. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to gingivitis and periodontitis than healthy subjects. The salivary kynurenine derivatives are also implicated in the onset and development of periodontal dis-ease in humans.The hypothesis: We propose that the tryptophan metabolites via kynurenine pathway may lead to diabetes and an increased severity of periodontal disease in diabetic patients, thus linking both diabetes and periodontal disease.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Tryptophan has been found in significant amount in saliva in diabetic individuals in some studies, particularly tryptophan metabolites like kynurenine and anthranilic acid. Moreover, altered tryptophan metabolism has also been reported in the onset of periodontal disease. Thus, this correlation between diabetes mellitus, periodontal disease and salivary tryptophan metabolite levels could be related to the impaired kynurenine pathway metabolism of tryptophan.
Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda
2014-01-01
Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268
Beyond the Physical Realm: A proposed theory regarding a consumer’s place experience
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Mark Rosenbaum, Ph.D.
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Marketers view place as a marketing mix tool that denotes activitiesassociated with the distribution of products and services. Thus, thediscipline believes that places are alienated from consumers’ livesand experiences. This article looks at the place concept anew andoffers an original theory of consumers’ experience in place.
Invariant functionals in higher-spin theory
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M.A. Vasiliev
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A new construction for gauge invariant functionals in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed. Being supported by differential forms closed by virtue of the higher-spin equations, invariant functionals are associated with central elements of the higher-spin algebra. In the on-shell AdS4 higher-spin theory we identify a four-form conjectured to represent the generating functional for 3d boundary correlators and a two-form argued to support charges for black hole solutions. Two actions for 3d boundary conformal higher-spin theory are associated with the two parity-invariant higher-spin models in AdS4. The peculiarity of the spinorial formulation of the on-shell AdS3 higher-spin theory, where the invariant functional is supported by a two-form, is conjectured to be related to the holomorphic factorization at the boundary. The nonlinear part of the star-product function F⁎(B(x in the higher-spin equations is argued to lead to divergencies in the boundary limit representing singularities at coinciding boundary space–time points of the factors of B(x, which can be regularized by the point splitting. An interpretation of the RG flow in terms of proposed construction is briefly discussed.
A generalized DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient for an indirect relation matrix
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Liu Hsiang-Chuan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL theory with a shrinkage coefficient of indirect relation matrix is proposed, and a useful validity index, called Liu’s validity index, is also proposed for evaluating the performance of any DEMATEL model. If the shrinkage coefficient of an indirect relation matrix is equal to 1, then this new theory is identical to the traditional theory; in other words, it is a generalization of the traditional theory. Furthermore, the indirect relation is always considerably greater than the direct one in traditional DEMATEL theory, which is unreasonable and unfair because it overemphasizes the influence of the indirect relation. We prove in this paper that if the shrinkage coefficient is equal to 0.5, then the indirect relation is less than its direct relation. Because the shrinkage coefficient belongs to [0.5, 1], according to Liu’s validity index, we can find a more appropriate shrinkage coefficient to obtain a more efficient DEMATEL method. Some crucial properties of this new theory are discussed, and a simple example is provided to illustrate the advantages of the proposed theory.
Engskog, Mikael K R; Ersson, Lisa; Haglöf, Jakob; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt; Brittebo, Eva
2017-05-01
β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that induces long-term cognitive deficits, as well as an increased neurodegeneration and intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rodents following short-time neonatal exposure and in vervet monkey brain following long-term exposure. It has also been proposed to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease in humans. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic effects not related to excitotoxicity or oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of BMAA (50, 250, 1000 µM) for 24 h on cells differentiated with retinoic acid were studied. Samples were analyzed using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy to detect altered intracellular polar metabolites. The analysis performed, followed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, revealed significant perturbations in protein biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism pathways and citrate cycle. Of specific interest were the BMAA-induced alterations in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and as well as alterations in various neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as GABA and taurine. The results indicate that BMAA can interfere with metabolic pathways involved in neurotransmission in human neuroblastoma cells.
Nursing intellectual capital theory: testing selected propositions.
Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya
2013-11-01
To test the selected propositions of the middle-range theory of nursing intellectual capital. The nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes nursing knowledge's influence on patient and organizational outcomes. The theory proposes nursing human capital, nurses' knowledge, skills and experience, is related to the quality of patient care and nurse recruitment and retention of an inpatient care unit. Two factors in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nurse continuing professional development, are proposed to influence nursing human capital's association with patient and organizational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design. The study took place in 2008 in six Canadian acute care hospitals. Financial, human resource and risk data were collected from hospital departments and unit managers. Clearly specified empirical indicators quantified the study variables. The propositions of the theory were tested with data from 91 inpatient care units using structural equation modelling. The propositions associated with the nursing human capital concept were supported. The propositions associated with the employer support for nurse continuing professional development concept were not. The proposition that nurse staffing's influences on patient outcomes was mediated by the nursing human capital of an inpatient unit, was partially supported. Some of the theory's propositions were empirically validated. Additional theoretical work is needed to refine the operationalization and measurement of some of the theory's concepts. Further research with larger samples of data from different geographical settings and types of hospitals is required to determine if the theory can withstand empirical scrutiny. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Claudia Marcelloni
2008-01-01
Signature of the CERN GoldenBook at CERN by Peters Higgs British theoretical physicist - He worked on proposals to unify the weak and the electromagnetic forces into a single electroweak theory, The Boson of Higgs.
Meso-structures of dynamical chaos and E-infinity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedov, A.M.
2009-01-01
A novel proposal is made to develop a unified theory of dynamical chaos using an idea of extra-coordinates. It is supposed that chaos is capable to translate influences from quantum level of description to the classical macroscopic one and vise versa. The notion of macroscopically prepared microstates is proposed to determine a special case of extra-coordinates induced by cooperative effects at quantum resolution of dynamical events. Meso-structures mediating quantum and classical appearances of chaotic motion are studied in the light of E-infinity theory.
Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A.
2005-01-01
In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of 14 C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic 14 C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tyson L Swetnam
Full Text Available A significant concern about Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST in real forests relates to consistent differences between the values of power law scaling exponents of tree primary size measures used to estimate mass and those predicted by MST. Here we consider why observed scaling exponents for diameter and height relationships deviate from MST predictions across three semi-arid conifer forests in relation to: (1 tree condition and physical form, (2 the level of inter-tree competition (e.g. open vs closed stand structure, (3 increasing tree age, and (4 differences in site productivity. Scaling exponent values derived from non-linear least-squares regression for trees in excellent condition (n = 381 were above the MST prediction at the 95% confidence level, while the exponent for trees in good condition were no different than MST (n = 926. Trees that were in fair or poor condition, characterized as diseased, leaning, or sparsely crowned had exponent values below MST predictions (n = 2,058, as did recently dead standing trees (n = 375. Exponent value of the mean-tree model that disregarded tree condition (n = 3,740 was consistent with other studies that reject MST scaling. Ostensibly, as stand density and competition increase trees exhibited greater morphological plasticity whereby the majority had characteristically fair or poor growth forms. Fitting by least-squares regression biases the mean-tree model scaling exponent toward values that are below MST idealized predictions. For 368 trees from Arizona with known establishment dates, increasing age had no significant impact on expected scaling. We further suggest height to diameter ratios below MST relate to vertical truncation caused by limitation in plant water availability. Even with environmentally imposed height limitation, proportionality between height and diameter scaling exponents were consistent with the predictions of MST.
Swetnam, Tyson L; O'Connor, Christopher D; Lynch, Ann M
2016-01-01
A significant concern about Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) in real forests relates to consistent differences between the values of power law scaling exponents of tree primary size measures used to estimate mass and those predicted by MST. Here we consider why observed scaling exponents for diameter and height relationships deviate from MST predictions across three semi-arid conifer forests in relation to: (1) tree condition and physical form, (2) the level of inter-tree competition (e.g. open vs closed stand structure), (3) increasing tree age, and (4) differences in site productivity. Scaling exponent values derived from non-linear least-squares regression for trees in excellent condition (n = 381) were above the MST prediction at the 95% confidence level, while the exponent for trees in good condition were no different than MST (n = 926). Trees that were in fair or poor condition, characterized as diseased, leaning, or sparsely crowned had exponent values below MST predictions (n = 2,058), as did recently dead standing trees (n = 375). Exponent value of the mean-tree model that disregarded tree condition (n = 3,740) was consistent with other studies that reject MST scaling. Ostensibly, as stand density and competition increase trees exhibited greater morphological plasticity whereby the majority had characteristically fair or poor growth forms. Fitting by least-squares regression biases the mean-tree model scaling exponent toward values that are below MST idealized predictions. For 368 trees from Arizona with known establishment dates, increasing age had no significant impact on expected scaling. We further suggest height to diameter ratios below MST relate to vertical truncation caused by limitation in plant water availability. Even with environmentally imposed height limitation, proportionality between height and diameter scaling exponents were consistent with the predictions of MST.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nobile, G.
1993-07-01
With reference to highly debated sustainable growth strategies to counter pressing interrelated global environmental and socio-economic problems, this paper reviews economic and resource development theories proposed by classical and neoclassical economists. The review evidences the growing debate among public administration decision makers regarding appropriate methods to assess the worth of natural resources and ecosystems. Proposed methods tend to be biased either towards environmental protection or economic development. Two major difficulties in the effective implementation of sustainable growth strategies are also evidenced - the management of such strategies would require appropriate revisions to national accounting systems, and the dynamic flow of energy and materials between an economic system and the environment would generate a sequence of unstable structures evolving in a chaotic and unpredictable way
Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks.
Samal, Areejit; Wagner, Andreas; Martin, Olivier C
2011-08-24
environments. This organizational principle is insensitive to the environments we consider and to the number of reactions in a metabolic network. Because we observe this principle not just in one or few biological networks, but in large random samples of networks, we propose that it may be a generic principle of metabolic network organization.
Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagner Andreas
2011-08-01
constraints, e.g., the need to sustain life in multiple environments. This organizational principle is insensitive to the environments we consider and to the number of reactions in a metabolic network. Because we observe this principle not just in one or few biological networks, but in large random samples of networks, we propose that it may be a generic principle of metabolic network organization.
Fundamental problems of gauge field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velo, G.; Wightman, A.S.
1986-01-01
As a result of the experimental and theoretical developments of the last two decades, gauge field theory, in one form or another, now provides the standard language for the description of Nature; QCD and the standard model of the electroweak interactions illustrate this point. It is a basic task of mathematical physics to provide a solid foundation for these developments by putting the theory in a physically transparent and mathematically rigorous form. The lecture notes collected in this volume concentrate on the many unsolved problems which arise here, and on the general ideas and methods which have been proposed for their solution. In particular, the use of rigorous renormalization group methods to obtain control over the continuum limit of lattice gauge field theories, the exploration of the extraordinary enigmatic connections between Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebras and string theory, and the systematic use of the theory of local algebras and indefinite metric spaces to classify the charged C* states in gauge field theories are mentioned
Electric magnetic duality in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.
1992-07-01
The electric-magnetic duality transformation in four dimensional heterotic string theory discussed by Shapere, Trivedi and Wilczek is shown to be an exact symmetry of the equations of motion of low energy effective field theory even after including the scalar and the vector fields, arising due to compactification, in the effective field theory. Using this duality transformation we construct rotating black hole solutions in the effective field theory carrying both electric and magnetic charges. The spectrum of extremal magnetically charged black holes turn out to be similar to that of electrically charged elementary string excitations lying on the leading Regge trajectory. We also discuss the possibility that the duality symmetry is an exact symmetry of the full string theory under which electrically charged elementary string excitations get exchanged with magnetically charged soliton like solutions. This proposal might be made concrete following the suggestion of Dabholkar et. al. that fundamental strings may be regarded as soliton like classical solutions in the effective field theory. (author). 20 refs
O'Grady, John; Schwender, Jörg; Shachar-Hill, Yair; Morgan, John A
2012-03-01
For the past decade, flux maps have provided researchers with an in-depth perspective on plant metabolism. As a rapidly developing field, significant headway has been made recently in computation, experimentation, and overall understanding of metabolic flux analysis. These advances are particularly applicable to the study of plant metabolism. New dynamic computational methods such as non-stationary metabolic flux analysis are finding their place in the toolbox of metabolic engineering, allowing more organisms to be studied and decreasing the time necessary for experimentation, thereby opening new avenues by which to explore the vast diversity of plant metabolism. Also, improved methods of metabolite detection and measurement have been developed, enabling increasingly greater resolution of flux measurements and the analysis of a greater number of the multitude of plant metabolic pathways. Methods to deconvolute organelle-specific metabolism are employed with increasing effectiveness, elucidating the compartmental specificity inherent in plant metabolism. Advances in metabolite measurements have also enabled new types of experiments, such as the calculation of metabolic fluxes based on (13)CO(2) dynamic labelling data, and will continue to direct plant metabolic engineering. Newly calculated metabolic flux maps reveal surprising and useful information about plant metabolism, guiding future genetic engineering of crops to higher yields. Due to the significant level of complexity in plants, these methods in combination with other systems biology measurements are necessary to guide plant metabolic engineering in the future.
An Aspirational Community Theory of the Firm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Xin
propose an aspirational community theory of the firm (ACT) as a candidate theory by conceptualizing the firm as an aspirational community, the core of which is a group of like-minded people sharing similar or same aspiration/vision. To explain the existence of the firm, we make a distinction between......All of the three major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, knowledge-based theory and the entrepreneurship theory, offer some insightful analyses of the nature of the firm. However, they all have limitations and weaknesses in answering the fundamental question of the existence...... of the firm. In addition, they are all partial due to their particular focus on the multifaceted phenomenon of the firm. We argue that it is necessary and sufficient to develop a comprehensive yet integrative theory of the firm that combines the three competing yet complementary logics. Toward this end, we...
Gauged supergravities from M-theory reductions
Katmadas, Stefanos; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2018-04-01
In supergravity compactifications, there is in general no clear prescription on how to select a finite-dimensional family of metrics on the internal space, and a family of forms on which to expand the various potentials, such that the lower-dimensional effective theory is supersymmetric. We propose a finite-dimensional family of deformations for regular Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds M 7, relevant for M-theory compactifications down to four dimensions. It consists of integrable Cauchy-Riemann structures, corresponding to complex deformations of the Calabi-Yau cone M 8 over M 7. The non-harmonic forms we propose are the ones contained in one of the Kohn-Rossi cohomology groups, which is finite-dimensional and naturally controls the deformations of Cauchy-Riemann structures. The same family of deformations can be also described in terms of twisted cohomology of the base M 6, or in terms of Milnor cycles arising in deformations of M 8. Using existing results on SU(3) structure compactifications, we briefly discuss the reduction of M-theory on our class of deformed Sasaki-Einstein manifolds to four-dimensional gauged supergravity.
Gaia Theory in Brazilian High School Biology Textbooks
Do Carmo, Ricardo Santos; Nunes-Neto, Nei Freitas; El-Hani, Charbel Nino
2009-01-01
Gaia theory proposes that a cybernetic system including the biota and the physicochemical environment regulates environmental variables at a global scale, keeping them within a range that makes Earth inhabitable by living beings. One can argue that this theory can play an important role in school science, since it bears upon current environmental…
Concept analysis and the building blocks of theory: misconceptions regarding theory development.
Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M
2016-10-01
The purpose of this article is to discuss the attempts to justify concepts analysis as a way to construct theory - a notion often advocated in nursing. The notion that concepts are the building blocks or threads from which theory is constructed is often repeated. It can be found in many articles and well-known textbooks. However, this notion is seldom explained or defended. The notion of concepts as building blocks has also been questioned by several authors. However, most of these authors seem to agree to some degree that concepts are essential components from which theory is built. Discussion paper. Literature was reviewed to synthesize and debate current knowledge. Our point is that theory is not built by concepts analysis or clarification and we will show that this notion has its basis in some serious misunderstandings. We argue that concept analysis is not a part of sound scientific method and should be abandoned. The current methods of concept analysis in nursing have no foundation in philosophy of science or in language philosophy. The type of concept analysis performed in nursing is not a way to 'construct' theory. Rather, theories are formed by creative endeavour to propose a solution to a scientific and/or practical problem. The bottom line is that the current style and form of concept analysis in nursing should be abandoned in favour of methods in line with modern theory of science. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Utility function under decision theory: A construction arbitration application
Alozn, Ahmad E.; Galadari, Abdulla
2017-08-01
While a wide range of dispute resolution mechanisms exist, practitioners favor legally binding ones such as litigation and arbitration. Since initiating a litigation or arbitration case against a business partner may dissolve the business relationship between them, predicting the arbitrator's decision becomes valuable to the arbitrating parties. This paper proposes a construction-specific utility framework for the arbitrating party through decision theory, and based on expected utility theory. The proposed framework preserves the industry practicality and most importantly, considers direct short-term factors and indirect long-term factors as well. It is suggested that the arbitrating parties' utility functions could be then used to identify equilibrium points among them when interact via game theory principles, which would serve the purpose of predicting the arbitration outcome.
Demystifying theory and its use in improvement
Davidoff, Frank; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Leviton, Laura; Michie, Susan
2015-01-01
The role and value of theory in improvement work in healthcare has been seriously underrecognised. We join others in proposing that more informed use of theory can strengthen improvement programmes and facilitate the evaluation of their effectiveness. Many professionals, including improvement practitioners, are unfortunately mystified—and alienated—by theory, which discourages them from using it in their work. In an effort to demystify theory we make the point in this paper that, far from being discretionary or superfluous, theory (‘reason-giving’), both informal and formal, is intimately woven into virtually all human endeavour. We explore the special characteristics of grand, mid-range and programme theory; consider the consequences of misusing theory or failing to use it; review the process of developing and applying programme theory; examine some emerging criteria of ‘good’ theory; and emphasise the value, as well as the challenge, of combining informal experience-based theory with formal, publicly developed theory. We conclude that although informal theory is always at work in improvement, practitioners are often not aware of it or do not make it explicit. The germane issue for improvement practitioners, therefore, is not whether they use theory but whether they make explicit the particular theory or theories, informal and formal, they actually use. PMID:25616279
Efficiency of rate and latency coding with respect to metabolic cost and time
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Leváková, Marie
2017-01-01
Roč. 161, Nov 2017 (2017), s. 31-40 ISSN 0303-2647 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * temporal coding * metabolic cost * Fisher information Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016
GCPSO in cooperation with graph theory to distribution network reconfiguration for energy saving
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assadian, Mehdi; Farsangi, Malihe M.; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein
2010-01-01
Network reconfiguration for loss reduction in distribution system is an important way to save energy. This paper investigates the ability of guaranteed convergence particle swarm optimization (GCPSO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) in cooperation with graph theory for network reconfiguration to reduce the power loss and enhancement of voltage profile of distribution systems. Numerical results of three distribution systems are presented which illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method by GCPSO and PSO using the graph theory. To validate the obtained results, genetic algorithm (GA) using graph theory is also applied and is compared with the proposed GCPSO and PSO using graph theory.
Leishmania carbon metabolism in the macrophage phagolysosome- feast or famine?
McConville, Malcolm J; Saunders, Eleanor C; Kloehn, Joachim; Dagley, Michael J
2015-01-01
A number of medically important microbial pathogens target and proliferate within macrophages and other phagocytic cells in their mammalian hosts. While the majority of these pathogens replicate within the host cell cytosol or non-hydrolytic vacuolar compartments, a few, including protists belonging to the genus Leishmania, proliferate long-term within mature lysosome compartments. How these parasites achieve this feat remains poorly defined. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest that Leishmania virulence is intimately linked to programmed changes in the growth rate and carbon metabolism of the obligate intra-macrophage stages. We propose that activation of a slow growth and a stringent metabolic response confers resistance to multiple stresses (oxidative, temperature, pH), as well as both nutrient limitation and nutrient excess within this niche. These studies highlight the importance of metabolic processes as key virulence determinants in Leishmania.
Resource theory for work and heat
Sparaciari, Carlo; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Fritz, Tobias
2017-11-01
Several recent results on thermodynamics have been obtained using the tools of quantum information theory and resource theories. So far, the resource theories utilized to describe thermodynamics have assumed the existence of an infinite thermal reservoir, by declaring that thermal states at some background temperature come for free. Here, we propose a resource theory of quantum thermodynamics without a background temperature, so that no states at all come for free. We apply this resource theory to the case of many noninteracting systems and show that all quantum states are classified by their entropy and average energy, even arbitrarily far away from equilibrium. This implies that thermodynamics takes place in a two-dimensional convex set that we call the energy-entropy diagram. The answers to many resource-theoretic questions about thermodynamics can be read off from this diagram, such as the efficiency of a heat engine consisting of finite reservoirs, or the rate of conversion between two states. This allows us to consider a resource theory which puts work and heat on an equal footing, and serves as a model for other resource theories.
Multiple-Trace Operators and Non-Local String Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverstein, Eva M.
2001-01-01
We propose that a novel deformation of string perturbation theory, involving non-local interactions between strings, is required to describe the gravity duals of field theories deformed by multiple-trace operators. The new perturbative expansion involves a new parameter, which is neither the string coupling nor the coefficient of a vertex operator on the worldsheet. We explore some of the properties of this deformation, focusing on a special case where the deformation in the field theory is exactly marginal
Noncritical String Liouville Theory and Geometric Bootstrap Hypothesis
Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew
The applications of the existing Liouville theories for the description of the longitudinal dynamics of noncritical Nambu-Goto string are analyzed. We show that the recently developed DOZZ solution to the Liouville theory leads to the cut singularities in tree string amplitudes. We propose a new version of the Polyakov geometric approach to Liouville theory and formulate its basic consistency condition — the geometric bootstrap equation. Also in this approach the tree amplitudes develop cut singularities.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F
2015-01-01
hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring...... of nonagenarians with at least one nonagenarian sibling have increased TSH secretion but similar bioactivity of TSH and similar TH levels compared to controls. Healthy offspring and spousal controls had similar resting metabolic rate and core body temperature. We propose that pleiotropic effects of the HPT axis...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....
Baslow, Morris H
2010-11-01
N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an acetylated derivative of L-aspartate (Asp), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a derivative of NAA and L-glutamate (Glu), are synthesized by neurons in brain. However, neurons cannot catabolize either of these substances, and so their metabolism requires the participation of two other cell types. Neurons release both NAA and NAAG to extra-cellular fluid (ECF) upon stimulation, where astrocytes, the target cells for NAAG, hydrolyze it releasing NAA back into ECF, and oligodendrocytes, the target cells for NAA, hydrolyze it releasing Asp to ECF for recycling to neurons. This sequence is unique as it is the only known amino acid metabolic cycle in brain that requires three cell types for its completion. The results of this cycling are two-fold. First, neuronal metabolic water is transported to ECF for its removal from brain. Second, the rate of neuronal activity is coupled with focal hyperemia, providing stimulated neurons with the energy required for transmission of meaningful frequency-encoded messages. In this paper, it is proposed that the tri-cellular metabolism of NAA functions as the "operating system" of the brain, and is essential for normal cognitive and motor activities. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is provided by the outcomes of two human inborn errors in NAA metabolism.
Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERIC/AE Digest.
Gawel, Joseph E.
Among the behavioral theories embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees, and Maslow developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of human needs and how people pursue those needs. This digest briefly outlines both theories and then…
The S-matrix of superstring field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, Sebastian
2015-01-01
We show that the classical S-matrix calculated from the recently proposed superstring field theories give the correct perturbative S-matrix. In the proof we exploit the fact that the vertices are obtained by a field redefinition in the large Hilbert space. The result extends to include the NS-NS subsector of type II superstring field theory and the recently found equations of motions for the Ramond fields. In addition, our proof implies that the S-matrix obtained from Berkovits’ WZW-like string field theory then agrees with the perturbative S-matrix to all orders.
Nonlattice Simulation for Supersymmetric Gauge Theories in One Dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanada, Masanori; Nishimura, Jun; Takeuchi, Shingo
2007-01-01
Lattice simulation of supersymmetric gauge theories is not straightforward. In some cases the lack of manifest supersymmetry just necessitates cumbersome fine-tuning, but in the worse cases the chiral and/or Majorana nature of fermions makes it difficult to even formulate an appropriate lattice theory. We propose circumventing all these problems inherent in the lattice approach by adopting a nonlattice approach for one-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories, which are important in the string or M theory context. In particular, our method can be used to investigate the gauge-gravity duality from first principles, and to simulate M theory based on the matrix theory conjecture
Kac-Moody algebras and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleaver, G.B.
1993-01-01
The focus of this thesis is on (1) the role of Kac-Moody algebras in string theory and the development of techniques for systematically building string theory models based on a higher level (K ≥ 2) KM algebras and (2) fractional superstrings, a new class of solutions based on SU(2) K /U(1) conformal field theories. The content of this thesis is as follows. In chapter two they review KM algebras and their role in string theory. In the next chapter they present two results concerning the construction of modular invariant partition functions for conformal field theories build by tensoring together other conformal field theories. First they show how the possible modular invariants for the tensor product theory are constrained if the allowed modular invariants of the individuals conformal field theory factors have been classified. They illustrate the use of these constraints for theories of the type SU(2) KA direct-product SU(2) KB , finding all consistent theories for K A and K B odd. Second they show how known diagonal modular invariants can be used to construct inherently asymmetric invariants where the holomorphic and anti-holomorphic theories do not share the same chiral algebra. Explicit examples are given. Next, in chapter four they investigate some issues relating to recently proposed fractional superstring theories with D critical K/4 K/4 , as source of spacetime fermions, is demonstrated
Determining factors of women's careers in management: A typology proposal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Cachón
2018-04-01
Originality/value: This paper highlights the identification of the typologies that are necessary for the development of theories and research in the social sciences. It is important to categorize and describe factor classifications in order to understand them better, so as to be able to extrapolate a common theory for other research and to propose solutions in the business environment that allow breaking with the glass ceiling in senior management positions.
Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weihua Guo
Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing. Keywords: Cell-free, Biosynthesis, Metabolic pathways, Design-build-test cycle
Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito
2011-01-01
A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…
Metaphilosophy, Pragmatism and a Kind of Critical Theory: Kai ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
For Rorty it is historical narrative and utopian proposals; for Nielsen it is critical theory. Rorty claims this, Nielsen's intentions to the contrary notwithstanding, commits him to enlightenment rationalism. Nielsen replies that his form of critical theory is deeply historicist and contextual without being resolutely atheoretical.
Paths to dark energy theory and observation
Valtonen, Mauri; Chernin, Arthur D; Byrd, Gene
2012-01-01
This work provides the current theory and observations behind the cosmological phenomenon of dark energy. The approach is comprehensivewith rigorous mathematical theory and relevant astronomical observations discussed in context.The book treats the background and history starting with the new-found importance of Einstein's cosmological constant (proposed long ago for the opposite purpose) in dark energy formulation, as well as the frontiers of dark energy.
... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...
When do mixotrophs specialize? Adaptive dynamics theory applied to a dynamic energy budget model.
Troost, T.A.; Kooi, B.W.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.
2005-01-01
In evolutionary history, several events have occurred at which mixotrophs specialized into pure autotrophs and heterotrophs. We studied the conditions under which such events take place, using the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory for physiological rules of the organisms' metabolism and Adaptive
Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smith CJ
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Caitlin J Smith, Kelli K Ryckman Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. Keywords: epigenetics, metabolic syndrome, fetal programming, maternal, pregnancy complications
Caffeine use disorder: An item-response theory analysis of proposed DSM-5 criteria.
Ágoston, Csilla; Urbán, Róbert; Richman, Mara J; Demetrovics, Zsolt
2018-06-01
Caffeine is a common psychoactive substance with a documented addictive potential. Caffeine withdrawal has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but caffeine use disorder (CUD) is considered to be a condition for further study. The aim of the current study is (1) to test the psychometric properties of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) by using a confirmatory factor analysis and an item response theory (IRT) approach, (2) to compare IRT models with varying numbers of parameters and models with or without caffeine consumption criteria, and (3) to examine if the total daily caffeine consumption and the use of different caffeinated products can predict the magnitude of CUD symptomatology. A cross-sectional study was conducted on an adult sample (N = 2259). Participants answered several questions regarding their caffeine consumption habits and completed the CUDQ, which incorporates the nine proposed criteria of the DSM-5 as well as one additional item regarding the suffering caused by the symptoms. Factor analyses demonstrated the unidimensionality of the CUDQ. The suffering criterion had the highest discriminative value at a higher degree of latent trait. The criterion of failure to fulfill obligations and social/interpersonal problems discriminate only at the higher value of CUD latent factor, while endorsement the consumption of more caffeine or longer than intended and craving criteria were discriminative at a lower level of CUD. Total daily caffeine intake was related to a higher level of CUD. Daily coffee, energy drink, and cola intake as dummy variables were associated with the presence of more CUD symptoms, while daily tea consumption as a dummy variable was related to less CUD symptoms. Regular smoking was associated with more CUD symptoms, which was explained by a larger caffeine consumption. The IRT approach helped to determine which CUD symptoms indicate more severity and have a greater
Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.
Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R
2015-01-01
Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.
Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism
Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R
2015-01-01
Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160
A Middle-Range Theory for Diabetes Self-management Mastery.
Fearon-Lynch, Jennifer A; Stover, Caitlin M
2015-01-01
Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of death in America and affects 382 million people worldwide. Individuals with diabetes must manage the complexity of the disease, its treatment, and complications to avert deleterious consequences associated with the illness. However, not all patients with diabetes successfully gain mastery to positively impact self-management. A new middle-range theory is proposed that merges 2 extant theories, theory of mastery and organismic integration theory, to better understand this human response. The theories' philosophical, theoretical, and conceptual perspectives were examined and relational properties synthesized to provide a conceptual representation of the phenomenon of interest.
Fractional Quantum Field Theory: From Lattice to Continuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasily E. Tarasov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An approach to formulate fractional field theories on unbounded lattice space-time is suggested. A fractional-order analog of the lattice quantum field theories is considered. Lattice analogs of the fractional-order 4-dimensional differential operators are proposed. We prove that continuum limit of the suggested lattice field theory gives a fractional field theory for the continuum 4-dimensional space-time. The fractional field equations, which are derived from equations for lattice space-time with long-range properties of power-law type, contain the Riesz type derivatives on noninteger orders with respect to space-time coordinates.
Hedonic price theory: Concept and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metz, W.C.; Lowry, J.; Morey, M.
1990-01-01
Direct and indirect techniques are being used to estimate economic consequences of proximity to existing or proposed public facilities. The hedonic price theory, an indirect technique, is the most logically suited, especially for capturing the shadow or implicit price of a characteristic such as proximity in the real estate market. While the theory is increasingly being used, there is also a growing tendency to draw inferences from the study of one or more hazards and situations and transfer the conclusions to a very different hazard and situation. The use of the hedonic price theory and the issue of transferability to radioactive waste facilities are addressed in this paper. 12 refs
Newlin, David B
2002-04-01
A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed-the SPFit theory-that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/sign-tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expectations about drugs as the individual learns that abused drugs will easily and reliably inflate SPFit. The cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system and its modulating interconnections are viewed as the biological substrate of SPFit; it is proposed to be a survival and reproductive motivation system rather than a reward center or reward pathway. Finally, the concept of modularity of mind is applied to the SPFit construct. Although considerable empirical data are consistent with the theory, new research is needed to test specific hypotheses derived from SPFit theory.
An economic analysis of the European commission’s proposal for a European account
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Kyriakides
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper performs an economic analysis of the European Commission’s proposal for a European-wide preservation order. Bentham’s utilitarianism theory suggests that legislators must take into mind the pleasures and pains associated with any legislation and to form laws in order to create the greatest good for the greatest number. These ideas are reflected in the modern economic theories of welfare economics. But are these principles sufficient to create effective legal rules and achieve justice? Section 2 of this work analyzes the difficulties in obtaining a provisional measure to preserve another party’s assets in another Member State of the European Union (“EU”. Section 3 sets out the Commission’s proposal for a European Account Preservation Order (“EAPO”. Section 4 applies welfare economics principles in order to identify the effect of legal rules related to this proposal, while it proposes an alternative approach to these principles. Lastly, section 4 makes suggestions on the proposal based on this alternative approach.
Towards an integrated theory of value, capital and money
Cavalieri, Duccio
2014-01-01
This is an analysis of the present state of the theory of capital. The paper contains a proposal to reformulate this theory in an ‘late-Marxian’ up-to-dated perspective. The central problem discussed is the integration of the theories of value and capital with those of money and finance. An augmented cost-of-production theory of value is advocated. Special attention is focused on the role of Marx’s ‘monetary expression of labour value’ (MEV), rediscovered and unduly modified by neo-Marxist...
Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying
2016-01-01
Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.
The role of bile acids in metabolic regulation.
Vítek, Libor; Haluzík, Martin
2016-03-01
Bile acids (BA), long believed to only have lipid-digestive functions, have emerged as novel metabolic modulators. They have important endocrine effects through multiple cytoplasmic as well as nuclear receptors in various organs and tissues. BA affect multiple functions to control energy homeostasis, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism, predominantly by activating the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the cytoplasmic G protein-coupled BA receptor TGR5 in a variety of tissues. However, BA also are aimed at many other cellular targets in a wide array of organs and cell compartments. Their role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity and other 'diseases of civilization' becomes even more clear. They also interact with the gut microbiome, with important clinical implications, further extending the complexity of their biological functions. Therefore, it is not surprising that BA metabolism is substantially modulated by bariatric surgery, a phenomenon contributing favorably to the therapeutic effects of these surgical procedures. Based on these data, several therapeutic approaches to ameliorate obesity and diabetes have been proposed to affect the cellular targets of BA. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.
Boolean Approach to Dichotomic Quantum Measurement Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, T. [Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Batle, J. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Balearic Islands (Spain); Abdalla, S. [King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Farouk, A. [Al-Zahra College for Women, Muscat (Egypt)
2017-02-15
Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or −1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.