International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Dayong; Chen, Jing
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Targets of this research are ILs mixtures. • Densities and viscosities were measured for three ILs mixtures. • Excess molar properties were deduced from the experiments. • Viscosities were discussed by the ideal Grunberg and Nissan mixing law. - Abstract: Densities and viscosities of binary ionic liquids mixtures, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([eOHmim][BF 4 ]) + 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]), 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([eOHmim][BF 4 ]) + N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]) + N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]) were measured over the entire mole fraction from T = (298.15 to 343.15) K. The excess molar volumes were calculated and correlated by Redlich–Kiser polynomial expansions. The viscosities for pure ionic liquids were analyzed by means of the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher equation and ideal mixing rules were applied for the ILs mixtures
Use of astronomy filters in fluorescence microscopy.
Piper, Jörg
2012-02-01
Monochrome astronomy filters are well suited for use as excitation or suppression filters in fluorescence microscopy. Because of their particular optical design, such filters can be combined with standard halogen light sources for excitation in many fluorescent probes. In this "low energy excitation," photobleaching (fading) or other irritations of native specimens are avoided. Photomicrographs can be taken from living motile fluorescent specimens also with a flash so that fluorescence images can be created free from indistinctness caused by movement. Special filter cubes or dichroic mirrors are not needed for our method. By use of suitable astronomy filters, fluorescence microscopy can be carried out with standard laboratory microscopes equipped with condensers for bright-field (BF) and dark-field (DF) illumination in transmitted light. In BF excitation, the background brightness can be modulated in tiny steps up to dark or black. Moreover, standard industry microscopes fitted with a vertical illuminator for examinations of opaque probes in DF or BF illumination based on incident light (wafer inspections, for instance) can also be used for excitation in epi-illumination when adequate astronomy filters are inserted as excitatory and suppression filters in the illuminating and imaging light path. In all variants, transmission bands can be modulated by transmission shift.
Topological BF field theory description of topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Gil Young; Moore, Joel E.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We show that a BF theory is the effective theory of 2D and 3D topological insulators. → The non-gauge-invariance of the bulk theory yields surface terms for a bosonized Dirac fermion. → The 'axion' term in electromagnetism is correctly obtained from gapped surfaces. → Generalizations to possible fractional phases are discussed in closing. - Abstract: Topological phases of matter are described universally by topological field theories in the same way that symmetry-breaking phases of matter are described by Landau-Ginzburg field theories. We propose that topological insulators in two and three dimensions are described by a version of abelian BF theory. For the two-dimensional topological insulator or quantum spin Hall state, this description is essentially equivalent to a pair of Chern-Simons theories, consistent with the realization of this phase as paired integer quantum Hall effect states. The BF description can be motivated from the local excitations produced when a π flux is threaded through this state. For the three-dimensional topological insulator, the BF description is less obvious but quite versatile: it contains a gapless surface Dirac fermion when time-reversal-symmetry is preserved and yields 'axion electrodynamics', i.e., an electromagnetic E . B term, when time-reversal symmetry is broken and the surfaces are gapped. Just as changing the coefficients and charges of 2D Chern-Simons theory allows one to obtain fractional quantum Hall states starting from integer states, BF theory could also describe (at a macroscopic level) fractional 3D topological insulators with fractional statistics of point-like and line-like objects.
Dinamics of BF3 sorption on activated carbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polevoj, A.S.; Petrenko, A.E.
1989-01-01
The dynamics of BF 3 sorption on BAUAG-3 and SKT-4A carbons is studied by recording the curve of BF 3 concentration change in time at the outlet from the column filled with activated carbon when blowing it with a current of BF 3 and helium mixture. The effect of sorbent type, temperature and pressure of the gaseous mixture, BF 3 content in it and its partial pressure, BF 3 consumption on the width of sorption zone is studied. The results of studies can be used to calculate and optimize the conditions of sorption processes connected with the absorption of BF 3 by carbons from the gaseous flows in the dynamic mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bijan Rahmani
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.
MCNP to study the BF3 detection efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Vinicius A.; Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Fedorenko, Giuliana G.; Coelho, Paulo R.P.; Madi Filho, Tufic
2011-01-01
One of the main parameters to monitor on the employment of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is the thermal neutron flux. It can be performed by different techniques such as the activation analysis and the detection by a Boron Trifluoride detector (BF 3 ). BF 3 detector is a real time neutron flux detector which retrieves results in real time. It is however necessary to study the efficiency of the BF 3 detectors when they are exposed to fields of different neutron energy spectra. BF 3 is known to have high efficiency for thermal neutrons (with energy up to 0.5 eV) due the presence of 10 B atoms in the detector. However, one must also understand how this detector interacts with other neutron energy ranges (epithermal and fast). This work shows the experiment and a set of associated simulations carried out in order to evaluate the BF 3 detector efficiency dependence on neutron energy spectra. A set of experiments was conducted in which a BF 3 detector was submitted to different mixed fields (field containing gamma rays and neutrons). These fields were generated by the interposition of paraffin layers with distinct thicknesses between the Am-Be source and the BF 3 detector. The BF 3 detector responses were recorded according to the number of paraffin planes used. MCNP simulations were also performed to study the detector responses on such experimental conditions. It has been possible to achieve the intended goal of evaluating the BF 3 detector response to different mixed irradiation fields. (author)
Lifescience Database Archive (English)
Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-BF01 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15105-1 FC-BF01Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-BF01Z 674 - - - - Show FC-BF01 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-BF01 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15105-1 Original site URL http://dict...402813_1( AF402813 |pid:none) Ictalurus punctatus 40S ribosomal ... 260 3e-68 AJ783868_1( AJ783868 |pid:none...lasmic 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: nuclear >> prediction for FC-BF01 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - L
Saito, Masatoshi
2010-08-01
This article describes the spectral optimization of dual-energy computed tomography using balanced filters (bf-DECT) to reduce the tube loadings and dose by dedicating to the acquisition of electron density information, which is essential for treatment planning in radiotherapy. For the spectral optimization of bf-DECT, the author calculated the beam-hardening error and air kerma required to achieve a desired noise level in an electron density image of a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom. The calculation enables the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage, balanced filter material, and its thickness. The optimal combination of tube voltages was 80 kV/140 kV in conjunction with Tb/Hf and Bi/Mo filter pairs; this combination agrees with that obtained in a previous study [M. Saito, "Spectral optimization for measuring electron density by the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method," Med. Phys. 36, 3631-3642 (2009)], although the thicknesses of the filters that yielded a minimum tube output were slightly different from those obtained in the previous study. The resultant tube loading of a low-energy scan of the present bf-DECT significantly decreased from 57.5 to 4.5 times that of a high-energy scan for conventional DECT. Furthermore, the air kerma of bf-DECT could be reduced to less than that of conventional DECT, while obtaining the same figure of merit for the measurement of electron density and effective atomic number. The tube-loading and dose efficiencies of bf-DECT were considerably improved by sacrificing the quality of the noise level in the images of effective atomic number.
A mathematical method to calculate efficiency of BF3 detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan; Peng Taiping
2009-01-01
In order to calculate absolute efficiency of the BF 3 detector, MCNP/4C code is applied to calculate relative efficiency of the BF 3 detector first, and then absolute efficiency is figured out through mathematical techniques. Finally an energy response curve of the BF 3 detector for 1-20 MeV neutrons is derived. It turns out that efficiency of BF 3 detector are relatively uniform for 2-16 MeV neutrons. (authors)
Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos
2015-07-01
The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proposed hardware architectures of particle filter for object tracking
Abd El-Halym, Howida A.; Mahmoud, Imbaby Ismail; Habib, SED
2012-12-01
In this article, efficient hardware architectures for particle filter (PF) are presented. We propose three different architectures for Sequential Importance Resampling Filter (SIRF) implementation. The first architecture is a two-step sequential PF machine, where particle sampling, weight, and output calculations are carried out in parallel during the first step followed by sequential resampling in the second step. For the weight computation step, a piecewise linear function is used instead of the classical exponential function. This decreases the complexity of the architecture without degrading the results. The second architecture speeds up the resampling step via a parallel, rather than a serial, architecture. This second architecture targets a balance between hardware resources and the speed of operation. The third architecture implements the SIRF as a distributed PF composed of several processing elements and central unit. All the proposed architectures are captured using VHDL synthesized using Xilinx environment, and verified using the ModelSim simulator. Synthesis results confirmed the resource reduction and speed up advantages of our architectures.
Young's modulus of BF wood material by longitudinal vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phadke, Sushil; Shrivastava, Bhakt Darshan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N
2014-01-01
All engineered structures are designed and built with consideration of resisting the same fundamental forces of tension, compression, shear, bending and torsion. Structural design is a balance of these internal and external forces. So, it is interesting to calculate the Young's moduli of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood are quite important from the application point of view. The ultrasonic waves are closely related with the elastic and inelastic properties of the materials. In the present study, we measured longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocities in BF wood material by longitudinal vibration method. After measuring ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material, we calculated Young's modulus of Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material. We used ultrasonic interferometer for measuring longitudinal wave ultrasonic velocity in BF wood material made by Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India in our laboratory. Borassus Flabellifier BF wood material was collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India.
A reciprocity formula from abelian BF and Turaev–Viro theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Mathieu
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this article we show that the use of Deligne–Beilinson cohomology in the context of the U(1 BF theory on a closed 3-manifold M yields a discrete ZN BF theory whose partition function is an abelian TV invariant of M. By comparing the expectation values of the U(1 and ZN holonomies in both BF theories we obtain a reciprocity formula.
From lattice BF gauge theory to area-angle Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonzom, Valentin
2009-01-01
We consider Riemannian 4D BF lattice gauge theory, on a triangulation of spacetime. Introducing the simplicity constraints which turn BF theory into simplicial gravity, some geometric quantities of Regge calculus, areas, and 3D and 4D dihedral angles, are identified. The parallel transport conditions are taken care of to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices. We show that these gluing relations, together with the simplicity constraints, contain the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus in a simple way, via the group structure of the underlying BF gauge theory. This provides a precise road from constrained BF theory to area-angle Regge calculus. Doing so, a framework combining variables of lattice BF theory and Regge calculus is built. The action takes a form a la Regge and includes the contribution of the Immirzi parameter. In the absence of simplicity constraints, the standard spin foam model for BF theory is recovered. Insertions of local observables are investigated, leading to Casimir insertions for areas and reproducing for 3D angles known results obtained through angle operators on spin networks. The present formulation is argued to be suitable for deriving spin foam models from discrete path integrals and to unravel their geometric content.
The Quantum Description of BF Model in Superspace
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manoj Kumar Dwivedi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the BRST symmetric four-dimensional BF theory, a topological theory, containing antisymmetric tensor fields in Landau gauge and extend the BRST symmetry by introducing a shift symmetry to it. Within this formulation, the antighost fields corresponding to shift symmetry coincide with antifields of standard field/antifield formulation. Furthermore, we provide a superspace description for the BF model possessing extended BRST and extended anti-BRST transformations.
Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos
2015-07-01
This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF4] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4] or [omim][BF4], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC50 values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF4] was more toxic than [bmim][BF4] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF4]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF4] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF4]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest concentration tested (10mgL(-1)), while [omim][BF4]-mediated effects were enhanced at lower concentrations (0.01-0.05mgL(-1)). Overall, the present study showed that [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4] could induce not only lethal but also nonlethal effects on mussel M. galloprovincialis. The extent of [bmim][BF4] and/or [omim][BF4]-mediated effects could be ascribed to the length of each IL alkyl chain, as well as to their lipophilicity. Moreover, the role of acetone on the obtained toxic effects of the specific ILs was
An additional memory effect in mass spectrometry for BF3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoshino, Kiichi; Satooka, Sakae
1978-01-01
It is considered that the memory effect appears in a metallic gas inlet of a mass spectrometer for measurement with samples of BF 3 is classified into two kinds, one is essential memory effect which is caused by an action between the surface of metal and BF 3 , and the other is additional memory effect which is caused by viscous liquid produced by reaction among water, BF 3 and metals. The additional memory effect is caused by stain on the inner surface of the gas inlet. Air is introduced into the sample bottle joint at each time for change of sample bottle. Moisture in the air is adsorbed on inner surfaces of the joint and piping made of metal, and combined with BF 3 which is introduced, and then viscous compound is produced by dissolution of the metal into the compound made from H 2 O and BF 3 . The vapour pressure of the viscous compound is not sufficient low, and so the compound propagates from the sample bottle joint to the whole of the gas inlet at each time of opening and closing of valves of the gas inlet. The coated film of the viscous compound with adsorption and release of Bf 3 is a cause of the additional memory effect. If the stain of the inner surface of the gas inlet grows up, the additional memory effect becomes more intense compared with the essential memory effect, and the measured values are not converged. To remove the additional memory effect, it is desirable to introduce the sample BF 3 after the moisture intruded into the piping by the exchange of sample bottles is removed sufficiently by introduction of F 2 or ClF 3 . (auth.)
Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). Annual report 1991
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-08-01
The progress report submitted by Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz reveals that this federal radiation protection agency is not only entrusted with the fulfillment of the federal administrative tasks imposed by law but engages in applications-oriented research regarding the operational, metrological and health-related aspects of radiation protection, regarding nuclear safety and radioactive waste management. In addition, BfS takes care of public-relations tasks. The reports submitted by the BfS departments are completed by summaries of the main research results. (DG) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Belavgeni, Alexia; Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr
2015-07-15
Highlights: • The toxic effects of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] and [omim][BF{sub 4}] on mussels were investigated. • Both ILs could induce lethal and nonlethal effects on Mytilus galloprovincialis. • Different extent of IL-mediated adverse effects was observed in mussel hemocytes. • The alkyl chain length and lipophilicity of ILs are crucial for their toxicity. • Acetone influences the oxidative and genotoxic effects of [omim][BF{sub 4}]. - Abstract: This study investigated the cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects of two commonly used imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF{sub 4}] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [omim][BF{sub 4}] (1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well as whether acetone could mediate their toxic profile. In this context, mussels were firstly exposed to different concentrations of [bmim][BF{sub 4}] or [omim][BF{sub 4}], with or without the presence of acetone (at a final concentration of 0.06% v/v), for a period of 96 h, in order to determine the concentration that causes 50% mussel mortality (LC{sub 50} values) in each case. Thereafter, mussels were exposed to sub- and non-lethal concentrations of ILs for investigating their ability to cause lysosomal membrane impairment (with the use of neutral red retention assay/NRRT), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation byproduct (malondialdehyde/MDA) formation, as well as DNA damage and formation of nuclear abnormalities in hemocytes. The results showed that [omim][BF{sub 4}] was more toxic than [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases, while the presence of acetone resulted in a slight attenuation of its toxicity. The different toxic behavior of ILs was further revealed by the significantly lower levels of NRRT values observed in [omim][BF{sub 4}]-treated mussels, compared to those occurring in [bmim][BF{sub 4}] in all cases. Similarly, [bmim][BF{sub 4}]-mediated oxidative and genotoxic effects were observed only in the highest
Proposal of a calculation methodology for the preliminary design of a coalescing filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez Dobrosky, Cintia
2015-01-01
Coalescing filters are described which are equipments for capture and recovery of mist most efficient, inexpensive and have fewer limitations of application. The operation, equations and ideal characteristics of filter media of these models are explained. A methodology for design and scale-up of this type of equipment for liquid recovery in gaseous currents is proposed from experimental tests, in order to guide the interested reader in its making. (author) [es
Characterization of plasticized PMMA–LiBF4 based solid polymer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Polymer electrolyte films prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) and LiBF4 with different con- centrations of ... 1. Introduction. Many types of ionically conducting polymers, generally ... 2. Experimental. Thin films of PMMA–LiBF4–DBP in different mole ratios ... remains very close to that of a liquid electrolyte. It is con-.
In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [11C]BF-227 PET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ren; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Doh-ura, Katsumi
2010-01-01
In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [ 11 C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [ 11 C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)
The entropic boundary law in BF theory
Livine, Etera R.; Terno, Daniel R.
2009-01-01
We compute the entropy of a closed bounded region of space for pure 3d Riemannian gravity formulated as a topological BF theory for the gauge group SU(2) and show its holographic behavior. More precisely, we consider a fixed graph embedded in space and study the flat connection spin network state without and with particle-like topological defects. We regularize and compute exactly the entanglement for a bipartite splitting of the graph and show it scales at leading order with the number of vertices on the boundary (or equivalently with the number of loops crossing the boundary). More generally these results apply to BF theory with any compact gauge group in any space-time dimension.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)
2012-07-01
The annual report 2011 of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) includes the following main articles: Fukushima and the consequences, new power lines across Germany and the management of radioactive wastes in Germany. Further topics of the BfS were reasonable exposure to sun and skin cancer prevention, individual health assessment of lung cancer with low-dose CT, occupational radiation exposure in medicine, radiation protection at setting up digital radio of security authorities and organizations, importance of laboratory ring experiments for incorporation monitoring, defence against nuclear hazards: cooperation and exercises in 2011, new developments with regard to radioactivity in drinking water, reportable events in nuclear facilities in 2011, decommissioning of a permanently shut down NPP. The environmental research program of the Federal Environmental ministry - research for strengthening nuclear safety and radiation protection: German uranium miners biobank: consequences of uranium mining and radiological impacts, German miners cohort study, health effects of strong magnetic fields of NMR imaging, radiation exposure due to nuclear medical examinations, national survey on the radio-cesium contamination of wild boars.
Verification of Gamma-ray Sensitivity for BF3 Neutron Detection System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Yu Sun; Cho, Jin Bok; Lyou, Seok Jean
2016-01-01
The BF3(Boron Tri-Fluorides) gas filled neutron detector(hereafter BF3 Detector) is commonly used for nuclear reactor’s startup channel due to its relatively high neutron efficiency and good discrimination against gamma-ray backgrounds. In order to measure how much this gamma-ray will affect on BF3 neutron detector performance in view of gamma noise discrimination, Multi-Channel Analyzer(MCA) is utilized for spectrum based signal analysis. The pre-test of BF3 Detector should be performed in an area where the ionization does not exceed 2.5 micro Gy/Hr(Ref.1). In this paper, the discrimination level (Voltage Unit) is verified by experimentally measurement if that discrimination level is acceptable within the criteria or not before installation. The maximum discrimination level, so called LLD, is determined by experimentally measurement. This BF3 Detector (LND20372) is insensitive under 540 micro Gy/Hr of gamma ray and 0.3V of LLD could cut off a background and gamma induced signal in a laboratory. MCA could be a convenient tool for spectrum analysis of signals that induced from gamma ray and a time saving tool rather than oscilloscope investigation due to its function to integrate all input signals at a sudden duration
A Kallosh theorem for BF-type topological field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birmingham, D.; Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S.
1991-01-01
A Kallosh theorem is established for the case of BF-type theories in three dimensions, including a coupling to Chern-Simons theory. The phase contribution to the one-loop off-shell effective action is computed for a two-parameter family of local covariant gauges. It is shown that the phase is independent of these parameters, and thus equals the 'no Vilkovisky-DeWitt' gauge result. The field space metric dependence of a corresponding calculation for generalized BF theory is briefly discussed. (orig.)
A Kallosh theorem for BF-type topological field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birmingham, D. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S. (Physics Dept., Louisiana Tech. Univ., Ruston, LA (United States))
1991-12-12
A Kallosh theorem is established for the case of BF-type theories in three dimensions, including a coupling to Chern-Simons theory. The phase contribution to the one-loop off-shell effective action is computed for a two-parameter family of local covariant gauges. It is shown that the phase is independent of these parameters, and thus equals the 'no Vilkovisky-DeWitt' gauge result. The field space metric dependence of a corresponding calculation for generalized BF theory is briefly discussed. (orig.).
In vivo detection of prion amyloid plaques using [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamura, Nobuyuki; Yanai, Kazuhiko [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Shiga, Yusei; Itoyama, Yasuhito [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Sendai (Japan); Furumoto, Shozo [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Sendai (Japan); Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Tsuboi, Yoshio [Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Fukuoka (Japan); Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki [Institute of Development, Aging, and Cancer, Tohoku University, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Division of Brain Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Iwata, Ren [Tohoku University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai (Japan); Kudo, Yukitsuka [Tohoku University, Innovation of New Biomedical Engineering Center, Sendai (Japan); Doh-ura, Katsumi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Department of Prion Research, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)
2010-05-15
In vivo detection of pathological prion protein (PrP) in the brain is potentially useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). However, there are no non-invasive ante-mortem means for detection of pathological PrP deposition in the brain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amyloid imaging tracer BF-227 with positron emission tomography (PET) for the non-invasive detection of PrP amyloid in the brain. The binding ability of BF-227 to PrP amyloid was investigated using autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy. Five patients with TSEs, including three patients with Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and two patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), underwent [{sup 11}C]BF-227 PET scans. Results were compared with data from 10 normal controls and 17 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The regional to pons standardized uptake value ratio was calculated as an index of BF-227 retention. Binding of BF-227 to PrP plaques was confirmed using brain samples from autopsy-confirmed GSS cases. In clinical PET study, significantly higher retention of BF-227 was detected in the cerebellum, thalamus and lateral temporal cortex of GSS patients compared to that in the corresponding tissues of normal controls. GSS patients also showed higher retention of BF-227 in the cerebellum, thalamus and medial temporal cortex compared to AD patients. In contrast, the two CJD patients showed no obvious retention of BF-227 in the brain. Although [{sup 11}C]BF-227 is a non-specific imaging marker of cerebral amyloidosis, it is useful for in vivo detection of PrP plaques in the human brain in GSS, based on the regional distribution of the tracer. PET amyloid imaging might provide a means for both early diagnosis and non-invasive disease monitoring of certain forms of TSEs. (orig.)
Topological higher gauge theory: From BF to BFCG theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girelli, F.; Pfeiffer, H.; Popescu, E. M.
2008-01-01
We study generalizations of three- and four-dimensional BF theories in the context of higher gauge theory. First, we construct topological higher gauge theories as discrete state sum models and explain how they are related to the state sums of Yetter, Mackaay, and Porter. Under certain conditions, we can present their corresponding continuum counterparts in terms of classical Lagrangians. We then explain that two of these models are already familiar from the literature: the ΣΦEA model of three-dimensional gravity coupled to topological matter and also a four-dimensional model of BF theory coupled to topological matter
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Jianfei Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs released by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are involved in promoting growth and triggering systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Importantly, the release of VOCs by some PGPR strains confers improved plant uptake of nutrient elements from the soil. However, the underlying mechanisms of VOCs-regulated nutrient acquisition remain elusive. In this study, VOCs were extracted and identified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain BF06 using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. BF06 VOCs exposure significantly promoted the growth and photosynthesis of Arabidopsis plants. To explore how microbial VOCs stimulate growth in plants, gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to BF06 VOCs were examined using transcriptomic analyses. In screening differentially expressed genes (DEGs, most upregulated DEGs were found to be related to amino acid transport, iron (Fe uptake and homeostasis, and sulfate transport. Furthermore, BF06 VOCs significantly enhanced Fe absorption in plants under Fe-limited conditions. However, when nitric oxide (NO synthesis was inhibited, BF06 VOCs exposure could not substantially augment Fe acquisition in plants under alkaline stress, indicating that VOCs-mediated plant uptake of Fe was required for induction of root NO accumulation. In addition, BF06 VOCs exposure led to a marked increase in some genes encoding for sulfate transporters, and further increased Se accumulation in plants. Intriguingly, BF06 VOCs exposure failed to increase Se uptake in sultr1;2 mutants, which may indicate that high-level transcription of these sulfate transporters induced by BF06 VOCs was essential for enhancing Se absorption by plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated the potential of VOCs released by this strain BF06 to increase Fe and Se uptake in plants.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fournier, Joseph A.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Johnson, Mark A., E-mail: mark.johnson@yale.edu, E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Sterling Chemistry Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); McCoy, Anne B., E-mail: mark.johnson@yale.edu, E-mail: mccoy@chemistry.ohio-state.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2015-02-14
We clarify the role of the critical imidazolium C{sub (2)}H position (the central C between N atoms in the heterocycle) in the assembly motif of the [EMIM][BF{sub 4}] ionic liquid by analyzing the vibrational spectra of the bare EMIM{sup +} ion as well as that of the cationic [EMIM]{sub 2}[BF{sub 4}]{sup +} (EMIM{sup +} = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}N{sub 2}{sup +}) cluster. Vibrational spectra of the cold, mass-selected ions are obtained using cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation of weakly bound D{sub 2} molecules formed in a 10 K ion trap. The C{sub (2)}H behavior is isolated by following the evolution of key vibrational features when the C{sub (2)} hydrogen, the proposed binding location of the anion to the imidazolium ring, is replaced by either deuterium or a methyl group (i.e., in the EMMIM{sup +} analogue). Strong features in the ring CH stretching region of the bare ion are traced to Fermi resonances with overtones of lower frequency modes. Upon incorporation into the EMIM{sup +} ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ BF{sub 4}{sup −} ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ EMIM{sup +} ternary complex, the C{sub (2)}H oscillator strength is dramatically increased, accounting for the much more complicated patterns derived from the EMIM{sup +} ring CH stretches in the light isotopomer, which are strongly suppressed in the deuterated analogue. Further changes in the spectra that occur when the C{sub (2)}H is replaced by a methyl group are consistent with BF{sub 4}{sup −} attachment directly to the imidazolium ring in an arrangement that maximizes the electrostatic interaction between the molecular ions.
Wang, Jing; Li, Bing; Li, Yang; Dou, Jie; Hao, Qingru; Tian, Yuwei; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Changlin
2014-07-01
Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the increasing number of multidrug-resistant strains. Cathelicidin-BF (BF-30) is a cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptide and exhibits broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of BF-30 against ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was examined, and the protective effects of this peptide against these bacteria in rats with bacterial vaginosis were identified for the first time. The data showed that BF-30 had effective antimicrobial activities against ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and S. aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for both bacterial strains were 16 μg/ml, and the minimal bactericidal concentrations were 64 and 128 μg/ml, respectively. A time course experiment showed that the CFU counts rapidly decreased after BF-30 treatment, and the bacteria were nearly eliminated within 4 h. BF-30 could reduce the fold change (CFU/ml) in local colonization by drug-resistant E. coli and S. aureus to 0.01 at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg/day in the rats' vaginal secretions. In addition, BF-30 induced membrane permeabilization and bound to the genomic DNA, interrupting protein synthesis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that BF-30 has potential therapeutic value for the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter
2016-09-01
Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the
Analysis on ingress of coolant event in vacuum vessel using modified TRAC-BF1 code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajima, Toshio; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Seki, Yasushi
1999-08-01
The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-BF1) was modified on the basis of ICE experimental results so as to analyze the Ingress of Coolant Event (ICE) in the vacuum vessel of a nuclear fusion reactor. In the previous report, the TRAC-BF1 code, which was originally developed for the safety analysis of a light water reactor, had been modified for the ICE of the fusion reactor. And the addition of the flat structural plate model to the VESSEL component and arbitrary appointment of the gravity direction had been added in the TRAC-BF1 code. This TRAC-BF1 code was further modified. The flat structural plate model of the VESSEL component was enabled to divide in multi layers having different materials, and a part of the multi layers could take a buried heater into consideration. Moreover, the TRAC-BF1 code was modified to analyze under the low-pressure condition close to vacuum within range of the steam table. This paper describes additional functions of the modified TRAC-BF1 code, analytical evaluation using ICE experimental data and the ITER model with final design report (FDR) data. (author)
Assessment of TRAC-BF1 1D reflood model with CCTF and SCTF data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimoto, Hajime; Ohnuki, Akira; Murao, Yoshio; Abe, Yutaka.
1993-03-01
Post test calculations for six selected Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) tests were performed to assess the core thermal hydraulic models of the TRAC-BF1 code during the reflood in a PWR LOCA. A special version of the TRAC code was developed at JAERI by implementing the constitutive package of the TRAC-BF1 code into the TRAC-PF1 code for this assessment. The TRAC-BF1 model predicted well the void fraction at either bottom or top part of the core and overpredicted the void fraction at the center part of the core in the CCTF and SCTF tests performed under so-called licensing conditions. The TRAC-BF1 model overpredicted the clad temperatures at the center part of the core. The TRAC-BF1 model predicted a jump of void fraction where the flow pattern transition between the bubbly/slug flow and the annular/dispersed flow regimes occurred. The jump caused the water mass flow rate to be unstable and resulted in the overprediction of the void fraction at the center part of the core. It was also found that the TRAC-BF1 film boiling model underestimated the heat transfer coefficient in the vicinity of the quench front and caused the quench front propagation to be delayed. These assessment results suggest the following areas should be improved in future to apply the TRAC-BF1 code to the reflood in a PWR LOCA: (1) Core hydraulic model where flow pattern transition occurs, (2) Core heat transfer model in the film boiling regime, especially for the dependence on the distance from the quench front. (author)
Shin, Dong-Ho; Webb, Barbara; Nakao, Miki; Smith, Sylvia L
2007-01-01
Factor B and C2 are serine proteases that provide the catalytic subunits of C3 and C5 convertases of the alternative (AP) and classical (CP) complement pathways. Two Bf/C2 cDNAs, GcBf/C2-1 and -2 (previously referred to as nsBf/C2-A and nsBf/C2-B), were isolated from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. GcBf/C2-1 and -2 are 3364 and 3082bp in length and encode a leader peptide, three CCPs, one VWFA, the serine protease domain and have a putative factor D/C1s/MASP cleavage site. Southern blots show that there might be up to two Bf/C2-like genes for each of the two GcBf/C2 isoforms. GcBf/C2-1 and -2 are constitutively expressed, albeit at different levels, in all nine tissues examined. Expression in erythrocytes is a novel finding. Structural analysis has revealed that the localization of glycosylation sites in the SP domain of both putative proteins indicates that the molecular organization of the shark molecules is more like C2 than factor B. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that GcBf/C2-1 and -2 and TrscBf of Triakis scyllia (another shark species) originated from a common ancestor and share a remote ancestor with Bf and C2 of mammals and bony fish.
Pérez, M C; Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Portune, K; Gabaldón, C
2015-01-01
The removal of styrene was studied using two biofilters packed with peat and coconut fibre (BF1-P and BF2-C, respectively) and one biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with plastic rings. Two inoculation procedures were applied: an enriched culture with strain Pseudomonas putida CECT 324 for BFs and activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for the BTF. Inlet loads (ILs) between 10 and 45 g m(-3) h(-1) and empty bed residence times (EBRTs) from 30 to 120 s were applied. At inlet concentrations ranging between 200 and 400 mg Nm(-3), removal efficiencies between 70 % and 95 % were obtained in the three bioreactors. Maximum elimination capacities (ECs) of 81 and 39 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained for the BF1-P and BF2-C, respectively (IL of 173 g m(-3) h(-1) and EBRT of 60 s in BF1-P; IL of 89 g m(-3) h(-1) and EBRT of 90 s in BF2-C). A maximum EC of 52 g m(-3) h(-1) was obtained for the BTF (IL of 116 g m(-3) h(-1), EBRT of 45 s). Problems regarding high pressure drop appeared in the peat BF, whereas drying episodes occurred in the coconut fibre BF. DGGE revealed that the pure culture used for BF inoculation was not detected by day 105. Although two different inoculation procedures were applied, similar styrene removal at the end of the experiments was observed. The use as inoculum of activated sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant appears a more feasible option.
Reducing and verifying haloacetic acids in treated drinking water using a biological filter system.
Lou, Jie C; Chan, Hung Y; Yang, Chih Y; Tseng, Wei B; Han, Jia Y
2014-01-01
This study focused on reducing the haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations in treated drinking water. HAA has been thought to be one possible nutrient supporting heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in drinking water. In this study, experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale system to evaluate the efficiency of biological filters (BF) for reducing excess HAA concentrations in water. The BF system reduced the total HAA concentration and the concentrations of five HAA species in the water. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were the three main HAA5 species that were present in the treated drinking water in this investigation. Combined, these three species represent approximately 77% of the HAA5 in the finished water after BF. The verification of the empirical HAA equation for the outlet in the BF system indicated linear relationships with high correlation coefficients. The empirical equation for the HAA5 concentrations in the finished water was established by examining other nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), and ammonia nitrogen) that can reduce pathogenic contamination. These findings may be useful for designing advanced processes for conventional water treatment plants or for managing water treatment and distribution systems for providing high-quality drinking water.
Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters
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Rastislav Lukac
2004-09-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.
The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains.
Guimarães, Monick L; Velarde-Dunois, Ketty G; Segurondo, David; Morgado, Mariza G
2012-01-16
Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005). These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt) and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37) and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay). The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5%) samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%). Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70.0%) or BF1 recombinant (23.8% vs 30.0%) samples from Bolivia.
Active RC filter based implementation analysis part of two channel hybrid filter bank
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Stojanović Vidosav
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, a new design method for continuous-time powersymmetric active RC filters for Hybrid Filter Bank (HFB is proposed. Some theoretical properties of continious-time power-symmetric filters bank in a more general perspective are studied. This includes the derivation of a new general analytical form, and a study of poles and zeros locations in s-plane. In the proposed design method the analytic solution of filter coefficients is solved in sdomain using only one nonlinear equation Finally, the proposed approximation is compared to standard approximations. It was shown that attenuation and group delay characteristic of the proposed filter lie between Butterworth and elliptic characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 32009TR
Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter
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Merced Montesinos
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.
Moralis-Pegios, M.; Terzenidis, N.; Vagionas, C.; Pitris, S.; Chatzianagnostou, E.; Brimont, A.; Zanzi, A.; Sanchis, P.; Marti, J.; Kraft, J.; Rochracher, K.; Dorrestein, S.; Bogdan, M.; Tekin, T.; Syrivelis, D.; Tassiulas, L.; Miliou, A.; Pleros, N.; Vyrsokinos, K.
2017-02-01
Programmable switching nodes supporting Software-Defined Networking (SDN) over optical interconnecting technologies arise as a key enabling technology for future disaggregated Data Center (DC) environments. The SDNenabling roadmap of intra-DC optical solutions is already a reality for rack-to-rack interconnects, with recent research reporting on interesting applications of programmable silicon photonic switching fabrics addressing board-to-board and even on-board applications. In this perspective, simplified information addressing schemes like Bloom filter (BF)-based labels emerge as a highly promising solution for ensuring rapid switch reconfiguration, following quickly the changes enforced in network size, network topology or even in content location. The benefits of BF-based forwarding have been so far successfully demonstrated in the Information-Centric Network (ICN) paradigm, while theoretical studies have also revealed the energy consumption and speed advantages when applied in DCs. In this paper we present for the first time a programmable 4x4 Silicon Photonic switch that supports SDN through the use of BF-labeled router ports. Our scheme significantly simplifies packet forwarding as it negates the need for large forwarding tables, allowing for its remote control through modifications in the assigned BF labels. We demonstrate 1x4 switch operation controlling the Si-Pho switch by a Stratix V FPGA module, which is responsible for processing the packet ID and correlating its destination with the appropriate BF-labeled outgoing port. DAC- and amplifier-less control of the carrier-injection Si-Pho switches is demonstrated, revealing successful switching of 10Gb/s data packets with BF-based forwarding information changes taking place at a time-scale that equals the duration of four consecutive packets.
Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters
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Juan G. Gonzalez
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the ÃŽÂ±-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the Ã¢Â€ÂœnormalÃ¢Â€Â equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.
Pisana, Francesco; Henzler, Thomas; Schönberg, Stefan; Klotz, Ernst; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kachelrieß, Marc
2017-07-01
Dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) consists in repeated acquisitions of the same volume in different time steps, slightly before, during and slightly afterwards the injection of contrast media. Important functional information can be derived for each voxel, which reflect the local hemodynamic properties and hence the metabolism of the tissue. Different approaches are being investigated to exploit data redundancy and prior knowledge for noise reduction of such datasets, ranging from iterative reconstruction schemes to high dimensional filters. We propose a new spatial bilateral filter which makes use of the k-means clustering algorithm and of an optimal calculated guiding image. We named the proposed filter as k-means clustering guided bilateral filter (KMGB). In this study, the KMGB filter is compared with the partial temporal non-local means filter (PATEN), with the time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) filter, and with a new version derived from it, by introducing the guiding image (GB-TIPS). All the filters were tested on a digital in-house developed brain CTP phantom, were noise was added to simulate 80 kV and 200 mAs (default scanning parameters), 100 mAs and 30 mAs. Moreover, the filters performances were tested on 7 noisy clinical datasets with different pathologies in different body regions. The original contribution of our work is two-fold: first we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate a guiding image to improve the results of the TIPS filter, secondly we propose the introduction of the k-means clustering step and demonstrate how this can potentially replace the TIPS part of the filter obtaining better results at lower computational efforts. As expected, in the GB-TIPS, the introduction of the guiding image limits the over-smoothing of the TIPS filter, improving spatial resolution by more than 50%. Furthermore, replacing the time-intensity profile similarity calculation with a fuzzy k-means clustering strategy (KMGB) allows to control the edge preserving
The HIV-1 epidemic in Bolivia is dominated by subtype B and CRF12_BF "family" strains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guimarães Monick L
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiological studies of HIV-1 in South America have revealed the occurrence of subtypes B, F1 and BF1 recombinants. Even so, little information concerning the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in Bolivia is available. In this study we performed phylogenetic analyses from samples collected in Bolivia at two different points in time over a 10 year span. We analyzed these samples to estimate the trends in the HIV subtype and recombinant forms over time. Materials and methods Fifty one HIV-1 positive samples were collected in Bolivia over two distinct periods (1996 and 2005. These samples were genetically characterized based on partial pol protease/reverse transcriptase (pr/rt and env regions. Alignment and neighbor-joining (NJ phylogenetic analyses were established from partial env (n = 37 and all pol sequences using Mega 4. The remaining 14 env sequences from 1996 were previously characterized based on HMA-env (Heteroduplex mobility assay. The Simplot v.3.5.1 program was used to verify intragenic recombination, and SplitsTree 4.0 was employed to confirm the phylogenetic relationship of the BF1 recombinant samples. Results Phylogenetic analysis of both env and pol regions confirmed the predominance of "pure" subtype B (72.5% samples circulating in Bolivia and revealed a high prevalence of BF1 genotypes (27.5%. Eleven out of 14 BF1 recombinants displayed a mosaic structure identical or similar to that described for the CRF12_BF variant, one sample was classified as CRF17_BF, and two others were F1pol/Benv. No "pure" HIV-1 subtype F1 or B" variant of subtype B was detected in the present study. Of note, samples characterized as CRF12_BF-related were depicted only in 2005. Conclusion HIV-1 genetic diversity in Bolivia is mostly driven by subtype B followed by BF1 recombinant strains from the CRF12_BF "family". No significant temporal changes were detected between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s for subtype B (76.2% vs 70
Dissipation of pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF-500-3 in maize under field conditions.
You, Xiangwei; Liu, Congyun; Liu, Fengmao; Liu, Yanping; Dong, Jiannan
2012-06-01
The dissipation and residue of pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF-500-3 in maize under field conditions were investigated. A sensitive, simple and fast method for simultaneous determination of pyraclostrobin and BF-500-3 in maize matrix was established by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of pyraclostrobin and BF-500-3 were found in the range of 83.6-104.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3-10.0%. The results showed that pyraclostrobin dissipated quickly in maize plant with half-lives of 1.6-1.7 days. Its metabolite BF-500-3 showed a tendency of rapid increasing initially and decreasing afterwards. At harvest time, the terminal residues of pyraclostrobin were below the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by USA and Canada in maize grain when measured 7 days after the final application, which suggested that the use of this fungicide was safe for humans. The results could provide guidance to safe and reasonable use of pyraclostrobin in agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turbine trip transient analysis in peach bottom NPP with TRAC-BF1 code and Simtab-1D methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Collazo, I.; Gonzalez, P.; Concejal, A.; Ortego, P.; Melara, J.
2010-01-01
In TRAC-BF1 nuclear cross-sections are specified in the input deck in as a polynomial expansion. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the coefficients of this polynomial function. One of the methods proposed in the literature is the KINPAR methodology. This methodology uses the results from different perturbations of the original state to obtain the coefficients of the polynominal expansion. The simulations are performed using the SIMULATE3 code. In this work, a new methodology to obtain the cross-sections set in 1D is presented. The first step consists of the application of the SIMTAB methodology, developed in UPV, to obtain the 3D cross-sections sets from CASMO4/SIMULATE3. These 3D cross-sections sets are collapsed to 1D, using as a weighting factor the 3D thermal and rapid neutron fluxes obtained from SIMULATE3. The 1D cross-sections obtained are in the same format as the 3D sets, hence, it has been necessary to modify the TRAC-BF1 code in order to be able to read and interpolate between these tabulated 1D cross-sections. With this new methodology it is not necessary to perform simulations of different perturbations of the original state, and also the variation range of the moderator density can be higher than using the former KINPAR methodology. This is important for simulating severe accidents in which the variables vary in a wide range. This new methodology is applied to the simulation of the turbine trip transient Benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using the TRAC-BF1 code. The results of the transient simulation in TRAC-BF1 using the KINPAR methodology and the new methodology, SIMTAB-1D, are compared. (author)
Selection vector filter framework
Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.
2003-10-01
We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedorenko, Elena V.; Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Beloliptsev, Anton Yu.
2017-01-01
In the present study, a new synthetic method for the functionalization of polystyrene (PS) and (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymer has been developed. Using the new method, polymers containing BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups have been obtained through double acylation by acetic anhydride with boron trifluoride. Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. Quantum yields of polymer solution luminescence are significantly higher than those of the low-molecular-weight analog – boron difluoride benzoylacetonate. For the polymer, in which styrene fragments are separated by methyl methacrylate groups, at low concentrations of the polymer in solution one observes the monomer luminescence of BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups, while at high concentrations – the excimer luminescence. In case of PS-based polymers, in which BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups and phenyl rings are not separated, in diluted solutions one observes the fluorescence of the intramolecular exciplexes, while at the concentration increase – the luminescence of intermolecular exciplexes. The ability of excimer formation is responsible for the increased photostability of the produced polymers. - Highlights: •Polymers containing BF 2 -benzoylacetonate groups have been synthesized. •Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. •Formation of excimers and exciplexes in solution has been revealed. •Formation of excimers in films increases their photostability.
Improvement of cement plant dust emission by bag filter system
Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Alfisyah, Muziibu; Triyono
2018-03-01
The limestone quarry in PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (ITP) in Cirebon is considered as a complex quarry in terms of chemical composition and material hardness. From the beginning of the plant operation up to the end of 2015, the dust removal was rely on electrostatic precipitator (EP) system. Whenever limestone from specific quarry zones were incorporated into Raw Mill (RM) feed or there was an upset condition, the dust emission increased significantly. Beside higher demand of electricity, an EP system requires lower gas inlet temperature in order to remove the dust effectively which requires larger cooling water in the previous gas conditioning tower to cool down gas from 400 °C to about 100 °C. By considering the drawbacks, the EP system was replaced by a bag filter (BF) system. The BF allows higher temperature of gas inlet and it has higher dust removal efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of the two different dust removal systems is compared. The effect of process variables i.e. RM feed, kiln feed, inlet temperature and pressure, and small size particle fraction to the dust emission are studied by multivariate linier regression analysis. It is observed that the BF system can reduce significantly the dust emission from 30 to 6 mg/m3 and in the same time reducing CO2 emission by 0.24 ton/year from the electricity consumption saving.
Assessment of the turbine trip transient in Cofrentes NPP with TRAC-BF1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castrillo, F.; Gomez, A.; Gallego, I.
1993-06-01
This report presents the results of the assessment of TRAC-BF1 (G1-J1) code with the model of C. N. Cofrentes for simulation of the transient originated by the manual trip of the main turbine. C. N. Cofrentes is a General Electric designed BWR/6 plant, with a nominal core thermal power of 2894 Mwt, in commercial operation since 1985, owned and operated by Hidroelectrica Espanola, S. A. The plant incorporates all the characteristics of BWR/6 reactors, with two turbine driven FW pumps. As a result of this assessment a model of C. N. Cofrentes has been developed for TRAC-BF1 that fairly reproduces operational transient behavior of the plant. A special purpose code was generated to obtain reactivity coefficients, as required by TRAC-BF1, from the 3D simulator
Oxygen evolution from BF3/MnO4-.
Yiu, Shek-Man; Man, Wai-Lun; Wang, Xin; Lam, William W Y; Ng, Siu-Mui; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu
2011-04-14
MnO(4)(-) is activated by BF(3) to undergo intramolecular coupling of two oxo ligands to generate O(2). DFT calculations suggest that there should be a spin intercrossing between the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces on going from the active intermediate [MnO(2)(OBF(3))(2)](-) to the O···O coupling transition state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Happe, J.A.; Morgan, R.J.; Walkup, C.M.
1983-12-01
The chemical composition of commercial BF 3 :amine complexes are variable and contain BF 4 - and BF 3 (OH) - salts together with other unidentified highly reactive species. The BF 3 :amine complexes, which are susceptible to hydrolysis, also partially convert to the BF 4 - salt (i.e. BF 4 - NH 3 + C 2 H 5 ) upon heating. This salt formation is accelerated in dimethyl sulfoxide solution and in the presence of the epoxides that are present in commercial prepregs. Commercial C fiber-epoxy prepregs are shown to contain either BF 3 :NH 2 C 2 H 5 or BF 3 :NHC 5 H 10 species together with their BF 4 - salts and a variety of boron-fluorine or carbon-fluorine prepreg species. Considerable variation in the relative quantities of BF 3 :amine to its BF 4 - salt was observed from prepreg lot to lot, which will cause variable viscosity-time-temperature prepreg cure profiles. It is concluded that the chemically stable and mobile BF 4 - salt is the pre-dominant catalytic species, acting as a cationic catalyst for the prepreg cure reactions. During the early stages of cure the BF 3 :amine catalyst converts to the BF 4 - salt in the presence of epoxides, whereas the BF 3 -prepreg species are susceptible to catalytic deactivation and immobilization
An R-matrix study of electron induced processes in BF3 plasma
Gupta, Dhanoj; Chakrabarti, Kalyan; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Song, Mi-Young
2017-12-01
An R-matrix formalism is used to study electron collision with the BF3 molecule using Quantemol-N, a computational system for electron molecule collisions which uses the molecular R-matrix method. Several target models are tested for BF3 in its equilibrium geometry, and the results are presented for the best model. Scattering calculations are then performed to yield resonance parameters, elastic, differential, excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. The results for all the cross sections are compared with the experimental and theoretical data, and a good agreement is obtained. The resonances have been detected at 3.79 and 13.58 eV, with the ionization threshold being 15.7 eV. We have also estimated the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section for the F- ion production from BF3, which is a maiden attempt. The peak of the DEA is at around 13.5 eV, which is well supported by the resonance detected at 13.58 eV. The cross sections reported here find a variety of applications in the plasma technology.
Switching non-local vector median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2016-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wojtaś, M.; Gagor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.
2012-01-01
the picture quality Highlights: ► The second organic–inorganic salt containing single-protonated piperazinium cation. ► The first such a crystal not only structurally characterized. ► The phase I revealed the features characteristic of super ionic phase. ► The [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ] crystal is piezoelectric and polar at room temperature. ► Mechanism of phase transitions was proposed.
Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering
Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.
1994-01-01
None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.
Assessing toxic effects of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 in zebrafish adults using a biomarker approach.
Liu, Tong; Guo, Yingying; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Cheng
2016-04-01
In the present study, the toxic effects of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Omim]Cl) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Omim]BF4) on the zebrafish livers were studied at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg L(-1) on the 7th and 14th days. In addition, the concentrations of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 in the test water, the acute toxicity of the two ionic liquids (ILs), and the influence of anions on the toxicity of the ILs were evaluated. The acute toxicity test results showed 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) values of 152.3 ± 12.1 mg L(-1) for [Omim]Cl and 144.0 ± 11.4 mg L(-1) for [Omim]BF4. At the lowest concentration investigated (5 mg L(-1)), [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4 did not significantly affect zebrafish during the exposure period. However, the toxic effects of these substances were enhanced as dosing concentrations and exposure times were increased. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly enhanced on the 7th day after 20 mg L(-1) and on the 14th day after 10 mg L(-1) of either substance was applied, resulting in oxidative damage, such as lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The experimental results also indicated little effect of the anions on the toxicity of ILs and consistent toxic effects of [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4. Graphical Abstract The graphical abstract for the present study after exposure to [Omim]Cl and [Omim]BF4. The letter R represents the anions Cl(-) and BF4 (.)
Performance Test of BF3 Neutron Detection System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Yu Sun; Shin, Ho Cheol [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Bok; Oh, Sae Hyun; Ryou, Seok Jean [USERS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The neutron detecting system of First-of-a-kind plant such an APR1400 at Shin Kori should have been verified in the condition of low operating temperature and pressure of the primary coolant system before receiving the operation license. Auxiliary Ex-core Neutron Flux Monitoring System (AENFMS) is supposed to be installed using BF3 neutron detector in Shin Kori plant. The performance test of AENFMS was conducted to measure neutron sensitivity, moderation ratio and count rate in the same condition with Ex-core Neutron Flux Monitoring System (ENFMS) of APR1400 to verify its detection characteristics in compliance with the functional requirement. Performance test has been conducted for AENFMS of APR1400 to verify BF3 neutron sensitivity, moderation ration of PE, expecting neutron signal count rate from AENFMS, possible extending cable length from detector to pre-amplifier. As a result of measurement, the neutron sensitivity of 34.246±0.168(95%CI)cps/nv, moderation ratio of 11.343±0.039(95%CI) and AENFMS expecting count rate related to ENFMS of 17.8 times are acceptable in compliance with functional requirement, respectively.
Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien
2018-02-01
Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, Kun; Huang, Xiaoying; Pan, Long; Li, Jing; Appel, Aaron; Wherland, Scot; Pang, Long
2002-12-07
Use of an ionic liquid [bmim][BF4] (bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) as solvent has resulted in the first extended coordination structure, the two-dimensional network [Cu(bpp)]BF4 [bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], produced via a solvothermal route.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrachina, T.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Solar, A.
2014-07-01
The TRAC-BF1 code is still widely used by the nuclear industry for safety analysis. The plant models developed using this code are highly validated, so it is advisable to continue improving this code before migrating to another completely different code. The coupling with the NRC neutronic code PARCSv2.7 increases the simulation capabilities in transients in which the power distribution plays an important role. In this paper, the procedure for the coupling of TRAC-BF1 and PARCSv2.7 codes without PVM and in Linux is presented. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorenko, Elena V., E-mail: gev@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prosp. 100 letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Mirochnik, Anatolii G.; Beloliptsev, Anton Yu. [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, Prosp. 100 letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation)
2017-05-15
In the present study, a new synthetic method for the functionalization of polystyrene (PS) and (styrene-methyl methacrylate) copolymer has been developed. Using the new method, polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups have been obtained through double acylation by acetic anhydride with boron trifluoride. Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. Quantum yields of polymer solution luminescence are significantly higher than those of the low-molecular-weight analog – boron difluoride benzoylacetonate. For the polymer, in which styrene fragments are separated by methyl methacrylate groups, at low concentrations of the polymer in solution one observes the monomer luminescence of BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups, while at high concentrations – the excimer luminescence. In case of PS-based polymers, in which BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups and phenyl rings are not separated, in diluted solutions one observes the fluorescence of the intramolecular exciplexes, while at the concentration increase – the luminescence of intermolecular exciplexes. The ability of excimer formation is responsible for the increased photostability of the produced polymers. - Highlights: •Polymers containing BF{sub 2}-benzoylacetonate groups have been synthesized. •Luminescence of the produced polymers in solutions and films has been studied. •Formation of excimers and exciplexes in solution has been revealed. •Formation of excimers in films increases their photostability.
The BfR publishes workshop report based on the expert meeting on endocrine disruptors
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
2016-01-01
On the occasion of an expert meeting organised by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) held in Berlin on 11 and 12 April 2016, a consensus was reached on the identification of endocrine disruptors. The BfR has now published the workshop report from the conference. It contains, among other things, the consensus paper agreed by all participants. The report is published at http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/349/scientific-principles-for-the-identification-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-a-co...
Picceli, V F; Skare, T L; Nisihara, R M; Nass, F R; Messias-Reason, I T; Utiyama, S R R
2016-04-01
B factor (BF) from the alternative complement pathway seems to participate in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To study the allotypic variability of BF in SLE and their associations with clinical and autoantibodies profile. BF allotypes were determined by high-voltage agarose gel electrophoresis, under constant cooling, followed by immunofixation with anti-human BF antibody, in 188 SLE patients and 103 controls. Clinical and serological data were obtained from medical examination and records. No significant differences of BF variants between patients and controls were found, neither in relation to epidemiologic or clinical manifestations. Associations of phenotype BF SS07 and allotype BF*S07 were found with anticardiolipin IgM (aCl-IgM) antibodies (p = 0.014 and p = 0.009 respectively), but not with aCl-IgG, lupus anticoagulant (LA), anti β2GPI or clinical APS. A significant decrease in BF*F allotype (p = 0.043) and BF SF phenotype (p = 0.018) was detected in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies as a whole (aCl-IgG, aCl-IgM, LA and anti β2GPI). There is a link between phenotype BF SS07 and allotype BF*S07 with aCl-IgM in SLE patients; BF*F allotype could be considered a marker of protection against the development of antiphospholipid antibodies in these patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neelofer Afzal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.
Comelles, Francesc; Ribosa, Isabel; Gonzalez, Juan José; Garcia, M Teresa
2017-03-15
Mixtures of the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTA-Br) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmim-BF 4 ) in aqueous solutions are expected to behave as typical binary cationic surfactant system taking into account the surface activity displayed by the ionic liquid, instead of considering the IL as a water cosolvent. Surface tension and conductivity measurements have been conducted as a function of the total concentration of the mixtures at different surfactant mole fraction (α CTA-Br ) to investigate the surface active properties. Turbidity immediately appearing when the compounds are mixed in water suggests the spontaneous formation of the low soluble compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (CTA-BF 4 ), together with the salt formed by the respective counterions bmim + and Br - in solution. For α CTA-Br ≠0.5, furthermore of the mentioned compounds, the spare bmim-BF 4 (for α CTA-Br Br (for α CTA-Br >0.5), are also present in the aqueous solution. Systems containing excess of bmim-BF 4 show a low critical aggregate concentration (cac), but an unexpected high surface tension at cac (γ cac ≈53-56mN/m), as pure CTA-BF 4 . For systems containing excess of CTA-Br, cac increases but γ cac decreases up to 36mN/m. Mixtures of pure CTA-BF 4 and bmim-BF 4 or CTA-Br behave as typical binary surfactant systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fretthold, J.K. [EG& G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)
1995-02-01
The importance of testing HEPA filter exhaust plenums with consideration for As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) will require that new technology be applied to existing plenum designs. HEPA filter testing at Rocky Flats has evolved slowly due to a number of reasons. The first plenums were built in the 1950`s, preceding many standards. The plenums were large, which caused air dispersal problems. The systems were variable air flow. Access to the filters was difficult. The test methods became extremely conservative. Changes in methods were difficult to make. The acceptance of new test methods has been made in recent years with the change in plant mission and the emphasis on worker safety.
Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randen, Trygve
1997-12-31
The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.
Filtering Redundant Data from RFID Data Streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hazalila Kamaludin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID enabled systems are evolving in many applications that need to know the physical location of objects such as supply chain management. Naturally, RFID systems create large volumes of duplicate data. As the duplicate data wastes communication, processing, and storage resources as well as delaying decision-making, filtering duplicate data from RFID data stream is an important and challenging problem. Existing Bloom Filter-based approaches for filtering duplicate RFID data streams are complex and slow as they use multiple hash functions. In this paper, we propose an approach for filtering duplicate data from RFID data streams. The proposed approach is based on modified Bloom Filter and uses only a single hash function. We performed extensive empirical study of the proposed approach and compared it against the Bloom Filter, d-Left Time Bloom Filter, and the Count Bloom Filter approaches. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in terms of false positive rate, execution time, and true positive rate.
LINK codes TRAC-BF1/PARCSv2.7 in LINUX without external communication interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrachina, T.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Concejal, A.; Solar, A.
2014-01-01
The TRAC-BF1 code is still widely used by the nuclear industry for safety analysis. The plant models developed using this code are highly validated, so it is advisable to continue improving this code before migrating to another completely different code. The coupling with the NRC neutronic code PARCSv2.7 increases the simulation capabilities in transients in which the power distribution plays an important role. In this paper, the procedure for the coupling of TRAC-BF1 and PARCSv2.7 codes without PVM and in Linux is presented. (Author)
CHANGE DETECTION VIA SELECTIVE GUIDED CONTRASTING FILTERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. V. Vizilter
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC. The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC, mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All
An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters
Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa
2017-12-11
This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters\\' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters\\' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters\\' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles\\' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.
An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters
Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2017-01-01
This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.
Improved Kalman Filter-Based Speech Enhancement with Perceptual Post-Filtering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEIJianqiang; DULimin; YANZhaoli; ZENGHui
2004-01-01
In this paper, a Kalman filter-based speech enhancement algorithm with some improvements of previous work is presented. A new technique based on spectral subtraction is used for separation speech and noise characteristics from noisy speech and for the computation of speech and noise Autoregressive (AR) parameters. In order to obtain a Kalman filter output with high audible quality, a perceptual post-filter is placed at the output of the Kalman filter to smooth the enhanced speech spectra.Extensive experiments indicate that this newly proposed method works well.
Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2011-01-01
A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used
Switching non-local median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2015-06-01
This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.
Novel Control Strategy for VSI and CSI Active Filters and Comparing These Two Types of Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gholam Reza Arab
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Recently to eliminate the harmonics and improve the power factor of the power networks, much attention has been attracted to active filters. The advantages of these filters are lower volume and their better compensating characteristics than the passive filters. In conventional sliding mode controllers, the source current waveform is fluctuated in near to zero values. In this paper, using a new sliding technique, lower Total Harmonic Distortion (THD in source current is obtained and the current waveform is improved. As well as, two novel control strategies for two types of active filters, VSI and CSI is proposed and then these two types of filters are compared to reduce THD value of source current.The proposed controlled strategies are simulated by MATLAB/Simulink. The Simulation results confirm that the proposed strategies reduce the THD of source current more than other strategies, and active filter based on CSI has a better performance than active filter based on VSI with a dead time area (for avoiding short circuit of the source in high powers.
Liu, Yan-Yan; Sun, Ling-Cong; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Dong; Yuan, Ye; Yan, Bin; Liang, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Hui-Fen; Xu, Yong; Li, Bo; Song, Chuan-Wang; Liao, Sheng-Jun; Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua
2010-09-01
Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells play important roles in tumor development and have a negative effect on tumor immunotherapy. So far, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of their immunosuppressive phenotype by classical and alternative macrophage activation stimuli are not well elucidated. In this study, we found that molecules from necrotic tumor cells (NTC-Ms) stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to induce apoptosis of activated T cells but not nonstimulated T cells. The apoptosis-inducing capacity was determined by higher expression levels of arginase I and IL-10 relative to those of NO synthase 2 and IL-12 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells, which were induced by NTC-Ms through TLR4 signaling. The apoptosis-inducing capacity of NTC-Ms-stimulated Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells could be enhanced by IL-10. IFN-gamma may reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells only if their response to IFN-gamma was not attenuated. However, the potential of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells to express IL-12 in response to IFN-gamma could be attenuated by tumor, partially due to the existence of active STAT3 in Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and NTC-Ms from tumor. In this situation, IFN-gamma could not effectively reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells. Tumor immunotherapy with 4-1BBL/soluble programmed death-1 may significantly reduce, but not abolish the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells in local microenvironment. Blockade of TLR4 signaling could further reduce the apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and enhance the suppressive effect of 4-1BBL/soluble form of programmed death-1 on tumor growth. These findings indicate the relationship of distinct signaling pathways with apoptosis-inducing capacity of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells and emphasize the importance of blocking TLR4 signaling to prevent the induction of T cell apoptosis by Gr-1(+)CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells.
Noise reduction with complex bilateral filter.
Matsumoto, Mitsuharu
2017-12-01
This study introduces a noise reduction technique that uses a complex bilateral filter. A bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter originally developed for images that can reduce noise while preserving edge information. It is an attractive filter and has been used in many applications in image processing. When it is applied to an acoustical signal, small-amplitude noise is reduced while the speech signal is preserved. However, a bilateral filter cannot handle noise with relatively large amplitudes owing to its innate characteristics. In this study, the noisy signal is transformed into the time-frequency domain and the filter is improved to handle complex spectra. The high-amplitude noise is reduced in the time-frequency domain via the proposed filter. The features and the potential of the proposed filter are also confirmed through experiments.
Cartan's equations define a topological field theory of the BF type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuesta, Vladimir; Montesinos, Merced
2007-01-01
Cartan's first and second structure equations together with first and second Bianchi identities can be interpreted as equations of motion for the tetrad, the connection and a set of two-form fields T I and R J I . From this viewpoint, these equations define by themselves a field theory. Restricting the analysis to four-dimensional spacetimes (keeping gravity in mind), it is possible to give an action principle of the BF type from which these equations of motion are obtained. The action turns out to be equivalent to a linear combination of the Nieh-Yan, Pontrjagin, and Euler classes, and so the field theory defined by the action is topological. Once Einstein's equations are added, the resulting theory is general relativity. Therefore, the current results show that the relationship between general relativity and topological field theories of the BF type is also present in the first-order formalism for general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandes, Mariana [Departamento de Quimica/CQ-VR, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Barbosa, Paula C.; Manuela Silva, M.; Smith, Michael J. [Departamento de Quimica/Centro de Quimica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Zea Bermudez, Veronica de, E-mail: vbermude@utad.pt [Departamento de Quimica/CQ-VR, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)
2011-09-15
Highlights: {yields} FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize cation interactions in two LiBF{sub 4}-doped di-ureasil networks incorporating POE chains with different length. {yields} Over the range of salt content analyzed the cations bond to amorphous POE chains and form ion contact pairs with BF{sub 4}{sup -}. {yields} A crystalline POE/LiBF{sub 4} complex of unknown stoichiometry emerges at high salt concentration. - Abstract: In the present work Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the cation/polymer, cation/cross-link, cation/anion and hydrogen bonding interactions in hybrid electrolytes composed of lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) and di-urea cross-linked poly(oxyethylene) (POE)/siloxane hybrid networks (di-ureasils) designated as d-U(2000) and d-U(600) and incorporating polyether chains with ca. 40.5 and 8.5 oxyethylene repeat units, respectively. Samples with {infinity} > n {>=} 2.5 (where n, composition, is the molar ratio of CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O units per Li{sup +} ion) were analyzed. In both di-ureasil systems over the whole range of salt content examined the Li{sup +} ions bond to the ether oxygen atoms of amorphous POE chains and to BF{sub 4}{sup -} ions forming ion contact pairs. Spectroscopic evidences and SEM images confirm the presence of a crystalline POE/LiBF{sub 4} complex of unknown stoichiometry at n < 20 and 25, respectively. Ionic association is particularly important in the case of the d-U(600)-based materials, as a result of the presence of strong hydrogen-bonded aggregates that prevent the establishment of Li{sup +}/urea carbonyl oxygen atom interactions.
Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin
2015-01-01
. In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....
Janus field theories from non-linear BF theories for multiple M2-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryang, Shijong
2009-01-01
We integrate the nonpropagating B μ gauge field for the non-linear BF Lagrangian describing N M2-branes which includes terms with even number of the totally antisymmetric tensor M IJK in arXiv:0808.2473 and for the two-types of non-linear BF Lagrangians which include terms with odd number of M IJK as well in arXiv:0809:0985. For the former Lagrangian we derive directly the DBI-type Lagrangian expressed by the SU(N) dynamical A μ gauge field with a spacetime dependent coupling constant, while for the low-energy expansions of the latter Lagrangians the B μ integration is iteratively performed. The derived Janus field theory Lagrangians are compared.
Surface morphologies of excimer-laser annealed BF2+ implanted Si diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burtsev, A.; Schut, H.; Nanver, L.K.; Veen, A. van; Slabbekoorn, J.; Scholtes, T.L.M.
2004-01-01
Laser-induced surface roughness and damage formation in ultra-shallow n + -p and p + -n junctions, formed by low energy (5 keV) As + and BF 2 + implantations in Si, respectively, with a dose of 1 x 10 15 cm -2 have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening (PADB) technique. The Si surface roughness is found to increase with laser energy density, and reaches a value of 3.5 nm after excimer-laser annealing (ELA) at 1100 mJ/cm 2 . However, anomalous behavior is witnessed for BF 2 + -implanted Si sample at 800 mJ/cm 2 , at which energy very high surface protrusions up to 9 nm high are observed. By PADB this behavior is correlated to extensive deep microcavity formation in the Si whereby the volatile F 2 fraction can accumulate and evaporate/out-diffuse, leading to Si surface roughening. The consequences for the diode characteristics and contact resistivity are examined
Characterization of BF4− in terms of its effect on water by the 1-propanol probing methodology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morita, Takeshi; Ayako, Nitta; Nishikawa, Keilo
2014-01-01
One of the most common constituent anions for room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), BF4−, was characterized in terms of its effect on H2O using the so-called 1-propanol (1P) probing methodology developed by us earlier [PCCP, 15(2013) 14548-14565]. The results indicated that BF4− is quantitatively...
Rose, Michael J; Winkler, Jay R; Gray, Harry B
2012-02-20
We report the syntheses, X-ray structures, and reductive electrochemistry of the Fe(II) complexes [(dmgBF(2))(2)Fe(MeCN)(2)] (1; dmg = dimethylglyoxime, MeCN = acetonitrile) and [(dmgBF(2))Fe((t)Bu(i)NC)(2)] (2; (t)Bu(i)NC = tert-butylisocyanide). The reaction of 1 with Na/Hg amalgam led to isolation and the X-ray structure of [(dmgBF(2))(2)Fe(glyIm)] (3; glyIm = glyimine), wherein the (dmgBF(2))(2) macrocyclic frame is bent to accommodate the binding of a bidentate apical ligand. We also report the X-ray structure of a rare mixed-valence Fe(4) cluster with supporting dmg-type ligands. In the structure of [(dmg(2)BF(2))(3)Fe(3)((1)/(2)dmg)(3)Fe(O)(6)] (4), the (dmgBF(2))(2) macrocycle has been cleaved, eliminating BF(2) groups. Density functional theory calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance data are in accordance with a central Fe(III) ion surrounded by three formally Fe(II)dmg(2)BF(2) units.
Topology optimization of microwave waveguide filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Niels; Johansen, Villads Egede
2017-01-01
We present a density based topology optimization approach for the design of metallic microwave insert filters. A two-phase optimization procedure is proposed in which we, starting from a uniform design, first optimize to obtain a set of spectral varying resonators followed by a band gap...... optimization for the desired filter characteristics. This is illustrated through numerical experiments and comparison to a standard band pass filter design. It is seen that the carefully optimized topologies can sharpen the filter characteristics and improve performance. Furthermore, the obtained designs share...... little resemblance to standard filter layouts and hence the proposed design method offers a new design tool in microwave engineering....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...
Robust Ensemble Filtering and Its Relation to Covariance Inflation in the Ensemble Kalman Filter
Luo, Xiaodong
2011-12-01
A robust ensemble filtering scheme based on the H∞ filtering theory is proposed. The optimal H∞ filter is derived by minimizing the supremum (or maximum) of a predefined cost function, a criterion different from the minimum variance used in the Kalman filter. By design, the H∞ filter is more robust than the Kalman filter, in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter in general has a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation, except for a special case that corresponds to the Kalman filter. The original form of the H∞ filter contains global constraints in time, which may be inconvenient for sequential data assimilation problems. Therefore a variant is introduced that solves some time-local constraints instead, and hence it is called the time-local H∞ filter (TLHF). By analogy to the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), the concept of ensemble time-local H∞ filter (EnTLHF) is also proposed. The general form of the EnTLHF is outlined, and some of its special cases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that an EnKF with certain covariance inflation is essentially an EnTLHF. In this sense, the EnTLHF provides a general framework for conducting covariance inflation in the EnKF-based methods. Some numerical examples are used to assess the relative robustness of the TLHF–EnTLHF in comparison with the corresponding KF–EnKF method.
Independent component analysis based filtering for penumbral imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yenwei; Han Xianhua; Nozaki, Shinya
2004-01-01
We propose a filtering based on independent component analysis (ICA) for Poisson noise reduction. In the proposed filtering, the image is first transformed to ICA domain and then the noise components are removed by a soft thresholding (shrinkage). The proposed filter, which is used as a preprocessing of the reconstruction, has been successfully applied to penumbral imaging. Both simulation results and experimental results show that the reconstructed image is dramatically improved in comparison to that without the noise-removing filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.
1959-01-01
This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cunbao Liu
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Cathelicidin-BF, derived from the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus, is a typically cationic, amphiphilic and α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP with 30 amino acids that exerts powerful effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but whether it targets plasma membranes or intracellular targets to kill bacteria is still controversial. In the present study, we demonstrated that the disruption of bacterial membranes with high concentrations of cathelicidin-BF was the cause of bacterial death, as with conventional antibiotics at high concentrations. At lower concentrations, cathelicidin-BF did not cause bacterial plasma membrane disruption, but it was able to cross the membrane and aggregate at the nucleoid regions. Functional proteins of the transcription processes of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were affected by sublethal doses of cathelicidin-BF, as demonstrated by comparative proteomics using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification and subsequent gene ontology (GO analysis. Analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes showed that cathelicidin-BF mainly interferes with metabolic pathways related to amino acid synthesis, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, metabolism of purine and energy supply, and other processes. Although specific targets of cathelicidin-BF must still be validated, our study offers strong evidence that cathelicidin-BF may act upon intracellular targets to kill superbugs, which may be helpful for further efforts to discover novel antibiotics to fight against them.
Mixed-Degree Spherical Simplex-Radial Cubature Kalman Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiyuan Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Conventional low degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filters often generate low filtering accuracy or even diverge for handling highly nonlinear systems. The high-degree Kalman filters can improve filtering accuracy at the cost of increasing computational complexity; nevertheless their stability will be influenced by the negative weights existing in the high-dimensional systems. To efficiently improve filtering accuracy and stability, a novel mixed-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (MSSRCKF is proposed in this paper. The accuracy analysis shows that the true posterior mean and covariance calculated by the proposed MSSRCKF can agree accurately with the third-order moment and the second-order moment, respectively. Simulation results show that, in comparison with the conventional spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filters that are based on the same degrees, the proposed MSSRCKF can perform superior results from the aspects of filtering accuracy and computational complexity.
The BF formalism for QCD and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fucito, F.; Zeni, M.
1997-01-01
Using the BF version of pure Yang-Mills, it is possible to find a covariant representation of the 't Hooft magnetic flux operator. In this framework, 't Hooft's pioneering work on confinement finds an explicit realization in the continuum. Employing the Abelian projection gauge we compute the expectation value of the magnetic variable and find the expected perimeter law. We also check the area law behavior for the Wilson loop average and compute the string tension which turns out to be of the right order of magnitude. (orig.)
Rode, Joanna E; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz
2012-01-01
Stabilization energies of the electron donor-acceptor sulfinimine···BF(3) complexes calculated at either the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ or the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level do not allow to judge, whether the N- or O-atom in sulfinimine is stronger electron-donor to BF(3) . The problem seems to be solvable because chirality transfer phenomenon between chiral sulfinimine and achiral BF(3) is expected to be vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) active. Moreover, the bands associated with the achiral BF(3) molecule are predicted to be the most intense in the entire spectrum. However, the VCD band robustness analyses show that most of the chirality transfer modes of BF(3) are unreliable. Conversely, variation of VCD intensity with change of intermolecular distance, angle, and selected dihedrals between the complex partners shows that to establish the robustness of chirality transfer mode. It is also necessary to determine the influence of the potential energy surface (PES) shape on the VCD intensity. At the moment, there is still no universal criterion for the chirality transfer mode robustness and the conclusions formulated based on one system cannot be directly transferred even to a quite similar one. However, it is certain that more attention should be focused on relation of PES shape and the VCD mode robustness problem. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
The magnetic centrifugal mass filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2011-09-15
Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.
Rate Coefficients for the Reactions of BF with O and O2.
1981-12-21
2 indicate that indi- vidual molecular orbitals of BF are quite asymmetric so that the small overall dipole moment could be misleading. Nevertheless...radiation effects on materials, lu- brication and surface phenomena, thersionic " emision . photosensitive materials and detectors, atomic frequency standards
Rucci, Michael; Hardie, Russell C; Barnard, Kenneth J
2014-05-01
In this paper, we present a computationally efficient video restoration algorithm to address both blur and noise for a Nyquist sampled imaging system. The proposed method utilizes a temporal Kalman filter followed by a correlation-model based spatial adaptive Wiener filter (AWF). The Kalman filter employs an affine background motion model and novel process-noise variance estimate. We also propose and demonstrate a new multidelay temporal Kalman filter designed to more robustly treat local motion. The AWF is a spatial operation that performs deconvolution and adapts to the spatially varying residual noise left in the Kalman filter stage. In image areas where the temporal Kalman filter is able to provide significant noise reduction, the AWF can be aggressive in its deconvolution. In other areas, where less noise reduction is achieved with the Kalman filter, the AWF balances the deconvolution with spatial noise reduction. In this way, the Kalman filter and AWF work together effectively, but without the computational burden of full joint spatiotemporal processing. We also propose a novel hybrid system that combines a temporal Kalman filter and BM3D processing. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we test the algorithms on both simulated imagery and video collected with a visible camera.
Wiener discrete cosine transform-based image filtering
Pogrebnyak, Oleksiy; Lukin, Vladimir V.
2012-10-01
A classical problem of additive white (spatially uncorrelated) Gaussian noise suppression in grayscale images is considered. The main attention is paid to discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based denoising, in particular, to image processing in blocks of a limited size. The efficiency of DCT-based image filtering with hard thresholding is studied for different sizes of overlapped blocks. A multiscale approach that aggregates the outputs of DCT filters having different overlapped block sizes is proposed. Later, a two-stage denoising procedure that presumes the use of the multiscale DCT-based filtering with hard thresholding at the first stage and a multiscale Wiener DCT-based filtering at the second stage is proposed and tested. The efficiency of the proposed multiscale DCT-based filtering is compared to the state-of-the-art block-matching and three-dimensional filter. Next, the potentially reachable multiscale filtering efficiency in terms of output mean square error (MSE) is studied. The obtained results are of the same order as those obtained by Chatterjee's approach based on nonlocal patch processing. It is shown that the ideal Wiener DCT-based filter potential is usually higher when noise variance is high.
Olah, G.
1980-01-01
We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.
Zhang, Lingling; Fu, Jingjing; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Song, Shanshan; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chen, Jingyu; Yu, Jianhua; Wei, Wei
2015-03-01
Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are well-known to show an immunosuppressive function. In this study we determine the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of transferred bone marrow (BM) CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Murine BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were generated under the stimulation of GM-CSF and IL-4, and the function of BM CD11b(+) F4/80(+) DCs was identified by measuring the levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were transferred to CIA mice by intravenous injections. The histopathology of joint and spleen were evaluated. T lymphocyte proliferation, Treg and Th17 subsets were analyzed. The expressions of Foxp3, Helios and RORγt in T lymphocytes co-cultured with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs were measured in vitro. We found that BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs induced by GM-CSF and IL-4 could express high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta and IDO. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs significantly reduced the pathologic scores in joints and spleens, which correlated significantly with the reduced T lymphocyte proliferation and Th17 cell number, and with the increased Tregs number. In vitro, OVA-pulsed BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs promoted Treg cell expansion, enhanced IL-10 and CTLA-4 protein expression, augmented Foxp3 and Helios mRNA expression, and inhibited RORγt and IL-17 mRNA expression. Taken together, BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs are able to ameliorate the development and severity of CIA, at least partly by inducing Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion and suppressing Th17 function. The BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+) DCs might have a promising immunotherapeutic potential for autoimmune arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Correlation Filter Learning Toward Peak Strength for Visual Tracking.
Sui, Yao; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Li
2018-04-01
This paper presents a novel visual tracking approach to correlation filter learning toward peak strength of correlation response. Previous methods leverage all features of the target and the immediate background to learn a correlation filter. Some features, however, may be distractive to tracking, like those from occlusion and local deformation, resulting in unstable tracking performance. This paper aims at solving this issue and proposes a novel algorithm to learn the correlation filter. The proposed approach, by imposing an elastic net constraint on the filter, can adaptively eliminate those distractive features in the correlation filtering. A new peak strength metric is proposed to measure the discriminative capability of the learned correlation filter. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach effectively strengthens the peak of the correlation response, leading to more discriminative performance than previous methods. Extensive experiments on a challenging visual tracking benchmark demonstrate that the proposed tracker outperforms most state-of-the-art methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan
2006-01-01
This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
BF2 complex of fluorinated dipyrrolyldiketone: a new class of efficient receptor for acetate anions.
Maeda, Hiromitsu; Ito, Yoshihiro
2006-10-02
The beta-fluorinated derivative (2b) of the 1,3-dipyrrolyl-1,3-propanedione BF2 complex has been prepared from 3,4-difluoropyrrole and malonyl chloride, followed by treatment with BF3.OEt2. Despite the simple, acyclic, and neutral structure, 2b exhibits efficient 1:1 binding for anions in CH2Cl2 using the bridging CH and pyrrole NH as interaction sites. The binding constant (Ka) of 2b for acetate (CH3CO(2-)), associating more effectively than anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, H2PO(4-), and HSO(4-), is estimated to be 9.6 x 10(5) M(-1), approximately 9 times larger than that of the beta-H derivative 2a (1.1 x 10(5) M(-1)). The UV-vis and fluorescence spectral changes of 2b elucidate the effective recognition of an amino acid, such as phenylalanine, in the anionic form; this is also supported by CD spectral changes with mirror images by L- and D-isomers. Furthermore, in the solid state, BF2 complex 2b provides Cl- -bridged supramolecular networks and, in sharp contrast, deprotonated "anionic" self-assembled structures by F- binding.
Improvement of neutron kinetics module in TRAC-BF1code: one-dimensional nodal collocation method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jambrina, Ana; Barrachina, Teresa; Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: ajambrina@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidade Politecnica de Valencia (UPV), Valencia (Spain); Soler, Amparo, E-mail: asoler@iberdrola.es [SEA Propulsion S.L., Madrid (Spain); Concejal, Alberto, E-mail: acbe@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construcion S.A.U., Madrid (Spain)
2013-07-01
The TRAC-BF1 one-dimensional kinetic model is a formulation of the neutron diffusion equation in the two energy groups' approximation, based on the analytical nodal method (ANM). The advantage compared with a zero-dimensional kinetic model is that the axial power profile may vary with time due to thermal-hydraulic parameter changes and/or actions of the control systems but at has the disadvantages that in unusual situations it fails to converge. The nodal collocation method developed for the neutron diffusion equation and applied to the kinetics resolution of TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics, is an adaptation of the traditional collocation methods for the discretization of partial differential equations, based on the development of the solution as a linear combination of analytical functions. It has chosen to use a nodal collocation method based on a development of Legendre polynomials of neutron fluxes in each cell. The qualification is carried out by the analysis of the turbine trip transient from the NEA benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using both the original 1D kinetics implemented in TRAC-BF1 and the 1D nodal collocation method. (author)
Decentralized Social Filtering based on Trust
Olsson, Tomas
1998-01-01
This paper describes a decentralised approach to social filtering based on trust between agents in a multiagent system. The social filtering in the proposed approach is built on the interactions between collaborative software agents performing content-based filtering. This means that it uses a mixture of content-based and social filtering and thereby, it takes advantage of both methods.
Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian
2018-02-13
In this paper, a detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion algorithm is proposed by using proposed multi-scale joint decomposition framework (MJDF) and shearing filter (SF). The MJDF constructed with gradient minimization smoothing filter (GMSF) and Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF) is used to decompose source images into low-pass layers, edge layers, and detail layers at multiple scales. In order to highlight the detail information in the fused image, the edge layer and the detail layer in each scale are weighted combined into a detail-enhanced layer. As directional filter is effective in capturing salient information, so SF is applied to the detail-enhanced layer to extract geometrical features and obtain directional coefficients. Visual saliency map-based fusion rule is designed for fusing low-pass layers, and the sum of standard deviation is used as activity level measurement for directional coefficients fusion. The final fusion result is obtained by synthesizing the fused low-pass layers and directional coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method with shift-invariance, directional selectivity, and detail-enhanced property is efficient in preserving and enhancing detail information of multimodality medical images. Graphical abstract The detailed implementation of the proposed medical image fusion algorithm.
Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao
2008-01-01
In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.
RAPID TRANSFER ALIGNMENT USING FEDERATED KALMAN FILTER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUDong-qing; QINYong-yuan; PENGRong; LIXin
2005-01-01
The dimension number of the centralized Kalman filter (CKF) for the rapid transfer alignment (TA) is as high as 21 if the aircraft wing flexure motion is considered in the rapid TA. The 21-dimensional CKF brings the calculation burden on the computer and the difficulty to meet a high filtering updating rate desired by rapid TA. The federated Kalman filter (FKF) for the rapid TA is proposed to solve the dilemma. The structure and the algorithm of the FKF, which can perform parallel computation and has less calculation burden, are designed.The wing flexure motion is modeled, and then the 12-order velocity matching local filter and the 15-order attitud ematching local filter are devised. Simulation results show that the proposed EKE for the rapid TA almost has the same performance as the CKF. Thus the calculation burden of the proposed FKF for the rapid TA is markedly decreased.
A grid-voltage-sensorless resistive active power filter with series LC-filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
Voltage-sensorless control has been investigated for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) for many years due to the reduced system cost and potentially improved system reliability. The VSI based Resistive Active Power Filters (R-APFs) are now widely used to prevent the harmonic resonance in power...... distribution network, for which the voltage sensors are needed in order to obtain the current reference. In this paper a grid-voltage-sensorless control strategy is proposed for the R-APF with series LC-filter. Unlike the traditional resistance emulation method, this proposed control method re...
A Grid-Voltage-Sensorless Resistive Active Power Filter with Series LC-Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2018-01-01
Voltage-sensorless control has been investigated for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) for many years due to the reduced system cost and potentially improved system reliability. The VSI based Resistive Active Power Filters (R-APFs) are now widely used to prevent the harmonic resonance in power...... distribution network, for which the voltage sensors are needed in order to obtain the current reference. In this paper a grid-voltage-sensorless control strategy is proposed for the R-APF with series LC-filter. Unlike the traditional resistance emulation method, this proposed control method re...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devi, Y.D. [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India); Kota, V.K.B. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)
1996-04-01
The SU{sup BF}{sub sdg}(3) limit of pn-sdgIBFM, which was developed earlier, is applied with success in analyzing the recently observed M1 data in the {sup 163}Dy nucleus. As new experiments are being planned for {sup 157}Gd nucleus and that {sup 156}Gd is known to be a good SU{sub sd}(3) x 1g nucleus, in the second part of the paper a formalism for M1 distributions in the SU{sup BF}{sub sd}(3) x 1g limit is developed. In both these analytically solvable limiting situations, predictions are made for M1 distributions in the {sup 157}Gd nucleus. (orig.).
Swain, Sushree Diptimayee; Ray, Pravat Kumar; Mohanty, K. B.
2016-06-01
This research paper discover the design of a shunt Passive Power Filter (PPF) in Hybrid Series Active Power Filter (HSAPF) that employs a novel analytic methodology which is superior than FFT analysis. This novel approach consists of the estimation, detection and classification of the signals. The proposed method is applied to estimate, detect and classify the power quality (PQ) disturbance such as harmonics. This proposed work deals with three methods: the harmonic detection through wavelet transform method, the harmonic estimation by Kalman Filter algorithm and harmonic classification by decision tree method. From different type of mother wavelets in wavelet transform method, the db8 is selected as suitable mother wavelet because of its potency on transient response and crouched oscillation at frequency domain. In harmonic compensation process, the detected harmonic is compensated through Hybrid Series Active Power Filter (HSAPF) based on Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (IRPT). The efficacy of the proposed method is verified in MATLAB/SIMULINK domain and as well as with an experimental set up. The obtained results confirm the superiority of the proposed methodology than FFT analysis. This newly proposed PPF is used to make the conventional HSAPF more robust and stable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. L. Subtil
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of biofilm carriers in a MBR on the performance of organic matter and nitrogen removal and the influence on membrane fouling were evaluated. The configurations studied included a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (C-MBR and a Biofilm Membrane Bioreactor (BF-MBR operated in parallel, both fed with domestic wastewater. Regarding organic matter removal, no statistically significant differences were observed between C-MBR and BF-MBR, producing an effluent with a Soluble COD concentration of 27 ± 9.0 mgO2/L and 26 ±1.0 mgO2/L and BOD concentration of 6.0 ± 2.5 mgO2/L and 6.2 ± 2.1 mgO2/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BF-MBR produced a permeate with lower ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations, which resulted in a removal efficiency of 98% and 73%, respectively. It was also observed that the fouling rate was about 35% higher in the C-MBR than that for the BF-MBR, which also presented a reduction of total membrane resistance, about 29%, and increased operational cycle length around 7 days, compared to C-MBR.
Robust non-local median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2017-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.
Topology optimization of microwave waveguide filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aage, Niels; Johansen, Villads Egede
2017-01-01
We present a density based topology optimization approach for the design of metallic microwave insert filters. A two-phase optimization procedure is proposed in which we, starting from a uniform design, first optimize to obtain a set of spectral varying resonators followed by a band gap optimizat......We present a density based topology optimization approach for the design of metallic microwave insert filters. A two-phase optimization procedure is proposed in which we, starting from a uniform design, first optimize to obtain a set of spectral varying resonators followed by a band gap...... little resemblance to standard filter layouts and hence the proposed design method offers a new design tool in microwave engineering....
Face Recognition using Gabor Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajjad MOHSIN
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramila Christiane Rodrigues
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the atypical clinical C. jejuni Bf strain was shown by its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, modulation of the main enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake and regulation and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.
Sun, F Y; Li, P; Li, J; Li, H J; Ou, Q M; Sun, T T; Dong, Z J
2015-12-01
Four biofilm membrane bioreactors (Bf-MBRs) with various fixed carrier volumes (C:M) were operated in parallel to investigate the effect of attached-growth mode biomass involvement to the change of liquid-phase organics characteristics and membrane permeability, by comparing with conventional MBR. The experiments displayed that C:M and co-existence of biofilm with suspended solids in Bf-MBRs resulted in slight difference in pollutants removal effectiveness, and in rather distinct biomass properties and bacterial activities. The membrane permeability and specific resistance of bulk suspension of Bf-MBRs related closely with the liquid-phase organic substance, including soluble microbial products (SMP) and biopolymer cluster (BPC). Compared with conventional MBR, Bf-MBR with proper C:M had a low total biomass content and food-chain, where biofilm formation and its dominance affected liquid-phase organics, especially through reducing their content and minimizing strongly and weakly hydrophobic components with small molecular weight, and thus to mitigate membrane fouling significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexander fractional differential window filter for ECG denoising.
Verma, Atul Kumar; Saini, Indu; Saini, Barjinder Singh
2018-06-01
The electrocardiogram (ECG) non-invasively monitors the electrical activities of the heart. During the process of recording and transmission, ECG signals are often corrupted by various types of noises. Minimizations of these noises facilitate accurate detection of various anomalies. In the present paper, Alexander fractional differential window (AFDW) filter is proposed for ECG signal denoising. The designed filter is based on the concept of generalized Alexander polynomial and the R-L differential equation of fractional calculus. This concept is utilized to formulate a window that acts as a forward filter. Thereafter, the backward filter is constructed by reversing the coefficients of the forward filter. The proposed AFDW filter is then obtained by averaging of the forward and backward filter coefficients. The performance of the designed AFDW filter is validated by adding the various type of noise to the original ECG signal obtained from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The two non-diagnostic measure, i.e., SNR, MSE, and one diagnostic measure, i.e., wavelet energy based diagnostic distortion (WEDD) have been employed for the quantitative evaluation of the designed filter. Extensive experimentations on all the 48-records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database resulted in average SNR of 22.014 ± 3.806365, 14.703 ± 3.790275, 13.3183 ± 3.748230; average MSE of 0.001458 ± 0.00028, 0.0078 ± 0.000319, 0.01061 ± 0.000472; and average WEDD value of 0.020169 ± 0.01306, 0.1207 ± 0.061272, 0.1432 ± 0.073588, for ECG signal contaminated by the power line, random, and the white Gaussian noise respectively. A new metric named as morphological power preservation measure (MPPM) is also proposed that account for the power preservance (as indicated by PSD plots) and the QRS morphology. The proposed AFDW filter retained much of the original (clean) signal power without any significant morphological distortion as validated by MPPM measure that were 0
GENERALIZATION OF RAYLEIGH MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD DESPECKLING FILTER USING QUADRILATERAL KERNELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sridevi
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Speckle noise is the most prevalent noise in clinical ultrasound images. It visibly looks like light and dark spots and deduce the pixel intensity as murkiest. Gazing at fetal ultrasound images, the impact of edge and local fine details are more palpable for obstetricians and gynecologists to carry out prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. A robust despeckling filter has to be contrived to proficiently suppress speckle noise and simultaneously preserve the features. The proposed filter is the generalization of Rayleigh maximum likelihood filter by the exploitation of statistical tools as tuning parameters and use different shapes of quadrilateral kernels to estimate the noise free pixel from neighborhood. The performance of various filters namely Median, Kuwahura, Frost, Homogenous mask filter and Rayleigh maximum likelihood filter are compared with the proposed filter in terms PSNR and image profile. Comparatively the proposed filters surpass the conventional filters.
Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations
Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul
1993-01-01
To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.
BESSEL FILTER AND CHAOS: THREE-IN-ONE ACTION
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumeliene, Skaidra
2006-01-01
Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented.......Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented....
Similitude study of a moving bed granular filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert C. Brown; Huawei Shi; Gerald Colver; Saw-Choon Soo [Iowa State University, IA (United States)
2003-12-10
The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a moving bed granular filter designed for hot gas clean up. This study used similitude theory to devise experiments that were conducted at near-ambient conditions while simulating the performance of filters operated at elevated temperatures and pressures (850{sup o}C and 1000 kPa). These experiments revealed that the proposed moving bed granular filter can operate at high collection efficiencies, typically exceeding 99%, and low pressure drops without the need for periodic regeneration through the use of a continuous flow of fresh granular filter media in the filter. In addition, important design constraints were discovered for the successful operation of the proposed moving bed granular filter.
Two-dimensional topological field theories coupled to four-dimensional BF theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montesinos, Merced; Perez, Alejandro
2008-01-01
Four-dimensional BF theory admits a natural coupling to extended sources supported on two-dimensional surfaces or string world sheets. Solutions of the theory are in one to one correspondence with solutions of Einstein equations with distributional matter (cosmic strings). We study new (topological field) theories that can be constructed by adding extra degrees of freedom to the two-dimensional world sheet. We show how two-dimensional Yang-Mills degrees of freedom can be added on the world sheet, producing in this way, an interactive (topological) theory of Yang-Mills fields with BF fields in four dimensions. We also show how a world sheet tetrad can be naturally added. As in the previous case the set of solutions of these theories are contained in the set of solutions of Einstein's equations if one allows distributional matter supported on two-dimensional surfaces. These theories are argued to be exactly quantizable. In the context of quantum gravity, one important motivation to study these models is to explore the possibility of constructing a background-independent quantum field theory where local degrees of freedom at low energies arise from global topological (world sheet) degrees of freedom at the fundamental level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balasekaran, Samundeeswari Mariappan [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hagenbach, Adelheid; Spandl, Johann; Abram, Ulrich [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany)
2017-10-04
The deep blue, paramagnetic Cs{sub 2}[Tc{sup II}(NO)F{sub 5}] is formed during reactions of pertechnetate, acetohydroxamic acid, and CsF in aqueous HF. A reaction of Cs{sub 2}[Tc(NO)F{sub 5}] with BF{sub 3}.MeOH in acetonitrile gives yellow blocks of the fluorido-bridged dimer [{Tc"I(NO)(CH_3CN)_4}{sub 2}F](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. The compound is stable as solid and in acetonitrile solutions. The complex cation contains a bent μ-F{sup -} ligand and two linear nitrosyl groups. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters
Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.
2014-01-01
Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilic, Tomislav; Milun, Stanko; Petrovic, Goran [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Machine Engineering and Naval Architecture, R. Boskovica bb, 21000, Split (Croatia)
2007-02-15
The shunt active power filters are used to attenuate the harmonic currents in power systems by injecting equal but opposite compensating currents. Successful control of the active filters requires an accurate current reference. In this paper the current reference determination based on predictive filtering structure is presented. Current reference was obtained by taking the difference of load current and its fundamental harmonic. For fundamental harmonic determination with no time delay a combination of digital predictive filter and low pass filter is used. The proposed method was implemented on a laboratory prototype of a three-phase active power filter. The algorithm for current reference determination was adapted and implemented on DSP controller. Simulation and experimental results show that the active power filter with implemented predictive filtering structure gives satisfactory performance in power system harmonic attenuation. (author)
Fixed-pattern noise correction method based on improved moment matching for a TDI CMOS image sensor.
Xu, Jiangtao; Nie, Huafeng; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin
2017-09-01
In this paper, an improved moment matching method based on a spatial correlation filter (SCF) and bilateral filter (BF) is proposed to correct the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) of a time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS). First, the values of row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated and added to the original image through SCF and BF, respectively. Then the filtered image will be processed by an improved moment matching method with a moving window. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination, the standard deviation of row mean vector (SDRMV) decreases from 5.6761 LSB to 0.1948 LSB, while the standard deviation of the column mean vector (SDCMV) decreases from 15.2005 LSB to 13.1949LSB. In addition, for different images captured by different TDI-CISs, the average decrease of SDRMV and SDCMV is 5.4922/2.0357 LSB, respectively. Comparative experimental results indicate that the proposed method can effectively correct the FPNs of different TDI-CISs while maintaining image details without any auxiliary equipment.
A Digital Image Denoising Algorithm Based on Gaussian Filtering and Bilateral Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piao Weiying
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Bilateral filtering has been applied in the area of digital image processing widely, but in the high gradient region of the image, bilateral filtering may generate staircase effect. Bilateral filtering can be regarded as one particular form of local mode filtering, according to above analysis, an mixed image de-noising algorithm is proposed based on Gaussian filter and bilateral filtering. First of all, it uses Gaussian filter to filtrate the noise image and get the reference image, then to take both the reference image and noise image as the input for range kernel function of bilateral filter. The reference image can provide the image’s low frequency information, and noise image can provide image’s high frequency information. Through the competitive experiment on both the method in this paper and traditional bilateral filtering, the experimental result showed that the mixed de-noising algorithm can effectively overcome staircase effect, and the filtrated image was more smooth, its textural features was also more close to the original image, and it can achieve higher PSNR value, but the amount of calculation of above two algorithms are basically the same.
Kalman Filter Application to Symmetrical Fault Detection during Power Swing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khodaparast, Jalal; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Khederzadeh, M.
2016-01-01
capability of Kalman Filter. The proposed index is calculated by assessing the difference between predicted and actual samples of impedance. The predicted impedance samples are obtained using Kalman filter and Taylor expansion, which is used in this paper to track the phasor precisely. Second order of Taylor...... expansion is used to decrease corrugation effect of impedance estimation and increase the reliability of proposed method. The instantaneous estimation and prediction capability of Kalman filter are two reasons for proposing utilizing Kalman filter....
A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking
Khalid, Syed Safwan; Abrar, Shafayat
2017-01-01
In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.
A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking
Khalid, Syed Safwan
2017-01-22
In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.
Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering
Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong
2018-03-01
Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.
Optimization-based particle filter for state and parameter estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Fu; Qi Fei; Shi Guangming; Zhang Li
2009-01-01
In recent years, the theory of particle filter has been developed and widely used for state and parameter estimation in nonlinear/non-Gaussian systems. Choosing good importance density is a critical issue in particle filter design. In order to improve the approximation of posterior distribution, this paper provides an optimization-based algorithm (the steepest descent method) to generate the proposal distribution and then sample particles from the distribution. This algorithm is applied in 1-D case, and the simulation results show that the proposed particle filter performs better than the extended Kalman filter (EKF), the standard particle filter (PF), the extended Kalman particle filter (PF-EKF) and the unscented particle filter (UPF) both in efficiency and in estimation precision.
Katoh, Takumi; Matsumura, Ryo; Takaguchi, Ryotaro; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi
2018-04-01
To clarify the process of formation of source regions of high-performance Ge n-channel tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), p+-n junctions formed by low-energy ion implantation (I/I) of BF2 atoms are characterized. Here, the formation of p+-n junctions with steep B profiles and low junction leakage is a key issue. The steepness of 5.7 nm/dec in profiles of B implanted into Ge is obtained for BF2 I/I at 3 keV with a dose of 4 × 1014 cm-2. Ge-on-insulator (GOI) n-TFETs with the source tunnel junctions formed by low-energy B and BF2 I/I are fabricated on GOI substrates and the device operation is confirmed. Although the performance at room temperature is significantly degraded by the source junction leakage current, an I on/I off ratio of 105 and the minimum sub-threshold swing (S.S.) of 130 mV/dec are obtained at 10 K. It is found that GOI n-TFETs with steeper B profiles formed by BF2 I/I have led to higher on current and a lower sub-threshold slope, demonstrating the effectiveness of steep B profiles in enhancing the GOI TFET performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Cosine-modulated filter banks play a major role in digital signal processing. Sparse FIR filter banks have lower implementation complexity than full filter banks, while keeping a good performance level. This paper presents a fast design paradigm for sparse nearly perfect-reconstruction (NPR cosine-modulated filter banks. First, an approximation function is introduced to reduce the non-convex quadratically constrained optimization problem to a linearly constrained optimization problem. Then, the desired sparse linear phase FIR prototype filter is derived through the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP performed under the weighted l 2 norm. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is an effective paradigm to design sparse NPR cosine-modulated filter banks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eloísa Berbel Manaia
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Bin; Li, Yuan; Qin, Xianjing; Zhan, Guoqing; Ma, Ming; Li, Chunya
2012-01-01
A water soluble ionic liquid, 1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF 4 ), was incorporated into TiO 2 nanoparticles to fabricate a hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCE) through electrochemical deposition in a tetrabutyltitanate sol solution containing [BMIM]BF 4 . The obtained nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCEs were characterized scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical behaviors of p‐acetaminophen at the nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 /GCEs were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the redox reaction of p‐acetaminophen using an unmodified electrode under the same conditions, a new reduction peak was observed clearly at 0.26 V with the modified electrode. In addition, the peak potential for the oxidation of p‐acetaminophen was found to shift negatively about 90 mV and the current response increased significantly. These changes indicate that the nano‐TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 hybrid film can improve the redox reactions of p‐acetaminophen in aqueous medium. Under optimum conditions, a linear relationship was obtained for the p‐acetaminophen solutions with concentration in the range from 5.0 × 10 −8 to 5.0 × 10 −5 M. The estimated detection limit was 1.0 × 10 −8 M (S/N = 3). The newly developed method was applied for the determination of p-acetaminophen in urine samples. - Highlights: ► Nano-TiO 2 /[BMIM]BF 4 hybrid film electrode was fabricated with electrodeposition. ► Voltammetric behavior of p-acetaminophen at the obtained electrode was investigated. ► The hybrid film electrode shows good electrocatalytic response to p-acetaminophen. ► p-acetaminophen in urine samples was successfully determined.
Feature-Based Nonlocal Polarimetric SAR Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli Xing
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images are inherently contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise, which complicates the image interpretation and image analyses. To reduce the speckle effect, several adaptive speckle filters have been developed based on the weighted average of the similarity measures commonly depending on the model or probability distribution, which are often affected by the distribution parameters and modeling texture components. In this paper, a novel filtering method introduces the coefficient of variance ( CV and Pauli basis (PB to measure the similarity, and the two features are combined with the framework of the nonlocal mean filtering. The CV is used to describe the complexity of various scenes and distinguish the scene heterogeneity; moreover, the Pauli basis is able to express the polarimetric information in PolSAR image processing. This proposed filtering combines the CV and Pauli basis to improve the estimation accuracy of the similarity weights. Then, the similarity of the features is deduced according to the test statistic. Subsequently, the filtering is proceeded by using the nonlocal weighted estimation. The performance of the proposed filter is tested with the simulated images and real PolSAR images, which are acquired by AIRSAR system and ESAR system. The qualitative and quantitative experiments indicate the validity of the proposed method by comparing with the widely-used despeckling methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Changyun Liu; Penglang Shui; Gang Wei; Song Li
2014-01-01
To improve the low tracking precision caused by lagged filter gain or imprecise state noise when the target highly maneu-vers, a modified unscented Kalman filter algorithm based on the improved filter gain and adaptive scale factor of state noise is pre-sented. In every filter process, the estimated scale factor is used to update the state noise covariance Qk, and the improved filter gain is obtained in the filter process of unscented Kalman filter (UKF) via predicted variance Pk|k-1, which is similar to the standard Kalman filter. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides better accuracy and ability to adapt to the highly maneu-vering target compared with the standard UKF.
A Design of Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Sensor Fault Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Pyung Soo
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for sensor fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite measurements and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noisefree systems. The proposed residual generation filter is specified to the digital filter structure for the amenability to hardware implementation. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, extensive simulations are performed for the discretized DC motor system with two types of sensor faults, incipient soft bias-type fault and abrupt bias-type fault. In particular, according to diverse noise levels and windows lengths, meaningful simulation results are given for the abrupt bias-type fault.
Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Cristina Diamantini
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalisable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D−1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D−2-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realised as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojtas, M., E-mail: maciej.wojtas@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Gagor, A. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Science, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Czupinski, O. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Medycki, W. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Jakubas, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)
2012-03-15
dashed lines stand for the hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds to BF4 groups are not included for the picture quality Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second organic-inorganic salt containing single-protonated piperazinium cation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first such a crystal not only structurally characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase I revealed the features characteristic of super ionic phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}] crystal is piezoelectric and polar at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of phase transitions was proposed.
Silva, Mariana C C; de Paula, Cláudia A A; Ferreira, Joana G; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Vaz, Angela M S F; Sampaio, Misako U; Correia, Maria Tereza S; Oliva, Maria Luiza V
2014-07-01
Plant lectins have attracted great interest in cancer studies due to their antitumor activities. These proteins or glycoproteins specifically and reversibly bind to different types of carbohydrates or glycoproteins. Breast cancer, which presents altered glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins, is one of the most frequent malignant diseases in women. In this work, we describe the effect of the lectin Bauhinia forficata lectin (BfL), which was purified from B. forficata Link subsp. forficata seeds, on the MCF7 human breast cancer cellular line, investigating the mechanisms involved in its antiproliferative activity. MCF7 cells were treated with BfL. Viability and adhesion alterations were evaluated using flow cytometry and western blotting. BfL inhibited the viability of the MCF7 cell line but was ineffective on MDA-MB-231 and MCF 10A cells. It inhibits MCF7 adhesion on laminin, collagen I and fibronectin, decreases α1, α6 and β1 integrin subunit expression, and increases α5 subunit expression. BfL triggers necrosis and secondary necrosis, with caspase-9 inhibition. It also causes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, which leads to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and a decrease in the expression of the regulatory proteins pRb and p21. BfL shows selective cytotoxic effect and adhesion inhibition on MCF7 breast cancer cells. Cell death induction and inhibition of cell adhesion may contribute to understanding the action of lectins in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Distributional Representation Model For Collaborative Filtering
Junlin, Zhang; Heng, Cai; Tongwen, Huang; Huiping, Xue
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a very concise deep learning approach for collaborative filtering that jointly models distributional representation for users and items. The proposed framework obtains better performance when compared against current state-of-art algorithms and that made the distributional representation model a promising direction for further research in the collaborative filtering.
An approach for fixed coefficient RNS-based FIR filter
Srinivasa Reddy, Kotha; Sahoo, Subhendu Kumar
2017-08-01
In this work, an efficient new modular multiplication method for {2k-1, 2k, 2k+1-1} moduli set is proposed to implement a residue number system (RNS)-based fixed coefficient finite impulse response filter. The new multiplication approach reduces the number of partial products by using pre-loaded product block. The reduction in partial products with the proposed modular multiplication improves the clock frequency and reduces the area and power as compared with the conventional modular multiplication. Further, the present approach eliminates a binary number to residue number converter circuit, which is usually needed at the front end of RNS-based system. In this work, two fixed coefficient filter architectures with the new modular multiplication approach are proposed. The filters are implemented using Verilog hardware description language. The United Microelectronics Corporation 90 nm technology library has been used for synthesis and the results area, power and delay are obtained with the help of Cadence register transfer level compiler. The power delay product (PDP) is also considered for performance comparison among the proposed filters. One of the proposed architecture is found to improve PDP gain by 60.83% as compared with the filter implemented with conventional modular multiplier. The filters functionality is validated with the help of Altera DSP Builder.
Results from Evaluation of Proposed ASME AG-1 Section FI Metal Media Filters - 13063
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, John A.; Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)
2013-07-01
High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration technology is commonly used in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that require control of radioactive particulate matter (PM) emissions due to treatment or management of radioactive materials. Although HEPA technology typically makes use of glass fiber media, metal and ceramic media filters are also capable of filtering efficiencies beyond the required 99.97%. Sintered metal fiber filters are good candidates for use in DOE facilities due to their resistance to corrosive environments and resilience at high temperature and elevated levels of relative humidity. Their strength can protect them from high differential pressure or pressure spikes and allow for back pulse cleaning, extending filter lifetime. Use of these filters has the potential to reduce the cost of filtration in DOE facilities due to life cycle cost savings. ASME AG-1 section FI has not been approved due to a lack of protocols and performance criteria for qualifying section FI filters. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) with the aid of the FI project team has developed a Section FI test stand and test plan capable of assisting in the qualification ASME AG-1 section FI filters. Testing done at ICET using the FI test stand evaluates resistance to rated air flow, test aerosol penetration and resistance to heated air of the section FI filters. Data collected during this testing consists of temperature, relative humidity, differential pressure, flow rate, upstream particle concentration, and downstream particle concentration. (authors)
Fir Filters Compliant with the IEEE Standard for M Class PMU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duda Krzysztof
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error, and exceeds FE (frequency error and RFE (rate of frequency error limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1 by the window method; 2 as flat-top windows; or as 3 optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.
High Degree Cubature Federated Filter for Multisensor Information Fusion with Correlated Noises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lijun Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved high degree cubature federated filter for the nonlinear fusion system with cross-correlation between process and measurement noises at the same time using the fifth-degree cubature rule and the decorrelated principle in its local filters. The master filter of the federated filter adopts the no-reset mode to fuse local estimates of local filters to generate a global estimate according to the scalar weighted rule. The air-traffic maneuvering target tracking simulations are performed between the proposed filter and the fifth-degree cubature federated filter. Simulations results demonstrate that the proposed filter not only can achieve almost the same accuracy as the fifth-degree cubature federated filter with independent white noises, but also has superior performance to the fifth-degree cubature federated filter while the noises are cross-correlated at the same time.
Incident reporting to BfArM - regulatory framework, results and challenges.
Seidel, Robin; Stößlein, Ekkehard; Lauer, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
Medical devices are manifold and one of the most innovative fields of technology. As technologies advance, former limits cease to exist and complex devices become reality. Medical devices represent a very dynamic field with high economic relevance. The manufacturer of a medical device is obliged to minimize product-related risks as well as to demonstrate compliance with the so-called "essential requirements" regarding safety and performance before placing the device on the market. Any critical incident in relation to the application of a medical device has to be reported to the competent authority for risk assessment, which in Germany is either the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) or the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) depending on the type of device. In this article, the German regulatory framework for medical devices and the resulting tasks for BfArM are described as well as the topics of its recently installed research and development group on prospective risk identification and application safety for medical devices. Results of failure mode and root cause analyses of incident data are presented as well as further data on cases with the result "root-cause analysis not possible". Finally an outlook is given on future challenges regarding risk assessment for medical devices.
Properties of auxiliary filtering materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.
1981-01-01
The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.
Are consistent equal-weight particle filters possible?
van Leeuwen, P. J.
2017-12-01
Particle filters are fully nonlinear data-assimilation methods that could potentially change the way we do data-assimilation in highly nonlinear high-dimensional geophysical systems. However, the standard particle filter in which the observations come in by changing the relative weights of the particles is degenerate. This means that one particle obtains weight one, and all other particles obtain a very small weight, effectively meaning that the ensemble of particles reduces to that one particle. For over 10 years now scientists have searched for solutions to this problem. One obvious solution seems to be localisation, in which each part of the state only sees a limited number of observations. However, for a realistic localisation radius based on physical arguments, the number of observations is typically too large, and the filter is still degenerate. Another route taken is trying to find proposal densities that lead to more similar particle weights. There is a simple proof, however, that shows that there is an optimum, the so-called optimal proposal density, and that optimum will lead to a degenerate filter. On the other hand, it is easy to come up with a counter example of a particle filter that is not degenerate in high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, several particle filters have been developed recently that claim to have equal or equivalent weights. In this presentation I will show how to construct a particle filter that is never degenerate in high-dimensional systems, and how that is still consistent with the proof that one cannot do better than the optimal proposal density. Furthermore, it will be shown how equal- and equivalent-weights particle filters fit within this framework. This insight will then lead to new ways to generate particle filters that are non-degenerate, opening up the field of nonlinear filtering in high-dimensional systems.
A modified method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging using [¹¹C]BF-227.
Kaneta, Tomohiro; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Minoshima, Satoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Furumoto, Shozo; Iwata, Ren; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoki; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki
2011-12-01
Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analyses have been widely used in dementia imaging studies. However, 3D-SSP sometimes shows paradoxical results on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) analyses. This is thought to be caused by errors in anatomical standardization (AS) based on an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) template. We developed a new method of 3D-SSP analysis for amyloid PET imaging, and used it to analyze (11)C-labeled 2-(2-[2-dimethylaminothiazol-5-yl]ethenyl)-6-(2-[fluoro]ethoxy)benzoxazole (BF-227) PET images of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 20 with MCI, 19 patients with AD, and 17 healthy controls. Twelve subjects with MCI were followed up for 3 years or more, and conversion to AD was seen in 6 cases. All subjects underwent PET with both FDG and BF-227. For AS and 3D-SSP analyses of PET data, Neurostat (University of Washington, WA, USA) was used. Method 1 involves AS for BF-227 images using an FDG template. In this study, we developed a new method (Method 2) for AS: First, an FDG image was subjected to AS using an FDG template. Then, the BF-227 image of the same patient was registered to the FDG image, and AS was performed using the transformation parameters calculated for AS of the corresponding FDG images. Regional values were normalized by the average value obtained at the cerebellum and values were calculated for the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. For statistical comparison of the 3 groups, we applied one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. For statistical comparison between converters and non-converters, the t test was applied. Statistical significance was defined as p SSP analysis of amyloid PET imaging possible. This new method of 3D-SSP analysis for BF-227 PET could prove useful for detecting differences between normal groups and AD and MCI groups, and between converters and non-converters.
Synthesis of Cascadable DDCC-Based Universal Filter Using NAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huu-Duy Tran
2015-08-01
Full Text Available A novel systematic approach for synthesizing DDCC-based voltage-mode biquadratic universal filters is proposed. The DDCCs are described by infinity-variables’ models of nullor-mirror elements which can be used in the nodal admittance matrix expansion process. Applying the proposed method, the obtained 12 equivalent filters offer the following features: multi-input and two outputs, realization of all five standard filter functions, namely lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch and allpass, high-input impedance, employing only grounded capacitors and resistors, orthogonal controllability between pole frequency and quality factor, and cascadable, low active and passive sensitivities. The workability of some synthesized filters is verified by HSPICE simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hind, G.; Clark, R.D.; Houchins, J.P.
1983-01-01
Extensive studies, performed principally by Hauska, Hurt and collaborators, have shown that a cytochrome (cyt) b/f complex isolated from photosynthetic membranes of spinach or Anabaena catalyzes electron transport from plastoquinol (PQH/sub 2/) to plastocyanin or algal cyt c-552. The complex from spinach thylakoids generated a membrane potential when reconstituted into liposomes, and although the electrogenic mechanism remains unknown, a key role for cyt b-563 is widely accepted. Electrogenesis by a Q-cycle mechanism requires a plastoquinone (PQ) reductase to be associated with the stromal side of the thylakoid b/f complex though this activity has yet to be demonstrated. It seemed possible that more gentle isolation of the complex might yield a form containing additional polypeptides, perhaps including a PQ reductase or a component involved in returning electrons from reduced ferredoxin to the complex in cyclic electron flow. Optimization of the isolation of cyt b/f complex for Hybrid 424 spinach from a growth room was also required. The procedure we devised is compared to the protocol of Hurt and Hauska (1982). 13 references.
Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.
2017-08-01
In the present paper; the FTIR and Temperature dependent DC Ionic conductivity studies of polymer (80 Wt% PVDF-HFP) with inorganic lithium tetra fluoroborate salt (20 Wt% LiBF4) as ionic charge carrier and plasticized with various weight ratios of Ethylene carbonate plasticizer (10 Wt% to 70 Wt% EC) as gel polymer electrolytes. Solution casting method is used for the preparation of plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte films. FTIR analysis shows the good complexation between PVDF-HFP: LiBF4 and the presence of functional groups in the plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte membrane. Also the analysis and results show that the highest DC ionic conductivity of 1.66 × 10-3 SCm -1 was found at 373 K for a particular concentration of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP: 20 Wt% LiBF4: 40 Wt% EC porous gel type polymer-salt plasticized porous membrane. Increase of temperature results expansion and segmental motion of polymer chain that generates free volume in turn promotes hopping of the lithium ions satisfying Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.
Design of Microwave Multibandpass Filters with Quasilumped Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dejan Miljanović
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Design of RF and microwave filters has always been the challenging engineering field. Modern filter design techniques involve the use of the three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D EM solvers for predicting filter behavior, yielding the most accurate filter characteristics. However, the 3D EM simulations are time consuming. In this paper, we propose electric-circuit models, instead of 3D EM models, suitable for design of RF and microwave filters with quasilumped coupled resonators. Using the diakoptic approach, the 3D filter structure is decomposed into domains that are modeled by electric networks. The coupling between these domains is modeled by capacitors and coupled inductors. Furthermore, we relate the circuit-element values to the physical dimensions of the 3D filter structure. We propose the filter design procedure that is based on the circuit models and fast circuit-level simulations, yielding the element values from which the physical dimensions can be obtained. The obtained dimensions should be slightly refined for achieving the desired filter characteristics. The mathematical problems encountered in the procedure are solved by numerical and symbolic computations. The procedure is exemplified by designing a triple-bandpass filter and validated by measurements on the fabricated filter. The simulation and experimental results are in good agreement.
Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jui-Pin Yang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.
Tests of BF3 counters with getter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comte, R.; Dauphin, G.
1968-01-01
BF 3 counters with addition of a getter have been developed to improve operation characteristics of these detectors in presence of strong gamma flows. The getter is made of an active coal deposit on the cathode. As noticed by other studies, the degradation of these counters is related to the exposure to strong neutron flows and to gamma radiations. The authors report tests performed on these counters with a brief presentation of the counters, and a presentation of the test installation. A threshold curve and an amplitude spectrum are obtained, and counting is performed for a fixed threshold before and after the exposure of detectors to variable doses of γ radiation. The results after a first 2 hour long irradiation, a 230 hour long second irradiation, and a third irradiation under high voltage (2100 V) are discussed. Thermal tests are then performed and commented
Kernel-based noise filtering of neutron detector signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Moon Ghu; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Eun Ki
2007-01-01
This paper describes recently developed techniques for effective filtering of neutron detector signal noise. In this paper, three kinds of noise filters are proposed and their performance is demonstrated for the estimation of reactivity. The tested filters are based on the unilateral kernel filter, unilateral kernel filter with adaptive bandwidth and bilateral filter to show their effectiveness in edge preservation. Filtering performance is compared with conventional low-pass and wavelet filters. The bilateral filter shows a remarkable improvement compared with unilateral kernel and wavelet filters. The effectiveness and simplicity of the unilateral kernel filter with adaptive bandwidth is also demonstrated by applying it to the reactivity measurement performed during reactor start-up physics tests
Priorities, activities and objectives of the BMU/BfS concept for ''Human Factor'' (HF) topics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennig, R.; Kociok, B.
1994-01-01
Representation of the SR 2039/1-7 research project of the BMU/BfS, with a short definition of its objectives. The man-machine or man-organization-interface in nuclear power plant operation is dealt with. (DG) [de
Bayesian target tracking based on particle filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
For being able to deal with the nonlinear or non-Gaussian problems, particle filters have been studied by many researchers. Based on particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) proposal function is applied to Bayesian target tracking. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, the resampling step, etc novel techniques are also introduced into Bayesian target tracking. And the simulation results confirm the improved particle filter with these techniques outperforms the basic one.
What Powers the 2006 Outburst of the Symbiotic Star BF Cygni?
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A. Skopal
2015-02-01
Full Text Available BF Cygni is a classical symbiotic binary. Its optical light curve occasionally shows outbursts of the Z And-type, whose nature is not well understood. During the 2006 August, BF Cyg underwent the recent outburst, and continues its active phase to the present. The aim of this contribution is to determine the fundamental parameters of the hot component in the binary during the active phase. For this purpose we used a high- and low-resolution optical spectroscopy and the multicolour UBV RCIC photometry. Our photometric monitoring revealed that a high level of the star’s brightness lasts for unusually long time of > 7 years. A sharp violet-shifted absorption component and broad emission wings in the Hα profile developed during the whole active phase. From 2009, our spectra revealed a bipolar ejection from the white dwarf (WD. Modelling the spectral energy distribution (SED of the low-resolution spectra showed simultaneous presence of a warm (< 10 000 K disk-like pseudophotosphere and a strong nebular component of radiation (emission measure of ~1061 cm−3. The luminosity of the hot active object was estimated to > 5−8×103 Lʘ. Such high luminosity, sustained for the time of years, can be understood as a result of an enhanced transient accretion rate throughout a large disk, leading also to formation of collimated ejection from the WD.
An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency. Particul......This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...
BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atila Iamarino
Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.
Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, J.
1980-12-01
Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt
Deep Ultraviolet Macroporous Silicon Filters, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make deep and far UV optical filters from macroporous silicon. This type of filter consists of an array of...
Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade
Garcés Correa, A.; Laciar, E.; Patiño, H. D.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.
2007-11-01
Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records.
Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garces Correa, A; Laciar, E; Patino, H D; Valentinuzzi, M E
2007-01-01
Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records
Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garces Correa, A [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Patino, H D [Instituto de Automatica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Valentinuzzi, M E [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biologicas (INSIBIO), UNT-CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina)
2007-11-15
Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records.
Quantitative kinetic analysis of PET amyloid imaging agents [11C]BF227 and [18F]FACT in human brain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shidahara, Miho; Watabe, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Watanuki, Shoichi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arakawa, Yuma; Funaki, Yoshihito; Iwata, Ren; Gonda, Kohsuke; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Yanai, Kazuhiko
2015-01-01
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare two amyloid imaging agents, [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT (derivative from [ 11 C]BF227) through quantitative pharmacokinetics analysis in human brain. Methods: Positron emission tomography studies were performed on six elderly healthy control (HC) subjects and seven probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with [ 11 C]BF227 and 10 HC subjects and 10 probable AD patients with [ 18 F]FACT. Data from nine regions of interest were analyzed by several approaches, namely non-linear least-squared fitting methods with arterial input functions (one-tissue compartment model(1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM)), Logan plot, and linearized methods with reference region (Reference Logan plot (RefLogan), MRTM0, MRTM2). We also evaluated SUV and SUVR for both tracers. The parameters estimated by several approaches were compared between two tracers for detectability of differences between HC and AD patients. Results: For [ 11 C]BF227, there were no significant difference of V T (2TCM, 1TCM) and SUV in all regions (Student t-test; p < 0.05) and significant differences in the DVRs (Logan, RefLogan, and MRTM2) and SUVRs in six neocortical regions (p < 0.05) between the HC and AD groups. For [ 18 F]FACT, significant differences in DVRs (RefLogan, MRTM0, and MRTM2) were observed in more than four neocortical regions between the HC and AD groups (p < 0.05), and the significant differences were found in SUVRs for two neocortical regions (inferior frontal coretex and lateral temporal coretex). Our results showed that both tracers can clearly distinguish between HC and AD groups although the pharmacokinetics and distribution patterns in brain for two tracers were substantially different. Conclusion: This study revealed that although the PET amyloid imaging agents [ 11 C]BF227 and [ 18 F]FACT have similar chemical and biological properties, they have different pharmacokinetics, and caution must be paid for usage of the
Multirate Digital Filters Based on FPGA and Its Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharaf El-Din, R.M.A.
2013-01-01
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is one of the fastest growing techniques in the electronics industry. It is used in a wide range of application fields such as, telecommunications, data communications, image enhancement and processing, video signals, digital TV broadcasting, and voice synthesis and recognition. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) offers good solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP systems. The focus of this thesis is on one of the basic DSP functions, namely filtering signals to remove unwanted frequency bands. Multi rate Digital Filters (MDFs) are the main theme here. Theory and implementation of MDF, as a special class of digital filters, will be discussed. Multi rate digital filters represent a class of digital filters having a number of attractive features like, low requirements for the coefficient word lengths, significant saving in computation and storage requirements results in a significant reduction in its dynamic power consumption. This thesis introduces an efficient FPGA realization of a multi rate decimation filter with narrow pass-band and narrow transition band to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 for noise thermometer applications. The proposed multi rate decimation filter is composed of three stages; the first stage is a Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) decimation filter, the second stage is a two-coefficient Half-Band (HB) filter and the last stage is a sharper transition HB filter. The frequency responses of individual stages as well as the overall filter response have been demonstrated with full simulation using MATLAB. The design and implementation of the proposed MDF on FPGA (XILINX Virtex XCV800 BG432-4), using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL), has been introduced. The implementation areas of the proposed filter stages are compared. Using CIC-HB technique saves 18% of the design area, compared to using six stages HB decimation filters.
Widely Tunable 4th Order Switched Gm -C Band-Pass Filter Based on N-Path Filters
Darvishi, M.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram
2012-01-01
Abstract—A widely tunable 4th order BPF based on the subtraction of two 2nd order 4-path passive-mixer filters with slightly different center frequencies is proposed. The center frequency of each 4-path filter is slightly shifted relative to its clock frequency (one upward and the other one
Speech Enhancement by Modified Convex Combination of Fractional Adaptive Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Geravanchizadeh
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents new adaptive filtering techniques used in speech enhancement system. Adaptive filtering schemes are subjected to different trade-offs regarding their steady-state misadjustment, speed of convergence, and tracking performance. Fractional Least-Mean-Square (FLMS is a new adaptive algorithm which has better performance than the conventional LMS algorithm. Normalization of LMS leads to better performance of adaptive filter. Furthermore, convex combination of two adaptive filters improves its performance. In this paper, new convex combinational adaptive filtering methods in the framework of speech enhancement system are proposed. The proposed methods utilize the idea of normalization and fractional derivative, both in the design of different convex mixing strategies and their related component filters. To assess our proposed methods, simulation results of different LMS-based algorithms based on their convergence behavior (i.e., MSE plots and different objective and subjective criteria are compared. The objective and subjective evaluations include examining the results of SNR improvement, PESQ test, and listening tests for dual-channel speech enhancement. The powerful aspects of proposed methods are their low complexity, as expected with all LMS-based methods, along with a high convergence rate.
Supplementary test method for carbon filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Normann, B.; Pettersson, S.-O.
1980-11-01
A test method for carbon filters using freon to detect leakage is described. The filters are used in nuclear power plants and in air-raid shelters to separate radioactive iodine.Sampling and detection limits are described and a proposal for a complete equipment is made.(G.B.)
Wojtaś, M.; Gaģor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.
2012-03-01
Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH+⋯N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF4]- units. The crystal structure of [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. 1H and 19F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF4]- anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II-I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I.
M2 FILTER FOR SPECKLE NOISE SUPPRESSION IN BREAST ULTRASOUND IMAGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.S. Samundeeswari
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Breast cancer, commonly found in women is a serious life threatening disease due to its invasive nature. Ultrasound (US imaging method plays an effective role in screening early detection and diagnosis of Breast cancer. Speckle noise generally affects medical ultrasound images and also causes a number of difficulties in identifying the Region of Interest. Suppressing speckle noise is a challenging task as it destroys fine edge details. No specific filter is designed yet to get a noise free BUS image that is contaminated by speckle noise. In this paper M2 filter, a novel hybrid of linear and nonlinear filter is proposed and compared to other spatial filters with 3×3 kernel size. The performance of the proposed M2 filter is measured by statistical quantity parameters like MSE, PSNR and SSI. The experimental analysis clearly shows that the proposed M2 filter outperforms better than other spatial filters by 2% high PSNR values with regards to speckle suppression.
Anticipatory synchronization via low-dimensional filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyragiene, T.; Pyragas, K.
2017-01-01
An anticipatory chaotic synchronization scheme based on a low-order all-pass filter is proposed. The filter is designed as a Padé approximation to the transfer function of an ideal delay line, which is used in a standard Voss scheme. We show that despite its simplicity, the filter works in an anticipatory scheme as well as an ideal delay line. It provides extremely small synchronization error in the whole interval of anticipation time where the anticipatory manifold is stable. The efficacy of our scheme is explained by an analytically solvable model of unidirectionally coupled unstable spirals and confirmed numerically by an example of unidirectionally coupled chaotic Rössler systems. - Highlights: • A new coupling scheme for anticipating chaotic synchronization is proposed. • The scheme consists of a drive system coupled to a low-dimensional filter. • Long-term anticipation is achieved without using time-delay terms. • An analytical treatment estimates the maximum anticipation time. • The method is verified for the Rössler system.
Anticipatory synchronization via low-dimensional filters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pyragiene, T., E-mail: tatjana.pyragiene@ftmc.lt; Pyragas, K.
2017-06-15
An anticipatory chaotic synchronization scheme based on a low-order all-pass filter is proposed. The filter is designed as a Padé approximation to the transfer function of an ideal delay line, which is used in a standard Voss scheme. We show that despite its simplicity, the filter works in an anticipatory scheme as well as an ideal delay line. It provides extremely small synchronization error in the whole interval of anticipation time where the anticipatory manifold is stable. The efficacy of our scheme is explained by an analytically solvable model of unidirectionally coupled unstable spirals and confirmed numerically by an example of unidirectionally coupled chaotic Rössler systems. - Highlights: • A new coupling scheme for anticipating chaotic synchronization is proposed. • The scheme consists of a drive system coupled to a low-dimensional filter. • Long-term anticipation is achieved without using time-delay terms. • An analytical treatment estimates the maximum anticipation time. • The method is verified for the Rössler system.
Improved Passive-Damped LCL Filter to Enhance Stability in Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
This paper proposes an improved passive-damped LCL filter to be used as interface between the grid-connected voltage-source converters and the utility grid. The proposed filter replaces the LCL filter capacitor with a traditional C-type filter with the resonant circuit tuned in such a way...... passive-damped LCL filter. To verify the benefits of the proposed filter, a comparison with the conventional filter is made in terms of losses and ratings when both the filters are designed under the same condition....... that switching harmonics due to pulse width modulation are to be cancelled. Since the tuned circuit of the C-type filter suppresses the switching harmonics more effectively, the total inductance of the filter can be reduced. Additionally, the rating of the damping resistor is lower, compared with conventional...
Filter Paper: Solution to High Self-Attenuation Corrections in HEPA Filter Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberer, R.B.; Harold, N.B.; Gunn, C.A.; Brummett, M.; Chaing, L.G.
2005-01-01
An 8 by 8 by 6 inch High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter was measured as part of a uranium holdup survey in June of 2005 as it has been routinely measured every two months since 1998. Although the survey relies on gross gamma count measurements, this was one of a few measurements that had been converted to a quantitative measurement in 1998. The measurement was analyzed using the traditional Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) approach, using HMS3 software, with an area calibration and self-attenuation corrected with an empirical correction factor of 1.06. A result of 172 grams of 235 U was reported. The actual quantity of 235 U in the filter was approximately 1700g. Because of this unusually large discrepancy, the measurement of HEPA filters will be discussed. Various techniques for measuring HEPA filters will be described using the measurement of a 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter as an example. A new method to correct for self attenuation will be proposed for this measurement Following the discussion of the 24 by 24 by 12 inch HEPA filter, the measurement of the 8 by 8 by 6 inch will be discussed in detail
Neural Model for Left-Handed CPW Bandpass Filter Loaded Split Ring Resonator
Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Shuxin; Tan, Mingtao; Zhang, Qijun
2010-02-01
Compact left-handed coplanar waveguide (CPW) bandpass filter loaded split ring resonator (SRR) is presented in this paper. The proposed filter exhibits a quasi-elliptic function response and its circuit size occupies only 12 × 11.8 mm2 (≈0.21 λg × 0.20 λg). Also, a simple circuit model is given and the parametric study of this filter is discussed. Then, with the aid of NeuroModeler software, a five-layer feed-forward perceptron neural networks model is built up to optimize the proposed filter design fast and accurately. Finally, this newly left-handed CPW bandpass filter was fabricated and measured. A good agreement between simulations and measurement verifies the proposed left-handed filter and the validity of design methodology.
Technical note: Measurement and expression of granular filter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The problem of dirty filter media at water treatment plants, despite having good backwash systems, is a serious challenge that requires constant monitoring and maintenance. To aid the systematic analysis of filter media and the troubleshooting of problem filters, this paper firstly proposes a standard procedure for ...
UWB Bandpass Filter with Ultra-wide Stopband based on Ring Resonator
Kazemi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh; Siahkamari, Hesam; Mohammadpanah, Mahmood
2018-04-01
An ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter with ultra-wide stopband based on a rectangular ring resonator is presented. The filter is designed for the operational frequency band from 4.10 GHz to 10.80 GHz with an ultra-wide stopband from 11.23 GHz to 40 GHz. The even and odd equivalent circuits are used to achieve a suitable analysis of the proposed filter performance. To verify the design and analysis, the proposed bandpass filter is simulated using full-wave EM simulator Advanced Design System and fabricated on a 20mil thick Rogers_RO4003 substrate with relative permittivity of 3.38 and a loss tangent of 0.0021. The proposed filter behavior is investigated and simulation results are in good agreement with measurement results.
Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter
Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.
2015-01-01
A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693
Study on Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination System in BF{sub 3} Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jinhyeong; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this study, we develop the digital PSD system and discriminate the background signal of BF{sub 3}. Spectrum shapes are different according to the t{sub start} setting method, and it is favorable to set it as the certain ratio of maximum height. In future, it will be performed to vary t{sub start} point to optimize the pulse discrimination. To quantify the performance, Figure Of Merit (FOM) will be determined. For the nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards, an accurate and reliable measurement of nuclear material is essential. The nuclear material emits neutron and γ-ray, simultaneously. For the accurate detection of the nuclear material, neutron should be discriminated from γ-ray or background radiation. In previous study, N. S. Jung developed pulse shape analysis method based on NIM and CAMAC system. However, applications of other discrimination methods based on different detection modules or changing parameters are time-and-money consuming procedures in analogue systems. Today, the performance of digitizers is improved and it replaces some radiation measurement systems which require simple and portable equipment. Digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) method by using a digital oscilloscope is developed and applied to a neutron detection system by using BF{sub 3} detector in this study.
A New Adaptive H-Infinity Filtering Algorithm for the GPS/INS Integrated Navigation
Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Bi; Zhang, Qiu-Zhao
2016-01-01
The Kalman filter is an optimal estimator with numerous applications in technology, especially in systems with Gaussian distributed noise. Moreover, the adaptive Kalman filtering algorithms, based on the Kalman filter, can control the influence of dynamic model errors. In contrast to the adaptive Kalman filtering algorithms, the H-infinity filter is able to address the interference of the stochastic model by minimization of the worst-case estimation error. In this paper, a novel adaptive H-infinity filtering algorithm, which integrates the adaptive Kalman filter and the H-infinity filter in order to perform a comprehensive filtering algorithm, is presented. In the proposed algorithm, a robust estimation method is employed to control the influence of outliers. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, experiments with real data of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation, were conducted. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has multiple advantages compared to the other filtering algorithms. PMID:27999361
OTRA-Based Multi-Function Inverse Filter Configuration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdhesh Kumar Singh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A new OTRA-based multifunction Inverse filter configuration is presented which is capable of realizing low pass, high pass and band pass filters using only two OTRAs and five to six passive elements. To the best knowledge of the authors, any inverse filter configuration using OTRAs has not been reported in the literature earlier. The effect of the major parasitics of the OTRAs and their effect on the performance filter have been investigated and measured through simulation results and Monte-Carlo analysis. The workability of the proposed circuits has been confirmed by SPICE simulations using CMOS-based-OTRA realizable in 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The proposed circuits are the only ones which provide simultaneously the following features: use of reasonable number of active elements (only 2, realizability of all the three basic filter functions, employment of all virtually grounded resistors and capacitors and tunability of all filter parameters (except gain factor, H_0 for inverse high pass. The centre/cut-off frequency of the various filter circuits lying in the vicinity of 1 MHz have been found to be realizable, which has been verified through SPICE simulation results and have been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical results.
Image Recommendation Algorithm Using Feature-Based Collaborative Filtering
Kim, Deok-Hwan
As the multimedia contents market continues its rapid expansion, the amount of image contents used in mobile phone services, digital libraries, and catalog service is increasing remarkably. In spite of this rapid growth, users experience high levels of frustration when searching for the desired image. Even though new images are profitable to the service providers, traditional collaborative filtering methods cannot recommend them. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose feature-based collaborative filtering (FBCF) method to reflect the user's most recent preference by representing his purchase sequence in the visual feature space. The proposed approach represents the images that have been purchased in the past as the feature clusters in the multi-dimensional feature space and then selects neighbors by using an inter-cluster distance function between their feature clusters. Various experiments using real image data demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a higher quality recommendation and better performance than do typical collaborative filtering and content-based filtering techniques.
Sagues, Mikel; García Olcina, Raimundo; Loayssa, Alayn; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José
2008-01-07
We propose a novel scheme to implement tunable multi-tap complex coefficient filters based on optical single sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering. A four tap filter is experimentally demonstrated to highlight the enhanced tuning performance provided by complex coefficients. Optical processing is performed by the use of a cascade of four phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings specifically fabricated for this purpose.
Filtering Performance Comparison of Kernel and Wavelet Filters for Reactivity Signal Noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Moon Ghu; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Yong Kwan; You, Skin
2006-01-01
Nuclear reactor power deviation from the critical state is a parameter of specific interest defined by the reactivity measuring neutron population. Reactivity is an extremely important quantity used to define many of the reactor startup physics parameters. The time dependent reactivity is normally determined by solving the using inverse neutron kinetics equation. The reactivity computer is a device to provide an on-line solution of the inverse kinetics equation. The measurement signal of the neutron density is normally noise corrupted and the control rods movement typically gives reactivity variation with edge signals like saw teeth. Those edge regions should be precisely preserved since the measured signal is used to estimate the reactivity wroth which is a crucial parameter to assure the safety of the nuclear reactors. In this paper, three kind of edge preserving noise filters are proposed and their performance is demonstrated using stepwise signals. The tested filters are based on the unilateral, bilateral kernel and wavelet filters which are known to be effective in edge preservation. The bilateral filter shows a remarkable improvement compared with unilateral kernel and wavelet filters
MR image reconstruction via guided filter.
Huang, Heyan; Yang, Hang; Wang, Kang
2018-04-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstruction from the smallest possible set of Fourier samples has been a difficult problem in medical imaging field. In our paper, we present a new approach based on a guided filter for efficient MRI recovery algorithm. The guided filter is an edge-preserving smoothing operator and has better behaviors near edges than the bilateral filter. Our reconstruction method is consist of two steps. First, we propose two cost functions which could be computed efficiently and thus obtain two different images. Second, the guided filter is used with these two obtained images for efficient edge-preserving filtering, and one image is used as the guidance image, the other one is used as a filtered image in the guided filter. In our reconstruction algorithm, we can obtain more details by introducing guided filter. We compare our reconstruction algorithm with some competitive MRI reconstruction techniques in terms of PSNR and visual quality. Simulation results are given to show the performance of our new method.
The kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity from BF theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cianfrani, Francesco
2011-01-01
In this work, it is demonstrated how the kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity (LQG) can be inferred from the configuration space of BF theories via the imposition of the Hamiltonian constraints. In particular, it is outlined how the projection to the representations associated with Ashtekar-Barbero connections provides the correct procedure to implement second-class constraints and the corresponding nontrivial induced symplectic structure. Then, the reduction to SU(2) invariant intertwiners is analyzed and the properties of LQG states under Lorentz transformations are discussed.
Visual object tracking by correlation filters and online learning
Zhang, Xin; Xia, Gui-Song; Lu, Qikai; Shen, Weiming; Zhang, Liangpei
2018-06-01
Due to the complexity of background scenarios and the variation of target appearance, it is difficult to achieve high accuracy and fast speed for object tracking. Currently, correlation filters based trackers (CFTs) show promising performance in object tracking. The CFTs estimate the target's position by correlation filters with different kinds of features. However, most of CFTs can hardly re-detect the target in the case of long-term tracking drifts. In this paper, a feature integration object tracker named correlation filters and online learning (CFOL) is proposed. CFOL estimates the target's position and its corresponding correlation score using the same discriminative correlation filter with multi-features. To reduce tracking drifts, a new sampling and updating strategy for online learning is proposed. Experiments conducted on 51 image sequences demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to the state-of-the-art approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neto Walter
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs play an important role in the global and regional HIV epidemics, particularly in regions where multiple subtypes are circulating. To date, several (>40 CRFs are recognized worldwide with five currently circulating in Brazil. Here, we report the characterization of near full-length genome sequences (NFLG of six phylogenetically related HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype recombinants (five from this study and one from other published sequences representing CRF46_BF1. Methods Initially, we selected 36 samples from 888 adult patients residing in São Paulo who had previously been diagnosed as being infected with subclade F1 based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing. Proviral DNA integrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was amplified from the purified genomic DNA of all 36-blood samples by five overlapping PCR fragments followed by direct sequencing. Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap (HXB2 position 9347-9365; LTR region. Five of these isolates formed a rigid cluster in phylogentic trees from different subclade F1 fragment regions, which we can now designate as CRF46_BF1. According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0.56% of the HIV-1 circulating strains in São Paulo. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study. Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to
Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.
Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.
Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Haeng Joe
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2016-01-01
Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) is a critical tool for analysis, monitoring and planning of a power system. The concept of DSE involves designing state estimation with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) methods, which can be used by wide area monitoring to improve......-linear state estimator is developed in MatLab to solve states by applying the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm. Finally, a DSE model is built for a 14 bus power system network to evaluate the proposed algorithm for the networks.This article will focus on comparing...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glaze, J.
1974-01-01
It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach
Input filter compensation for switching regulators
Lee, F. C.; Kelkar, S. S.
1982-01-01
The problems caused by the interaction between the input filter, output filter, and the control loop are discussed. The input filter design is made more complicated because of the need to avoid performance degradation and also stay within the weight and loss limitations. Conventional input filter design techniques are then dicussed. The concept of pole zero cancellation is reviewed; this concept is the basis for an approach to control the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter and thus mitigate some of the problems caused by the input filter. The proposed approach for control of the peaking of the output impedance of the input filter is to use a feedforward loop working in conjunction with feedback loops, thus forming a total state control scheme. The design of the feedforward loop for a buck regulator is described. A possible implementation of the feedforward loop design is suggested.
A SLAM based on auxiliary marginalised particle filter and differential evolution
Havangi, R.; Nekoui, M. A.; Teshnehlab, M.; Taghirad, H. D.
2014-09-01
FastSLAM is a framework for simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) using a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter. In FastSLAM, particle filter is used for the robot pose (position and orientation) estimation, and parametric filter (i.e. EKF and UKF) is used for the feature location's estimation. However, in the long term, FastSLAM is an inconsistent algorithm. In this paper, a new approach to SLAM based on hybrid auxiliary marginalised particle filter and differential evolution (DE) is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the robot pose is estimated based on auxiliary marginal particle filter that operates directly on the marginal distribution, and hence avoids performing importance sampling on a space of growing dimension. In addition, static map is considered as a set of parameters that are learned using DE. Compared to other algorithms, the proposed algorithm can improve consistency for longer time periods and also, improve the estimation accuracy. Simulations and experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective.
Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
1994-01-01
A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...
IAE-adaptive Kalman filter for INS/GPS integrated navigation system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bian Hongwei; Jin Zhihua; Tian Weifeng
2006-01-01
A marine INS/GPS adaptive navigation system is presented in this paper. GPS with two antenna providing vessel's altitude is selected as the auxiliary system fusing with INS to improve the performance of the hybrid system. The Kalman filter is the most frequently used algorithm in the integrated navigation system, which is capable of estimating INS errors online based on the measured errors between INS and GPS. The standard Kalman filter (SKF) assumes that the statistics of the noise on each sensor are given. As long as the noise distributions do not change, the Kalman filter will give the optimal estimation. However GPS receiver will be disturbed easily and thus temporally changing measurement noise will join into the outputs of GPS, which will lead to performance degradation of the Kalman filter. Many researchers introduce fuzzy logic control method into innovation-based adaptive estimation adaptive Kalman filtering (IAE-AKF) algorithm, and accordingly propose various adaptive Kalman filters. However how to design the fuzzy logic controller is a very complicated problem still without a convincing solution. A novel IAE-AKF is proposed herein, which is based on the maximum likelihood criterion for the proper computation of the filter innovation covariance and hence of the filter gain. The approach is direct and simple without having to establish fuzzy inference rules. After having deduced the proposed IAE-AKF algorithm theoretically in detail, the approach is tested by the simulation based on the system error model of the developed INS/GPS integrated marine navigation system. Simulation results show that the adaptive Kalman filter outperforms the SKF with higher accuracy, robustness and less computation. It is demonstrated that this proposed approach is a valid solution for the unknown changing measurement noise exited in the Kalman filter.
A Series-LC-Filtered Active Trap Filter for High Power Voltage Source Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
Passive trap filters are widely used in high power Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) for the switching harmonic attenuation. The usage of the passive trap filters requires clustered and fixed switching harmonic spectrum, which is not the case for low pulse-ratio or Variable Switching Frequency (VSF...... current control of the auxiliary converter, which can be challenging considering that the switching harmonics have very high orders. In this paper, an Active Trap Filter (ATF) based on output impedance shaping is proposed. It is able to bypass the switching harmonics by providing nearly zero output...... impedance. A series-LC-filter is used to reduce the power rating and synthesize the desired output impedance of the ATF. Compared with the existing approaches, the compensated frequency range is greatly enlarged. Also, the current reference is simply set to zero, which reduces the complexity of the control...
Homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent H∞ filter designs of discrete-time fuzzy systems.
Zhang, Huaguang; Xie, Xiangpeng; Tong, Shaocheng
2011-10-01
This paper proposes a novel H(∞) filtering technique for a class of discrete-time fuzzy systems. First, a novel kind of fuzzy H(∞) filter, which is homogenous polynomially parameter dependent on membership functions with an arbitrary degree, is developed to guarantee the asymptotic stability and a prescribed H(∞) performance of the filtering error system. Second, relaxed conditions for H(∞) performance analysis are proposed by using a new fuzzy Lyapunov function and the Finsler lemma with homogenous polynomial matrix Lagrange multipliers. Then, based on a new kind of slack variable technique, relaxed linear matrix inequality-based H(∞) filtering conditions are proposed. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Applications of the spline filter for areal filtration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, Mingsi; Zhang, Hao; Ott, Daniel; Chu, Wei; Song, John
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a general use isotropic areal spline filter. This new areal spline filter can achieve isotropy by approximating the transmission characteristic of the Gaussian filter. It can also eliminate the effect of void areas using a weighting factor, and resolve end-effect issues by applying new boundary conditions, which replace the first order finite difference in the traditional spline formulation. These improvements make the spline filter widely applicable to 3D surfaces and extend the applications of the spline filter in areal filtration. (technical note)
Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.
1996-01-01
The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this speed is a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band, i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit or rather an islanding. It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms. We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth to the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band stop filter, it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman'a theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a while noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. The digital simulations we made and the tests we carried out with the Electricite de France Micro Network laboratory show the advantages of the rotation speed filter we designed using Kalman's theory. With the proposed filter, the speed measure filtering is better in terms of reduction and phase shift. the result is that there are less untimely solicitations of the fast valving system. Consequently, this device improves the power systems stability by minimizing the risks of deep perturbations due to a temporary lack of generation and the risks of under-speed loss
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sekhri, A.; Baumann, P. [KernkraftwerkLeibstadt AG, 5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Wicaksono, D. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich ETH, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G. [Inst. for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety ISIRYM, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia UPV, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021 Valencia (Spain)
2012-07-01
In framework of introducing TRACE code to transient analyses system codes for Leibstadt Power Plant (KKL), a conversion process of existing TRAC-BF1 model to TRACE has been started within KKL. In the first step, TRACE thermal-hydraulic model for KKL has been developed based on existing TRAC-BF1 model. In order to assess the code models a simulation of plant transient event is required. In this matter simulations of inadvertent opening of 8 relief valves event have been performed. The event occurs at KKL during normal operation, and it started when 8 relief valves open resulting in depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The reactor was shutdown safely by SCRAM at low level. The high pressure core spray (HPCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) have been started manually in order to compensate the level drop. The remaining water in the feedwater (FW) lines flashes due to saturation conditions originated from RPV depressurization and refills the reactor downcomer. The plant boundary conditions have been used in the simulations and the FW flow rate has been adjusted for better prediction. The simulations reproduce the plant data with good agreement. It can be concluded that the TRAC-BF1 existing model has been used successfully to develop the TRACE model and the results of the calculations have shown good agreement with plant recorded data. Beside the modeling assessment, the TRACE and TRAC-BF1 capabilities to reproduce plant physical behavior during the transient have shown satisfactory results. The first step of developing KKL model for TRACE has been successfully achieved and this model is further developed in order to simulate more complex plant behavior such as Turbine Trip. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekhri, A.; Baumann, P.; Wicaksono, D.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.
2012-01-01
In framework of introducing TRACE code to transient analyses system codes for Leibstadt Power Plant (KKL), a conversion process of existing TRAC-BF1 model to TRACE has been started within KKL. In the first step, TRACE thermal-hydraulic model for KKL has been developed based on existing TRAC-BF1 model. In order to assess the code models a simulation of plant transient event is required. In this matter simulations of inadvertent opening of 8 relief valves event have been performed. The event occurs at KKL during normal operation, and it started when 8 relief valves open resulting in depressurization of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The reactor was shutdown safely by SCRAM at low level. The high pressure core spray (HPCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) have been started manually in order to compensate the level drop. The remaining water in the feedwater (FW) lines flashes due to saturation conditions originated from RPV depressurization and refills the reactor downcomer. The plant boundary conditions have been used in the simulations and the FW flow rate has been adjusted for better prediction. The simulations reproduce the plant data with good agreement. It can be concluded that the TRAC-BF1 existing model has been used successfully to develop the TRACE model and the results of the calculations have shown good agreement with plant recorded data. Beside the modeling assessment, the TRACE and TRAC-BF1 capabilities to reproduce plant physical behavior during the transient have shown satisfactory results. The first step of developing KKL model for TRACE has been successfully achieved and this model is further developed in order to simulate more complex plant behavior such as Turbine Trip. (authors)
Active Comb Filter Using Operational Transconductance Amplifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajeev Kumar Ranjan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach for the design of an active comb filter is proposed to remove the selected frequencies of various signals. The proposed filter is based on only OTAs and capacitors, hence suitable for monolithic integrated circuit implementation. The workability of the circuit is tested using PSPICE for test signals of 60, 180, 300, and 420 Hz as in ECG signal. The results are given in the paper and found to agree well with theory.
Morphological representation of order-statistics filters.
Charif-Chefchaouni, M; Schonfeld, D
1995-01-01
We propose a comprehensive theory for the morphological bounds on order-statistics filters (and their repeated iterations). Conditions are derived for morphological openings and closings to serve as bounds (lower and upper, respectively) on order-statistics filters (and their repeated iterations). Under various assumptions, morphological open-closings and close-openings are also shown to serve as (tighter) bounds (lower and upper, respectively) on iterations of order-statistics filters. Simulations of the application of the results presented to image restoration are finally provided.
FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxime Moreaud
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.
Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J
2011-01-01
In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.
Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.
Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie
2017-08-01
Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.
BfR removes anthraquinone from its list of recommendations for food packaging
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
2013-01-01
The substance anthraquinone is used in the production of paper and cardboard, including food packaging. Anthraquinone contained in the packaging can contaminate food. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) took the publication of an expert opinion of the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) published in 2012 as an opportunity to reassess the use of anthraquinone in the manufacture of paper intended for food contact. In its opinion on anthraquinone as an active pesticide ingredient,...
Self-commissioning notch filter for active damping in three phase LCL-filter based grid converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
inductance variations it is proposed to estimate the resonance frequency by means of Fourier analysis. The Goertzel algorithm, instead of the FFT, is used to reduce the calculation and memory requirements. Thus, the proposed self-commissioning notch filter results robust and consumes little computational...
A Codesigned Compact Dual-Band Filtering Antenna with PIN Loaded for WLAN Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanxiong Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A codesigned compact dual-band filtering antenna incorporating a PIN diode for 2.45/5.2 GHz wireless local area network (WLAN applications is proposed in this paper. The integrated filtering antenna system consists of a simple monopole radiator, a microstrip dual-band band-pass filter, and a PIN diode. The performance of the filtering antenna is notably promoted by optimizing the impedance between the antenna and the band-pass filter, with good selectivity and out-of-band rejection. The design process follows the approach of the synthesis of band-pass filter. In addition, the PIN diode is incorporated in the filtering antenna for further size reduction, which also widens the coverage of the bandwidth by about 230% for 2.4 GHz WLAN. With the presence of small size and good filtering performances, the proposed filtering antenna is a good candidate for the wireless communication systems. Prototypes of the proposed filtering antenna incorporating a PIN diode are fabricated and measured. The measured results including return losses and radiation patterns are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verdant, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
The behaviour of a proportional BF{sub 3}LCT 14 NE 31 counter with aluminium cathode has been studied after irradiation from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} n.cm{sup -2} in the swimming-pool reactor Triton. The pulse spectrum was only slightly modified by two successive irradiations at 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}, and 1 hour after the end of the irradiation the decrease in sensitivity reached 10 to 20 per cent. One hour after irradiation at 10{sup 16} n.cm{sup -2} this decrease was 20 per cent but the pulse spectrum was affected. The advantages of an aluminium cathode with respect to a standard counter using a copper cathode and irradiated under the same conditions are given. Beforehand, it had been established that the limit for use of an aluminium-cathode counter in the presence of {gamma} radiation is about 200 R.h{sup -1}. (author) [French] Le comportement d'un compteur proportionnel a BF-3LCT 14 NE 31, a cathode d'aluminium, a ete etudie apres des irradiations de 10{sup 5} a 10{sup 6} n.cm{sup -2} dans la pile-piscine TRITON. Deux irradiations successives de 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2} ont peu modifie le spectre des impulsions et 1 heure apres la fin de l'exposition la perte de sensibilite etait de 10 a 20 pour cent. Une heure apres une irradiation de 10{sup 16} n.cm{sup -2}, cette perte etait de 20 pour cent mais le spectre d'impulsions etait perturbe. L'avantage d'une cathode en aluminium est mis en evidence par comparaison avec un compteur standard a cathode de cuivre irradie dans les memes conditions. En preliminaire, on avait etabli que la limite d'utilisation d'un compteur a cathode d'aluminium en presence de rayonnements {gamma} etait de l'ordre de 200 R.h{sup -1}. (auteur)
A filter-mediated communication model for design collaboration in building construction.
Lee, Jaewook; Jeong, Yongwook; Oh, Minho; Hong, Seung Wan
2014-01-01
Multidisciplinary collaboration is an important aspect of modern engineering activities, arising from the growing complexity of artifacts whose design and construction require knowledge and skills that exceed the capacities of any one professional. However, current collaboration in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries often fails due to lack of shared understanding between different participants and limitations of their supporting tools. To achieve a high level of shared understanding, this study proposes a filter-mediated communication model. In the proposed model, participants retain their own data in the form most appropriate for their needs with domain-specific filters that transform the neutral representations into semantically rich ones, as needed by the participants. Conversely, the filters can translate semantically rich, domain-specific data into a neutral representation that can be accessed by other domain-specific filters. To validate the feasibility of the proposed model, we computationally implement the filter mechanism and apply it to a hypothetical test case. The result acknowledges that the filter mechanism can let the participants know ahead of time what will be the implications of their proposed actions, as seen from other participants' points of view.
Depth Images Filtering In Distributed Streaming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dziubich Tomasz
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a distributed system for point cloud processing and transferring them via computer network regarding to effectiveness-related requirements. We discuss the comparison of point cloud filters focusing on their usage for streaming optimization. For the filtering step of the stream pipeline processing we evaluate four filters: Voxel Grid, Radial Outliner Remover, Statistical Outlier Removal and Pass Through. For each of the filters we perform a series of tests for evaluating the impact on the point cloud size and transmitting frequency (analysed for various fps ratio. We present results of the optimization process used for point cloud consolidation in a distributed environment. We describe the processing of the point clouds before and after the transmission. Pre- and post-processing allow the user to send the cloud via network without any delays. The proposed pre-processing compression of the cloud and the post-processing reconstruction of it are focused on assuring that the end-user application obtains the cloud with a given precision.
An efficient incremental learning mechanism for tracking concept drift in spam filtering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jyh-Jian Sheu
Full Text Available This research manages in-depth analysis on the knowledge about spams and expects to propose an efficient spam filtering method with the ability of adapting to the dynamic environment. We focus on the analysis of email's header and apply decision tree data mining technique to look for the association rules about spams. Then, we propose an efficient systematic filtering method based on these association rules. Our systematic method has the following major advantages: (1 Checking only the header sections of emails, which is different from those spam filtering methods at present that have to analyze fully the email's content. Meanwhile, the email filtering accuracy is expected to be enhanced. (2 Regarding the solution to the problem of concept drift, we propose a window-based technique to estimate for the condition of concept drift for each unknown email, which will help our filtering method in recognizing the occurrence of spam. (3 We propose an incremental learning mechanism for our filtering method to strengthen the ability of adapting to the dynamic environment.
Study of different filters; Etude de differents filtres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.
1959-07-01
This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators.
Design of the LC+trap filter for a current source rectifier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Min, Huang; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
This paper investigates an LC + trap filter for current source converters to improve the switching harmonic attenuation. The resonant frequency characteristics of the filter of current source rectifier are analyzed. A filter design procedure is proposed based on the input power factor, filter...
Active Multi-Field Learning for Spam Filtering
Wuying Liu; Lin Wang; Mianzhu Yi; Nan Xie
2015-01-01
Ubiquitous spam messages cause a serious waste of time and resources. This paper addresses the practical spam filtering problem, and proposes a universal approach to fight with various spam messages. The proposed active multi-field learning approach is based on: 1) It is cost-sensitive to obtain a label for a real-world spam filter, which suggests an active learning idea; and 2) Different messages often have a similar multi-field text structure, which suggests a multi-field learning idea. The...
Mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell for designing a continuous time filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yong; Zhou Yumei
2010-01-01
A new mixed-integrator-based bi-quad cell is proposed. An alternative synthesis mechanism of complex poles is proposed compared with source-follower-based bi-quad cells which is designed applying the positive feedback technique. Using the negative feedback technique to combine different integrators, the proposed bi-quad cell synthesizes complex poles for designing a continuous time filter. It exhibits various advantages including compact topology, high gain, no parasitic pole, no CMFB circuit, and high capability. The fourth-order Butterworth lowpass filter using the proposed cells has been fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The active area occupied by the filter with test buffer is only 200 x 170 μm 2 . The proposed filter consumes a low power of 201 μW and achieves a 68.5 dB dynamic range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Implicit LES using adaptive filtering
Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.
2018-04-01
In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.
Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Song, Shanshan; Sheng, Kangliang; Li, Ying; Li, Peipei; Song, Shasha; Wang, Qingtong; Chu, Jianhong; Wei, Wei
2014-05-01
To explore the effect of bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)F4/80(+) immature dendritic cells (BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC) on the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in DBA/1 mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC were induced with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4, and were identified by the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO), interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). CIA was established in DBA/1 mice by immunization with type II collagen. CIA mice were injected intravenously with BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC three times after immunization. The effect of BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC on CIA was evaluated by the arthritis index, joint histopathology, body weight, thymus index, thymocytes proliferation, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC induced with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4 expressed high levels of TLR-2, IDO, IL-10 and TGF-β1. Infusion of BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC in CIA mice significantly reduced the arthritis index and pathological scores of joints, recovered the weight, decreased the thymus index and inhibited thymocyte proliferation. Levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17 were decreased in BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC-treated mice. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC can be induced successfully with rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4. BM CD11b(+)F4/80(+)iDC treatment can ameliorate the development and severity of CIA by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
A highly linear baseband Gm—C filter for WLAN application
Lijun, Yang; Zheng, Gong; Yin, Shi; Zhiming, Chen
2011-09-01
A low voltage, highly linear transconductan—C (Gm—C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP3 is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 × 0.17 mm2 die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Yibo; Jiang, Yi; Feng, Jiuchao; Wu, Lifu
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel nonlinear Wiener adaptive filters based on the backslash operator are proposed. • The identification approach to the memristor-based chaotic systems using the proposed adaptive filters. • The weight update algorithm and convergence characteristics for the proposed adaptive filters are derived. - Abstract: Memristor-based chaotic systems have complex dynamical behaviors, which are characterized as nonlinear and hysteresis characteristics. Modeling and identification of their nonlinear model is an important premise for analyzing the dynamical behavior of the memristor-based chaotic systems. This paper presents a novel nonlinear Wiener adaptive filtering identification approach to the memristor-based chaotic systems. The linear part of Wiener model consists of the linear transversal adaptive filters, the nonlinear part consists of nonlinear adaptive filters based on the backslash operator for the hysteresis characteristics of the memristor. The weight update algorithms for the linear and nonlinear adaptive filters are derived. Final computer simulation results show the effectiveness as well as fast convergence characteristics. Comparing with the adaptive nonlinear polynomial filters, the proposed nonlinear adaptive filters have less identification error.
A New Filtering Algorithm Utilizing Radial Velocity Measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yan-feng; DU Zi-cheng; PAN Quan
2005-01-01
Pulse Doppler radar measurements consist of range, azimuth, elevation and radial velocity. Most of the radar tracking algorithms in engineering only utilize position measurement. The extended Kalman filter with radial velocity measureneut is presented, then a new filtering algorithm utilizing radial velocity measurement is proposed to improve tracking results and the theoretical analysis is also given. Simulation results of the new algorithm, converted measurement Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter are compared. The effectiveness of the new algorithm is verified by simulation results.
Unsupervised Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Combined Filters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wendeson S Oliveira
Full Text Available Image segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a process that can help to predict and diagnose cardiovascular related diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, which are known to affect the retinal blood vessels' appearance. This work proposes an unsupervised method for the segmentation of retinal vessels images using a combined matched filter, Frangi's filter and Gabor Wavelet filter to enhance the images. The combination of these three filters in order to improve the segmentation is the main motivation of this work. We investigate two approaches to perform the filter combination: weighted mean and median ranking. Segmentation methods are tested after the vessel enhancement. Enhanced images with median ranking are segmented using a simple threshold criterion. Two segmentation procedures are applied when considering enhanced retinal images using the weighted mean approach. The first method is based on deformable models and the second uses fuzzy C-means for the image segmentation. The procedure is evaluated using two public image databases, Drive and Stare. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well for vessel segmentation in comparison with state-of-the-art methods.
Passive target tracking using marginalized particle filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A marginalized particle filtering(MPF)approach is proposed for target tracking under the background of passive measurement.Essentially,the MPF is a combination of particle filtering technique and Kalman filter.By making full use of marginalization,the distributions of the tractable linear part of the total state variables are updated analytically using Kalman filter,and only the lower-dimensional nonlinear state variable needs to be dealt with using particle filter.Simulation studies are performed on an illustrative example,and the results show that the MPF method leads to a significant reduction of the tracking errors when compared with the direct particle implementation.Real data test results also validate the effectiveness of the presented method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsai, M.Y.; Streetman, B.G.
1979-01-01
Electrical properties of recrystallized amorphous silicon layers, formed by BF + 2 implants or Si + +B + implants, have been studied by differential resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. Electrical carrier distribution profiles show that boron atoms inside the amorphized Si layers can be fully activated during recrystallization at 550 0 C. The mobility is also recovered. However, the tail of the B distribution, located inside a damaged region near the original amorphous-crystalline interface, remains inactive. This inactive tail has been observed for all samples implanted with BF + 2 . Only in a thicker amorphous layer, formed for example by Si + predamage implants, can the entire B profile be activated. The etch rate of amorphous silicon in HF and the effect of fluorine on the recrystallization rate are also reported
Distributed SLAM Using Improved Particle Filter for Mobile Robot Localization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fujun Pei
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The distributed SLAM system has a similar estimation performance and requires only one-fifth of the computation time compared with centralized particle filter. However, particle impoverishment is inevitably because of the random particles prediction and resampling applied in generic particle filter, especially in SLAM problem that involves a large number of dimensions. In this paper, particle filter use in distributed SLAM was improved in two aspects. First, we improved the important function of the local filters in particle filter. The adaptive values were used to replace a set of constants in the computational process of importance function, which improved the robustness of the particle filter. Second, an information fusion method was proposed by mixing the innovation method and the number of effective particles method, which combined the advantages of these two methods. And this paper extends the previously known convergence results for particle filter to prove that improved particle filter converges to the optimal filter in mean square as the number of particles goes to infinity. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm improved the virtue of the DPF-SLAM system in isolate faults and enabled the system to have a better tolerance and robustness.
A simple procedure to estimate reactivity with good noise filtering characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimazu, Yoichiro
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A new and simple on-line reactivity estimation method is proposed. • The estimator has robust noise filtering characteristics. • The noise filtering is equivalent to those of conventional reactivity meters. • The new estimator eliminates the burden of selecting optimum filter constants. • The new estimation performance is assessed without and with measurement noise. - Abstract: A new and simple on-line reactivity estimation method is proposed. The estimator has robust noise filtering characteristics without the use of complex filters. The noise filtering capability is equivalent to or better than that of a conventional estimator based on Inverse Point Kinetics (IPK). The new estimator can also eliminate the burden of selecting optimum filter time constants, such as would be required for the IPK-based estimator, or noise covariance matrices, which are needed if the extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique is used. In this paper, the new estimation method is introduced and its performance assessed without and with measurement noise
On the nature of the symbiotic star BF Cygni
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.; Kenyon, S.J.
1989-01-01
Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of the symbiotic binary BF Cyg obtained during 1979-1988 is discussed. This system consists of a low-mass M5 giant filling about 50 percent of its tidal volume and a hot, luminous compact object similar to the central star of a planetary nebula. The binary is embedded in an asymmetric nebula which includes a small, high-density region and an extended region of lower density. The larger nebula is formed by a slow wind ejected by the cool component and ionized by the hot star, while the more compact nebula is material expelled by the hot component in the form of a bipolar wind. The analysis indicates that disk accretion is essential to maintain the nuclear burning shell of the hot star. 84 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasaribu, Marvin H., E-mail: marvin-shady88@yahoo.com; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)
Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....
Supplementary High-Input Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using DVCCs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitendra Mohan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available To further extend the existing knowledge on voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter, in this paper, a new biquadratic filter circuit with single input and multiple outputs is proposed, employing three differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs, three resistors, and two grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit realizes all the standard filter functions, that is, high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, notch, and all-pass filters simultaneously. The circuit enjoys the feature of high-input impedance, orthogonal control of resonance angular frequency (o, and quality factor (Q via grounded resistor and the use of grounded capacitors which is ideal for IC implementation.
Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui
2016-01-01
Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel...... and satellite communication signals. Due to planar structures proposed here, it is easy to integrate in the microwave integrated systems, which can play an important role in the microwave communication circuit and system.......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李诗琴; 周贤丰; 许映杰
2013-01-01
在298.15 K和常压下,测定了1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑四氟硼酸([Bmim] BF4)离子液体+甲醇体系的密度和黏度.由密度计算了体系的表观摩尔体积,并采用Redlich-Mayer方程关联了体系的表观摩尔体积与组成的关系,得到了[Bmim]BF4在甲醇中的标准偏摩尔体积.由Jones-Dole方程对体系的黏度随组成的变化进行了拟合,获得了[Bmim] BF4在甲醇中的黏度B系数.结果表明:[Bmim] BF4+甲醇体系的表观摩尔体积和黏度均随[Bmim] BF4浓度的增加而增加,[Bmim] BF4在甲醇中的标准偏摩尔体积和黏度B系数分别为155.72×10-6m3/mol和0.282 9.%Densities and viscosities of l-butyl-3-methylimi-dazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid ( [ Bmim ] BF4 ) with methanol were measured at 298. 15 K and atmospheric pressure. Apparent molar volumes, Vf of the above-mentioned mixture were determined from the experimental densities. Standard partial molar volume , Vo/f of [ Bmim] BF4 in methanol was estimated by the Redlich-Mayer equation. The achieved viscosities were used to calculate the viscosity B-coefficient of [ Bmim ] BF4 in methanol through Jones-Dole equation. The results indicate that the apparent molar volumes and viscosities increase with increasing of ionic liquid concentration. Standard partial molar volume and viscosity B-coefficient of [Bmim] BF4 in methanol is 155.72 ?10-6 m3 穖ol-1 and 0.282 9,respectively.
Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Binggang; Li, Sheng-Hua; Xiao, Sanshui
2016-01-01
Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN and satel......Spoof surface plasmon polaritons based notch filter for ultra-wideband microwave waveguide is proposed. Owing to subwavelength confinement, such a filter has advantage in the structure size without sacrificing the performance. The spoof SPP based notch is introduced to suppress the WLAN...
An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach
Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa
2015-12-07
This paper addresses the filtering problem in large-dimensional systems, in which conventional particle filters (PFs) remain computationally prohibitive owing to the large number of particles needed to obtain reasonable performances. To overcome this drawback, a class of multiple particle filters (MPFs) has been recently introduced in which the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces, and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. In this paper, we adopt the variational Bayesian (VB) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs to be generated. In a numerical test, the proposed VBMPF behaves better than the PF and MPF.
BF3/nano-γ-Al2O3 Promoted Knoevenagel Condensation at Room Temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. F. Mirjalili
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with barbituric acid, dimedone and malononitrile occurred in the presence of BF3/nano-γ-Al2O3 at room temperature in ethanol. This catalyst is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS.
On simplified application of multidimensional Savitzky-Golay filters and differentiators
Shekhar, Chandra
2016-02-01
I propose a simplified approach for multidimensional Savitzky-Golay filtering, to enable its fast and easy implementation in scientific and engineering applications. The proposed method, which is derived from a generalized framework laid out by Thornley (D. J. Thornley, "Novel anisotropic multidimensional convolution filters for derivative estimation and reconstruction" in Proceedings of International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications, November 2007), first transforms any given multidimensional problem into a unique one, by transforming coordinates of the sampled data nodes to unity-spaced, uniform data nodes, and then performs filtering and calculates partial derivatives on the unity-spaced nodes. It is followed by transporting the calculated derivatives back onto the original data nodes by using the chain rule of differentiation. The burden to performing the most cumbersome task, which is to carry out the filtering and to obtain derivatives on the unity-spaced nodes, is almost eliminated by providing convolution coefficients for a number of convolution kernel sizes and polynomial orders, up to four spatial dimensions. With the availability of the convolution coefficients, the task of filtering at a data node reduces merely to multiplication of two known matrices. Simplified strategies to adequately address near-boundary data nodes and to calculate partial derivatives there are also proposed. Finally, the proposed methodologies are applied to a three-dimensional experimentally obtained data set, which shows that multidimensional Savitzky-Golay filters and differentiators perform well in both the internal and the near-boundary regions of the domain.
RSSI based indoor tracking in sensor networks using Kalman filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Skjøth, Flemming; Munksgaard, Lene
2010-01-01
We propose an algorithm for estimating positions of devices in a sensor network using Kalman filtering techniques. The specific area of application is monitoring the movements of cows in a barn. The algorithm consists of two filters. The first filter enhances the signal-to-noise ratio...
An active trap filter for high-power voltage source converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a power electronic based device to actively trap the switching current ripples for highpower converters. Control principle and system design of the active trap filter are discussed first. Comparisons of the active trap filter with LCL and LLCL filters are then carried out...
Ilić, Aleksandar D.; Pavlović, Vlastimir D.
2011-01-01
A new original formulation of all pole low-pass filter functions is proposed in this article. The starting point in solving the approximation problem is a direct application of the Christoffel-Darboux formula for the set of orthogonal polynomials, including Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials in the finite interval [-1, +1] with the application of a weighting function with a single free parameter. A general solution for the filter functions is obtained in a compact explicit form, which is shown to enable generation of the Gegenbauer filter functions in a simple way by choosing the value of the free parameter. Moreover, the proposed solution with the same criterion of approximation could be used to generate Legendre and Chebyshev filter functions of the first and second kind as well. The examples of proposed filter functions of even (10th) and odd (11th) order are illustrated. The approximation is shown to yield a good compromise solution with respect to the filter frequency characteristics (magnitude as well as phase characteristics). The influence of tolerance of the filter critical component (inductor) on the proposed magnitude and group delay characteristics of a resistively terminated LC lossless ladder filter is analysed as well. The proposed filter functions are superior in terms of the excellent magnitude characteristic, which approximates an ideal filter almost perfectly over the entire pass-band range and exhibits the summed sensitivity function better than that of a Butterworth filter. In the article, we present the filter function solution that exhibits optimum amplitude as well as optimum group delay characteristics that are of crucial importance for implementation of digital processing as well as RF analogue parts of communication networks. Derivation of the other band range filter functions, which could be realised either by continuous or digital filters, is also generally possible with the procedure proposed in this article.
A highly linear baseband Gm-C filter for WLAN application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Lijun; Chen Zhiming; Gong Zheng; Shi Yin
2011-01-01
A low voltage, highly linear transconductan-C (G m -C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP 3 is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 x 0.17 mm 2 die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Tracking of multiple objects with time-adjustable composite correlation filters
Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly; Chernoskulov, Ilya
2017-09-01
An algorithm for tracking of multiple objects in video based on time-adjustable adaptive composite correlation filtering is proposed. For each frame a bank of composite correlation filters are designed in such a manner to provide invariance to pose, occlusion, clutter, and illumination changes. The filters are synthesized with the help of an iterative algorithm, which optimizes the discrimination capability for each object. The filters are adapted to the objects changes online using information from the current and past scene frames. Results obtained with the proposed algorithm using real-life scenes are presented and compared with those obtained with state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of detection efficiency, tracking accuracy, and speed of processing.
Detection of masses in mammograms by analysis of gradient vector convergence using sector filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fakhari, Y.; Karimian, A.; Mohammadbeigi, M.
2012-01-01
Although mammography is the main diagnostic method for breast cancer, but the interpretation of mammograms is a difficult task and depends on the experience and skill of the radiologists. Computer Aided Detection (CADe) systems have been proposed to help radiologist in interpretation of mammograms. In this paper a novel filter called Sector filter is proposed to detect masses. This filter works based on the analysis of convergence of gradient vectors toward the center of filter. Using this filter, rounded convex regions, which are more likely to be pertained to a mass, could be detected in a gray scale image. After applying this filter on the images with two scales and their linear combination suspicious points were selected by a specific process. After implementation of the proposed method, promising results were achieved. The performance of the proposed method in this research was competitive or in some cases even better than that of other suggested methods in the literature. (authors)
Realisation of low-voltage square-root-domain all-pass filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farooq A. Khanday
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Novel l ow-voltage first-order and second-order square-root-domain all-pass filters derived systematically by means of transfer function decomposition and state -space synthesis techniques are proposed. The employment of only a few geometric-mean cells and grounded capacitors permits the circuits to absorb shunt parasitic capacitances, which is desirable for production in monolithic form . The circuits enjoy the features of electronic adjustment of frequency characteristics, wider dynamic range and low-voltage environment operation. The filters are employed to design high-order all-pass filters using cascade approach. First-order low-pass and second-order band-pass filters, being the inherited building blocks of the proposed low-order all-pass filters are also discussed. The behaviour of the filters is evaluated through simulations using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company 0.25 μm level-3 complementary metal oxide semiconductor process parameters, where the most important performance factors are considered.
Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters
Kim, Hyoungmoon
2014-01-01
Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
An improved fuzzy Kalman filter for state estimation of nonlinear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Z-J; Hu, C-H; Chen, L; Zhang, B-C
2008-01-01
The extended fuzzy Kalman filter (EFKF) is developed recently and used for state estimation of the nonlinear systems with uncertainty. Based on extension of the orthogonality principle and the extended fuzzy Kalman filter, an improved fuzzy Kalman filters (IFKF) is proposed in this paper, which is more applicable and can deal with the state estimation of the nonlinear systems better than the EFKF. A simulation study is provided to verify the efficiency of the proposed method
Design of Kalman filters for mobile robots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Thomas Dall; Hansen, Karsten L.; Andersen, Nils Axel
1999-01-01
the mobile robot is equipped with a dual encoder system supported by some additional absolute measurements. A common filter type for this setup is the odometric filter, where readings from the odometry system on the robot are used together with the geometry of the robot movement as a model of the robot......Kalman filters have for a long time been widely used on mobile robots as a location estimator. Many different Kalman filter designs have been proposed, using models of various complexity. In this paper, two different design methods are evaluated and compared. Focus is put on the common setup where...... estimates. The Kalman filter normally consists of a time update followed by one or more data updates. However, it is shown that when using the kinematic filter, the encoder measurements should be fused prior to the time update for better performance....
? filtering for stochastic systems driven by Poisson processes
Song, Bo; Wu, Zheng-Guang; Park, Ju H.; Shi, Guodong; Zhang, Ya
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the ? filtering problem for stochastic systems driven by Poisson processes. By utilising the martingale theory such as the predictable projection operator and the dual predictable projection operator, this paper transforms the expectation of stochastic integral with respect to the Poisson process into the expectation of Lebesgue integral. Then, based on this, this paper designs an ? filter such that the filtering error system is mean-square asymptotically stable and satisfies a prescribed ? performance level. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtering scheme.
Yousefinezhad, Sajad; Kermani, Saeed; Hosseinnia, Saeed
2018-01-01
The operational transconductance amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter is one of the best structures for implementing continuous-time filters. It is particularly important to design a universal OTA-C filter capable of generating the desired filter response via a single structure, thus reducing the filter circuit power consumption as well as noise and the occupied space on the electronic chip. In this study, an inverter-based universal OTA-C filter with very low power consumption and acceptable noise was designed with applications in bioelectric and biomedical equipment for recording biomedical signals. The very low power consumption of the proposed filter was achieved through introducing bias in subthreshold MOSFET transistors. The proposed filter is also capable of simultaneously receiving favorable low-, band-, and high-pass filter responses. The performance of the proposed filter was simulated and analyzed via HSPICE software (level 49) and 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The rate of power consumption and noise obtained from simulations are 7.1 nW and 10.18 nA, respectively, so this filter has reduced noise as well as power consumption. The proposed universal OTA-C filter was designed based on the minimum number of transconductance blocks and an inverter circuit by three transconductance blocks (OTA).
Filtering reducer of flushing fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secu, P; Apostu, M; Basarabescu, T; Popescu, F
1981-02-28
This is a patent of a filtering reducer of flushing fluid on a water base with low content of solid particles used at temperatures of roughly 200/sup 0/C. With the use of the proposed filtering reducer, there is no excessive increase in viscosity and gelatinization of the flushing fluids without restriction in the quantity of reducer needed to guarantee the required filtering. There is a possibility of recovering the polyalkylphenol vat residues obtained in the production of nonyl phenol. It is possible to reduce the time of treatment and dissolving of the product; there is no danger of plugging of the productive oil beds. The process of hydration of clay is excluded.
Non-Causal Time-Domain Filters for Single-Channel Noise Reduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2012-01-01
suppression and signal distortion by allowing the filters to be non-causal. Non-causal time-domain filters require knowledge of the future, and are therefore not directly implementable. If the observed signal is processed in blocks, however, the non-causal filters are implementable. In this paper, we propose...
Projects on filter testing in Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Normann, B.; Wiktorsson, C.
1985-01-01
The Swedish nuclear power program comprises twelve light water reactors. Nine are boiling water reactors of ASEA-ATOM design and three are pressurized water reactors of Westinghouse design. Of these, ten are in operation and two are under construction and planned to go into operation during late 1984 and early 1985, respectively. Frequent tests on the penetration of particles through HEPA filters, regular tests on the adsorption of methyl iodide in the stand-by carbon filter units by laboratory testing are discussed. The proposed new regulations are based on many years of experience of filter system operation and of tests in-situ and in the laboratory. Moisture and water are factors that affect the functioning of filters. In addition, high loading of dust can give rise to increased penetration through HEPA filters, however pinholes could have less influence on the total penetration. Laboratory tests show that DOP particles retain 30-40% in 90 mm carbon filters (8-12 mesh). However no effect on the ability of carbon to adsorb methyl iodide after DOP contamination in combined carbon/HEPA filters has been observed. Leakage from ventilation ducts can cause radioactive contamination problems during filter testing with radioiodine. In-situ testing of control-room filters has been performed using inactive methyl iodide. A type of carbon bed not previously used in Sweden has been introduced. Testing of this filter type is discussed
Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter
Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.
2012-01-01
A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.
Selection of noise parameters for Kalman filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ka-Veng Yuen; Ka-In Hoi; Kai-Meng Mok
2007-01-01
The Bayesian probabilistic approach is proposed to estimate the process noise and measurement noise parameters for a Kalman filter. With state vectors and covariance matrices estimated by the Kalman filter, the likehood of the measurements can be constructed as a function of the process noise and measurement noise parameters. By maximizing the likklihood function with respect to these noise parameters, the optimal values can be obtained. Furthermore, the Bayesian probabilistic approach allows the associated uncertainty to be quantified. Examples using a single-degree-of-freedom system and a ten-story building illustrate the proposed method. The effect on the performance of the Kalman filter due to the selection of the process noise and measurement noise parameters was demonstrated. The optimal values of the noise parameters were found to be close to the actual values in the sense that the actual parameters were in the region with significant probability density. Through these examples, the Bayesian approach was shown to have the capability to provide accurate estimates of the noise parameters of the Kalman filter, and hence for state estimation.
Stanley Kubrick and B.F. Skinner : Is a Teaching Machine a Monolith ?
浜野, 保樹; ハマノ, ヤスキ; Yasuki, Hamano
1990-01-01
The teaching machine invented by B.F. Skinner was recog-nized as one of few clear achievements of scientific pedagogy and even appeared in SF. Arthur C. Clarke who wrote the script of the SF movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" with Stanley Kubrick wanted to scientifically define a monolith to be a God who had given intelligence to our ancestors. In other words, he wanted to describe a monolith as a teaching machine as well as a God. However Kubrick did not want to make clear about what a monolith i...
Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie
2007-01-01
To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.
Fuzzy Logic-Based Filter for Removing Additive and Impulsive Noise from Color Images
Zhu, Yuhong; Li, Hongyang; Jiang, Huageng
2017-12-01
This paper presents an efficient filter method based on fuzzy logics for adaptively removing additive and impulsive noise from color images. The proposed filter comprises two parts including noise detection and noise removal filtering. In the detection part, the fuzzy peer group concept is applied to determine what type of noise is added to each pixel of the corrupted image. In the filter part, the impulse noise is deducted by the vector median filter in the CIELAB color space and an optimal fuzzy filter is introduced to reduce the Gaussian noise, while they can work together to remove the mixed Gaussian-impulse noise from color images. Experimental results on several color images proves the efficacy of the proposed fuzzy filter.
Improved Kalman Filter Method for Measurement Noise Reduction in Multi Sensor RFID Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Chul Kim
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Recently, the range of available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less Mean Squared Error (MSE than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments.
Improved Kalman filter method for measurement noise reduction in multi sensor RFID systems.
Eom, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Kyung, Yeo Sun; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Min Chul; Jung, Kyung Kwon
2011-01-01
Recently, the range of available radio frequency identification (RFID) tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less mean squared error (MSE) than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments.
Arbitrary-step randomly delayed robust filter with application to boost phase tracking
Qin, Wutao; Wang, Xiaogang; Bai, Yuliang; Cui, Naigang
2018-04-01
The conventional filters such as extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter and cubature Kalman filter assume that the measurement is available in real-time and the measurement noise is Gaussian white noise. But in practice, both two assumptions are invalid. To solve this problem, a novel algorithm is proposed by taking the following four steps. At first, the measurement model is modified by the Bernoulli random variables to describe the random delay. Then, the expression of predicted measurement and covariance are reformulated, which could get rid of the restriction that the maximum number of delay must be one or two and the assumption that probabilities of Bernoulli random variables taking the value one are equal. Next, the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Kalman filter is derived based on the 5th-degree spherical-radial rule and the reformulated expressions. Finally, the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Kalman filter is modified to the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Huber-based filter based on the Huber technique, which is essentially an M-estimator. Therefore, the proposed filter is not only robust to the randomly delayed measurements, but robust to the glint noise. The application to the boost phase tracking example demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms.
Taddia, F.; Sollerman, J.; Fremling, C.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Quimby, R. M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.
2018-01-01
Aims: We study PTF11mnb, a He-poor supernova (SN) whose light curves resemble those of SN 2005bf, a peculiar double-peaked stripped-envelope (SE) SN, until the declining phase after the main peak. We investigate the mechanism powering its light curve and the nature of its progenitor star. Methods: Optical photometry and spectroscopy of PTF11mnb are presented. We compared light curves, colors and spectral properties to those of SN 2005bf and normal SE SNe. We built a bolometric light curve and modeled this light curve with the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) hydrodynamical code explosion of a MESA progenitor star and semi-analytic models. Results: The light curve of PTF11mnb turns out to be similar to that of SN 2005bf until 50 d when the main (secondary) peaks occur at -18.5 mag. The early peak occurs at 20 d and is about 1.0 mag fainter. After the main peak, the decline rate of PTF11mnb is remarkably slower than what was observed in SN 2005bf, and it traces well the 56Co decay rate. The spectra of PTF11mnb reveal a SN Ic and have no traces of He unlike in the case of SN Ib 2005bf, although they have velocities comparable to those of SN 2005bf. The whole evolution of the bolometric light curve is well reproduced by the explosion of a massive (Mej = 7.8 M⊙), He-poor star characterized by a double-peaked 56Ni distribution, a total 56Ni mass of 0.59 M⊙, and an explosion energy of 2.2 × 1051 erg. Alternatively, a normal SN Ib/c explosion (M(56Ni) = 0.11 M⊙, EK = 0.2 × 1051 erg, Mej = 1 M⊙) can power the first peak while a magnetar, with a magnetic field characterized by B = 5.0 × 1014 G, and a rotation period of P = 18.1 ms, provides energy for the main peak. The early g-band light curve can be fit with a shock-breakout cooling tail or an extended envelope model from which a radius of at least 30 R⊙ is obtained. Conclusions: We presented a scenario where PTF11mnb was the explosion of a massive, He-poor star, characterized by a double-peaked 56Ni
Compact triple band-stop filter using novel epsilon-shaped metamaterial with lumped capacitor
Ali, W. A. E.; Hamdalla, M. Z. M.
2018-04-01
This paper presents the design of a novel epsilon-shaped metamaterial unit cell structure that is applicable for single-band and multi-band applications. A closed-form formulas to control the resonance frequencies of the proposed design are included. The proposed unit cell, which exhibits negative permeability at its frequency bands, is etched from the ground plane to form a band-stop filter. The filter design is constructed to validate the band-notched characteristics of the proposed unit cell. A lumped capacitor is inserted for size reduction purpose in addition to multi-resonance generation. The fundamental resonance frequency is translated from 3.62 GHz to 2.45 GHz, which means that the filter size will be more compact (more than 32% size reduction). The overall size of the proposed filter is 13 × 6 × 1.524 mm3, where the electrical size is 0.221λg × 0.102λg × 0.026λg at the lower frequency band (2.45 GHz). Two other resonance frequencies are generated at 5.3 GHz and 9.2 GHz, which confirm the multi-band behavior of the proposed filter. Good agreement between simulated and measured characteristics of the fabricated filter prototype is achieved.
Study of thermal spin crossover in [Fe(II)(isoxazole)(6)](BF4)(2) with Mossbauer spectroscopy
Bhattacharjee, A.; van Koningsbruggen, P. J.; Hibbs, W.; Miller, Joel S.; Guetlich, P.
2007-01-01
Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy of the mononuclear [Fe( II)( isoxazole)(6)]( BF4)(2) compound has been studied to reveal the thermal spin crossover of Fe( II) between low- spin ( S = 0) and high- spin ( S = 2) states. A temperature-dependent spin transition curve has been constructed with the least-
A Divergence Median-based Geometric Detector with A Weighted Averaging Filter
Hua, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Yubo; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang
2018-01-01
To overcome the performance degradation of the classical fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based constant false alarm rate detector with the limited sample data, a divergence median-based geometric detector on the Riemannian manifold of Heimitian positive definite matrices is proposed in this paper. In particular, an autocorrelation matrix is used to model the correlation of sample data. This method of the modeling can avoid the poor Doppler resolution as well as the energy spread of the Doppler filter banks result from the FFT. Moreover, a weighted averaging filter, conceived from the philosophy of the bilateral filtering in image denoising, is proposed and combined within the geometric detection framework. As the weighted averaging filter acts as the clutter suppression, the performance of the geometric detector is improved. Numerical experiments are given to validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García, Silvia; Larriba, Marcos; García, Julián; Torrecilla, José S.; Rodríguez, Francisco
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Binary mixtures of ionic liquids as extraction solvents of aromatics. ► [4bmpy][Tf 2 N] shows higher capacity but lower selectivity than sulfolane. ► [bpy][BF 4 ] shows lower capacity but higher selectivity than sulfolane. ► Mixed {[4bmpy][Tf 2 N] + [bpy][BF 4 ]} improves both extractive properties. - Abstract: The use of binary mixture of ionic liquids N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([bpy][BF 4 ]), and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([4bmpy][Tf 2 N]) in the liquid–liquid extraction of toluene from n-heptane has been investigated at 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The experimental capacity of extraction and selectivity for this binary mixture has proved to be intermediate to those corresponding to the pure ionic liquids, and they can be predicted using a logarithmic–linear model of solubility. Furthermore, the results showed that the use of binary mixture of {[bpy][BF 4 ] + [4bmpy][Tf 2 N]} at a mole solvent composition around 0.7 for [bpy][BF 4 ] improves both the capacity of extraction of toluene and the selectivity with respect to those of sulfolane, the organic solvent taken as a benchmark. Thus, this mixed ionic liquid could be likely to be used in the extraction of aromatic from aliphatic in replacement to sulfolane.
A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The CCF removed total organic carbon (TOC) (up to 39%) better than the BSF and BF (p ≤ 0.05). The filters removed turbidity effectively with the BSF having the highest reduction (70%). The average turbidity reduction efficiency was in the order BSF (70%) > BF (51%) > CCF (44%). The BSF, CCF and BF reduced turbidity ...
The effective action in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and generalized BF topological field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birmingham, D. (Theory Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S. (Physics Dept., Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States))
1991-07-11
The one-loop off-shell effective action is studied for the case of generalized BF theories in three dimensions, including, for example, (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The phase contribution to the effective action, originating from the {eta}-function of a particular first order operator, is calculated using a momentum space technique. It is found that the {eta}-function is proportional to the classical action. (orig.).
The effective action in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and generalized BF topological field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birmingham, D.; Gibbs, R.; Mokhtari, S.
1991-01-01
The one-loop off-shell effective action is studied for the case of generalized BF theories in three dimensions, including, for example, (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The phase contribution to the effective action, originating from the η-function of a particular first order operator, is calculated using a momentum space technique. It is found that the η-function is proportional to the classical action. (orig.)
Michelson interferometer based interleaver design using classic IIR filter decomposition.
Cheng, Chi-Hao; Tang, Shasha
2013-12-16
An elegant method to design a Michelson interferometer based interleaver using a classic infinite impulse response (IIR) filter such as Butterworth, Chebyshev, and elliptic filters as a starting point are presented. The proposed design method allows engineers to design a Michelson interferometer based interleaver from specifications seamlessly. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design method.
Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter
Jazzar, Saleh
2013-05-01
In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage and reduce the required transmitted signal power. One problem that faces relays communications is the leaked signal from the relay\\'s output to its input. This will cause an SI problem where the new received signal at the relay\\'s input will be added with the unwanted leaked signal from the relay\\'s output. A Solution is proposed in this paper to estimate and minimise this SI which is based upon using a tapped filter at the destination. To get the optimum weights for this tapped filter, some channel parameters must be estimated first. This is performed blindly at the destination without the need of any training. This channel parameter estimation method is named the blind-self-interference-channel-estimation (BSICE) method. The next step in the proposed solution is to estimate the tapped filter\\'s weights. This is performed by minimising the mean squared error (MSE) at the destination. This proposed method is named the MSE-Optimum Weight (MSE-OW) method. Simulation results are provided in this paper to verify the performance of BSICE and MSE-OW methods. © 2013 IEEE.
Digital Path Approach Despeckle Filter for Ultrasound Imaging and Video
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Szczepański
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel filtering technique capable of reducing the multiplicative noise in ultrasound images that is an extension of the denoising algorithms based on the concept of digital paths. In this approach, the filter weights are calculated taking into account the similarity between pixel intensities that belongs to the local neighborhood of the processed pixel, which is called a path. The output of the filter is estimated as the weighted average of pixels connected by the paths. The way of creating paths is pivotal and determines the effectiveness and computational complexity of the proposed filtering design. Such procedure can be effective for different types of noise but fail in the presence of multiplicative noise. To increase the filtering efficiency for this type of disturbances, we introduce some improvements of the basic concept and new classes of similarity functions and finally extend our techniques to a spatiotemporal domain. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm provides the comparable results with the state-of-the-art techniques for multiplicative noise removal in ultrasound images and it can be applied for real-time image enhancement of video streams.
Cost-Effective Video Filtering Solution for Real-Time Vision Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Martin
2005-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient video filtering scheme and its implementation in a field-programmable logic device (FPLD. Since the proposed nonlinear, spatiotemporal filtering scheme is based on order statistics, its efficient implementation benefits from a bit-serial realization. The utilization of both the spatial and temporal correlation characteristics of the processed video significantly increases the computational demands on this solution, and thus, implementation becomes a significant challenge. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed pipelined bit-serial FPLD filtering solution can achieve speeds of up to 97.6 Mpixels/s and consumes 1700 to 2700 logic cells for the speed-optimized and area-optimized versions, respectively. Thus, the filter area represents only 6.6 to 10.5% of the Altera STRATIX EP1S25 device available on the Altera Stratix DSP evaluation board, which has been used to implement a prototype of the entire real-time vision system. As such, the proposed adaptive video filtering scheme is both practical and attractive for real-time machine vision and surveillance systems as well as conventional video and multimedia applications.
Bearings-Only Tracking of Manoeuvring Targets Using Particle Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sanjeev Arulampalam
2004-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the problem of bearings-only tracking of manoeuvring targets using particle filters (PFs. Three different (PFs are proposed for this problem which is formulated as a multiple model tracking problem in a jump Markov system (JMS framework. The proposed filters are (i multiple model PF (MMPF, (ii auxiliary MMPF (AUX-MMPF, and (iii jump Markov system PF (JMS-PF. The performance of these filters is compared with that of standard interacting multiple model (IMM-based trackers such as IMM-EKF and IMM-UKF for three separate cases: (i single-sensor case, (ii multisensor case, and (iii tracking with hard constraints. A conservative CRLB applicable for this problem is also derived and compared with the RMS error performance of the filters. The results confirm the superiority of the PFs for this difficult nonlinear tracking problem.
Khan, Tariq Mahmood; Bailey, Donald G; Khan, Mohammad A U; Kong, Yinan
2017-05-01
A real-time image filtering technique is proposed which could result in faster implementation for fingerprint image enhancement. One major hurdle associated with fingerprint filtering techniques is the expensive nature of their hardware implementations. To circumvent this, a modified anisotropic Gaussian filter is efficiently adopted in hardware by decomposing the filter into two orthogonal Gaussians and an oriented line Gaussian. An architecture is developed for dynamically controlling the orientation of the line Gaussian filter. To further improve the performance of the filter, the input image is homogenized by a local image normalization. In the proposed structure, for a middle-range reconfigurable FPGA, both parallel compute-intensive and real-time demands were achieved. We manage to efficiently speed up the image-processing time and improve the resource utilization of the FPGA. Test results show an improved speed for its hardware architecture while maintaining reasonable enhancement benchmarks.
Multichannel Signal Enhancement using Non-Causal, Time-Domain Filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Benesty, Jacob
2013-01-01
In the vast amount of time-domain filtering methods for speech enhancement, the filters are designed to be causal. Recently, however, it was shown that the noise reduction and signal distortion capabilities of such single-channel filters can be improved by allowing the filters to be non-causal. W......In the vast amount of time-domain filtering methods for speech enhancement, the filters are designed to be causal. Recently, however, it was shown that the noise reduction and signal distortion capabilities of such single-channel filters can be improved by allowing the filters to be non......-causal, multichannel filters for enhancement based on an orthogonal decomposition is proposed. The evaluation shows that there is a potential gain in noise reduction and signal distortion by introducing non-causality. Moreover, experiments on real-life speech show that we can improve the perceptual quality....
A family of quantization based piecewise linear filter networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Aasted
1992-01-01
A family of quantization-based piecewise linear filter networks is proposed. For stationary signals, a filter network from this family is a generalization of the classical Wiener filter with an input signal and a desired response. The construction of the filter network is based on quantization...... of the input signal x(n) into quantization classes. With each quantization class is associated a linear filter. The filtering at time n is carried out by the filter belonging to the actual quantization class of x(n ) and the filters belonging to the neighbor quantization classes of x(n) (regularization......). This construction leads to a three-layer filter network. The first layer consists of the quantization class filters for the input signal. The second layer carries out the regularization between neighbor quantization classes, and the third layer constitutes a decision of quantization class from where the resulting...
A new extended H∞ filter for discrete nonlinear systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张永安; 周荻; 段广仁
2004-01-01
Nonlinear estimation problem is investigated in this paper. By extension of a linear H∞ estimation with corrector-predictor form to nonlinear cases, a new extended H∞ filter is proposed for time-varying discretetime nonlinear systems. The new filter has a simple observer structure based on a local linearization model, and can be viewed as a general case of the extended Kalman filter (EKF). An example demonstrates that the new filter with a suitable-chosen prescribed H∞ bound performs better than the EKF.
Improved Collaborative Filtering Algorithm using Topic Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Na
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Collaborative filtering algorithms make use of interactions rates between users and items for generating recommendations. Similarity among users or items is calculated based on rating mostly, without considering explicit properties of users or items involved. In this paper, we proposed collaborative filtering algorithm using topic model. We describe user-item matrix as document-word matrix and user are represented as random mixtures over item, each item is characterized by a distribution over users. The experiments showed that the proposed algorithm achieved better performance compared the other state-of-the-art algorithms on Movie Lens data sets.
Maximum Correntropy Criterion Kalman Filter for α-Jerk Tracking Model with Non-Gaussian Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bowen Hou
2017-11-01
Full Text Available As one of the most critical issues for target track, α -jerk model is an effective maneuver target track model. Non-Gaussian noises always exist in the track process, which usually lead to inconsistency and divergence of the track filter. A novel Kalman filter is derived and applied on α -jerk tracking model to handle non-Gaussian noise. The weighted least square solution is presented and the standard Kalman filter is deduced firstly. A novel Kalman filter with the weighted least square based on the maximum correntropy criterion is deduced. The robustness of the maximum correntropy criterion is also analyzed with the influence function and compared with the Huber-based filter, and, moreover, the kernel size of Gaussian kernel plays an important role in the filter algorithm. A new adaptive kernel method is proposed in this paper to adjust the parameter in real time. Finally, simulation results indicate the validity and the efficiency of the proposed filter. The comparison study shows that the proposed filter can significantly reduce the noise influence for α -jerk model.
del Valle, J C; García Blanco, F; Catalán, J
2015-04-02
The empirical solvent scales for polarizability (SP), dipolarity (SdP), acidity (SA), and basicity (SB) have been successfully used to interpret the solvatochromism of compounds dissolved in organic solvents and their solvent mixtures. Providing that the published solvatochromic parameters for the ionic liquids 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [BMIM][BF4] and 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM][PF6], are excessively widespread, their SP, SdP, SA, and SB values are measured herein at temperatures from 293 to 353 K. Four key points are emphasized herein: (i) the origin of the solvatochromic solvent scales--the gas phase, that is the absence of any medium perturbation--; (ii) the separation of the polarizability and dipolarity effects; (iii) the simplification of the probing process in order to obtain the solvatochromic parameters; and (iv) the SP, SdP, SA, and SB solvent scales can probe the polarizability, dipolarity, acidity, and basicity of ionic liquids as well as of organic solvents and water-organic solvent mixtures. From the multiparameter approach using the four pure solvent scales one can draw the conclusion that (a) the solvent influence of [BMIM][BF4] parallels that of formamide at 293 K, both of them miscible with water; (b) [BMIM][PF6] shows a set of solvatochromic parameters similar to that of chloroacetonitrile, both of them water insoluble; and (c) that the corresponding solvent acidity and basicity of the ionic liquids can be explained to a great extent from the cation species by comparing the empirical parameters of [BMIM](+) with those of the solvent 1-methylimidazole. The insolubility of [BMIM][PF6] in water as compared to [BMIM][BF4] is tentatively connected to some extent to the larger molar volume of the anion [PF6](-), and to the difference in basicity of [PF6](-) and [BF4](-).
Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Pei Lin
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.
A User-Oriented Splog Filtering Based on a Machine Learning
Yoshinaka, Takayuki; Ishii, Soichi; Fukuhara, Tomohiro; Masuda, Hidetaka; Nakagawa, Hiroshi
A method for filtering spam blogs (splogs) based on a machine learning technique, and its evaluation results are described. Today, spam blogs (splogs) became one of major issues on the Web. The problem of splogs is that values of blog sites are different by people. We propose a novel user-oriented splog filtering method that can adapt each user's preference for valuable blogs. We use the SVM(Support Vector Machine) for creating a personalized splog filter for each user. We had two experiments: (1) an experiment of individual splog judgement, and (2) an experiment for user oriented splog filtering. From the former experiment, we found existence of 'gray' blogs that are needed to treat by persons. From the latter experiment, we found that we can provide appropriate personalized filters by choosing the best feature set for each user. An overview of proposed method, and evaluation results are described.
BF3·Et2O promoted conjugate addition of ethanethiol to electron-deficient alkynes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qing Fa Zhou; Xue Ping Chu; Shen Zhao; Tao Lu; Wei Fang Tang
2012-01-01
An effective method for the synthesis of vinyl thioethers through the conjugate addition of ethanethiol to electron-deficient alkynes promoted by BF3·Et2O has been developed.Electron-deficient internal alkynes react with ethanethiol in this system to yield mainly Z-isomer of vinyl thioether adducts,while electron-deficient terminal alkynes afford mainly E-isomer of vinyl thioether adducts.
Graphene-based tunable terahertz filter with rectangular ring ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A plasmonic band-pass filter based on graphene rectangular ring resonator with double narrow gaps is proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. For the filter with or without gaps, the resonant frequencies can be effectively adjusted by changing the width of the graphene ...
Graphene-based tunable terahertz filter with rectangular ring ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WEI SU
2017-08-16
Aug 16, 2017 ... Abstract. A plasmonic band-pass filter based on graphene rectangular ring resonator with double narrow gaps is proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. For the filter with or without gaps, the resonant frequencies can be effectively adjusted by changing ...
Estimation of three-dimensional radar tracking using modified extended kalman filter
Aditya, Prima; Apriliani, Erna; Khusnul Arif, Didik; Baihaqi, Komar
2018-03-01
Kalman filter is an estimation method by combining data and mathematical models then developed be extended Kalman filter to handle nonlinear systems. Three-dimensional radar tracking is one of example of nonlinear system. In this paper developed a modification method of extended Kalman filter from the direct decline of the three-dimensional radar tracking case. The development of this filter algorithm can solve the three-dimensional radar measurements in the case proposed in this case the target measured by radar with distance r, azimuth angle θ, and the elevation angle ϕ. Artificial covariance and mean adjusted directly on the three-dimensional radar system. Simulations result show that the proposed formulation is effective in the calculation of nonlinear measurement compared with extended Kalman filter with the value error at 0.77% until 1.15%.
CPSFS: A Credible Personalized Spam Filtering Scheme by Crowdsourcing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Email spam consumes a lot of network resources and threatens many systems because of its unwanted or malicious content. Most existing spam filters only target complete-spam but ignore semispam. This paper proposes a novel and comprehensive CPSFS scheme: Credible Personalized Spam Filtering Scheme, which classifies spam into two categories: complete-spam and semispam, and targets filtering both kinds of spam. Complete-spam is always spam for all users; semispam is an email identified as spam by some users and as regular email by other users. Most existing spam filters target complete-spam but ignore semispam. In CPSFS, Bayesian filtering is deployed at email servers to identify complete-spam, while semispam is identified at client side by crowdsourcing. An email user client can distinguish junk from legitimate emails according to spam reports from credible contacts with the similar interests. Social trust and interest similarity between users and their contacts are calculated so that spam reports are more accurately targeted to similar users. The experimental results show that the proposed CPSFS can improve the accuracy rate of distinguishing spam from legitimate emails compared with that of Bayesian filter alone.
Low-dimensional recurrent neural network-based Kalman filter for speech enhancement.
Xia, Youshen; Wang, Jun
2015-07-01
This paper proposes a new recurrent neural network-based Kalman filter for speech enhancement, based on a noise-constrained least squares estimate. The parameters of speech signal modeled as autoregressive process are first estimated by using the proposed recurrent neural network and the speech signal is then recovered from Kalman filtering. The proposed recurrent neural network is globally asymptomatically stable to the noise-constrained estimate. Because the noise-constrained estimate has a robust performance against non-Gaussian noise, the proposed recurrent neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm can minimize the estimation error of Kalman filter parameters in non-Gaussian noise. Furthermore, having a low-dimensional model feature, the proposed neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm has a much faster speed than two existing recurrent neural networks-based speech enhancement algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed recurrent neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm can produce a good performance with fast computation and noise reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Novel Microwave Stop-Band Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. E. Chernobrovkin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The stop-band filter with the new band-rejection element is proposed. The element is a coaxial waveguide with the slot in the centre conductor. In the frame of this research, the numerical and experimental investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are carried out. It is noted that according to the slot parameters the two typical resonances (half-wave and quarter-wave can be excited. The rejection band of the single element is defined by the width, depth, and dielectric filling of the slot. Fifth-order Chebyshev filter utilizing the aforementioned element is also synthesized, manufactured, and tested. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement. The experimental filter prototype exhibits the rejection band 0.86 GHz at the level −40 dB.
Correlation Filters for Detection of Cellular Nuclei in Histopathology Images.
Ahmad, Asif; Asif, Amina; Rajpoot, Nasir; Arif, Muhammad; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar
2017-11-21
Nuclei detection in histology images is an essential part of computer aided diagnosis of cancers and tumors. It is a challenging task due to diverse and complicated structures of cells. In this work, we present an automated technique for detection of cellular nuclei in hematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology images. Our proposed approach is based on kernelized correlation filters. Correlation filters have been widely used in object detection and tracking applications but their strength has not been explored in the medical imaging domain up till now. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme gives state of the art accuracy and can learn complex nuclear morphologies. Like deep learning approaches, the proposed filters do not require engineering of image features as they can operate directly on histopathology images without significant preprocessing. However, unlike deep learning methods, the large-margin correlation filters developed in this work are interpretable, computationally efficient and do not require specialized or expensive computing hardware. A cloud based webserver of the proposed method and its python implementation can be accessed at the following URL: http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/software.html#corehist .
An Oversampled Filter Bank Multicarrier System for cognitive Radio
Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Q.
2008-01-01
Due to small sideband power leakage, filter bank multicarrier techniques are considered as interesting alternatives to traditional OFDMs for spectrum pooling Cognitive Radio. In this paper, we propose an oversampled filter bank multicarrier system for Cognitive Radio. The increased spacing between
Filters in topology optimization based on Helmholtz‐type differential equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to apply a Helmholtz‐type partial differential equation as an alternative to standard density filtering in topology optimization problems. Previously, this approach has been successfully applied as a sensitivity filter. The usual filtering techniques in topology...... from the neighbor subdomains is an expensive operation. The proposed filter technique requires only mesh information necessary for the finite element discretization of the problem. The main idea is to define the filtered variable implicitly as a solution of a Helmholtz‐type differential equation...
Iterated unscented Kalman filter for phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes.
Xie, Xianming
2016-08-22
A fresh phase unwrapping algorithm based on iterated unscented Kalman filter is proposed to estimate unambiguous unwrapped phase of interferometric fringes. This method is the result of combining an iterated unscented Kalman filter with a robust phase gradient estimator based on amended matrix pencil model, and an efficient quality-guided strategy based on heap sort. The iterated unscented Kalman filter that is one of the most robust methods under the Bayesian theorem frame in non-linear signal processing so far, is applied to perform simultaneously noise suppression and phase unwrapping of interferometric fringes for the first time, which can simplify the complexity and the difficulty of pre-filtering procedure followed by phase unwrapping procedure, and even can remove the pre-filtering procedure. The robust phase gradient estimator is used to efficiently and accurately obtain phase gradient information from interferometric fringes, which is needed for the iterated unscented Kalman filtering phase unwrapping model. The efficient quality-guided strategy is able to ensure that the proposed method fast unwraps wrapped pixels along the path from the high-quality area to the low-quality area of wrapped phase images, which can greatly improve the efficiency of phase unwrapping. Results obtained from synthetic data and real data show that the proposed method can obtain better solutions with an acceptable time consumption, with respect to some of the most used algorithms.
Novel miniature high power ring filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Huifen; Mao Junfa; Luo Zhihua
2005-01-01
The power handling capability of high temperature superconducting (HTS) filters is limited due to current concentration at the edges of the superconducting films. This problem can be overcome by using ring resonator, which employs the edge current free and reduces the current concentration. However, this kind of filter has large size. In order to reduce the cost and size and increase the power handling capability, in this paper a HTS photonic bandgap (PBG) structure filter is developed. The proposed pass band filter with PBG structure exhibits center frequency 12.23 GHz, steepness (about 35 dB/GHz), bandwidth (-3 dB bandwidth is 0.045 GHz), and low insertion loss (about -0.5 dB), and can handle input power up to 1 W (this value was limited by the measurement instrument used in the experiment). The size is reduced by 25%, insertion loss reduced by 37.5%, and steeper roll-off of the filter is also obtained compared with that in published literature
FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter
Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung
This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongtao Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strong tracking filter (STF, which is suitable for dealing with the filtering problem of nonlinear systems when the following cases occur: that is, the constructed model does not match the actual system, the measurements have the one-step random delay, and the process and measurement noises are correlated at the same epoch. Firstly, a framework of decoupling filter (DF based on equivalent model transformation is derived. Further, according to the framework of DF, a new extended Kalman filtering (EKF algorithm via using first-order linearization approximation is developed. Secondly, the computational process of the suboptimal fading factor is derived on the basis of the extended orthogonality principle (EOP. Thirdly, the ultimate form of the proposed STF is obtained by introducing the suboptimal fading factor into the above EKF algorithm. The proposed STF can automatically tune the suboptimal fading factor on the basis of the residuals between available and predicted measurements and further the gain matrices of the proposed STF tune online to improve the filtering performance. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed STF has been proved through numerical simulation experiments.
Nondestructive quality assurance of ceramic filters using noncontact dynamic characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yue, P.; Chen, S.E.; Nishihama, Y. [University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
2005-06-01
Ceramic candle filters are stiff cylindrical structures arranged in rosettes in a hot gas vessel. Custom-made with strong composite materials, these filters are designed to withstand heating and cooling cycles of very high temperature gradients during coal energy production processes. To ensure consistency in the manufactured filters, noncontact dynamic characterization using laser vibrometry is proposed as a factory quality control technique. To evaluate the proposed technique, a sensitivity study using both contact and noncontact vibration measurements is first conducted. The shift in natural vibration frequencies is used as a quality indicator for likely manufacturing variables. Six candle filters are tested using dynamic impact tests. Contact and noncontact results are compared with theoretical natural frequency values, which show that laser results were 'noisier' due to dropout from speckle noises. The results are used to establish the sensitivity of the technique, which indicates that dynamic characterization is a valid nondestructive testing technique for quality assurance of the ceramic filters, provided that the manufactured filters have a quality variation greater than 3.21%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Štěpán Lang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aquaculture is currently one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, accounting for around 50 % of the world’s food fish production. Limited resources, together with climatic change, have stimulated the search for solutions to support and sustain the production of fish as a source of protein for human consumption. The integration of a biological filtration (BF into a semi-recirculating fish rearing system can increase its carrying capacity and increase system efficiency compared to its’ energy consumption with minimum changes of system composition and minimal costs. Question is the capacity of the BF installed to a system and how it affects water quality. Two different amounts of BF media (surface added to semi-recirculating rearing system compared with the same system without BF were tested in case of this study. The results have shown that if the BF capacity is insufficient, BF can have negative effects to the quality of water environment. The insufficient amount of BF media caused 4 times reduction of ammonia nitrogen (N-NH4+ in system with BF compared to non BF system so it increased the system capacity for feed load 4 times. On the other hand it also increased nitrite nitrogen concentrations permanently more than 5.8 times for BF system compared to non BF system and increased rearing costs because the need of adding chlorides to the system to protect fish from nitrites toxicity. When the BF was dimensioned properly (next year there were almost no N-NH4+ in a system (0.10 mg.l−1 and the concentration of N-NO2− was kept at low levels too (0.150 mg .l−1. The nitrates (N‑NO3− concentration reached the level of 5.37 and 8.65 mg.l−1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively.
Jenni, Kevin; Scherthan, Lena; Faus, Isabelle; Marx, Jennifer; Strohm, Cornelius; Herlitschke, Marcus; Wille, Hans-Christian; Würtz, Peter; Schünemann, Volker; Wolny, Juliusz A
2017-07-26
Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) experiments have been performed in order to study the vibrational dynamics of the low- and high-spin states of the polynuclear 1D spin crossover compound [Fe(1,2,4-triazole) 2 (1,2,4-triazolato)](BF 4 ) (1). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the functional B3LYP* and the basis set CEP-31G for heptameric and nonameric models of the compound yielded the normal vibrations and electronic energies for high-spin and low-spin isomers of three models differing in the distribution of anionic trz - ligands and BF 4 - anions. On the basis of the obtained energies a structural model with a centrosymmetric Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 coordination core of the mononuclear unit of the chain is proposed. The obtained distribution of the BF 4 - counteranions in the proposed structure is similar to that obtained on the basis of X-ray powder diffraction studies by Grossjean et al. (Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 796). The NIS data of the system diluted to 10% Fe(ii) content in a 90% Zn(ii) matrix (compound (2)) show a characteristic change of the spectral pattern of the low-spin centres, compared to the low-spin phase of the parent Fe(ii) complex (1). DFT calculations reveal that this is caused by a change of the structure of the neighbours of the low-spin centres. The spectral pattern of the high-spin centres in (2) is within a good approximation identical to that of the high-spin Fe(ii) isomer of (1). The inspection of the molecular orbitals of the monomeric model systems of [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ] and [Fe(trzH) 6 ], together with calculations of spin transition energies, point towards the importance of an electrostatic effect caused by the negatively charged ligands. This results in the stabilisation of the low-spin state of the complex containing the anionic ligand and shortening of the Fe-N(trz - ) compared to the Fe-N(trzH) bond in high-spin, but not in low-spin [Fe(trzH) 4 (trz - ) 2 ].
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kumar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Gaussian noise is one of the dominant noises, which degrades the quality of acquired Computed Tomography (CT image data. It creates difficulties in pathological identification or diagnosis of any disease. Gaussian noise elimination is desirable to improve the clarity of a CT image for clinical, diagnostic, and postprocessing applications. This paper proposes an evolutionary nonlinear adaptive filter approach, using Cat Swarm Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (CS-FLANN to remove the unwanted noise. The structure of the proposed filter is based on the Functional Link Artificial Neural Network (FLANN and the Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO is utilized for the selection of optimum weight of the neural network filter. The applied filter has been compared with the existing linear filters, like the mean filter and the adaptive Wiener filter. The performance indices, such as peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, have been computed for the quantitative analysis of the proposed filter. The experimental evaluation established the superiority of the proposed filtering technique over existing methods.
Multi-scale freeform surface texture filtering using a mesh relaxation scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Xiangqian; Abdul-Rahman, Hussein S; Scott, Paul J
2013-01-01
Surface filtering algorithms using Fourier, Gaussian, wavelets, etc, are well-established for simple Euclidean geometries. However, these filtration techniques cannot be applied to today's complex freeform surfaces, which have non-Euclidean geometries, without distortion of the results. This paper proposes a new multi-scale filtering algorithm for freeform surfaces that are represented by triangular meshes based on a mesh relaxation scheme. The proposed algorithm is capable of decomposing a freeform surface into different scales and separating surface roughness, waviness and form from each other, as will be demonstrated throughout the paper. Results of applying the proposed algorithm to computer-generated as well as real surfaces are represented and compared with a lifting wavelet filtering algorithm. (paper)
Implementation and assessment of improved models and options in TRAC-BF1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytis, G.Th.
1996-07-01
A summary of modifications and options introduced in TRAC-BF1 is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the core are greatly improved. These changes include the introduction of a different heat transfer package during reflooding, the implementation of a simple single-phase limit procedure for forcing the two phases to acquire the same velocity if one phase disappears, a close assessment of the annular flow interfacial shear correlation, implementation of a simple radiation model which seems to alleviate some numerical-oscillations problems induced by the existing highly complex model. Furthermore, different options were introduced and tested like upwinding some terms of the momentum equations (which seems to solve a number of problems reported in the past), the second upwind scheme for the convective terms of the phasic momentum equations and the implementation and assessment of a completely different annular flow interfacial shear correlation. The modified TRAC-BF1 is assessed against some bottom-flooding separate-effect experiments, a 'benchmark' top flooding simulation as well as against the TLTA test Nr. 6423. In the process of this task, the different options are assessed and discussed and is shown that the predictions of the modified code are physically sound and close to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used for LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 19 figs., 16 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguayo-Rodriguez, G; Zaldivar-Huerta, I E [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE). Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); GarcIa-Juarez, A [Depto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON) Hermosillo, Son. Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J [Depto. de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (UDLA). San Andres Cholula, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); Larger, L; Courjal, N [Laboratoire d' Optique P. M. Duffieux, UMR 6603 CNRS, Institut des Microtechiques de Franche-Comte, FRW 0067, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Franche-Comte (UFC), Besancon cedex (France)
2011-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally the efficiency of tuning of a photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01 to 20 GHz. The presented work combines the use of a multimode optical source associated with a dispersive optical fiber to obtain the filtering effect. Tunability effect is achieved by the use of a Fabry-Perot filter that allows altering the spectral characteristics of the optical source. Experimental results are validated by means of numerical simulations. The scheme here proposed has a potential application in the field of optical telecommunications.
Signal filtering algorithm for depth-selective diffuse optical topography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, M; Nakayama, K
2009-01-01
A compact filtered backprojection algorithm that suppresses the undesirable effects of skin circulation for near-infrared diffuse optical topography is proposed. Our approach centers around a depth-selective filtering algorithm that uses an inverse problem technique and extracts target signals from observation data contaminated by noise from a shallow region. The filtering algorithm is reduced to a compact matrix and is therefore easily incorporated into a real-time system. To demonstrate the validity of this method, we developed a demonstration prototype for depth-selective diffuse optical topography and performed both computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the proposed method significantly suppresses the noise from the shallow region with a minimal degradation of the target signal.
An exact algorithm for optimal MAE stack filter design.
Dellamonica, Domingos; Silva, Paulo J S; Humes, Carlos; Hirata, Nina S T; Barrera, Junior
2007-02-01
We propose a new algorithm for optimal MAE stack filter design. It is based on three main ingredients. First, we show that the dual of the integer programming formulation of the filter design problem is a minimum cost network flow problem. Next, we present a decomposition principle that can be used to break this dual problem into smaller subproblems. Finally, we propose a specialization of the network Simplex algorithm based on column generation to solve these smaller subproblems. Using our method, we were able to efficiently solve instances of the filter problem with window size up to 25 pixels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest dimension for which this problem was ever solved exactly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Satoh, K; Koizumi, D; Narahashi, S [Research Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc., 3-5 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagwa, 239-8536 (Japan)], E-mail: satokei@nttdocomo.co.jp
2008-02-01
This paper presents a novel compact high temperature superconducting (HTS) bandpass filter (BPF) that employs a newly developed miniaturized coplanar-waveguide (CPW) quarter-wavelength resonators with strongly-coupled open stubs. The proposed resonator has a structure in which the open stubs are aligned close to the center conductor of the resonator. This is because strongly-coupled resonators have widely-split resonant frequencies, and the lowest resonant frequency is employed as the fundamental resonant frequency of the resonator in order to achieve miniaturization. The proposed resonator is 1.7 mm or less in length for use in the 5-GHz band, whereas the conventional straight resonator is approximately 6.4 mm long. A four-pole Chebyshev HTS BPF is designed and fabricated using the proposed CPW resonators. The entire length of the proposed four-pole filter is 15 mm. The frequency response of the fabricated filter agrees well with the electromagnetic simulation results. The proposed filter achieves a size reduction of at least 50% compared to previously reported filters without any degradation in the frequency characteristics.
A new greedy search method for the design of digital IIR filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjit Kaur
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A new greedy search method is applied in this paper to design the optimal digital infinite impulse response (IIR filter. The greedy search method is based on binary successive approximation (BSA and evolutionary search (ES. The suggested greedy search method optimizes the magnitude response and the phase response simultaneously and also finds the lowest order of the filter. The order of the filter is controlled by a control gene whose value is also optimized along with the filter coefficients to obtain optimum order of designed IIR filter. The stability constraints of IIR filter are taken care of during the design procedure. To determine the trade-off relationship between conflicting objectives in the non-inferior domain, the weighting method is exploited. The proposed approach is effectively applied to solve the multiobjective optimization problems of designing the digital low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, bandpass (BP, and bandstop (BS filters. It has been demonstrated that this technique not only fulfills all types of filter performance requirements, but also the lowest order of the filter can be found. The computational experiments show that the proposed approach gives better digital IIR filters than the existing evolutionary algorithm (EA based methods.
An efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC standard
Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Lian, Xiaocong; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaoxiang
2015-12-01
The next-generation video coding standard of High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is especially efficient for coding high-resolution video such as 8K-ultra-high-definition (UHD) video. Fractional motion estimation in HEVC presents a significant challenge in clock latency and area cost as it consumes more than 40 % of the total encoding time and thus results in high computational complexity. With aims at supporting 8K-UHD video applications, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new interpolation filter algorithm based on the 8-pixel interpolation unit is proposed in this paper. It can save 19.7 % processing time on average with acceptable coding quality degradation. Based on the proposed algorithm, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture, composed of a reused data path of interpolation, an efficient memory organization, and a reconfigurable pipeline interpolation filter engine, is presented to reduce the implement hardware area and achieve high throughput. The final VLSI implementation only requires 37.2k gates in a standard 90-nm CMOS technology at an operating frequency of 240 MHz. The proposed architecture can be reused for either half-pixel interpolation or quarter-pixel interpolation, which can reduce the area cost for about 131,040 bits RAM. The processing latency of our proposed VLSI architecture can support the real-time processing of 4:2:0 format 7680 × 4320@78fps video sequences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcon, J. [Laboratoire Electronique Microtechnologie et Instrumentation (LEMI), University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan (France)], E-mail: Jerome.Marcon@univ-rouen.fr; Merabet, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux Metalliques, Departement d' O.M.P., Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite de Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria)
2008-12-05
We have investigated and modelled the diffusion of boron implanted into crystalline silicon in the form of boron difluoride BF{sub 2}{sup +}. We have used published data for BF{sub 2}{sup +} implanted with an energy of 2.2 keV in crystalline silicon. Fluorine effects are considered by using vacancy-fluorine pairs which are responsible for the suppression of boron diffusion in crystalline silicon. Following Uematsu's works, the simulations satisfactory reproduce the SIMS experimental profiles in the 800-1000 deg. C temperature range. The boron diffusion model in silicon of Uematsu has been improved taking into account the last experimental data.
Multiple Maneuvering Target Tracking by Improved Particle Filter Based on Multiscan JPDA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The multiple maneuvering target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter is addressed. The equivalent-noise approach is adopted, which uses a simple dynamic model consisting of target state and equivalent noise which accounts for the combined effects of the process noise and maneuvers. The equivalent-noise approach converts the problem of maneuvering target tracking to that of state estimation in the presence of nonstationary process noise with unknown statistics. A novel method for identifying the nonstationary process noise is proposed in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, a particle filter based multiscan Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA filter is proposed to deal with the data association problem in a multiple maneuvering target tracking. In the proposed multiscan JPDA algorithm, the distributions of interest are the marginal filtering distributions for each of the targets, and these distributions are approximated with particles. The multiscan JPDA algorithm examines the joint association events in a multiscan sliding window and calculates the marginal posterior probability based on the multiscan joint association events. The proposed algorithm is illustrated via an example involving the tracking of two highly maneuvering, at times closely spaced and crossed, targets, based on resolved measurements.
Impulsive noise removal from color video with morphological filtering
Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly
2017-09-01
This paper deals with impulse noise removal from color video. The proposed noise removal algorithm employs a switching filtering for denoising of color video; that is, detection of corrupted pixels by means of a novel morphological filtering followed by removal of the detected pixels on the base of estimation of uncorrupted pixels in the previous scenes. With the help of computer simulation we show that the proposed algorithm is able to well remove impulse noise in color video. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared in terms of image restoration metrics with that of common successful algorithms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; Li, Yun
2016-01-01
The capacitor-current-feedback active damping method is attractive for high-order-filter-based high power grid-tied inverter when the grid impedance varies within a wide range. In order to improve the system control bandwidth and attenuate the high order grid background harmonics by using the quasi....... In this paper, a low pass filter is proposed to be inserted in the capacitor current feedback loop op LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter together with a digital proportional and differential compensator. The detailed theoretical analysis is given. For verification, simulations on a 2kW/220V/10kHz LLCL...
Optical supervised filtering technique based on Hopfield neural network
Bal, Abdullah
2004-11-01
Hopfield neural network is commonly preferred for optimization problems. In image segmentation, conventional Hopfield neural networks (HNN) are formulated as a cost-function-minimization problem to perform gray level thresholding on the image histogram or the pixels' gray levels arranged in a one-dimensional array [R. Sammouda, N. Niki, H. Nishitani, Pattern Rec. 30 (1997) 921-927; K.S. Cheng, J.S. Lin, C.W. Mao, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15 (1996) 560-567; C. Chang, P. Chung, Image and Vision comp. 19 (2001) 669-678]. In this paper, a new high speed supervised filtering technique is proposed for image feature extraction and enhancement problems by modifying the conventional HNN. The essential improvement in this technique is to use 2D convolution operation instead of weight-matrix multiplication. Thereby, neural network based a new filtering technique has been obtained that is required just 3 × 3 sized filter mask matrix instead of large size weight coefficient matrix. Optical implementation of the proposed filtering technique is executed easily using the joint transform correlator. The requirement of non-negative data for optical implementation is provided by bias technique to convert the bipolar data to non-negative data. Simulation results of the proposed optical supervised filtering technique are reported for various feature extraction problems such as edge detection, corner detection, horizontal and vertical line extraction, and fingerprint enhancement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)
2008-07-15
This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].
Detection of circuit-board components with an adaptive multiclass correlation filter
Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.; Kober, Vitaly
2008-08-01
A new method for reliable detection of circuit-board components is proposed. The method is based on an adaptive multiclass composite correlation filter. The filter is designed with the help of an iterative algorithm using complex synthetic discriminant functions. The impulse response of the filter contains information needed to localize and classify geometrically distorted circuit-board components belonging to different classes. Computer simulation results obtained with the proposed method are provided and compared with those of known multiclass correlation based techniques in terms of performance criteria for recognition and classification of objects.
BPSK Receiver Based on Recursive Adaptive Filter with Remodulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Milosevic
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new binary phase shift keying (BPSK signal receiver intended for reception under conditions of significant carrier frequency offsets. The recursive adaptive filter with least mean squares (LMS adaptation is used. The proposed receiver has a constant, defining the balance between the recursive and the nonrecursive part of the filter, whose proper choice allows a simple construction of the receiver. The correct choice of this parameter could result in unitary length of the filter. The proposed receiver has performance very close to the performance of the BPSK receiver with perfect frequency synchronization, in a wide range of frequency offsets (plus/minus quarter of the signal bandwidth. The results obtained by the software simulation are confirmed by the experimental results measured on the receiver realized with the universal software radio peripheral (USRP, with the baseband signal processing at personal computer (PC.
Voltage Harmonics Mitigation through Hybrid Active Power Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwer Ali Sahito
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fast dynamic response, high efficiency, low cost and small size of power electronic converters have exponentially increased their use in modern power system which resulted in harmonically distorted voltage and currents. Voltage harmonics mainly caused by current harmonics are more dangerous as performance and expected operating life of other power system equipment are affected by harmonically distorted supply voltage. Electronic filter circuits are used to improve system power quality by mitigating adverse effects of harmonics. Hybrid filters having advantages of both passive and active filters are preferred to resolve the problem of harmonics efficiently and avoiding any chance of resonance. In this paper, a three phase three wire network is considered to supply an adjustable speed drive represented by a resistive load connected across a three phase bridge rectifier. Simulation of the considered system shows THD (Total Harmonic Distortion of 18.91 and 7.61% in supply current and voltage respectively. A HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter is proposed to reduce these THD values below 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard-519. P-Q theorem is used to calculate required parameters for proposed filter, which is implemented through hysteresis control. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the designed filter as THD for both current and voltage have reduced below allowable limit of 5%.
Robust Design of LCL-Filters for Active Damping in Grid Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
Grid converters require a simple inductor or an LCL-filter to limit the current ripples. The LCL-filter is nowadays the preferred solution as it allows lower inductance values. In order to solve the stability concerns, active damping is preferred to passive damping since it does not use dissipative...... elements. However, large variations in the grid inductance and resonances arising from parallel converters may still compromise the system stability. This calls for a robust design of LCL-filters with active damping. This paper proposes a design flow with little iteration for two well-known methods, namely...... lead-lag network and current capacitor feedback. The proposed formulas for the resonance frequency, grid and converter inductance ratio, and capacitance of the LCL-filter allow calculating all the LCL-filter parameters. An estimation for the achieved Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the grid current...
Law, Kody
2016-01-06
This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.
A proposal for M2-brane-anti-M2-brane action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garousi, Mohammad R.
2010-01-01
We propose a manifestly SO(8) invariant BF type Lagrangian for describing the dynamics of M2-brane-anti-M2-brane system in flat spacetime. When one of the scalars which satisfies a free-scalar equation takes a large expectation value, the M2-brane-anti-M2-brane action reduces to the tachyon DBI action of D2-brane-anti-D2-brane system in flat spacetime.
Thermally Tunable Dual Emission of the d8–d8 Dimer [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4–
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hofbeck, T.; Lam, Y.; Ch.; Kalbáč, Martin; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Yersin, H.
2016-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 5 (2016), s. 2441-2449 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015; GA MŠk LD14129; GA MŠk LL1301 Grant - others:COST(XE) cm1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High-resolution fluorescence * phosphorescence spectra * [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4− (Pt(pop-BF2)) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016
Multiscale Hybrid Nonlocal Means Filtering Using Modified Similarity Measure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zahid Hussain Shamsi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new multiscale implementation of nonlocal means filtering (MHNLM for image denoising is proposed. The proposed algorithm also introduces a modification of the similarity measure for patch comparison. Assuming the patch as an oriented surface, the notion of a normal vectors patch is introduced. The inner product of these normal vectors patches is defined and then used in the weighted Euclidean distance of intensity patches as the weight factor. The algorithm involves two steps: the first step is a multiscale implementation of an accelerated nonlocal means filtering in the discrete stationary wavelet domain to obtain a refined version of the noisy patches for later comparison. The next step is to apply the proposed modification of standard nonlocal means filtering to the noisy image using the reference patches obtained in the first step. These refined patches contain less noise, and consequently the computation of normal vectors and partial derivatives is more precise. Experimental results show equivalent or better performance of the proposed algorithm compared to various state-of-the-art algorithms.
Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yingsong
2017-07-01
In this paper, a triple stop-band filter with a ratioed periodical defected microstrip structure is proposed for wireless communication applications. The proposed ratioed periodical defected microstrip structures are spiral slots, which are embedded into a 50 Ω microstrip line to obtain multiple stop-bands. The performance of the proposed triple stop-band filter is investigated numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is also established and discussed. The results are given to verify that the proposed triple stop-band filter has three stop bands at 3.3 GHz, 5.2 GHz, 6.8 GHz to reject the unwanted signals, which is promising for integrating into UWB communication systems to efficiently prevent the potential interferences from unexpected narrowband signals such as WiMAX, WLAN and RFID communication systems.
Kim, Jeremie S; Senol Cali, Damla; Xin, Hongyi; Lee, Donghyuk; Ghose, Saugata; Alser, Mohammed; Hassan, Hasan; Ergin, Oguz; Alkan, Can; Mutlu, Onur
2018-05-09
Seed location filtering is critical in DNA read mapping, a process where billions of DNA fragments (reads) sampled from a donor are mapped onto a reference genome to identify genomic variants of the donor. State-of-the-art read mappers 1) quickly generate possible mapping locations for seeds (i.e., smaller segments) within each read, 2) extract reference sequences at each of the mapping locations, and 3) check similarity between each read and its associated reference sequences with a computationally-expensive algorithm (i.e., sequence alignment) to determine the origin of the read. A seed location filter comes into play before alignment, discarding seed locations that alignment would deem a poor match. The ideal seed location filter would discard all poor match locations prior to alignment such that there is no wasted computation on unnecessary alignments. We propose a novel seed location filtering algorithm, GRIM-Filter, optimized to exploit 3D-stacked memory systems that integrate computation within a logic layer stacked under memory layers, to perform processing-in-memory (PIM). GRIM-Filter quickly filters seed locations by 1) introducing a new representation of coarse-grained segments of the reference genome, and 2) using massively-parallel in-memory operations to identify read presence within each coarse-grained segment. Our evaluations show that for a sequence alignment error tolerance of 0.05, GRIM-Filter 1) reduces the false negative rate of filtering by 5.59x-6.41x, and 2) provides an end-to-end read mapper speedup of 1.81x-3.65x, compared to a state-of-the-art read mapper employing the best previous seed location filtering algorithm. GRIM-Filter exploits 3D-stacked memory, which enables the efficient use of processing-in-memory, to overcome the memory bandwidth bottleneck in seed location filtering. We show that GRIM-Filter significantly improves the performance of a state-of-the-art read mapper. GRIM-Filter is a universal seed location filter that can be
SART-Type Half-Threshold Filtering Approach for CT Reconstruction.
Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge
2014-01-01
The [Formula: see text] regularization problem has been widely used to solve the sparsity constrained problems. To enhance the sparsity constraint for better imaging performance, a promising direction is to use the [Formula: see text] norm (0 < p < 1) and solve the [Formula: see text] minimization problem. Very recently, Xu et al. developed an analytic solution for the [Formula: see text] regularization via an iterative thresholding operation, which is also referred to as half-threshold filtering. In this paper, we design a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART)-type half-threshold filtering framework to solve the computed tomography (CT) reconstruction problem. In the medical imaging filed, the discrete gradient transform (DGT) is widely used to define the sparsity. However, the DGT is noninvertible and it cannot be applied to half-threshold filtering for CT reconstruction. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed SART-type half-threshold filtering framework, an emphasis of this paper is to construct a pseudoinverse transforms for DGT. The proposed algorithms are evaluated with numerical and physical phantom data sets. Our results show that the SART-type half-threshold filtering algorithms have great potential to improve the reconstructed image quality from few and noisy projections. They are complementary to the counterparts of the state-of-the-art soft-threshold filtering and hard-threshold filtering.
Kalman filters for real-time magnetic island phase tracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgers, D.P.; Lauret, M.; Baar, M.R. de
2013-01-01
Highlights: • We propose two Kalman filters for tracking of NTMs on ASDEX Upgrade. • The Kalman filters can track NTMs in a much larger frequency range than PLLs. • The filters are tested on synthetic and experimental data from TEXTOR and TCV. • We conclude that the unscented Kalman filter can be useful for NTM control. -- Abstract: For control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the resulting rotating magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas, the frequency and phase of the magnetic islands need to be accurately tracked in real-time. In previous experiments on TEXTOR, this was achieved using a phase-locked loop (PLL). For ASDEX Upgrade however, the desired frequency range in which the islands are to be tracked (100 Hz–10 kHz) is much larger than is possible with a PLL. In this contribution, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are proposed for real-time frequency, phase and amplitude tracking of sinusoidal signals, based on noisy measurements. Compared to PLLs, the EKF and UKF are able to track sinusoidal signals in a much larger frequency range. The filters are applied on synthetic data and on experimental data from the TEXTOR and TCV tokamaks, from which we conclude that the UKF can be useful for real-time control of magnetic islands on ASDEX Upgrade
Kalman filters for real-time magnetic island phase tracking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borgers, D.P. [Hybrid and Networked Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lauret, M., E-mail: M.Lauret@tue.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Control Systems Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baar, M.R. de [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Control Systems Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering – Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2013-11-15
Highlights: • We propose two Kalman filters for tracking of NTMs on ASDEX Upgrade. • The Kalman filters can track NTMs in a much larger frequency range than PLLs. • The filters are tested on synthetic and experimental data from TEXTOR and TCV. • We conclude that the unscented Kalman filter can be useful for NTM control. -- Abstract: For control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the resulting rotating magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas, the frequency and phase of the magnetic islands need to be accurately tracked in real-time. In previous experiments on TEXTOR, this was achieved using a phase-locked loop (PLL). For ASDEX Upgrade however, the desired frequency range in which the islands are to be tracked (100 Hz–10 kHz) is much larger than is possible with a PLL. In this contribution, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are proposed for real-time frequency, phase and amplitude tracking of sinusoidal signals, based on noisy measurements. Compared to PLLs, the EKF and UKF are able to track sinusoidal signals in a much larger frequency range. The filters are applied on synthetic data and on experimental data from the TEXTOR and TCV tokamaks, from which we conclude that the UKF can be useful for real-time control of magnetic islands on ASDEX Upgrade.
Musical noise reduction using an adaptive filter
Hanada, Takeshi; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Hoya, Tetsuya
2003-10-01
This paper presents a method for reducing a particular noise (musical noise). The musical noise is artificially produced by Spectral Subtraction (SS), which is one of the most conventional methods for speech enhancement. The musical noise is the tin-like sound and annoying in human auditory. We know that the duration of the musical noise is considerably short in comparison with that of speech, and that the frequency components of the musical noise are random and isolated. In the ordinary SS-based methods, the musical noise is removed by the post-processing. However, the output of the ordinary post-processing is delayed since the post-processing uses the succeeding frames. In order to improve this problem, we propose a novel method using an adaptive filter. In the proposed system, the observed noisy signal is used as the input signal to the adaptive filter and the output of SS is used as the reference signal. In this paper we exploit the normalized LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm for the adaptive filter. Simulation results show that the proposed method has improved the intelligibility of the enhanced speech in comparison with the conventional method.
Novel Resistorless First-Order Current-Mode Universal Filter Employing a Grounded Capacitor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Arslanalp
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new bipolar junction transistor (BJT based configuration for providing first-order resistorless current-mode (CM all-pass, low-pass and high-pass filter responses from the same configuration is suggested. The proposed circuit called as a first-order universal filter possesses some important advantages such as consisting of a few BJTs and a grounded capacitor, consuming very low power and having electronic tunability property of its pole frequency. Additionally, types of filter response can be obtained only by changing the values of current sources. The suggested circuit does not suffer from disadvantages of use of the resistors in IC process. The presented first-order universal filter topology does not need any passive element matching constraints. Moreover, as an application example, a second-order band-pass filter is obtained by cascading two proposed filter structures which are operating as low-pass filter and high-pass one. Simulations by means of PSpice program are accomplished to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed first-order universal filter.
A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was aimed at modifying the design of, constructing, evaluating and comparing chemical contaminant removal efficiency by, 3 household water treatment filters. The filters were: 1) biosand filter (BSF); 2) the ceramic candle filter (CCF); 3) bucket filter (BF). The filters were evaluated for their efficiency in removal of ...
Performance Improvement of Shunt Active Power Filter With Dual Parallel Topology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asiminoaei, Lucian; Lascu, Cristian; Blaabjerg, Frede
2007-01-01
loop and the other is in a feedforward loop for harmonic compensation. Thus, both active power filters bring their own characteristic advantages, i.e., the feedback filter improves the steady-state performance of the harmonic mitigation and the feedforward filter improves the dynamic response. Another......This paper describes the control and parallel operation of two active power filters (APFs). Possible parallel operation situations of two APFs are investigated, and then the proposed topology is analyzed. The filters are coupled in a combined topology in which one filter is connected in a feedback...
Comb-Line Filter with Coupling Capacitor in Ground Plane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toshiaki Kitamura
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A comb-line filter with a coupling capacitor in the ground plane is proposed. The filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators. A coupling capacitor is inserted into the ground plane in order to build strong coupling locally along the resonators. The filtering characteristics are investigated through numerical simulations as well as experiments. Filtering characteristics that have attenuation poles at both sides of the passband are obtained. The input susceptances of even and odd modes and coupling coefficients are discussed. The filters using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs are also discussed, and the effects of the coupling capacitor for an SIR structure are shown.
Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang
2016-01-01
Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with,where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones,and the plant includes multiplicative noise.By utilizing standard singular value decomposition,the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented,and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma.The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations,and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach,where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.
Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang
2016-01-01
Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with, where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones, and the plant includes multiplicative noise. By utilizing standard singular value decomposition, the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented, and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma. The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach, where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.
Accuracy improvement of CT reconstruction using tree-structured filter bank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Junichi
2009-01-01
Accuracy improvement of 'CT reconstruction algorithm using TSFB (Tree-Structured Filter Bank)' that is high-speed CT reconstruction algorithm, was proposed. TSFB method could largely reduce the amount of computation in comparison with the CB (Convolution Backprojection) method, but it was the problem that an artifact occurred in a reconstruction image since reconstruction was performed with disregard to a signal out of the reconstruction domain in stage processing. Also the whole band filter being the component of a two-dimensional synthesis filter was IIR filter and then an artifact occurred at the end of the reconstruction image. In order to suppress these artifacts the proposed method enlarged the processing range by the TSFB method in the domain outside by the width control of the specimen line and line addition to the reconstruction domain outside. And, furthermore, to avoid increase of the amount of computation, the algorithm was proposed such as to decide the needed processing range depending on the number of steps processing with the TSFB and the degree of incline of filter, and then update the position and width of the specimen line to process the needed range. According to the simulation to realize a high-speed and highly accurate CT reconstruction in this way, the quality of the reconstruction image of the proposed method was improved in comparison with the TSFB method and got the same result with the CB method. (T. Tanaka)
HOKF: High Order Kalman Filter for Epilepsy Forecasting Modeling.
Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee
2017-08-01
Epilepsy forecasting has been extensively studied using high-order time series obtained from scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An accurate seizure prediction system would not only help significantly improve patients' quality of life, but would also facilitate new therapeutic strategies to manage epilepsy. This paper thus proposes an improved Kalman Filter (KF) algorithm to mine seizure forecasts from neural activity by modeling three properties in the high-order EEG time series: noise, temporal smoothness, and tensor structure. The proposed High-Order Kalman Filter (HOKF) is an extension of the standard Kalman filter, for which higher-order modeling is limited. The efficient dynamic of HOKF system preserves the tensor structure of the observations and latent states. As such, the proposed method offers two main advantages: (i) effectiveness with HOKF results in hidden variables that capture major evolving trends suitable to predict neural activity, even in the presence of missing values; and (ii) scalability in that the wall clock time of the HOKF is linear with respect to the number of time-slices of the sequence. The HOKF algorithm is examined in terms of its effectiveness and scalability by conducting forecasting and scalability experiments with a real epilepsy EEG dataset. The results of the simulation demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the original Kalman Filter and other existing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fast bilateral filtering of CT-images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steckmann, Sven; Baer, Matthias; Kachelriess, Marc [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics (IMP)
2011-07-01
The Bilateral filter is able to get a lower noise level while retaining the edges in images. The downside of a bilateral filter is the high order of the problem itself. While having a Volume size of N with a dimension of d and a filter window of r the problem is of size N{sup d} . r{sup d}. In the literature there are some proposals for speeding up by reducing this order by approximating a component of the filter. This leads to inaccurate results which often implies non acceptable artifacts for medical imaging. A better way for medical imaging is to speed up the filter itself while leaving the basic structure intact. This is the way our implementation uses. We solve the problem of calculating the function of e{sup -x} in an efficient way on modern architectures, and the problem of vectorizing the filtering process. As result we implemented a filter which is 2.5 times faster than the highly optimized basic approach. By comparing the basic analytical approach with the final algorithm, the differences in quality of the computing process is negligible to the human eye. We are able to process a volume with 512{sup 3} voxels with a filter of 25 x 25 x 1 in 21 s on a modern Intel Xeon platform with two X5590 processors running at 3.33 GHz. (orig.)
Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic
2008-01-01
State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.
Abdalla, M. A.; Choudhary, D. Kumar; Chaudhary, R. Kumar
2018-02-01
This paper presents the design of two reduced size dual-band metamaterial bandpass filters and its simulation followed by measurements of proposed filters. These filters are supporting different frequency bands and primarily could be utilize in radio frequency identification (RFID) application. The filter includes three cells in which two are symmetrical and both inductively coupled with the third cell which is present in between them. In the proposed designs, three different metamaterial composite right/left handed (CRLH) cell resonators have been analysed for compactness. The CRLH cell consists of an interdigital capacitor, a stub/meander line/spiral inductor and a via to connect the top of the structure and ground plane. Finally, the proposed dual band bandpass filters (using meander line and spiral inductor) are showing size reduction by 65% and 50% (with 25% operating frequency reduction), respectively, in comparison with reference filter using stub inductor. More than 30 dB attenuation has been achieved between the two passbands.
Fusion of multispectral and panchromatic images using multirate filter banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Hong; Jing Zhongliang; Li Jianxun
2005-01-01
In this paper, an image fusion method based on the filter banks is proposed for merging a high-resolution panchromatic image and a low-resolution multispectral image. Firstly, the filter banks are designed to merge different signals with minimum distortion by using cosine modulation. Then, the filter banks-based image fusion is adopted to obtain a high-resolution multispectral image that combines the spectral characteristic of low-resolution data with the spatial resolution of the panchromatic image. Finally, two different experiments and corresponding performance analysis are presented. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms the HIS transform, discrete wavelet transform and discrete wavelet frame.
Variable Step Size Maximum Correntropy Criteria Based Adaptive Filtering Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Radhika
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Maximum correntropy criterion (MCC based adaptive filters are found to be robust against impulsive interference. This paper proposes a novel MCC based adaptive filter with variable step size in order to obtain improved performance in terms of both convergence rate and steady state error with robustness against impulsive interference. The optimal variable step size is obtained by minimizing the Mean Square Deviation (MSD error from one iteration to the other. Simulation results in the context of a highly impulsive system identification scenario show that the proposed algorithm has faster convergence and lesser steady state error than the conventional MCC based adaptive filters.
Vector Directional Distance Rational Hybrid Filters for Color Image Restoration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Khriji
2005-12-01
Full Text Available A new class of nonlinear filters, called vector-directional distance rational hybrid filters (VDDRHF for multispectral image processing, is introduced and applied to color image-filtering problems. These filters are based on rational functions (RF. The VDDRHF filter is a two-stage filter, which exploits the features of the vector directional distance filter (VDDF, the center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF and those of the rational operator. The filter output is a result of vector rational function (VRF operating on the output of three sub-functions. Two vector directional distance (VDDF filters and one center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF are proposed to be used in the first stage due to their desirable properties, such as, noise attenuation, chromaticity retention, and edges and details preservation. Experimental results show that the new VDDRHF outperforms a number of widely known nonlinear filters for multi-spectral image processing such as the vector median filter (VMF, the generalized vector directional filters (GVDF and distance directional filters (DDF with respect to all criteria used.
Krypton-85 Monitoring at BfS in Germany and Technical Solutions for Safeguards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlosser, C.; Klingberg, F.
2015-01-01
The radioactive noble gas isotope krypton-85 with a half-life of 10.76 years is produced by nuclear fission. The main source of krypton-85 in the atmosphere are releases from reprocessing plants for nuclear fuel in the Northern Hemisphere. This volatile isotope is not retained in such plants and thus a very good indicator for the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. This includes reprocessing for military purposes. Additionally, Kr-85 could be used as tracer for the validation of Atmospheric Transport Models. The German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) operates a noble gas laboratory and a global network which continuously monitors the krypton-85 activity concentrations in ground level air since the 1970s. The atmospheric activity concentration has continuously been increasing since the installation of reprocessing plants for nuclear fuels in the early 1950s until 2003. In the first decades it came mostly from military applications and later from civil reprocessing. Since 2003 the atmospheric krypton-85 background level in the Northern Hemisphere is nearly constant with a value of around 1.5 Bq/m 3 in Central Europe. The baseline is superimposed by spikes as a result from discharges of two European reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel, Sellafield and La Hague. The laboratory of the BfS and the techniques used will be presented. Long time series will be discussed and the use of ATM for source location demonstrated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Zou, Yuan; Li, Siguang
2011-01-01
An accurate battery State of Charge estimation is of great significance for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper presents an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering method to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for battery electric vehicles. The adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the State of Charge estimation process is implemented by an idea of covariance matching in the unscented Kalman filter context. Experimental results indicate that the adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. A comparison with the adaptive extended Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter, and unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed State of Charge estimation method has a better accuracy. -- Highlights: → Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles. → The proposed method has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. → A comparison with three other Kalman filtering algorithms shows that the proposed method has a better accuracy.
Processing-Efficient Distributed Adaptive RLS Filtering for Computationally Constrained Platforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor M. Khan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel processing-efficient architecture of a group of inexpensive and computationally incapable small platforms is proposed for a parallely distributed adaptive signal processing (PDASP operation. The proposed architecture runs computationally expensive procedures like complex adaptive recursive least square (RLS algorithm cooperatively. The proposed PDASP architecture operates properly even if perfect time alignment among the participating platforms is not available. An RLS algorithm with the application of MIMO channel estimation is deployed on the proposed architecture. Complexity and processing time of the PDASP scheme with MIMO RLS algorithm are compared with sequentially operated MIMO RLS algorithm and liner Kalman filter. It is observed that PDASP scheme exhibits much lesser computational complexity parallely than the sequential MIMO RLS algorithm as well as Kalman filter. Moreover, the proposed architecture provides an improvement of 95.83% and 82.29% decreased processing time parallely compared to the sequentially operated Kalman filter and MIMO RLS algorithm for low doppler rate, respectively. Likewise, for high doppler rate, the proposed architecture entails an improvement of 94.12% and 77.28% decreased processing time compared to the Kalman and RLS algorithms, respectively.
Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anh Vu Le
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries.
A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter for extremely corrupted images
Dinh, Hai; Adhami, Reza; Wang, Yi
2015-07-01
A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter (MSNASF) is proposed for the restoration of images extremely corrupted by impulse and impulse-like noise. The filter consists of two steps: noise detection and noise removal. The proposed extrema-based noise detection scheme utilizes the false contouring effect to get better over detection rate at low noise density. It is adaptive and will detect not only impulse but also impulse-like noise. In the noise removal step, a novel multi-stage filtering scheme is proposed. It replaces corrupted pixel with the nearest uncorrupted median to preserve details. When compared with other methods, MSNASF provides better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structure similarity index (SSIM). A subjective evaluation carried out online also demonstrates that MSNASF yields higher fidelity.
Derivation of Oscillators from Biquadratic Band Pass Filters Using Circuit Transformations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hung-Yu Wang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Network transformations are the techniques to obtain new functional schemes from available circuits. They are systematic methodologies, since each transformation technique can be applied to many circuits to obtain the desired functions or characteristics. A convenient network transformation method, exploiting different circuit transformations, for deriving linear sinusoidal oscillators from biquadratic band pass filters is proposed. This method with generality can be applied to any band pass filter. The oscillation frequency of the new obtained oscillator is identical to the center frequency of the original band pass filter, and the useful properties of the selected band pass filter can be retained. Two examples are illustrated to confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach. The workability of the obtained oscillators is verified with PSPICE simulations.
Design strategy for the combined system of shunt passive and series active filters
Fujita, Hideki; Akagi, Hirofumi
1991-01-01
A design strategy for the combined power filter for a three-phase twelve-pulse thyristor rectifier is proposed. The shunt passive filter, which can minimize the output voltage of the series active filter, is designed and tested in a prototype model. A specially designed shunt passive filter makes it possible to reduce the required rating of the series active filter to 60% compared with a conventional shunt passive filter
Efficient OCT Image Enhancement Based on Collaborative Shock Filtering.
Liu, Guohua; Wang, Ziyu; Mu, Guoying; Li, Peijin
2018-01-01
Efficient enhancement of noisy optical coherence tomography (OCT) images is a key task for interpreting them correctly. In this paper, to better enhance details and layered structures of a human retina image, we propose a collaborative shock filtering for OCT image denoising and enhancement. Noisy OCT image is first denoised by a collaborative filtering method with new similarity measure, and then the denoised image is sharpened by a shock-type filtering for edge and detail enhancement. For dim OCT images, in order to improve image contrast for the detection of tiny lesions, a gamma transformation is first used to enhance the images within proper gray levels. The proposed method integrating image smoothing and sharpening simultaneously obtains better visual results in experiments.
Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang
2010-01-01
The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamezawa, H; Arimura, H; Ohki, M; Shirieda, K; Kameda, N
2014-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamezawa, H [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujimoto General Hospital, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan); Arimura, H; Ohki, M [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirieda, K; Kameda, N [Fujimoto General Hospital, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems.
Nonrigid registration with tissue-dependent filtering of the deformation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staring, Marius; Klein, Stefan; Pluim, Josien P W
2007-01-01
In present-day medical practice it is often necessary to nonrigidly align image data. Current registration algorithms do not generally take the characteristics of tissue into account. Consequently, rigid tissue, such as bone, can be deformed elastically, growth of tumours may be concealed, and contrast-enhanced structures may be reduced in volume. We propose a method to locally adapt the deformation field at structures that must be kept rigid, using a tissue-dependent filtering technique. This adaptive filtering of the deformation field results in locally linear transformations without scaling or shearing. The degree of filtering is related to tissue stiffness: more filtering is applied at stiff tissue locations, less at parts of the image containing nonrigid tissue. The tissue-dependent filter is incorporated in a commonly used registration algorithm, using mutual information as a similarity measure and cubic B-splines to model the deformation field. The new registration algorithm is compared with this popular method. Evaluation of the proposed tissue-dependent filtering is performed on 3D computed tomography (CT) data of the thorax and on 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images. The results show that tissue-dependent filtering of the deformation field leads to improved registration results: tumour volumes and vessel widths are preserved rather than affected
Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K
2015-01-01
A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)
Weighted ensemble transform Kalman filter for image assimilation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastien Beyou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes an extension of the Weighted Ensemble Kalman filter (WEnKF proposed by Papadakis et al. (2010 for the assimilation of image observations. The main focus of this study is on a novel formulation of the Weighted filter with the Ensemble Transform Kalman filter (WETKF, incorporating directly as a measurement model a non-linear image reconstruction criterion. This technique has been compared to the original WEnKF on numerical and real world data of 2-D turbulence observed through the transport of a passive scalar. In particular, it has been applied for the reconstruction of oceanic surface current vorticity fields from sea surface temperature (SST satellite data. This latter technique enables a consistent recovery along time of oceanic surface currents and vorticity maps in presence of large missing data areas and strong noise.
Variance-to-mean method generalized by linear difference filter technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, Kengo; Ohsaki, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Tetsuo; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Shiroya, Seiji
1998-01-01
The conventional variance-to-mean method (Feynman-α method) seriously suffers the divergency of the variance under such a transient condition as a reactor power drift. Strictly speaking, then, the use of the Feynman-α is restricted to a steady state. To apply the method to more practical uses, it is desirable to overcome this kind of difficulty. For this purpose, we propose an usage of higher-order difference filter technique to reduce the effect of the reactor power drift, and derive several new formulae taking account of the filtering. The capability of the formulae proposed was demonstrated through experiments in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. The experimental results indicate that the divergency of the variance can be effectively suppressed by the filtering technique, and that the higher-order filter becomes necessary with increasing variation rate in power
Dynamic beam filtering for miscentered patients.
Mao, Andrew; Shyr, William; Gang, Grace J; Stayman, J Webster
2018-02-01
Accurate centering of the patient within the bore of a CT scanner takes time and is often difficult to achieve precisely. Patient miscentering can result in significant dose and image noise penalties with the use of traditional bowtie filters. This work describes a system to dynamically position an x-ray beam filter during image acquisition to enable more consistent image performance and potentially lower dose needed for CT imaging. We propose a new approach in which two orthogonal low-dose scout images are used to estimate a parametric model of the object describing its shape, size, and location within the field of view (FOV). This model is then used to compute an optimal filter motion profile by minimizing the variance of the expected detector fluence for each projection. Dynamic filtration was implemented on a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test bench using two different physical filters: 1) an aluminum bowtie and 2) a structured binary filter called a multiple aperture device (MAD). Dynamic filtration performance was compared to a static filter in studies of dose and reconstruction noise as a function of the degree of miscentering of a homogeneous water phantom. Estimated filter trajectories were found to be largely sinusoidal with an amplitude proportional to the amount of miscentering. Dynamic filtration demonstrated an improved ability to keep the spatial distribution of dose and reconstruction noise at baseline levels across varying levels of miscentering, reducing the maximum noise and dose deviation from 53% to 15% and 42% to 14% respectively for the bowtie filter, and 25% to 8% and 24% to 15% respectively for the MAD filter. Dynamic positioning of beam filters during acquisition improves dose utilization and image quality over static filters for miscentered patients. Such dynamic filters relax positioning requirements and have the potential to reduce set-up time and lower dose requirements.
Hardware-efficient implementation of digital FIR filter using fast first-order moment algorithm
Cao, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Jing
2018-03-01
As the digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter can be transformed into the shift-add form of multiple small-sized firstorder moments, based on the existing fast first-order moment algorithm, this paper presents a novel multiplier-less structure to calculate any number of sequential filtering results in parallel. The theoretical analysis on its hardware and time-complexities reveals that by appropriately setting the degree of parallelism and the decomposition factor of a fixed word width, the proposed structure may achieve better area-time efficiency than the existing two-dimensional (2-D) memoryless-based filter. To evaluate the performance concretely, the proposed designs for different taps along with the existing 2-D memoryless-based filters, are synthesized by Synopsys Design Compiler with 0.18-μm SMIC library. The comparisons show that the proposed design has less area-time complexity and power consumption when the number of filter taps is larger than 48.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Nagai, Ryo; Umeda, Kazunori
1995-12-01
Defects in 25-keV BF{sub 2}{sup +}- or As{sup +}-implanted Si specimens were probed by a monoenergetic positron beam. For the As{sup +}-implanted specimen, the depth profile of defects was obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles as a function of incident positron energy. The major species of the defects was identified as divacancies. For ion-implanted specimens after annealing treatment, oxygen-related defects were found to be formed. For the BF{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted specimen before annealing treatment, such defects were formed in the subsurface region, where oxygen atoms were implanted by recoil from oxide films. This was attributed to enhanced formation of oxygen-related defects by the presence of F atoms. (author)
Hui, Z.; Cheng, P.; Ziggah, Y. Y.; Nie, Y.
2018-04-01
Filtering is a key step for most applications of airborne LiDAR point clouds. Although lots of filtering algorithms have been put forward in recent years, most of them suffer from parameters setting or thresholds adjusting, which will be time-consuming and reduce the degree of automation of the algorithm. To overcome this problem, this paper proposed a threshold-free filtering algorithm based on expectation-maximization. The proposed algorithm is developed based on an assumption that point clouds are seen as a mixture of Gaussian models. The separation of ground points and non-ground points from point clouds can be replaced as a separation of a mixed Gaussian model. Expectation-maximization (EM) is applied for realizing the separation. EM is used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of the mixture parameters. Using the estimated parameters, the likelihoods of each point belonging to ground or object can be computed. After several iterations, point clouds can be labelled as the component with a larger likelihood. Furthermore, intensity information was also utilized to optimize the filtering results acquired using the EM method. The proposed algorithm was tested using two different datasets used in practice. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can filter non-ground points effectively. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed method, this paper adopted the dataset provided by the ISPRS for the test. The proposed algorithm can obtain a 4.48 % total error which is much lower than most of the eight classical filtering algorithms reported by the ISPRS.
Concurrent computation of attribute filters on shared memory parallel machines
Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Gao, Hui; Hesselink, Wim H.; Jonker, Jan-Eppo; Meijster, Arnold
2008-01-01
Morphological attribute filters have not previously been parallelized mainly because they are both global and nonseparable. We propose a parallel algorithm that achieves efficient parallelism for a large class of attribute filters, including attribute openings, closings, thinnings, and thickenings,
Design optimisation of powers-of-two FIR filter using self-organising random immigrants GA
Chandra, Abhijit; Chattopadhyay, Sudipta
2015-01-01
In this communication, we propose a novel design strategy of multiplier-less low-pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter with the aid of a recent evolutionary optimisation technique, known as the self-organising random immigrants genetic algorithm. Individual impulse response coefficients of the proposed filter have been encoded as sum of signed powers-of-two. During the formulation of the cost function for the optimisation algorithm, both the frequency response characteristic and the hardware cost of the discrete coefficient FIR filter have been considered. The role of crossover probability of the optimisation technique has been evaluated on the overall performance of the proposed strategy. For this purpose, the convergence characteristic of the optimisation technique has been included in the simulation results. In our analysis, two design examples of different specifications have been taken into account. In order to substantiate the efficiency of our proposed structure, a number of state-of-the-art design strategies of multiplier-less FIR filter have also been included in this article for the purpose of comparison. Critical analysis of the result unambiguously establishes the usefulness of our proposed approach for the hardware efficient design of digital filter.
Particle filters, a quasi-Monte-Carlo-solution for segmentation of coronaries.
Florin, Charles; Paragios, Nikos; Williams, Jim
2005-01-01
In this paper we propose a Particle Filter-based approach for the segmentation of coronary arteries. To this end, successive planes of the vessel are modeled as unknown states of a sequential process. Such states consist of the orientation, position, shape model and appearance (in statistical terms) of the vessel that are recovered in an incremental fashion, using a sequential Bayesian filter (Particle Filter). In order to account for bifurcations and branchings, we consider a Monte Carlo sampling rule that propagates in parallel multiple hypotheses. Promising results on the segmentation of coronary arteries demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach.
Design of Filter for a Class of Switched Linear Neutral Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caiyun Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the filtering problem for a class of switched linear neutral systems with time-varying delays. The time-varying delays appear not only in the state but also in the state derivatives. Based on the average dwell time approach and the piecewise Lyapunov functional technique, sufficient conditions are proposed for the exponential stability of the filtering error dynamic system. Then, the corresponding solvability condition for a desired filter satisfying a weighted performance is established. All the conditions obtained are delay-dependent. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed theory.
Hesar, Hamed Danandeh; Mohebbi, Maryam
2017-05-01
In this paper, a model-based Bayesian filtering framework called the "marginalized particle-extended Kalman filter (MP-EKF) algorithm" is proposed for electrocardiogram (ECG) denoising. This algorithm does not have the extended Kalman filter (EKF) shortcoming in handling non-Gaussian nonstationary situations because of its nonlinear framework. In addition, it has less computational complexity compared with particle filter. This filter improves ECG denoising performance by implementing marginalized particle filter framework while reducing its computational complexity using EKF framework. An automatic particle weighting strategy is also proposed here that controls the reliance of our framework to the acquired measurements. We evaluated the proposed filter on several normal ECGs selected from MIT-BIH normal sinus rhythm database. To do so, artificial white Gaussian and colored noises as well as nonstationary real muscle artifact (MA) noise over a range of low SNRs from 10 to -5 dB were added to these normal ECG segments. The benchmark methods were the EKF and extended Kalman smoother (EKS) algorithms which are the first model-based Bayesian algorithms introduced in the field of ECG denoising. From SNR viewpoint, the experiments showed that in the presence of Gaussian white noise, the proposed framework outperforms the EKF and EKS algorithms in lower input SNRs where the measurements and state model are not reliable. Owing to its nonlinear framework and particle weighting strategy, the proposed algorithm attained better results at all input SNRs in non-Gaussian nonstationary situations (such as presence of pink noise, brown noise, and real MA). In addition, the impact of the proposed filtering method on the distortion of diagnostic features of the ECG was investigated and compared with EKF/EKS methods using an ECG diagnostic distortion measure called the "Multi-Scale Entropy Based Weighted Distortion Measure" or MSEWPRD. The results revealed that our proposed
A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Y B; Piao, W Y; Xu, J B
2007-01-01
The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements
A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements
Yuan, Y. B.; Piao, W. Y.; Xu, J. B.
2007-07-01
The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana María Rodríguez
Full Text Available In Argentina, the HIV epidemic is characterized by the co-circulation of subtype B and BF recombinant viral variants. Nef is an HIV protein highly variable among subtypes, making it a good tool to study the impact of HIV variability in the vaccine design setting. We have previously reported a specific cellular response against NefBF with low cross-reactivity to NefB in mice. The aim of this work was to analyze whether the co-administration of IL-12 and GM-CSF, using DNA and MVA vaccine vectors, could improve the final cellular response induced. Mice received three DNA priming doses of a plasmid that express NefBF plus DNAs expressing IL-12 and/or GM-CSF. Afterwards, all the groups were boosted with a MVAnefBF dose. The highest increase in the magnitude of the NefBF response, compared to that induced in the control was found in the IL-12 group. Importantly, a response with higher breadth was detected in groups which received IL-12 or GM-CSF, evidenced as an increased frequency of recognition of homologous (BF and heterologous (B Nef peptides, as well as a higher number of other Nef peptide pools representing different viral subtypes. However, these improvements were lost when both DNA cytokines were simultaneously administered, as the response was focused against the immunodominant peptide with a detrimental response towards subdominant epitopes. The pattern of cytokines secreted and the specific-T-cell proliferative capacity were improved in IL-12 and IL-12+GM-CSF groups. Importantly IL-12 generated a significant higher T-cell avidity against a B heterologous peptide.This study indicates that the incorporation of DNA expressing IL-12 in DNA/MVA schemes produced the best results in terms of improvements of T-cell-response key properties such as breadth, cross-reactivity and quality (avidity and pattern of cytokines secreted. These relevant results contribute to the design of strategies aimed to induce T-cell responses against HIV antigens with
Superresolution restoration of an image sequence: adaptive filtering approach.
Elad, M; Feuer, A
1999-01-01
This paper presents a new method based on adaptive filtering theory for superresolution restoration of continuous image sequences. The proposed methodology suggests least squares (LS) estimators which adapt in time, based on adaptive filters, least mean squares (LMS) or recursive least squares (RLS). The adaptation enables the treatment of linear space and time-variant blurring and arbitrary motion, both of them assumed known. The proposed new approach is shown to be of relatively low computational requirements. Simulations demonstrating the superresolution restoration algorithms are presented.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Greseth, Gregory
1999-01-01
.... The proposed Navy DC Zonal Electrical Distribution System (DC ZEDS) being designed for the new DD-21 utilizes a rectified ac generator output which is filtered and stepped to usable voltages by local dc-dc converters...
Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.
1989-11-01
This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
An Unbiased Unscented Transform Based Kalman Filter for 3D Radar
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGGuohong; XIUJianjuan; HEYou
2004-01-01
As a derivative-free alternative to the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) in the framework of state estimation, the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) has potential applications in nonlinear filtering. By noting the fact that the unscented transform is generally biased when converting the radar measurements from spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates, a new filtering algorithm for 3D radar, called Unbiased unscented Kalman filter (UUKF), is proposed. The new algorithm is validated by Monte Carlo simulation runs. Simulation results show that the UUKF is more effective than the UKF, EKF and the Converted measurement Kalman filter (CMKF).
Artificial neural network (ANN)-based prediction of depth filter loading capacity for filter sizing.
Agarwal, Harshit; Rathore, Anurag S; Hadpe, Sandeep Ramesh; Alva, Solomon J
2016-11-01
This article presents an application of artificial neural network (ANN) modelling towards prediction of depth filter loading capacity for clarification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) product during commercial manufacturing. The effect of operating parameters on filter loading capacity was evaluated based on the analysis of change in the differential pressure (DP) as a function of time. The proposed ANN model uses inlet stream properties (feed turbidity, feed cell count, feed cell viability), flux, and time to predict the corresponding DP. The ANN contained a single output layer with ten neurons in hidden layer and employed a sigmoidal activation function. This network was trained with 174 training points, 37 validation points, and 37 test points. Further, a pressure cut-off of 1.1 bar was used for sizing the filter area required under each operating condition. The modelling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental data with a regression coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.98. The developed ANN model was used for performing variable depth filter sizing for different clarification lots. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the cost savings by using different filter areas for different clarification lots rather than using the same filter area. A 10% saving in cost of goods was obtained for this operation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1436-1443, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
A highly linear baseband G{sub m}-C filter for WLAN application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Lijun; Chen Zhiming [Department of Electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Gong Zheng; Shi Yin, E-mail: ljyang@sci-inc.com.cn [Suzhou-CAS Semiconductors Integrated Technology Research Center, Suzhou 215021 (China)
2011-09-15
A low voltage, highly linear transconductan-C (G{sub m}-C) low-pass filter for wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver application is proposed. This transmitter (Tx) filter adopts a 9.8 MHz 3rd-order Chebyshev low pass prototype and achieves 35 dB stop-band attenuation at 30 MHz frequency. By utilizing pseudo-differential linear-region MOS transconductors, the filter IIP{sub 3} is measured to be as high as 9.5 dBm. Fabricated in a 0.35 {mu}m standard CMOS technology, the proposed filter chip occupies a 0.41 x 0.17 mm{sup 2} die area and consumes 3.36 mA from a 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
An improved particle filtering algorithm for aircraft engine gas-path fault diagnosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qihang Wang
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, an improved particle filter with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm is proposed for aircraft engine gas-path component abrupt fault diagnosis. In order to avoid the particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment of normal particle filter, the electromagnetism-like mechanism optimization algorithm is introduced into resampling procedure, which adjusts the position of the particles through simulating attraction–repulsion mechanism between charged particles of the electromagnetism theory. The improved particle filter can solve the particle degradation problem and ensure the diversity of the particle set. Meanwhile, it enhances the ability of tracking abrupt fault due to considering the latest measurement information. Comparison of the proposed method with three different filter algorithms is carried out on a univariate nonstationary growth model. Simulations on a turbofan engine model indicate that compared to the normal particle filter, the improved particle filter can ensure the completion of the fault diagnosis within less sampling period and the root mean square error of parameters estimation is reduced.
Proposal of a resonant controller for a three phase four wire grid-connected shunt hybrid filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Candela, J. I.; Rodriguez, P.; Luna, A.
2009-01-01
This paper present a three-phase four wire hybrid filter able to perform a selective cancellation of harmonic currents based on resonant controllers. As it will be shown in this work, this kind of control permits to enhance the bandwidth of the filter controller, without hindering the stability...
640 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on optical phase filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael
2014-01-01
We propose a novel approach for all optical RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal using a simple phase filter implemented by a commercial optical waveshaper....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, J. H.; Choi, H. D.
2014-01-01
As a representative method of non-destructive assay, accurate neutron measurement is difficult due to large background radiation such as γ-ray, secondary radiation, spurious pulse, etc. In a BF 3 detector, the process of signal generation is different between neutron and other radiations. As the development of detection technique, all of signal data can be digitized by digital measurement method. In the previous study, Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University has developed digital Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) method using digital oscilloscope. In this study, optimization of parameters for pulse discrimination is discussed and γ-ray region is determined by measuring 60 Co source. The background signal of BF 3 detector is discriminated by digital PSD system. Parameters for PSD are optimized through FOM calculation. And the γ-ray region is determined by measuring 60 Co source. In the future, the performance of developed system will be tested in low and high intensity neutron field
Dreano, Denis
2015-04-27
A statistical model is proposed to filter satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration from the Red Sea, and to predict future chlorophyll concentrations. The seasonal trend is first estimated after filling missing chlorophyll data using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF)-based algorithm (Data Interpolation EOF). The anomalies are then modeled as a stationary Gaussian process. A method proposed by Gneiting (2002) is used to construct positive-definite space-time covariance models for this process. After choosing an appropriate statistical model and identifying its parameters, Kriging is applied in the space-time domain to make a one step ahead prediction of the anomalies. The latter serves as the prediction model of a reduced-order Kalman filter, which is applied to assimilate and predict future chlorophyll concentrations. The proposed method decreases the root mean square (RMS) prediction error by about 11% compared with the seasonal average.
Dreano, Denis; Mallick, Bani; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2015-01-01
A statistical model is proposed to filter satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration from the Red Sea, and to predict future chlorophyll concentrations. The seasonal trend is first estimated after filling missing chlorophyll data using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF)-based algorithm (Data Interpolation EOF). The anomalies are then modeled as a stationary Gaussian process. A method proposed by Gneiting (2002) is used to construct positive-definite space-time covariance models for this process. After choosing an appropriate statistical model and identifying its parameters, Kriging is applied in the space-time domain to make a one step ahead prediction of the anomalies. The latter serves as the prediction model of a reduced-order Kalman filter, which is applied to assimilate and predict future chlorophyll concentrations. The proposed method decreases the root mean square (RMS) prediction error by about 11% compared with the seasonal average.
Data-Filtering System to Avoid Total Data Distortion in IoT Networking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dae-Young Kim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the Internet of Things (IoT networking, numerous objects are connected to a network. They sense events and deliver the sensed information to the cloud. A lot of data is generated in the IoT network, and servers in the cloud gather the sensed data from the objects. Then, the servers analyze the collected data and provide proper intelligent services to users through the results of the analysis. When the server analyzes the collected data, if there exists malfunctioning data, distortional results of the analysis will be generated. The distortional results lead to misdirection of the intelligent services, leading to poor user experience. In the analysis for intelligent services in IoT, malfunctioning data should be avoided because integrity of the collected data is crucial. Therefore, this paper proposes a data-filtering system for the server in the cloud. The proposed data-filtering system is placed in front of the server and firstly receives the sensed data from the objects. It employs the naïve Bayesian classifier and, by learning, classifies the malfunctioning data from among the collected data. Data with integrity is delivered to the server for analysis. Because the proposed system filters the malfunctioning data, the server can obtain accurate analysis results and reduce computing load. The performance of the proposed data-filtering system is evaluated through computer simulation. Through the simulation results, the efficiency of the proposed data-filtering system is shown.
Equalization of Loudspeaker and Room Responses Using Kautz Filters: Direct Least Squares Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karjalainen Matti
2007-01-01
Full Text Available DSP-based correction of loudspeaker and room responses is becoming an important part of improving sound reproduction. Such response equalization (EQ is based on using a digital filter in cascade with the reproduction channel to counteract the response errors introduced by loudspeakers and room acoustics. Several FIR and IIR filter design techniques have been proposed for equalization purposes. In this paper we investigate Kautz filters, an interesting class of IIR filters, from the point of view of direct least squares EQ design. Kautz filters can be seen as generalizations of FIR filters and their frequency-warped counterparts. They provide a flexible means to obtain desired frequency resolution behavior, which allows low filter orders even for complex corrections. Kautz filters have also the desirable property to avoid inverting dips in transfer function to sharp and long-ringing resonances in the equalizer. Furthermore, the direct least squares design is applicable to nonminimum-phase EQ design and allows using a desired target response. The proposed method is demonstrated by case examples with measured and synthetic loudspeaker and room responses.
A phase-equalized digital multirate filter for 50 Hz signal processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vainio, O. [Tampere University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere (Finland)
1997-12-31
A new multistage digital filter is proposed for 50 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors and synchronous power systems. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. This is accomplished with a cascade of a median filter, a linear-phase FIR filter, and a phase corrector. A 10 kHz output timing resolution is achieved by up-sampling with a customized interpolation filter. (orig.) 15 refs.
IIR Filter Modeling Using an Algorithm Inspired on Electromagnetism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cuevas-Jiménez E.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Infinite-impulse-response (IIR filtering provides a powerful approach for solving a variety of problems. However, its design represents a very complicated task, since the error surface of IIR filters is generally multimodal, global optimization techniques are required in order to avoid local minima. In this paper, a new method based on the Electromagnetism-Like Optimization Algorithm (EMO is proposed for IIR filter modeling. EMO originates from the electro-magnetism theory of physics by assuming potential solutions as electrically charged particles which spread around the solution space. The charge of each particle depends on its objective function value. This algorithm employs a collective attraction-repulsion mechanism to move the particles towards optimality. The experimental results confirm the high performance of the proposed method in solving various benchmark identification problems.
Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weijie Cheng
Full Text Available As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS. Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.
Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.
Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong
2016-01-01
As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS) that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction.
Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users’ Interest Sequences
Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong
2016-01-01
As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users’ dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users’ behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users’ unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users’ similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users’ preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users’ interest sequences (IS) that rank users’ ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users’ longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users’ total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users’ IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users’ preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction. PMID:27195787
A Practical Core Loss Model for Filter Inductors of Power Electronic Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matsumori, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Wang, Xiongfei
2018-01-01
This paper proposes a core loss model for filter inductors of power electronic converters. The model allows a computationally efficient analysis on the core loss of the inductor under the square voltage excitation and the premagnetization condition. First, the core loss of the filter inductor under...... buck chopper excitation is evaluated with the proposed model and compared with the conventional methods. The comparison shows that the proposed method results in a better core loss prediction under the premagnetized condition than that of conventional alternatives. Then, the core loss of the filter...... inductor with the pulsewidth modulated inverter excitation is evaluated, which shows that the proposed model not only accurately predicts the core loss but also identifies the hysteresis loss part. These results demonstrate that the approach can further be used for the development of magnetic materials...
Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.
2004-09-01
Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.
Stateless multicast switching in software defined networks
Reed, Martin J.; Al-Naday, Mays; Thomos, Nikolaos; Trossen, Dirk; Petropoulos, George; Spirou, Spiros
2016-01-01
Multicast data delivery can significantly reduce traffic in operators' networks, but has been limited in deployment due to concerns such as the scalability of state management. This paper shows how multicast can be implemented in contemporary software defined networking (SDN) switches, with less state than existing unicast switching strategies, by utilising a Bloom Filter (BF) based switching technique. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism uses only proactive rule insertion, and thus, is not l...
Variational Bayesian labeled multi-Bernoulli filter with unknown sensor noise statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiu Hao
2016-10-01
Full Text Available It is difficult to build accurate model for measurement noise covariance in complex backgrounds. For the scenarios of unknown sensor noise variances, an adaptive multi-target tracking algorithm based on labeled random finite set and variational Bayesian (VB approximation is proposed. The variational approximation technique is introduced to the labeled multi-Bernoulli (LMB filter to jointly estimate the states of targets and sensor noise variances. Simulation results show that the proposed method can give unbiased estimation of cardinality and has better performance than the VB probability hypothesis density (VB-PHD filter and the VB cardinality balanced multi-target multi-Bernoulli (VB-CBMeMBer filter in harsh situations. The simulations also confirm the robustness of the proposed method against the time-varying noise variances. The computational complexity of proposed method is higher than the VB-PHD and VB-CBMeMBer in extreme cases, while the mean execution times of the three methods are close when targets are well separated.
Kalman Filter for Estimation of Sensor Acceleration Using Six - axis Inertial Sensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jung Keun
2015-01-01
Although an accelerometer is a sensor that measures acceleration, it cannot be used by itself to measure the acceleration when the orientation of the sensor changes. This paper introduces a Kalman filter for the estimation of a sensor acceleration based on a six-axis inertial sensor (i.e., a three-axis accelerometer and three-axis gyroscope). The novelty of the proposed Kalman filter lies in the fact that its state vector includes not only the tilt angle variable but also the sensor acceleration. Thus, the filter can explicitly estimate the latter with a high accuracy. The accuracy of acceleration estimates were validated experimentally under three different dynamic conditions, using an optical motion capture system. It could be concluded that the performance of the proposed Kalman filter was comparable to that of the state-of-the-art estimation algorithm employed by the Xsens MTw. The proposed algorithm may be more suitable than inertial/magnetic sensor-based algorithms for various applications adopting six-axis inertial sensors
A generalized model via random walks for information filtering
Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Kong, Yixiu; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2016-08-01
There could exist a simple general mechanism lurking beneath collaborative filtering and interdisciplinary physics approaches which have been successfully applied to online E-commerce platforms. Motivated by this idea, we propose a generalized model employing the dynamics of the random walk in the bipartite networks. Taking into account the degree information, the proposed generalized model could deduce the collaborative filtering, interdisciplinary physics approaches and even the enormous expansion of them. Furthermore, we analyze the generalized model with single and hybrid of degree information on the process of random walk in bipartite networks, and propose a possible strategy by using the hybrid degree information for different popular objects to toward promising precision of the recommendation.
Correction of Bowtie-Filter Normalization and Crescent Artifacts for a Clinical CBCT System.
Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Huang, Ke; Jin, Jian-Yue
2017-02-01
To present our experiences in understanding and minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a clinical cone beam computed tomography system. Bowtie-filter position and profile variations during gantry rotation were studied. Two previously proposed strategies (A and B) were applied to the clinical cone beam computed tomography system to correct bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. Physical calibration and analytical approaches were used to minimize the norm phantom misalignment and to correct for bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. A combined procedure to reduce bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts was proposed and tested on a norm phantom, CatPhan, and a patient and evaluated using standard deviation of Hounsfield unit along a sampling line. The bowtie-filter exhibited not only a translational shift but also an amplitude variation in its projection profile during gantry rotation. Strategy B was better than strategy A slightly in minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, possibly because it corrected the amplitude variation, suggesting that the amplitude variation plays a role in bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. The physical calibration largely reduced the misalignment-induced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and the analytical approach further reduced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. The combined procedure minimized both bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, with Hounsfield unit standard deviation being 63.2, 45.0, 35.0, and 18.8 Hounsfield unit for the best correction approaches of none, bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts + bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, respectively. The combined procedure also demonstrated reduction of bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a CatPhan and a patient. We have developed a step
Evaluation of harmonic detection methods for active power filter applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan
2005-01-01
In the attempt to minimize the harmonic disturbances created by the non-linear loads the choice of the active power filters comes out to improve the filtering efficiency and to solve many issues existing with classical passive filters. One of the key points for a proper implementation of an active...... theories. Then, the work here proposes a simulation setup that decouples the harmonic reference generator from the active filter model and its controller. In this way the selected methods can be equally analyzed and compared with respect to their performance, which helps anticipating possible...
Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering
Law, Kody
2016-05-03
The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence k between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d<2k. The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of the total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from nonlinearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.
Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering
Law, Kody; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul
2016-01-01
The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence k between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d<2k. The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of the total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from nonlinearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.
A wideband superconducting filter at Ku-band based on interdigital coupling
Jiang, Ying; Wei, Bin; Cao, Bisong; Li, Qirong; Guo, Xubo; Jiang, Linan; Song, Xiaoke; Wang, Xiang
2018-04-01
In this paper, an interdigital-type resonator with strong electric coupling is proposed for the wideband high-frequency (>10 GHz) filter design. The proposed microstrip resonator consists of an H-shaped main line part with its both ends installed with interdigital finger parts. Strong electric coupling is achieved between adjacent resonators. A six-pole high-temperature superconducting filter at Ku-band using this resonator is designed and fabricated. The filter has a center frequency of 15.11 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 30%. The insertion loss of the passband is less than 0.3 dB, and the return loss is greater than 14 dB without any tuning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Guo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Determining the attitude of satellite at the time of imaging then establishing the mathematical relationship between image points and ground points is essential in high-resolution remote sensing image mapping. Star tracker is insensitive to the high frequency attitude variation due to the measure noise and satellite jitter, but the low frequency attitude motion can be determined with high accuracy. Gyro, as a short-term reference to the satellite’s attitude, is sensitive to high frequency attitude change, but due to the existence of gyro drift and integral error, the attitude determination error increases with time. Based on the opposite noise frequency characteristics of two kinds of attitude sensors, this paper proposes an on-orbit attitude estimation method of star sensors and gyro based on Complementary Filter (CF and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF. In this study, the principle and implementation of the proposed method are described. First, gyro attitude quaternions are acquired based on the attitude kinematics equation. An attitude information fusion method is then introduced, which applies high-pass filtering and low-pass filtering to the gyro and star tracker, respectively. Second, the attitude fusion data based on CF are introduced as the observed values of UKF system in the process of measurement updating. The accuracy and effectiveness of the method are validated based on the simulated sensors attitude data. The obtained results indicate that the proposed method can suppress the gyro drift and measure noise of attitude sensors, improving the accuracy of the attitude determination significantly, comparing with the simulated on-orbit attitude and the attitude estimation results of the UKF defined by the same simulation parameters.
Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.
2008-01-01
by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...
Tunable First-Order Resistorless All-Pass Filter with Low Output Impedance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parveen Beg
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII. The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology.
Tunable first-order resistorless all-pass filter with low output impedance.
Beg, Parveen
2014-01-01
This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII). The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology.
Line filter design of parallel interleaved VSCs for high power wind energy conversion systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus
2015-01-01
The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel in a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) to match the high power rating of the modern wind turbines. The effect of the interleaved carriers on the harmonic performance of the parallel connected VSCs is analyzed in this paper...... limit. In order to achieve the desired filter performance with optimal values of the filter parameters, the use of a LC trap branch with the conventional LCL filter is proposed. The expressions for the resonant frequencies of the proposed line filter are derived and used in the design to selectively...
A reduced-order filtering approach for 3D dynamical electrical impedance tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voutilainen, A; Lehikoinen, A; Vauhkonen, M; Kaipio, J P
2011-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that the state estimation approach to process tomography can provide estimates that are significantly better than (a sequence of) conventional stationary snapshot estimates. One of the main obstacles of the adoption of the recursive state estimation algorithms, most commonly different versions of the Kalman filter, is the computational complexity. This is due to both the required large dimension for the state variable and the need to use iterative versions of the Kalman filter in such cases in which there are large contrasts or varying background. In this paper, we propose to use a reduced-order representation for the state variable. In particular, we propose to use the proper orthogonal decomposition-related basis for the state. We consider a simulation study with fluctuating background conductivity, and, in particular, with fluctuating contact impedances. We compare the proposed approach to three different versions of the Kalman filter having different computational complexities. We show that this approach allows the reduction of the dimension of the problem approximately by an order of magnitude and yields essentially as accurate estimates as the most accurate traditional Kalman filter version, the iterated extended Kalman filter
Kalman Filter Constraint Tuning for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.
2005-01-01
Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. Recently published work has shown a new method for incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter, which has been shown to generally improve the filter s estimation accuracy. However, the incorporation of inequality constraints poses some risk to the estimation accuracy as the Kalman filter is theoretically optimal. This paper proposes a way to tune the filter constraints so that the state estimates follow the unconstrained (theoretically optimal) filter when the confidence in the unconstrained filter is high. When confidence in the unconstrained filter is not so high, then we use our heuristic knowledge to constrain the state estimates. The confidence measure is based on the agreement of measurement residuals with their theoretical values. The algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate engine health.
High Performance Miniature Bandpass Filters, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is submitted for developing low impedance, miniature bandpass RF frequency filter via MEMS technique, in applications of SMAP, Aquarius follow-on,...
Negative charge induced degradation of PMOSFETs with BF2-implanted p+-poly gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, C.Y.; Sung, J.M.
1989-01-01
A new degradation phenomenon on thin gate oxide PMOS-FETs with BF 2 implanted p + -poly gate has been demonstrated and investigated. The cause of this type of degradation is a combination of the boron penetration through the gate oxide and charge trap generation due to the presence of fluorine in the gate oxide and some other processing-induced effects. The negative charge-induced degradation other than enhanced boron diffusion has been studied in detail here. The impact of this process-sensitive p + -poly gate structure on deep submicron CMOS process integration has been discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B Chaturvedi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new voltage controlled first order all-pass filter is presented. The proposed circuit employs a single differential voltage dual-X second generation current conveyor (DV-DXCCII and a grounded capacitor only. The proposed all-pass filter provides both inverting and non inverting voltage-mode outputs from the same configuration simultaneously without any matching condition. Non-ideal analysis along with sensitivity analysis is also investigated. The proposed circuit has low active and passive sensitivities. As an application the proposed all-pass filter is connected in cascade to get higher order filter. The theoretical results are validated thorough PSPICE simulations using TSMC 0.18µm CMOS process parameters.
Spatial filtering of light by chirped photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staliunas, Kestutis; Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor J.
2009-01-01
We propose an efficient method for spatial filtering of light beams by propagating them through two-dimensional (also three dimensional) chirped photonic crystals, i.e., through the photonic structures with fixed transverse lattice period and with the longitudinal lattice period varying along the direction of the beam propagation. We prove the proposed idea by numerically solving the paraxial propagation equation in refraction-index-modulated media and we evaluate the efficiency of the process by harmonic-expansion analysis. The technique can be also applied for filtering (for cleaning) of the packages of atomic waves (Bose condensates), also to improve the directionality of acoustic and mechanical waves.
Design and analysis of planar spiral resonator bandstop filter for microwave frequency
Motakabber, S. M. A.; Shaifudin Suharsono, Muhammad
2017-11-01
In microwave frequency, a spiral resonator can act as either frequency reject or acceptor circuits. A planar logarithmic spiral resonator bandstop filter has been developed based on this property. This project focuses on the rejection property of the spiral resonator. The performance analysis of the exhibited filter circuit has been performed by using scattering parameters (S-parameters) technique in the ultra-wideband microwave frequency. The proposed filter is built, simulated and S-parameters analysis have been accomplished by using electromagnetic simulation software CST microwave studio. The commercial microwave substrate Taconic TLX-8 has been used to build this filter. Experimental results showed that the -10 dB rejection bandwidth of the filter is 2.32 GHz and central frequency is 5.72 GHz which is suitable for ultra-wideband applications. The proposed design has been full of good compliance with the simulated and experimental results here.
Word-serial Architectures for Filtering and Variable Rate Decimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugene Grayver
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A new flexible architecture is proposed for word-serial filtering and variable rate decimation/interpolation. The architecture is targeted for low power applications requiring medium to low data rate and is ideally suited for implementation on either an ASIC or an FPGA. It combines the small size and low power of an ASIC with the programmability and flexibility of a DSP. An efficient memory addressing scheme eliminates the need for power hungry shift registers and allows full reconfiguration. The decimation ratio, filter length and filter coefficients can all be changed in real time. The architecture takes advantage of coefficient symmetries in linear phase filters and in polyphase components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaichana Amornchai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.
Zhou, Qiuling; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Wang, Linlin; Lei, Zhenkun; Tang, Shuwei
2018-01-01
The filtering of discontinuous optical fringe patterns is a challenging problem faced in this area. This paper is concerned with oriented partial differential equations (OPDEs)-based image filtering methods for discontinuous optical fringe patterns. We redefine a new controlling speed function to depend on the orientation coherence. The orientation coherence can be used to distinguish the continuous regions and the discontinuous regions, and can be calculated by utilizing fringe orientation. We introduce the new controlling speed function to the previous OPDEs and propose adaptive OPDEs filtering models. According to our proposed adaptive OPDEs filtering models, the filtering in the continuous and discontinuous regions can be selectively carried out. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed adaptive OPDEs via application to the simulated and experimental fringe patterns, and compare our methods with the previous OPDEs.
Reversible wavelet filter banks with side informationless spatially adaptive low-pass filters
Abhayaratne, Charith
2011-07-01
Wavelet transforms that have an adaptive low-pass filter are useful in applications that require the signal singularities, sharp transitions, and image edges to be left intact in the low-pass signal. In scalable image coding, the spatial resolution scalability is achieved by reconstructing the low-pass signal subband, which corresponds to the desired resolution level, and discarding other high-frequency wavelet subbands. In such applications, it is vital to have low-pass subbands that are not affected by smoothing artifacts associated with low-pass filtering. We present the mathematical framework for achieving 1-D wavelet transforms that have a spatially adaptive low-pass filter (SALP) using the prediction-first lifting scheme. The adaptivity decisions are computed using the wavelet coefficients, and no bookkeeping is required for the perfect reconstruction. Then, 2-D wavelet transforms that have a spatially adaptive low-pass filter are designed by extending the 1-D SALP framework. Because the 2-D polyphase decompositions are used in this case, the 2-D adaptivity decisions are made nonseparable as opposed to the separable 2-D realization using 1-D transforms. We present examples using the 2-D 5/3 wavelet transform and their lossless image coding and scalable decoding performances in terms of quality and resolution scalability. The proposed 2-D-SALP scheme results in better performance compared to the existing adaptive update lifting schemes.
An Improved Filtering Method for Quantum Color Image in Frequency Domain
Li, Panchi; Xiao, Hong
2018-01-01
In this paper we investigate the use of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) in the field of image processing. We consider QFT-based color image filtering operations and their applications in image smoothing, sharpening, and selective filtering using quantum frequency domain filters. The underlying principle used for constructing the proposed quantum filters is to use the principle of the quantum Oracle to implement the filter function. Compared with the existing methods, our method is not only suitable for color images, but also can flexibly design the notch filters. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on color images. The major advantages of the quantum frequency filtering lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.
A nonlinear generalization of the Savitzky-Golay filter and the quantitative analysis of saccades.
Dai, Weiwei; Selesnick, Ivan; Rizzo, John-Ross; Rucker, Janet; Hudson, Todd
2017-08-01
The Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter is widely used to smooth and differentiate time series, especially biomedical data. However, time series that exhibit abrupt departures from their typical trends, such as sharp waves or steps, which are of physiological interest, tend to be oversmoothed by the SG filter. Hence, the SG filter tends to systematically underestimate physiological parameters in certain situations. This article proposes a generalization of the SG filter to more accurately track abrupt deviations in time series, leading to more accurate parameter estimates (e.g., peak velocity of saccadic eye movements). The proposed filtering methodology models a time series as the sum of two component time series: a low-frequency time series for which the conventional SG filter is well suited, and a second time series that exhibits instantaneous deviations (e.g., sharp waves, steps, or more generally, discontinuities in a higher order derivative). The generalized SG filter is then applied to the quantitative analysis of saccadic eye movements. It is demonstrated that (a) the conventional SG filter underestimates the peak velocity of saccades, especially those of small amplitude, and (b) the generalized SG filter estimates peak saccadic velocity more accurately than the conventional filter.
A fast ellipse extended target PHD filter using box-particle implementation
Zhang, Yongquan; Ji, Hongbing; Hu, Qi
2018-01-01
This paper presents a box-particle implementation of the ellipse extended target probability hypothesis density (ET-PHD) filter, called the ellipse extended target box particle PHD (EET-BP-PHD) filter, where the extended targets are described as a Poisson model developed by Gilholm et al. and the term "box" is here equivalent to the term "interval" used in interval analysis. The proposed EET-BP-PHD filter is capable of dynamically tracking multiple ellipse extended targets and estimating the target states and the number of targets, in the presence of clutter measurements, false alarms and missed detections. To derive the PHD recursion of the EET-BP-PHD filter, a suitable measurement likelihood is defined for a given partitioning cell, and the main implementation steps are presented along with the necessary box approximations and manipulations. The limitations and capabilities of the proposed EET-BP-PHD filter are illustrated by simulation examples. The simulation results show that a box-particle implementation of the ET-PHD filter can avoid the high number of particles and reduce computational burden, compared to a particle implementation of that for extended target tracking.
Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)
2012-11-27
Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.
Stereo Disparity through Cost Aggregation with Guided Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pauline Tan
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Estimating the depth, or equivalently the disparity, of a stereo scene is a challenging problem in computer vision. The method proposed by Rhemann et al. in 2011 is based on a filtering of the cost volume, which gives for each pixel and for each hypothesized disparity a cost derived from pixel-by-pixel comparison. The filtering is performed by the guided filter proposed by He et al. in 2010. It computes a weighted local average of the costs. The weights are such that similar pixels tend to have similar costs. Eventually, a winner-take-all strategy selects the disparity with the minimal cost for each pixel. Non-consistent labels according to left-right consistency are rejected; a densification step can then be launched to fill the disparity map. The method can be used to solve other labeling problems (optical flow, segmentation but this article focuses on the stereo matching problem.
Efficient Kernel-Based Ensemble Gaussian Mixture Filtering
Liu, Bo
2015-11-11
We consider the Bayesian filtering problem for data assimilation following the kernel-based ensemble Gaussian-mixture filtering (EnGMF) approach introduced by Anderson and Anderson (1999). In this approach, the posterior distribution of the system state is propagated with the model using the ensemble Monte Carlo method, providing a forecast ensemble that is then used to construct a prior Gaussian-mixture (GM) based on the kernel density estimator. This results in two update steps: a Kalman filter (KF)-like update of the ensemble members and a particle filter (PF)-like update of the weights, followed by a resampling step to start a new forecast cycle. After formulating EnGMF for any observational operator, we analyze the influence of the bandwidth parameter of the kernel function on the covariance of the posterior distribution. We then focus on two aspects: i) the efficient implementation of EnGMF with (relatively) small ensembles, where we propose a new deterministic resampling strategy preserving the first two moments of the posterior GM to limit the sampling error; and ii) the analysis of the effect of the bandwidth parameter on contributions of KF and PF updates and on the weights variance. Numerical results using the Lorenz-96 model are presented to assess the behavior of EnGMF with deterministic resampling, study its sensitivity to different parameters and settings, and evaluate its performance against ensemble KFs. The proposed EnGMF approach with deterministic resampling suggests improved estimates in all tested scenarios, and is shown to require less localization and to be less sensitive to the choice of filtering parameters.
Observations of zodiacal light of the isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae star
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grinin, V.P.; Kiselev, N.N.; Minikulov, N.Kh.; AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Dushanbe
1989-01-01
The isolated Herbig BF Ori Ae-star belongs to the subclass of young irreguLar variables with non-periodic Algol-type brightness variations. In the course of polarization and photometrical patrol observations carried out in 1987-88 in the Crimea and Sanglock, high linear polarization has been observed in deep minima. The analysis of the observations show, that the most probably a source of polarization is the scattered light from the circumstellar dust disklike envelope that is the analogue of the solar zodiacal light. It is concluded that the bimodal distribution oF positional angles of linear polarization in L 1641 reflects a complex structure of the magnetic field in this giant cloud
Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation.
Kececioglu, O Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa
2016-01-01
Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. Simulation results show that performance of reactive power and harmonic compensation with advanced hybrid passive filter is better than conventional hybrid passive filters.
A hybrid active filter for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power systems
Fujita, Hideaki; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Akagi, Hirofumi
1998-01-01
This paper proposes a hybrid active filter for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power systems. The hybrid filter consists of a small-rated active filter and a 5th tuned passive filter. The active filter is characterized by detecting the 5th harmonic current flowing into the passive filter. It is controlled in such a way as to behave as a negative or positive resistor by adjusting a feedback gain from a negative to positive value, and vice versa. The negative resistor presented by t...
An optimized cosine-modulated nonuniform filter bank design for subband coding of ECG signal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kumar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A simple iterative technique for the design of nonuniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBS is presented in this paper. The proposed technique employs a single parameter for optimization. The nonuniform cosine modulated filter banks are derived by merging the adjacent filters of uniform cosine modulated filter banks. The prototype filter is designed with the aid of different adjustable window functions such as Kaiser, Cosh and Exponential, and by using the constrained equiripple finite impulse response (FIR digital filter design technique. In this method, either cut off frequency or passband edge frequency is varied in order to adjust the filter coefficients so that reconstruction error could be optimized/minimized to zero. Performance and effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of peak reconstruction error (PRE, aliasing distortion (AD, computational (CPU time, and number of iteration (NOI have been shown through the numerical examples and comparative studies. Finally, the technique is exploited for the subband coding of electrocardiogram (ECG and speech signals.
A composite passive damping method of the LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Weimin; Huang, Min; Sun, Yunjie
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the maximum and the minimum gain of the proportional resonant based grid current controller for a grid-tied inverter with a passive damped high-order power filter. It is found that the choice of the controller gain is limited to the local maximum amplitude determined by Q......-factor around the characteristic frequency of the filter and grid impedance. To obtain the Q-factor of a high-order system, an equivalent circuit analysis method is proposed and illustrated through several classical passive damped LCL- and LLCL-filters. It is shown that both the RC parallel damper...... that is in parallel with the capacitor of the LCL-filter or with the Lf-Cf resonant circuit of the LLCL-filter, and the RL series damper in series with the grid-side inductor have their own application limits. Thus, a composite passive damped LLCL-filter for the grid-tied inverter is proposed, which can effectively...
Ensemble Kalman filtering in presence of inequality constraints
van Leeuwen, P. J.
2009-04-01
Kalman filtering is presence of constraints is an active area of research. Based on the Gaussian assumption for the probability-density functions, it looks hard to bring in extra constraints in the formalism. On the other hand, in geophysical systems we often encounter constraints related to e.g. the underlying physics or chemistry, which are violated by the Gaussian assumption. For instance, concentrations are always non-negative, model layers have non-negative thickness, and sea-ice concentration is between 0 and 1. Several methods to bring inequality constraints into the Kalman-filter formalism have been proposed. One of them is probability density function (pdf) truncation, in which the Gaussian mass from the non-allowed part of the variables is just equally distributed over the pdf where the variables are alolwed, as proposed by Shimada et al. 1998. However, a problem with this method is that the probability that e.g. the sea-ice concentration is zero, is zero! The new method proposed here does not have this drawback. It assumes that the probability-density function is a truncated Gaussian, but the truncated mass is not distributed equally over all allowed values of the variables, but put into a delta distribution at the truncation point. This delta distribution can easily be handled with in Bayes theorem, leading to posterior probability density functions that are also truncated Gaussians with delta distributions at the truncation location. In this way a much better representation of the system is obtained, while still keeping most of the benefits of the Kalman-filter formalism. In the full Kalman filter the formalism is prohibitively expensive in large-scale systems, but efficient implementation is possible in ensemble variants of the kalman filter. Applications to low-dimensional systems and large-scale systems will be discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Liu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available For improving the tracking accuracy and model switching speed of maneuvering target tracking in nonlinear systems, a new algorithm named the interacting multiple model fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thSSRCKF is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is a combination of the interacting multiple model (IMM filter and the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (5thSSRCKF. The proposed algorithm makes use of Markov process to describe the switching probability among the models, and uses 5thSSRCKF to deal with the state estimation of each model. The 5thSSRCKF is an improved filter algorithm, which utilizes the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial rule to improve the filtering accuracy. Finally, the tracking performance of the IMM5thSSRCKF is evaluated by simulation in a typical maneuvering target tracking scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking performance and quicker model switching speed when disposing maneuver models compared with the interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF, the interacting multiple model cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF and the interacting multiple model fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thCKF.
Liu, Hua; Wu, Wen
2017-06-13
For improving the tracking accuracy and model switching speed of maneuvering target tracking in nonlinear systems, a new algorithm named the interacting multiple model fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thSSRCKF) is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is a combination of the interacting multiple model (IMM) filter and the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (5thSSRCKF). The proposed algorithm makes use of Markov process to describe the switching probability among the models, and uses 5thSSRCKF to deal with the state estimation of each model. The 5thSSRCKF is an improved filter algorithm, which utilizes the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial rule to improve the filtering accuracy. Finally, the tracking performance of the IMM5thSSRCKF is evaluated by simulation in a typical maneuvering target tracking scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking performance and quicker model switching speed when disposing maneuver models compared with the interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF), the interacting multiple model cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF) and the interacting multiple model fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thCKF).
DC-pass filter design with notch filters superposition for CPW rectenna at low power level
Rivière, J.; Douyère, A.; Alicalapa, F.; Luk, J.-D. Lan Sun
2016-03-01
In this paper the challenging coplanar waveguide direct current (DC) pass filter is designed, analysed, fabricated and measured. As the ground plane and the conductive line are etched on the same plane, this technology allows the connection of series and shunt elements to the active devices without via holes through the substrate. Indeed, this study presents the first step in the optimization of a complete rectenna in coplanar waveguide (CPW) technology: key element of a radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting system. The measurement of the proposed filter shows good performance in the rejection of F0=2.45 GHz and F1=4.9 GHz. Additionally, a harmonic balance (HB) simulation of the complete rectenna is performed and shows a maximum RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 37% with the studied DC-pass filter for an input power of 10 µW at 2.45 GHz.
Advanced configuration of hybrid passive filter for reactive power and harmonic compensation
Kececioglu, O. Fatih; Acikgoz, Hakan; Sekkeli, Mustafa
2016-01-01
Harmonics is one of the major power quality problems for power systems. The harmonics can be eliminated by power filters such as passive, active, and hybrid. In this study, a new passive filter configuration has been improved in addition to the existing passive filter configurations. Conventional hybrid passive filters are not successful to compensate rapidly changing reactive power demand. The proposed configure are capable of compensating both harmonics and reactive power at the same time. ...
A filtering approach to edge preserving MAP estimation of images.
Humphrey, David; Taubman, David
2011-05-01
The authors present a computationally efficient technique for maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of images in the presence of both blur and noise. The image is divided into statistically independent regions. Each region is modelled with a WSS Gaussian prior. Classical Wiener filter theory is used to generate a set of convex sets in the solution space, with the solution to the MAP estimation problem lying at the intersection of these sets. The proposed algorithm uses an underlying segmentation of the image, and a means of determining the segmentation and refining it are described. The algorithm is suitable for a range of image restoration problems, as it provides a computationally efficient means to deal with the shortcomings of Wiener filtering without sacrificing the computational simplicity of the filtering approach. The algorithm is also of interest from a theoretical viewpoint as it provides a continuum of solutions between Wiener filtering and Inverse filtering depending upon the segmentation used. We do not attempt to show here that the proposed method is the best general approach to the image reconstruction problem. However, related work referenced herein shows excellent performance in the specific problem of demosaicing.
DEVELOPMENT OF AG-1 SECTION FI ON METAL MEDIA FILTERS - 9061
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamson, D.; Waggoner, C.A.
2008-01-01
Development of a metal media standard (FI) for ASME AG-1 (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) has been under way for almost ten years. This paper will provide a brief history of the development process of this section and a detailed overview of its current content/status. There have been at least two points when dramatic changes have been made in the scope of the document due to feedback from the full Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT). Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with scope; namely, filtering efficiency, operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality control/acceptance testing. A proposed version of Section FI is currently undergoing final revisions prior to being submitted for balloting. The section covers metal media filters of filtering efficiencies ranging from medium (less than 99.97%) to high (99.97% and greater). Two different types of high efficiency filters are addressed; those units intended to be a direct replacement of Section FC fibrous glass HEPA filters and those that will be placed into newly designed systems capable of supporting greater static pressures and differential pressures across the filter elements. Direct replacements of FC HEPA filters in existing systems will be required to meet equivalent qualification and testing requirements to those contained in Section FC. A series of qualification and quality assurance test methods have been identified for the range of filtering efficiencies covered by this proposed standard. Performance characteristics of sintered metal powder vs. sintered metal fiber media are dramatically different with respect to parameters like differential pressures and rigidity of the media. Wide latitude will be allowed for owner specification of performance criteria for filtration units that will be placed into newly designed systems. Such allowances will permit use of the most
Robotic fish tracking method based on suboptimal interval Kalman filter
Tong, Xiaohong; Tang, Chao
2017-11-01
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) research focused on tracking and positioning, precise guidance and return to dock and other fields. The robotic fish of AUV has become a hot application in intelligent education, civil and military etc. In nonlinear tracking analysis of robotic fish, which was found that the interval Kalman filter algorithm contains all possible filter results, but the range is wide, relatively conservative, and the interval data vector is uncertain before implementation. This paper proposes a ptimization algorithm of suboptimal interval Kalman filter. Suboptimal interval Kalman filter scheme used the interval inverse matrix with its worst inverse instead, is more approximate nonlinear state equation and measurement equation than the standard interval Kalman filter, increases the accuracy of the nominal dynamic system model, improves the speed and precision of tracking system. Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the optimal trajectory of sub optimal interval Kalman filter algorithm is better than that of the interval Kalman filter method and the standard method of the filter.
SAR Interferogram Filtering of Shearlet Domain Based on Interferometric Phase Statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghong He
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new filtering approach for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR interferometric phase noise reduction in the shearlet domain, depending on the coherent statistical characteristics. Shearlets provide a multidirectional and multiscale decomposition that have advantages over wavelet filtering methods when dealing with noisy phase fringes. Phase noise in SAR interferograms is directly related to the interferometric coherence and the look number of the interferogram. Therefore, an optimal interferogram filter should incorporate information from both of them. The proposed method combines the phase noise standard deviation with the shearlet transform. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the interferogram noise while maintaining the spatial resolution, especially in areas with low coherence.
Frequency-Domain Joint Motion and Disparity Estimation Using Steerable Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dimitrios Alexiadis
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of joint disparity and motion estimation from stereo image sequences is formulated in the spatiotemporal frequency domain, and a novel steerable filter-based approach is proposed. Our rationale behind coupling the two problems is that according to experimental evidence in the literature, the biological visual mechanisms for depth and motion are not independent of each other. Furthermore, our motivation to study the problem in the frequency domain and search for a filter-based solution is based on the fact that, according to early experimental studies, the biological visual mechanisms can be modelled based on frequency-domain or filter-based considerations, for both the perception of depth and the perception of motion. The proposed framework constitutes the first attempt to solve the joint estimation problem through a filter-based solution, based on frequency-domain considerations. Thus, the presented ideas provide a new direction of work and could be the basis for further developments. From an algorithmic point of view, we additionally extend state-of-the-art ideas from the disparity estimation literature to handle the joint disparity-motion estimation problem and formulate an algorithm that is evaluated through a number of experimental results. Comparisons with state-of-the-art-methods demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach.
Power filtering of n-th order in the fractional Fourier domain
Alieva, T.; Calvo, M.L.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2002-01-01
The main properties of the power filtering operation in the fractional Fourier domain and its relationship to the differentiation operation are considered. The application of linear power filtering for solving the phase retrieval problem from only intensity distributions is proposed. The optical
A generalized model via random walks for information filtering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ren, Zhuo-Ming, E-mail: zhuomingren@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700, Fribourg (Switzerland); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChongQing, 400714 (China); Kong, Yixiu [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700, Fribourg (Switzerland); Shang, Ming-Sheng, E-mail: msshang@cigit.ac.cn [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChongQing, 400714 (China); Zhang, Yi-Cheng [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700, Fribourg (Switzerland)
2016-08-06
There could exist a simple general mechanism lurking beneath collaborative filtering and interdisciplinary physics approaches which have been successfully applied to online E-commerce platforms. Motivated by this idea, we propose a generalized model employing the dynamics of the random walk in the bipartite networks. Taking into account the degree information, the proposed generalized model could deduce the collaborative filtering, interdisciplinary physics approaches and even the enormous expansion of them. Furthermore, we analyze the generalized model with single and hybrid of degree information on the process of random walk in bipartite networks, and propose a possible strategy by using the hybrid degree information for different popular objects to toward promising precision of the recommendation. - Highlights: • We propose a generalized recommendation model employing the random walk dynamics. • The proposed model with single and hybrid of degree information is analyzed. • A strategy with the hybrid degree information improves precision of recommendation.
A generalized model via random walks for information filtering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Kong, Yixiu; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2016-01-01
There could exist a simple general mechanism lurking beneath collaborative filtering and interdisciplinary physics approaches which have been successfully applied to online E-commerce platforms. Motivated by this idea, we propose a generalized model employing the dynamics of the random walk in the bipartite networks. Taking into account the degree information, the proposed generalized model could deduce the collaborative filtering, interdisciplinary physics approaches and even the enormous expansion of them. Furthermore, we analyze the generalized model with single and hybrid of degree information on the process of random walk in bipartite networks, and propose a possible strategy by using the hybrid degree information for different popular objects to toward promising precision of the recommendation. - Highlights: • We propose a generalized recommendation model employing the random walk dynamics. • The proposed model with single and hybrid of degree information is analyzed. • A strategy with the hybrid degree information improves precision of recommendation.
Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.
2017-08-01
The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.
Filtered region of interest cone-beam rotational angiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schafer, Sebastian; Noeel, Peter B.; Walczak, Alan M.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.
2010-01-01
Purpose: Cone-beam rotational angiography (CBRA) is widely used in the modern clinical settings. In a number of procedures, the area of interest is often considerably smaller than the field of view (FOV) of the detector, subjecting the patient to potentially unnecessary x-ray dose. The authors therefore propose a filter-based method to reduce the dose in the regions of low interest, while supplying high image quality in the region of interest (ROI). Methods: For such procedures, the authors propose a method of filtered region of interest (FROI)-CBRA. In the authors' approach, a gadolinium filter with a circular central opening is placed into the x-ray beam during image acquisition. The central region is imaged with high contrast, while peripheral regions are subjected to a substantial lower intensity and dose through beam filtering. The resulting images contain a high contrast/intensity ROI, as well as a low contrast/intensity peripheral region, and a transition region in between. To equalize the two regions' intensities, the first projection of the acquisition is performed with and without the filter in place. The equalization relationship, based on Beer's law, is established through linear regression using corresponding filtered and nonfiltered data. The transition region is equalized based on radial profiles. Results: Evaluations in 2D and 3D show no visible difference between conventional FROI-CBRA projection images and reconstructions in the ROI. CNR evaluations show similar image quality in the ROI, with a reduced CNR in the reconstructed peripheral region. In all filtered projection images, the scatter fraction inside the ROI was reduced. Theoretical and experimental dose evaluations show a considerable dose reduction; using a ROI half the original FOV reduces the dose by 60% for the filter thickness of 1.29 mm. Conclusions: These results indicate the potential of FROI-CBRA to reduce the dose to the patient while supplying the physician with the desired
Filtered region of interest cone-beam rotational angiography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schafer, Sebastian; Noeel, Peter B.; Walczak, Alan M.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States) and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Computer Science, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States) and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Department of Computer Science, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States) and Toshiba Stroke Research Center, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)
2010-02-15
Purpose: Cone-beam rotational angiography (CBRA) is widely used in the modern clinical settings. In a number of procedures, the area of interest is often considerably smaller than the field of view (FOV) of the detector, subjecting the patient to potentially unnecessary x-ray dose. The authors therefore propose a filter-based method to reduce the dose in the regions of low interest, while supplying high image quality in the region of interest (ROI). Methods: For such procedures, the authors propose a method of filtered region of interest (FROI)-CBRA. In the authors' approach, a gadolinium filter with a circular central opening is placed into the x-ray beam during image acquisition. The central region is imaged with high contrast, while peripheral regions are subjected to a substantial lower intensity and dose through beam filtering. The resulting images contain a high contrast/intensity ROI, as well as a low contrast/intensity peripheral region, and a transition region in between. To equalize the two regions' intensities, the first projection of the acquisition is performed with and without the filter in place. The equalization relationship, based on Beer's law, is established through linear regression using corresponding filtered and nonfiltered data. The transition region is equalized based on radial profiles. Results: Evaluations in 2D and 3D show no visible difference between conventional FROI-CBRA projection images and reconstructions in the ROI. CNR evaluations show similar image quality in the ROI, with a reduced CNR in the reconstructed peripheral region. In all filtered projection images, the scatter fraction inside the ROI was reduced. Theoretical and experimental dose evaluations show a considerable dose reduction; using a ROI half the original FOV reduces the dose by 60% for the filter thickness of 1.29 mm. Conclusions: These results indicate the potential of FROI-CBRA to reduce the dose to the patient while supplying the physician with
Improvement of chirped pulse contrast using electro-optic birefringence scanning filter method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Shuguang; Wang Xianglin; Wang Qishan; Zhang Bin; Sun Nianchun; Wang Fei
2013-01-01
A method using scanning filter to improve the contrast of chirped pulse is proposed, and the principle of this method is analyzed. The scanning filter is compared with the existing pulse-picking technique and nonlinear filtering technique. The scanning filter is a temporal gate that is independent on the intensity of the pulses, but on the instantaneous wavelengths of light. Taking the electro-optic birefringence scanning filter as an example, the application of scanning filter methods is illustrated. Based on numerical simulation and experimental research, it is found that the electro-optic birefringence scanning filter can eliminate a prepulse which is several hundred picoseconds before the main pulse, and the main pulse can maintain a high transmissivity. (authors)
Kim, Jae Wook
2013-05-01
This paper proposes a novel systematic approach for the parallelization of pentadiagonal compact finite-difference schemes and filters based on domain decomposition. The proposed approach allows a pentadiagonal banded matrix system to be split into quasi-disjoint subsystems by using a linear-algebraic transformation technique. As a result the inversion of pentadiagonal matrices can be implemented within each subdomain in an independent manner subject to a conventional halo-exchange process. The proposed matrix transformation leads to new subdomain boundary (SB) compact schemes and filters that require three halo terms to exchange with neighboring subdomains. The internode communication overhead in the present approach is equivalent to that of standard explicit schemes and filters based on seven-point discretization stencils. The new SB compact schemes and filters demand additional arithmetic operations compared to the original serial ones. However, it is shown that the additional cost becomes sufficiently low by choosing optimal sizes of their discretization stencils. Compared to earlier published results, the proposed SB compact schemes and filters successfully reduce parallelization artifacts arising from subdomain boundaries to a level sufficiently negligible for sophisticated aeroacoustic simulations without degrading parallel efficiency. The overall performance and parallel efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated by stringent benchmark tests.
Multisource least-squares reverse-time migration with structure-oriented filtering
Fan, Jing-Wen; Li, Zhen-Chun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Min; Liu, Xue-Tong
2016-09-01
The technology of simultaneous-source acquisition of seismic data excited by several sources can significantly improve the data collection efficiency. However, direct imaging of simultaneous-source data or blended data may introduce crosstalk noise and affect the imaging quality. To address this problem, we introduce a structure-oriented filtering operator as preconditioner into the multisource least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM). The structure-oriented filtering operator is a nonstationary filter along structural trends that suppresses crosstalk noise while maintaining structural information. The proposed method uses the conjugate-gradient method to minimize the mismatch between predicted and observed data, while effectively attenuating the interference noise caused by exciting several sources simultaneously. Numerical experiments using synthetic data suggest that the proposed method can suppress the crosstalk noise and produce highly accurate images.
Two-Dimensional IIR Filter Design Using Simulated Annealing Based Particle Swarm Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Dhabal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present a novel hybrid algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO and simulated annealing (SA for the design of two-dimensional recursive digital filters. The proposed method, known as SA-PSO, integrates the global search ability of PSO with the local search ability of SA and offsets the weakness of each other. The acceptance criterion of Metropolis is included in the basic algorithm of PSO to increase the swarm’s diversity by accepting sometimes weaker solutions also. The experimental results reveal that the performance of the optimal filter designed by the proposed SA-PSO method is improved. Further, the convergence behavior as well as optimization accuracy of proposed method has been improved significantly and computational time is also reduced. In addition, the proposed SA-PSO method also produces the best optimal solution with lower mean and variance which indicates that the algorithm can be used more efficiently in realizing two-dimensional digital filters.
High-Q microwave photonic filter with a tuned modulator.
Capmany, J; Mora, J; Ortega, B; Pastor, D
2005-09-01
We propose the use of tuned electro-optic or electroabsorption external modulators to implement high-quality (high-Q) factor, single-bandpass photonic filters for microwave signals. Using this approach, we experimentally demonstrate a transversal finite impulse response with a Q factor of 237. This is to our knowledge the highest value ever reported for a passive finite impulse-response microwave photonic filter.
High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.
1981-01-01
Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for HEPA filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to assume trouble-free operation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing was performed with fly ash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 volume percent water vapor in the gas stream
High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.
1981-01-01
Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream
A Student’s t Mixture Probability Hypothesis Density Filter for Multi-Target Tracking with Outliers
Liu, Zhuowei; Chen, Shuxin; Wu, Hao; He, Renke; Hao, Lin
2018-01-01
In multi-target tracking, the outliers-corrupted process and measurement noises can reduce the performance of the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter severely. To solve the problem, this paper proposed a novel PHD filter, called Student’s t mixture PHD (STM-PHD) filter. The proposed filter models the heavy-tailed process noise and measurement noise as a Student’s t distribution as well as approximates the multi-target intensity as a mixture of Student’s t components to be propagated in time. Then, a closed PHD recursion is obtained based on Student’s t approximation. Our approach can make full use of the heavy-tailed characteristic of a Student’s t distribution to handle the situations with heavy-tailed process and the measurement noises. The simulation results verify that the proposed filter can overcome the negative effect generated by outliers and maintain a good tracking accuracy in the simultaneous presence of process and measurement outliers. PMID:29617348
Reliable Collaborative Filtering on Spatio-Temporal Privacy Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhen Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Lots of multilayer information, such as the spatio-temporal privacy check-in data, is accumulated in the location-based social network (LBSN. When using the collaborative filtering algorithm for LBSN location recommendation, one of the core issues is how to improve recommendation performance by combining the traditional algorithm with the multilayer information. The existing approaches of collaborative filtering use only the sparse user-item rating matrix. It entails high computational complexity and inaccurate results. A novel collaborative filtering-based location recommendation algorithm called LGP-CF, which takes spatio-temporal privacy information into account, is proposed in this paper. By mining the users check-in behavior pattern, the dataset is segmented semantically to reduce the data size that needs to be computed. Then the clustering algorithm is used to obtain and narrow the set of similar users. User-location bipartite graph is modeled using the filtered similar user set. Then LGP-CF can quickly locate the location and trajectory of users through message propagation and aggregation over the graph. Through calculating users similarity by spatio-temporal privacy data on the graph, we can finally calculate the rating of recommendable locations. Experiments results on the physical clusters indicate that compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed LGP-CF algorithm can make recommendations more accurately.
A latent model for collaborative filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
2012-01-01
Recommender systems based on collaborative filtering have received a great deal of interest over the last two decades. In particular, recently proposed methods based on dimensionality reduction techniques and using a symmetrical representation of users and items have shown promising results. Foll...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamatakallu O. Shrungesh Kumar
2013-03-01
Full Text Available 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid has been used as catalyst for the synthesis of tetrahydrocarbazoles and 2, 3-dimethylindoles with excellent yields in a shorter reaction time. The results show that the [bmim (BF 4] ionic liquid is very efficient in the Fischer indole synthesis due to its operational simplicity, high yields, dual catalyst-solvent properties and reused for five consecutive reactions without significant loss of catalytic efficiency. The applicability of the methodology for large-scale reaction highlights its potentiality for industrial scale synthesis. The main advantage of this procedure is that the products could be obtained in pure form after filtration and evaporation of MeOH solvent.
A New Filter Design Method for Disturbed Multilayer Hopfield Neural Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AHN, C. K.
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the passivity based filtering problem for multilayer Hopfield neural networks with external disturbance. A new passivity based filter design method for multilayer Hopfield neural networks is developed to ensure that the filtering error system is exponentially stable and passive from the external disturbance vector to the output error vector. The unknown gain matrix is obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI, which can be easily facilitated by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter.
Power filtering of nth order in the fractional Fourier domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alieva, Tatiana; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Bastiaans, Martin J.
2002-01-01
The main properties of the power filtering operation in the fractional Fourier domain and its relationship to the differentiation operation are considered. The application of linear power filtering for solving the phase retrieval problem from intensity distributions only is proposed. The optical configuration for the experimental realization of the method is discussed. (author)
Image defog algorithm based on open close filter and gradient domain recursive bilateral filter
Liu, Daqian; Liu, Wanjun; Zhao, Qingguo; Fei, Bowen
2017-11-01
To solve the problems of fuzzy details, color distortion, low brightness of the image obtained by the dark channel prior defog algorithm, an image defog algorithm based on open close filter and gradient domain recursive bilateral filter, referred to as OCRBF, was put forward. The algorithm named OCRBF firstly makes use of weighted quad tree to obtain more accurate the global atmospheric value, then exploits multiple-structure element morphological open and close filter towards the minimum channel map to obtain a rough scattering map by dark channel prior, makes use of variogram to correct the transmittance map,and uses gradient domain recursive bilateral filter for the smooth operation, finally gets recovery images by image degradation model, and makes contrast adjustment to get bright, clear and no fog image. A large number of experimental results show that the proposed defog method in this paper can be good to remove the fog , recover color and definition of the fog image containing close range image, image perspective, the image including the bright areas very well, compared with other image defog algorithms,obtain more clear and natural fog free images with details of higher visibility, what's more, the relationship between the time complexity of SIDA algorithm and the number of image pixels is a linear correlation.
An Improved Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter for GPS/INS Integrated Navigation Systems.
Feng, Kaiqiang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shen, Chong; Cao, Huiliang; Yang, Yanyu; Liu, Jun
2018-06-12
The cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is widely used in the application of GPS/INS integrated navigation systems. However, its performance may decline in accuracy and even diverge in the presence of process uncertainties. To solve the problem, a new algorithm named improved strong tracking seventh-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IST-7thSSRCKF) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the effect of process uncertainty is mitigated by using the improved strong tracking Kalman filter technique, in which the hypothesis testing method is adopted to identify the process uncertainty and the prior state estimate covariance in the CKF is further modified online according to the change in vehicle dynamics. In addition, a new seventh-degree spherical simplex-radial rule is employed to further improve the estimation accuracy of the strong tracking cubature Kalman filter. In this way, the proposed comprehensive algorithm integrates the advantage of 7thSSRCKF’s high accuracy and strong tracking filter’s strong robustness against process uncertainties. The GPS/INS integrated navigation problem with significant dynamic model errors is utilized to validate the performance of proposed IST-7thSSRCKF. Results demonstrate that the improved strong tracking cubature Kalman filter can achieve higher accuracy than the existing CKF and ST-CKF, and is more robust for the GPS/INS integrated navigation system.
Improving the Astrometric Calibration of ACS/WFC for the Most Useful Filters
Anderson, Jay
2004-07-01
The distortion correction for the WFC, with which most ACS astrometry is done, is filter-dependent, and is not sufficiently accurate for the most useful filters to the community, F606W and F814W. We propose to derive improved corrections using 1 orbit for each filter. A by-product will be an astrometric standard field at the center of Omega Centauri.
Engineering considerations in the use of artificial filter beds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richards, R.T.
1978-01-01
Artificial filter bed intakes utilize a prepared granular filter material to prevent entrance of debris and aquatic life into a water withdrawal facility. The relatively large quantities of water and the service reliability required for power plant cooling water systems present major engineering problems for the artificial filter concept, many of which have not been resolved. These problems include development of a suitable and stable filter medium; design of a reliable backwash system which is both effective and environmentally acceptable; meeting of all site-imposed restrictions relating to natural river turbidity, flooding characteristics, channel stability, and ice loads; and provision of the complex civil and mechanical engineering design inherent in such a system. Extensive model testing may be required for further engineering development of this system. The preliminary engineering for an artificial filter system is discussed in connection with a proposed 1.6-m 3 /s-capacity (25,000-gpm capacity) filter in the Columbia River
The cosmological constant filter without big bang singularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, Florian
2011-01-01
In the recently proposed cosmological constant (CC) filter mechanism based on modified gravity in the Palatini formalism, gravity in the radiation, matter and late-time de Sitter eras is insensitive to energy sources with the equation of state -1. This implies that finite vacuum energy shifts from phase transitions are filtered out too. In this work, we investigate the CC filter model at very early times. We find that the initial big bang singularity is replaced by a cosmic bounce, where the matter energy density and the curvature are finite. In a certain case, this finiteness can be already observed on the algebraic level. (paper)
Jia, Xingyu; Liu, Zhigang; Tao, Long; Deng, Zhongwen
2017-10-16
Frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) with a single external cavity diode laser (ECDL) and time-invariant Kalman filtering is an effective technique for measuring the distance of a dynamic target. However, due to the hysteresis of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) actuator in the ECDL, the optical frequency sweeps of the ECDL exhibit different behaviors, depending on whether the frequency is increasing or decreasing. Consequently, the model parameters of Kalman filter appear time varying in each iteration, which produces state estimation errors with time-invariant filtering. To address this, in this paper, a time-varying Kalman filter is proposed to model the instantaneous movement of a target relative to the different optical frequency tuning durations of the ECDL. The combination of the FSI method with the time-varying Kalman filter was theoretically analyzed, and the simulation and experimental results show the proposed method greatly improves the performance of dynamic FSI measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kermanpour, F.; Sharifi, T.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Densities and viscosities for binary mixture of {x 1 [C 6 mim][BF 4 ] + x 2 1-propanol} were measured at different temperatures. ► The excess molar functions were calculated from the obtained experimental data. ► These data were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation and PFP model to obtain the coefficients and standard deviations. - Abstract: Densities, ρ, and viscosities, η, of pure 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumtetrafluoro borate ([C 6 mim][BF 4 ]) and 1-propanol, and their binary mixture {x 1 [C 6 mim][BF 4 ] + x 2 1-propanol} were measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range of 293.15–333.15 K. The excess molar volumes, V m E , thermal expansion coefficients, α, and their excess values, α E , isothermal coefficient of excess molar enthalpy, (∂H m E /∂p) T,x and excess viscosities, η E , were calculated from the experimental values of densities and viscosities. The excess molar volumes of the binary mixture are negative over the entire mole fraction range and increase with increasing temperature. Excess viscosities are negative over the entire mole fraction range of the mixture and decrease with increasing temperature. The obtained excess molar volumes and excess viscosities were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation. The experimental results have also been used to examine the applicability of Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory in predicting the excess molar volume of the binary mixture. It is indicated that agreement between excess molar volumes calculated via PFP theory and the experimental results is good in all temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, Stefan; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia
2009-01-01
The comments on the feasibility studies cover the decommissioning options LAW retrieval, relocation and backfilling for the Asse facility with respect to the applicability of the BfS evaluation criteria. The respective BfS criteria include the evaluation with respect to the safety during the operational phase, the environmental impacts in case of an uncontrollable brine intrusion; the preliminary long-term safety assessment; the feasibility; and the time required.
Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V
1998-01-01
Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.
A momentum filter for atomic gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoji; Yue, Xuguang; Zhai, Yueyang; Chen, Xuzong
2013-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a momentum filter for atomic gas-based on a designed Talbot–Lau interferometer. It consists of two identical optical standing-wave pulses separated by a delay equal to odd multiples of the half Talbot time. The one-dimensional momentum width along the long direction of a cigar-shaped condensate is rapidly and greatly purified to a minimum, which corresponds to the ground state energy of the confining trap in our experiment. We find good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results. The filter is also effective for non-condensed cold atoms and could be applied widely. (paper)
Development of an adaptive bilateral filter for evaluating color image difference
Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve
2012-04-01
Spatial filtering, which aims to mimic the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of the human visual system (HVS), has previously been combined with color difference formulae for measuring color image reproduction errors. These spatial filters attenuate imperceptible information in images, unfortunately including high frequency edges, which are believed to be crucial in the process of scene analysis by the HVS. The adaptive bilateral filter represents a novel approach, which avoids the undesirable loss of edge information introduced by CSF-based filtering. The bilateral filter employs two Gaussian smoothing filters in different domains, i.e., spatial domain and intensity domain. We propose a method to decide the parameters, which are designed to be adaptive to the corresponding viewing conditions, and the quantity and homogeneity of information contained in an image. Experiments and discussions are given to support the proposal. A series of perceptual experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach. The experimental sample images were reproduced with variations in six image attributes: lightness, chroma, hue, compression, noise, and sharpness/blurriness. The Pearson's correlation values between the model-predicted image difference and the observed difference were employed to evaluate the performance, and compare it with that of spatial CIELAB and image appearance model.
Collaborative filtering recommendation model based on fuzzy clustering algorithm
Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yunhua
2018-05-01
As one of the most widely used algorithms in recommender systems, collaborative filtering algorithm faces two serious problems, which are the sparsity of data and poor recommendation effect in big data environment. In traditional clustering analysis, the object is strictly divided into several classes and the boundary of this division is very clear. However, for most objects in real life, there is no strict definition of their forms and attributes of their class. Concerning the problems above, this paper proposes to improve the traditional collaborative filtering model through the hybrid optimization of implicit semantic algorithm and fuzzy clustering algorithm, meanwhile, cooperating with collaborative filtering algorithm. In this paper, the fuzzy clustering algorithm is introduced to fuzzy clustering the information of project attribute, which makes the project belong to different project categories with different membership degrees, and increases the density of data, effectively reduces the sparsity of data, and solves the problem of low accuracy which is resulted from the inaccuracy of similarity calculation. Finally, this paper carries out empirical analysis on the MovieLens dataset, and compares it with the traditional user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. The proposed algorithm has greatly improved the recommendation accuracy.
A tunable Fabry-Perot filter (λ/18) based on all-dielectric metamaterials
Ao, Tianhong; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Jiang, Yadong; Li, Xinrong; Lian, Yuxiang; Wang, Fu
2018-05-01
A tunable Fabry-Perot filter composed of two separated all-dielectric metamaterials is proposed and numerically investigated. Different from metallic metamaterials reflectors, the all-dielectric metamaterials are constructed by high-permittivity TiO2 cylinder arrays and exhibit high reflection in a broadband of 2.49-3.08 THz. The high reflection is attributed to the first and second Mie resonances, by which the all-dielectric metamaterials can serve as reflectors in the Fabry-Perot filter. Both the results from phase analysis method and CST simulations reveal that the resonant frequency of the as-proposed filter appears at 2.78 THz, responding to a cavity with λ/18 wavelength thickness. Particularly, the resonant frequency can be adjusted by changing the cavity thickness. This work provides a feasible approach to design low-loss terahertz filters with a thin air cavity.
Multi-Configuration Matched Spectral Filter Core, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes the development of a modular, reconfigurable matched spectral filter (RMSF) spectrometer for the monitoring of greenhouse and volcanic gases. The...
Siekmeier, R; Lisson, K; Wetzel, D
2010-11-04
The European Directive 98/79/EC for in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVD) regulates marketing and post marketing surveillance of IVD in the European Economic Area. Manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authorities (CA) about incidents and field safety corrective actions (FSCA) related to IVD. In Germany, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) is the responsible CA for most IVD, only few IVD as specified in Annex II of the Directive are under the responsibility of the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). In case of a FSCA manufacturers have to inform customers by means of a Field Safety Notice (FSN) which should be sent to BfArM prior to release and is published on the BfArM homepage. Between beginning of 2005 and end of 2007 the BfArM received a total of 1025 reports regarding IVD. From these, 38 related to tests, reagents, calibrators, and control materials for infection testing, 13 related to analysers and general consumables (n = 8 and n = 5, respectively) based on culture techniques, and 7 related to analysers and general consumables (n = 5 and n = 2, respectively) based on molecular biological methods. FSCA were performed in Germany in 32 (84.2%) of all notifications related to tests reagents, calibrators, and control materials as well as in 13 (100%) and 7 (100%) of notifications related to analysers and consumables based on culture techniques and molecular biological methods, respectively. A number of relevant deficiencies regarding the quality of the FSN were separately demonstrated for FSN in German and English language. In brief, manufacturers often sent their FSN to the BfArM with delay. Additionally, a subset of FSN provided insufficient information on the product related risks or the measures to be performed by the customer to mitigate product related risks. Furthermore, customer confirmation forms often were missing in the FSN sent to the BfArM. Our data suggest that for IVD for infection testing FSCA and FSN are
Raitoharju, Matti; Nurminen, Henri; Piché, Robert
2015-12-01
Indoor positioning based on wireless local area network (WLAN) signals is often enhanced using pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based on an inertial measurement unit. The state evolution model in PDR is usually nonlinear. We present a new linear state evolution model for PDR. In simulated-data and real-data tests of tightly coupled WLAN-PDR positioning, the positioning accuracy with this linear model is better than with the traditional models when the initial heading is not known, which is a common situation. The proposed method is computationally light and is also suitable for smoothing. Furthermore, we present modifications to WLAN positioning based on Gaussian coverage areas and show how a Kalman filter using the proposed model can be used for integrity monitoring and (re)initialization of a particle filter.
A Fixed-Lag Kalman Smoother to Filter Power Line Interference in Electrocardiogram Recordings.
Warmerdam, G J J; Vullings, R; Schmitt, L; Van Laar, J O E H; Bergmans, J W M
2017-08-01
Filtering power line interference (PLI) from electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings can lead to significant distortions of the ECG and mask clinically relevant features in ECG waveform morphology. The objective of this study is to filter PLI from ECG recordings with minimal distortion of the ECG waveform. In this paper, we propose a fixed-lag Kalman smoother with adaptive noise estimation. The performance of this Kalman smoother in filtering PLI is compared to that of a fixed-bandwidth notch filter and several adaptive PLI filters that have been proposed in the literature. To evaluate the performance, we corrupted clean neonatal ECG recordings with various simulated PLI. Furthermore, examples are shown of filtering real PLI from an adult and a fetal ECG recording. The fixed-lag Kalman smoother outperforms other PLI filters in terms of step response settling time (improvements that range from 0.1 to 1 s) and signal-to-noise ratio (improvements that range from 17 to 23 dB). Our fixed-lag Kalman smoother can be used for semi real-time applications with a limited delay of 0.4 s. The fixed-lag Kalman smoother presented in this study outperforms other methods for filtering PLI and leads to minimal distortion of the ECG waveform.
Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter
Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.
2016-01-01
This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.
Learning based particle filtering object tracking for visible-light systems.
Sun, Wei
2015-10-01
We propose a novel object tracking framework based on online learning scheme that can work robustly in challenging scenarios. Firstly, a learning-based particle filter is proposed with color and edge-based features. We train a. support vector machine (SVM) classifier with object and background information and map the outputs into probabilities, then the weight of particles in a particle filter can be calculated by the probabilistic outputs to estimate the state of the object. Secondly, the tracking loop starts with Lucas-Kanade (LK) affine template matching and follows by learning-based particle filter tracking. Lucas-Kanade method estimates errors and updates object template in the positive samples dataset, and learning-based particle filter tracker will start if the LK tracker loses the object. Finally, SVM classifier evaluates every tracked appearance to update the training set or restart the tracking loop if necessary. Experimental results show that our method is robust to challenging light, scale and pose changing, and test on eButton image sequence also achieves satisfactory tracking performance.
Speech enhancement via Mel-scale Wiener filtering with a frequency-wise voice activity detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Han Jun; Kim, Hwa Soo; Cho, Young Man
2007-01-01
This paper presents a speech enhancement system that enables a comfortable communication inside an automobile. A couple of novel concepts are proposed in an effort to improve two major building blocks in the existing speech enhancement systems: a voice activity detector (VAD) and a noise filtering algorithm. The proposed VAD classifies a given data frame as speech or noise at each frequency, enabling the frequency-wise updates of noise statistics and thereby improving the effectiveness of the noise filtering algorithms by providing more up-to-date noise statistics. The celebrated Wiener filter is adopted in this paper as the accompanying noise filtering algorithm, which results in significant noise suppression. Yet, the musical noise present in most Wiener filter-based systems prompts the idea of applying the Wiener filter in the Mel-scale in which the human auditory system responds to the external stimulation. It turns out that the Mel-scale Wiener filter creates some masking effects and thereby reduces musical noise significantly, leading to smooth transition between data frames
Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Karthick
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamboli, P.K.; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.; Roy, Kallol
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Derivation for delay compensation algorithm using recursive Kalman filter. • Derivation for delay compensation algorithm using Linear Matrix Inequality based H infinity filter. • Process modeling suitable for delay compensation. • Dynamic tuning of the delay compensation algorithm for both Kalman and H infinity filter. • Simulations and trade-off curve for Kalman and H infinity filter. - Abstract: This paper deals with delay compensation of vanadium Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) using Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) based H-infinity filtering method and compares the results with Kalman filtering method. The entire study is established upon the framework of neutron flux estimation in large core Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) in which delayed SPNDs such as vanadium SPNDs are used as in-core flux monitoring detectors. The use of vanadium SPNDs are limited to 3-D flux mapping despite of providing better Signal to Noise Ratio as compared to other prompt SPNDs, due to their small prompt component in the signal. The use of an appropriate delay compensation technique has been always considered to be an effective strategy to build a prompt and accurate estimate of the neutron flux. We also indicate the noise-response trade-off curve for both the techniques. Since all the delay compensation algorithms always suffer from noise amplification, we propose an efficient adaptive parameter tuning technique for improving performance of the filtering algorithm against noise in the measurement.
Adaptive Conflict-Free Optimization of Rule Sets for Network Security Packet Filtering Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Baiocchi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Packet filtering and processing rules management in firewalls and security gateways has become commonplace in increasingly complex networks. On one side there is a need to maintain the logic of high level policies, which requires administrators to implement and update a large amount of filtering rules while keeping them conflict-free, that is, avoiding security inconsistencies. On the other side, traffic adaptive optimization of large rule lists is useful for general purpose computers used as filtering devices, without specific designed hardware, to face growing link speeds and to harden filtering devices against DoS and DDoS attacks. Our work joins the two issues in an innovative way and defines a traffic adaptive algorithm to find conflict-free optimized rule sets, by relying on information gathered with traffic logs. The proposed approach suits current technology architectures and exploits available features, like traffic log databases, to minimize the impact of ACO development on the packet filtering devices. We demonstrate the benefit entailed by the proposed algorithm through measurements on a test bed made up of real-life, commercial packet filtering devices.
Normalised subband adaptive filtering with extended adaptiveness on degree of subband filters
Samuyelu, Bommu; Rajesh Kumar, Pullakura
2017-12-01
This paper proposes an adaptive normalised subband adaptive filtering (NSAF) to accomplish the betterment of NSAF performance. In the proposed NSAF, an extended adaptiveness is introduced from its variants in two ways. In the first way, the step-size is set adaptive, and in the second way, the selection of subbands is set adaptive. Hence, the proposed NSAF is termed here as variable step-size-based NSAF with selected subbands (VS-SNSAF). Experimental investigations are carried out to demonstrate the performance (in terms of convergence) of the VS-SNSAF against the conventional NSAF and its state-of-the-art adaptive variants. The results report the superior performance of VS-SNSAF over the traditional NSAF and its variants. It is also proved for its stability, robustness against noise and substantial computing complexity.
Extracting Steady State Components from Synchrophasor Data Using Kalman Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhan Mahmood
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Data from phasor measurement units (PMUs may be exploited to provide steady state information to the applications which require it. As PMU measurements may contain errors and missing data, the paper presents the application of a Kalman Filter technique for real-time data processing. PMU data captures the power system’s response at different time-scales, which are generated by different types of power system events; the presented Kalman Filter methods have been applied to extract the steady state components of PMU measurements that can be fed to steady state applications. Two KF-based methods have been proposed, i.e., a windowing-based KF method and “the modified KF”. Both methods are capable of reducing noise, compensating for missing data and filtering outliers from input PMU signals. A comparison of proposed methods has been carried out using the PMU data generated from a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experimental setup. In addition, a performance analysis of the proposed methods is performed using an evaluation metric.
Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.
2016-03-01
Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.
Kalman and particle filtering methods for full vehicle and tyre identification
Bogdanski, Karol; Best, Matthew C.
2018-05-01
This paper considers identification of all significant vehicle handling dynamics of a test vehicle, including identification of a combined-slip tyre model, using only those sensors currently available on most vehicle controller area network buses. Using an appropriately simple but efficient model structure, all of the independent parameters are found from test vehicle data, with the resulting model accuracy demonstrated on independent validation data. The paper extends previous work on augmented Kalman Filter state estimators to concentrate wholly on parameter identification. It also serves as a review of three alternative filtering methods; identifying forms of the unscented Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter and particle filter are proposed and compared for effectiveness, complexity and computational efficiency. All three filters are suited to applications of system identification and the Kalman Filters can also operate in real-time in on-line model predictive controllers or estimators.
Plasmonic band-stop filter with asymmetric rectangular ring for WDM networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nezhad, Vahid Foroughi; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh; Abaslou, Siamak
2013-01-01
We proposed a simple asymmetric rectangular band-stop filter based on metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguides. It is shown that the performance of the structure as a filter strongly depends on the asymmetry of the rectangular structure. An analytical model based on the analogy between MDM waveguides and the microwave transmission line is used to calculate the resonance wavelengths and explain the behavior of the filter. The bandwidth of spectra can be easily manipulated by adjusting the topological parameters of the filter. It is also demonstrated that by adjusting the bandwidth, the filter can be used for CWDM standard channels. The filter behavior is verified using the numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The filter is compact and has a footprint of 1 μm × 0.5 μm, which is suitable for integrated optical circuits. (paper)
Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.
Supervised Filter Learning for Representation Based Face Recognition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Bi
Full Text Available Representation based classification methods, such as Sparse Representation Classification (SRC and Linear Regression Classification (LRC have been developed for face recognition problem successfully. However, most of these methods use the original face images without any preprocessing for recognition. Thus, their performances may be affected by some problematic factors (such as illumination and expression variances in the face images. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel supervised filter learning algorithm is proposed for representation based face recognition in this paper. The underlying idea of our algorithm is to learn a filter so that the within-class representation residuals of the faces' Local Binary Pattern (LBP features are minimized and the between-class representation residuals of the faces' LBP features are maximized. Therefore, the LBP features of filtered face images are more discriminative for representation based classifiers. Furthermore, we also extend our algorithm for heterogeneous face recognition problem. Extensive experiments are carried out on five databases and the experimental results verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Charm production yield from target nuclei filtering intrinsic projectile charm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quack, E.; Nemes, M.C.
1990-01-01
Estimating the process of filtering an intrinsic projectile charm component by a target nucleus as proposed earlier, we obtain upper limits for the cross sections of open charm and J/Ψ. Comparing with experiment, we conclude that this filtering mechanism is not sufficient to explain the observed A α-dependence at large final state momenta. (author)
FITTS LAW AS A LOW-PASS FILTER EFFECT OF MUSCLE-STIFFNESS
VANGALEN, GP; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus
It is proposed that the speed of aiming movements is the optimized outcome of a stochastic, oscillatory recruitment signal to the muscles and filtering properties of the effector limb. The filtering characteristic of the limb is seen to be modulated through a stiffness parameter, to be set by the