WorldWideScience

Sample records for propane

  1. Recreational use of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-04-01

    Propane is used in most remote locations in North America for heat, cooking, power, or light. The users include ski hills operators to fishing lodges owners. Three profiles are presented in this article. The Pawistik Lodge is located in northern Saskatchewan near the Manitoba border. This lodge accommodates anglers. Propane is used for heating, gas stoves, lighting, and to power a one-ton truck, while electricity is used for all other energy needs. At Banff National Park, the clean burning fuel of choice for hot water, heating, cooking, and refrigeration is propane. Every location west of the town of Banff is fueled by propane. It includes the Sunshine and Lake Louise ski resorts, the Lake Louise village, Johnston's Canyon, as well as other locations. Some of the cabins used by the Park wardens have been equipped with solar panels to supply the energy required for lighting, but stoves in those cabins are powered by propane. Park vehicles are powered by propane when possible, and some are powered by dual fuel, propane and gasoline. It is all part of the government's green plan. The entire Yoho National Park is also fueled by propane. Sun Peaks ski resort operates an elaborate grid system and a plant that vaporizes propane for distribution. The price increase for propane earlier in 2001 did not adversely affect the resort since it buys its propane in bulk (it uses approximately two million litres of propane each year). Propane fuels heating, hot water, and fireplaces. The outdoor swimming pool is heated using propane. It attempts to implement from the lessons learned at the successful Whistler/Blackcomb ski resort, also fueled by propane.

  2. Propane Canada: Propane Canada's Second Annual Auto Propane Conversion Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    A directory of companies engaged in automotive propane conversion in Alberta and British Columbia is provided. There are a total of eight entries : three in Calgary, one in Edmonton in Alberta and two in Burnaby, one in Dawson Creek and one in Fort St. John in British Columbia. Each entry provides information about the company, including name, address, phone and fax numbers, owner's or manager's name, conversion equipment brands used, number of bays, type of retail sales and accreditation

  3. Propane: North American opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO 2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  4. Propane a whole new frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heil, T.

    2001-01-01

    In the past, providing electric power in rural areas in America was accomplished in a pre-determined manner. Electric cooperatives acted as distribution companies that maintained poles and wires, and ensured that the rural customer (home, business, etc.) always had power. Things are about to change, due to electricity market deregulation and the emergence of distributed generation. Electric cooperatives are adjusting by moving to propane. The challenges facing electric cooperatives are a bit daunting. The cooperatives were customer-service oriented strongly committed to their region, where the customer had no other purchasing option. The electric cooperatives seldom deviated from their cost plus pricing plan. Suddenly, with the prospect of marketing propane, a number of retailers are after the same customers. The emphasis is now on customer service and pricing plans. Payment options and other services must be offered in addition to fair pricing to gain or retain a slight advantage that might make the difference between survival and bankruptcy. Retailer must be careful not to speculate on the price of propane when devising their pricing plans. They must be aware of the supply plans. Reliability is also expected by the propane customers. Some of the tips offered: a proper understanding of the differences that underlay electricity and propane marketing, and react accordingly; use marketing to build propane relationships; offer the service to current electric members first; experience is vital in the field of propane; know your numbers; risk management and supply marketing are notions worth knowing; and finally know the competition

  5. Propane a whole new frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, T. [Propane Resources, Mission, KS (United States)

    2001-09-01

    In the past, providing electric power in rural areas in America was accomplished in a pre-determined manner. Electric cooperatives acted as distribution companies that maintained poles and wires, and ensured that the rural customer (home, business, etc.) always had power. Things are about to change, due to electricity market deregulation and the emergence of distributed generation. Electric cooperatives are adjusting by moving to propane. The challenges facing electric cooperatives are a bit daunting. The cooperatives were customer-service oriented strongly committed to their region, where the customer had no other purchasing option. The electric cooperatives seldom deviated from their cost plus pricing plan. Suddenly, with the prospect of marketing propane, a number of retailers are after the same customers. The emphasis is now on customer service and pricing plans. Payment options and other services must be offered in addition to fair pricing to gain or retain a slight advantage that might make the difference between survival and bankruptcy. Retailer must be careful not to speculate on the price of propane when devising their pricing plans. They must be aware of the supply plans. Reliability is also expected by the propane customers. Some of the tips offered: a proper understanding of the differences that underlay electricity and propane marketing, and react accordingly; use marketing to build propane relationships; offer the service to current electric members first; experience is vital in the field of propane; know your numbers; risk management and supply marketing are notions worth knowing; and finally know the competition.

  6. New perspectives on auto propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the high level of propane use in vehicles in North America (relative to the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol), the alternate-fuel research and development activities of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are focusing on methanol, CNG, and electric vehicles. If OEM indifference to propane continues, propane vehicles will continue to be available only in after-market conversions, denying propane the benefits of OEM mass-production economics, quality control, retail distribution, and other factors. Recent developments in auto propane are reported which should be considered by OEMs and policymakers to allow propane to enter the mass-scale motor vehicle market. Propane and the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mix used as a motor vehicle fuel are often regarded as just a byproduct of natural gas production and oil refining, giving the impression that propane/LPG will not be available in sufficient quantities to support a mass market. It is shown that LPG supply is market-responsive and that over 20 billion gal of new supply could be made available from North American sources by the year 2000 and over 27 billion gal by 2005, sufficient to supply 12.5% of the projected North American vehicle fleet in 2005. The new supply would come from incremental expansion of existing production, displacement of LPG from lower-value uses, and LPG synthesis. The environmental performance of propane/LPG engines is also compared to that of engines running on gasoline, natural gas, and methanol. Advantages of LPG over gasoline include lower carbon content and lower CO emissions, and advantages over CNG arise from the high greenhouse gas activity and long life of methane. 12 figs

  7. An experimental propane bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozinski, A.

    1957-01-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [fr

  8. Propane Canada's first ever auto propane conversion directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A directory of auto propane dealers in Alberta, British Columbia and Manitoba was presented. Dealers in Calgary, Edmonton, Burnaby, Dawson Creek and Winnipeg were listed along with their addresses, phone numbers, fax, and E-mail addresses. Some of the other information provided included accreditation, equipment used and manufacturer brands used by the dealers

  9. Canadian propane industry by the numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts from the 1997 'Canadian Propane Industry Statistical Review in Brief' are provided to illustrate propane production, transportation, industrial, automotive, agricultural, residential, commercial and public administration uses. Of the 12.67 billion litres of propane produced in Canada in 1997, approximately 60 per cent was exported to the United States at an average export price of 14.17 cents per litre. Total value of propane exports to the United States in 1997 exceeded one billion dollars. Ninety-five per cent of all propane produced in Canada originated from gas plants in Alberta. Major refinery production, as well as use as petrochemical feedstock was in Ontario, Alberta and Quebec

  10. Advances in propane ammoxidation catalyst technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada Silvy, R.; Grange, P. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Univ. Cathologique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2003-09-01

    Comparison of the catalytic performance of different propane ammoxidation catalyst systems from the patent literature is established in order to identify the most promising formulation towards process commercialization scale. Vanadium aluminum oxynitride material shows the highest acrylonitrile production level per hour and per amount of catalyst with respect to conventional vanadium-molybdate and vanadium- antimonate mixed oxide propane ammoxidation systems. Acrylonitrile, hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile production from propane ammoxidation is the key factor for obtaining competitive advantages over current propylene technology. (orig.)

  11. State heating oil and propane program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The following is a report of New Hampshire's participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPS) for the 1990--91 heating season. The program is a joint effort between participating states and the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EYE) to collect retail price data for heating oil and propane through phone surveys of 25 oil and 20 propane retailers in New Hampshire. SHOPS is funded through matching grants from DOE and the participating state. (VC)

  12. 21 CFR 184.1655 - Propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1655 Propane. (a) Propane (empirical formula C3H8, CAS Reg. No. 74-98-6) is also known as dimethylmethane or propyl hydrid. It is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas at normal...

  13. Propane supply picture: North American perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the North American propane supply and demand situation. Propane has a distribution network in place and a well established market. North America is virtually self-sufficient in propane with a market of over 1,000,000 bbl/d. Approximately 80% of Canada's propane supply is produced at gas plants in western Canada as a byproduct of natural gas production. The expansion in natural gas markets will mean that propane supply will rise further, unlike crude oil. Canada's daily supply of nearly 160,000 bbl is used for heating (30%), transport (12%), petrochemicals (7.8%), and enhanced oil recovery (4.7%), with the remainder being exported. Propane surpluses are expected to grow, between 70,000 and 100,000 bbl/d in the next 5 years. Nearly 30% of North America's demand for propane is in the petrochemical industry, for which various other feedstocks can be substituted. An availability of over 400,000 bbl/d could fuel ca 5 million vehicles. Only natural gas has a comparable infrastructure and this suffers from high utilization pressure and poor energy density. Wholesale propane is now available at under 9 cents/liter, significantly below the projected ethanol price of 18 cents/liter, which excludes grain feedstock or capital cost. 8 refs., 6 figs

  14. A propane price spike nails users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milke, M.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in price for propane was discussed. In 1993, propane cost about 5 cents per litre; by December 1996, the price has risen to 27 cents wholesale, while retail prices for auto propane reached 40 cents per litre. As a result, farmers and fleet operators are considering switching to an alternative energy supply. The five factors which may have played a role in the propane price spike were described. These included a cold winter which lowered inventories, a Pemex gas plant in Mexico which had been damaged by fire, forcing Mexico to import natural gas and natural gas liquids from the USA, the failure of propane distributors to restock during the summer months in the hope of lower prices, and increased cost of competing fuels in the face of increased demand. It was noted that these factors are transitory, which could mean better prices this summer

  15. 75 FR 14131 - Effect on Propane Consumers of the Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market Changes and Federal Programs AGENCY... Education and Research Council (PERC), in conjunction with the cumulative effects of market changes and... requirements under the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 that established PERC and requires the...

  16. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states

  17. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  18. Case Study - Propane Bakery Delivery Step Vans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-04-01

    A switch to propane from diesel by a major Midwest bakery fleet showed promising results, including a significant displacement of petroleum, a drop in greenhouse gases and a fuel cost savings of seven cents per mile, according to a study recently completed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory for the Clean Cities program.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    established infrastructure. Therefore, fueling vehicles with propane is one way to diversify U.S . transportation fuels and increase the nation's energy security in the process. Vehicle and Infrastructure Safety Administration, the National Fire Protection Association (Code 58), and state agencies like the

  20. Thermodynamic properties of gaseous propane from model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fourth-order virial equation of state was combined with isotropic model potentials to predict accurate volumetric and caloric thermodynamic properties of propane in the gas phase. The parameters in the model were determined in a fit to speed-of-sound data alone; no other data were used. The approximation employed for ...

  1. Case Study - Propane School Bus Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-08-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) effort to deploy transportation technologies that reduce U.S. dependence on imported petroleum, this study examines five school districts, one in Virginia and four in Texas, successful use of propane school buses. These school districts used school buses equipped with the newly developed liquid propane injection system that improves vehicle performance. Some of the school districts in this study saved nearly 50% on a cost per mile basis for fuel and maintenance relative to diesel. Using Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool developed for the DOE’s Clean Cities program to help Clean Cities stakeholders estimate petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions and cost of ownership of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, the results showed payback period ranges from 3—8 years, recouping the incremental cost of the vehicles and infrastructure. Overall, fuel economy for these propane vehicles is close to that of displaced diesel vehicles, on an energy-equivalent basis. In addition, the 110 propane buses examined demonstrated petroleum displacement, 212,000 diesel gallon equivalents per year, and GHG benefits of 770 tons per year.

  2. Aromatization of propane over MFI-gallosilicates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayense, C.R.; vd Pol, A.J.H.P.; Hooff, van J.H.C.

    1991-01-01

    The results of propane aromatization over gallium containing HZSM-5 zeolites are described. Highly dispersed gallium in the zeolite (framework or extra-framework) was found to possess dehydrogenation activity, especially in the presence of strong Brønsted acid sites. The extra-framework gallium was

  3. Swap your propane cylinder with SWOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A very successful propane cylinder exchange program operated by South Western Ontario Propane (SWOP) Inc., was described. The company specializes in propane cylinder exchange and in the refurbishing and marketing of top quality domestic and commercial propane cylinders. The company, currently operating out of Bradford, Ontario, was started in 1991. It employs a staff of 25 in peak season. It has some 200 exchange outlets throughout Ontario and has accepted outdated tanks from as far west as Manitoba and as far east as Quebec. A typical transaction involves bringing an empty cylinder to the nearest SWOP location and exchanging it for a full SWOP cylinder. SWOP does about 50,000 to 60,000 exchanges a year. For the consumer, the program is said to be cheaper, safer and more convenient than getting refills. As far as dealers are concerned operating a SWOP exchange outlet can add extra profits, attract new customers, and build additional consumer loyalty without the need for extra staff or additional indoor space. SWOP delivers full cylinders to exchange outlets on a weekly basis when it also picks up the empty cylinders. At dealer locations, the cylinders (full or empty) are stored in company -designed vandal-proof metal cages. Major expansion of the network of outlets and the cylinder refurbishing and refilling facilities are planned for 1998

  4. An experimental propane bubble chamber; Sur une chambre a bulles experimentale a propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozinski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [French] Description d'une chambre a bulles a propane de 10 cm de diametre et de 5 cm de profondeur. La chambre, dont le corps est en acier inoxydable, est munie de deux fenetres en verre poli et trempe. La compression et la detente du propane sont effectuees, soit a l'aide d'un piston en contact direct avec le liquide, soit en faisant agir sur ce dernier un gaz comprime a travers une triple membrane de teflon-mylar-perbunan. On decrit les conditions generales, ainsi que les conditions optimales de fonctionnement de la chambre et l'on signale un certain nombre de resultats obtenus concernant, notamment, les essais de resistance a la rupture des fenetres et les mesures de dilatation thermique de compressibilite isotherme du propane utilise. (auteur)

  5. Propane hydrate nucleation: Experimental investigation and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    supersaturation region. The experiments showed that the gas dissolution rate rather than the induction time of propane hydrate is influenced by a change in agitation. This was especially valid at high stirring rates when the water surface was severely disturbed.Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP......) to the aqueous phase was found to reduce the gas dissolution rate slightly. However the induction times were prolonged quite substantially upon addition of PVP.The induction time data were correlated using a newly developed induction time model based on crystallization theory also capable of taking into account...... the presence of additives. In most cases reasonable agreement between the data and the model could be obtained. The results revealed that especially the effective surface energy between propane hydrate and water is likely to change when the stirring rate varies from very high to low. The prolongation...

  6. French butane propane committee. 2003 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2003 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  7. French butane propane committee. 2004 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2004 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  8. Canwest propane: Canwest Propane's newest terminal delivers the winning conditions for B.C. market expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    Opening of a new propane terminal in Surrey, BC by Canwest Propane Ltd., is reported. The facility is the first rail terminal opened by Canwest, and is intended to serve the greater Vancouver area, Vancouver island and the US Northwest, specifically Washington State. The Surrey location allows the company to service its business by rail, the most efficient method of getting product to the Lower Mainland. The facility sits on 4.5 acres of land; a CN rail track runs alongside the site, where six 30,000 gallon storage tanks are located. About 60 million litres of propane is expected to be distributed from the terminal, with further expansion anticipated both on Vancouver Island and in the US Northwest. photos

  9. Nebraska residential propane survey, Winter 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyon, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes information on propane prices for the October 1991/March 1992 heating season in Nebraska. From October through March participating propane distributors were contacted twice monthly by the Nebraska Energy Office to obtain their current residential (retail) prices of propane. This information was faxed to the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) biweekly in report format as prepared by the PEDRO system

  10. 77 FR 2293 - AmeriGas Propane, L.P., AmeriGas Propane, Inc., Energy Transfer Partners, L.P., and Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... consumers. AmeriGas is the second largest supplier and marketer of propane exchange cylinders. ETP GP is a... Express division. Heritage Propane Express is the third largest supplier and marketer of propane exchange... Propane Express played the role of a disruptive ``maverick,'' offering lower prices and better terms and...

  11. Selective oxidation of propane over cation exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on investigation of the fundamental knowledge on a new method for selective oxidation of propane with O2 at low temperature (< 100°C). The relation between propane catalytic selective oxidation and physicochemical properties of cation exchanged Y zeolite has been studied. An

  12. Low temperature complete combustion of dilute propane over Mn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    propane (0.9% propane in air) over Mn-doped ZrO2 (cubic) catalysts. ... vigorous stirring at 30°C and a pH of 8, washing (with deionised water) and drying ... crystalline phases by XRD (using a Holland–Phillips, PW/1730 X-ray generator with.

  13. Proud past and a new tomorrow : propane excellence program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Propane Excellence Program is a voluntary effort by companies and individuals who produce and market propane or transport propane on behalf of propane producers and marketers. It is being organized by the industry to allow for the realization of the full potential of propane as a safe and environmentally appropriate fuel. The program represents a new way of doing business by encouraging an industry-wide commitment to quality and performance. In terms of products, the program covers propane and propane transporting, storing, consuming and servicing products and services. A Code of Practice is currently being drawn up, and members will be asked to commit to the Code and implement it through a Quality Management Program. An annual fee-for-service-based audit of performance is envisaged. Expected benefits of the program include better management of costs, incident and accident reduction, greater customer satisfaction, increased credibility with government and the public, and greater employee satisfaction. Implementation is planned for June 30, 1998

  14. Proud past and a new tomorrow : propane excellence program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Propane Excellence Program is a voluntary effort by companies and individuals who produce and market propane or transport propane on behalf of propane producers and marketers. It is being organized by the industry to allow for the realization of the full potential of propane as a safe and environmentally appropriate fuel. The program represents a new way of doing business by encouraging an industry-wide commitment to quality and performance. In terms of products, the program covers propane and propane transporting, storing, consuming and servicing products and services. A Code of Practice is currently being drawn up, and members will be asked to commit to the Code and implement it through a Quality Management Program. An annual fee-for-service-based audit of performance is envisaged. Expected benefits of the program include better management of costs, incident and accident reduction, greater customer satisfaction, increased credibility with government and the public, and greater employee satisfaction. Implementation is planned for June 30, 1998.

  15. Basic nuclear data and reactor shielding design formulaire PROPANE Do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiot, J.C.; Salvatores, M.; Trapp, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a calculational scheme - formulaire PROPANE - to calculate the deep neutron penetration in the fast reactor shield. The emphasis is put on the multigroup data and method approximations. The performances of this formulaire are presented

  16. Demonstration of a Fast, Precise Propane Measurement Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahniser, M. S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Nelson, D. D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Propane is one of the primary components of emissions from natural gas extraction and processing activities. In addition to being an air pollutant, its ratio to other hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane can serve as a "fingerprint" of a particular facility or process, aiding in identifying emission sources. Quantifying propane has typically required laboratory analysis of flask samples, resulting in low temporal resolution and making plume-based measurements infeasible. Here we demonstrate fast (1-second), high precision (infrared spectroscopy at 2967 wavenumbers. In addition, we explore the impact of nearby water and ethane absorption lines on the accuracy and precision of the propane measurement. Finally, we discuss development of a dual-laser instrument capable of simultaneous measurements of methane, ethane, and propane (the C1-C3 compounds), all within a small spatial package that can be easily deployed aboard a mobile platform.

  17. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  18. French butane propane committee. 2003 activity report; Comite Francais du Butane et du Propane. Rapport d'activite 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-01

    This activity report presents the 2003 status of the actions carried out by the French butane and propane committee (CFBP) for the development of the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry in France. While the past year has seen the butane, propane and LPG-fuel sales following the decay started 4 years ago, in 2004 the CFBP has reinforced its actions of public information about the LPG energy choice and has carried out several projects in order to improve the safety of LPG tanks and storage facilities, one of the first concern of LPG industry. (J.S.)

  19. State heating oil and propane price survey: A review of Winter 1995/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Thirty heating oil dealers and fifteen propane dealers serving Massachusetts customers were surveyed on a bi-weekly basis to monitor heating oil and propane prices. Tables present high, low, and average price for heating oil and propane every two weeks from October 2nd to March 18th. The paper briefly discusses fuel shortages and weather

  20. Carbon nanotube synthesis from propane decomposition on a pre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was performed by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) of propane on Si(111) with a pre-treated Ni overlayer acting as a catalyst. Prior to the growth of CNTs, a thin film of Ni was deposited on Si(111) substrate by evaporation and heat treated at 900°C. The growth ...

  1. Experimental study and modelization of a propane storage tank depressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania

    1995-01-01

    The risks associated with the fast depressurization of propane storage tanks reveals the importance of the 'source term' determination. This term is directly linked, among others, to the characteristics of the jet developed downstream of the breach. The first aim of this work was to provide an original data bank concerning drop velocity and diameter distributions in a propane jet. For this purpose, a phase Doppler anemometer bas been implemented on an experimental set-up. Propane blowdowns have been performed with different breach sizes and several initial pressures in the storage tank. Drop diameter and velocity distributions have been investigated at different locations in the jet zone. These measurements exhibited the fragmentation and vaporisation trends in the jet. The second aim of this work concerned the 'source term'. lt required to study the coupling between the fluid behaviour inside the tank and the flow through the breach. This model took into account the phase exchange when flashing occurred in the tank. The flow at the breach was described with an homogeneous relaxation model. This coupled modelization has been successfully and exhaustively validated. lt originality lies on the application to propane flows. (author) [fr

  2. Propane Oxidation at High Pressure and Intermediate Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    Propane oxidation at intermediate temperatures (500—900 K) and high pressure (100 bar) has been characterized by conducting experiments in a laminar flow reactor over a wide range of stoichiometries. The onset of fuel oxidation was found to be 600—725 K, depending on mixture stoichiometry...

  3. Propylene/propane mixture adsorption on faujasite sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Miltenburg, A.; Gascon, J.; Zhu, W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of propylene and propane on zeolite NaX with and without a saturated (36 wt%) amount of CuCl have been investigated. The single component adsorption isotherms could be well described with a Dual-Site Langmuir model. The dispersion of CuCl results in a decrease of the maximum

  4. Exports of propane and butanes, January-December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Tables are presented showing exports of propane and butane for each month of 1993. Comparisons with the same month in 1992 are included, as well as a running total. Export quantities are given in m 3 by region within Canada and for Canada as a whole, and as m 3 /d for Canada as a whole. Average export prices in Canadian cents per liter for the same seven regions and Canada as a whole are also given. Exports show a seasonal trend, with a low of 8,681 m 3 /d in May and a high of 18,565 m 3 in December for propane. Butane exports also show a seasonal trend with a low of 1,806 m 3 /d in June and a high of 9,306 m 3 /d in January. Propane prices ranged from 9.68 cents/l in December to 12.47 cents/l in February, compared to a range of 7.55 to 10.71 cents/l in 1992. Butane prices ranged from 9.22 cents/l in November to 12.38 cents/l in June, compared to a range of 10 to 12.78 cents/l in 1992. Total propane exports in 1993 were 4,761,795 m 3 (6.8% higher than in 1992) and total butane exports were 1,974,682 m 3 (13% lower than in 1992). 24 tabs

  5. Giant Syncrude oilsand plant a prodigious user of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 13 per cent of Canada's petroleum requirements are met by the huge Syncrude plant in northern Alberta, the largest producer of crude from oilsands in the world and the largest source producer in Canada. The plant is located just north of Fort McMurray northeast of Edmonton. The operation of the plant relies in a very large part on the use of propane. Scattered on the site are 130 propane tanks. The pumphouse is equipped with four 1,000-gallon tanks, and the mobile Sundog heaters in the mine site are equipped with a number of 420-pound tanks that supply the required power. The yearly maintenance program requires the use of an additional 80 to 90 tanks that are brought on the site for that purpose. All told, two million litres of propane are used yearly at the plant. Heating the facilities and equipment is the main use for the propane. For example, heating the draglines (25-storey high and a bucket as large as a two-car garage) that scoop the oilsand and transport it for processing necessitate the use of several 20-pound and 40-pound propane-powered tiger torches. However, large trucks and shovels, part of an innovative transport system called hydro transport, will soon replace the draglines. This new method eliminates the need for draglines, bucket wheels, conveyer systems and conditioning tumblers by mixing the oilsand with water for transportation by pipeline. The first step of the extraction process, the conditioning, occurs in the pipeline. Upon reaching the extraction plant, the mixture is directed into the separation vessels. Without an increase in energy usage or carbon dioxide emissions, Syncrude is able to increase its extraction activity by switching to hydro transport. The requirement for propane is still present as the bottom of the slurry has to be heated for transport. Some basic facts concerning Syncrude and its operation were presented, as well as an overview of the oilsand business, its history and its financial results. For example

  6. Enhancement of LNG plant propane cycle through waste heat powered absorption cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.; Mortazavi, A.; Eveloy, V.; Al-Hashimi, S.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R.

    2012-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants utilizing sea water for process cooling, both the efficiency and production capacity of the propane cycle decrease with increasing sea water temperature. To address this issue, several propane cycle enhancement approaches are investigated in this study, which require minimal modification of the existing plant configuration. These approaches rely on the use of gas turbine waste heat powered water/lithium bromide absorption cooling to either (i) subcool propane after the propane cycle condenser, or (ii) reduce propane cycle condensing pressure through pre-cooling of condenser cooling water. In the second approach, two alternative methods of pre-cooling condenser cooling water are considered, which consist of an open sea water loop, and a closed fresh water loop. In addition for all cases, three candidate absorption chiller configurations are evaluated, namely single-effect, double-effect, and cascaded double- and single-effect chillers. The thermodynamic performance of each propane cycle enhancement scheme, integrated in an actual LNG plant in the Persian Gulf, is evaluated using actual plant operating data. Subcooling propane after the propane cycle condenser is found to improve propane cycle total coefficient of performance (COP T ) and cooling capacity by 13% and 23%, respectively. The necessary cooling load could be provided by either a single-effect, double-effect or cascaded and single- and double-effect absorption refrigeration cycle recovering waste heat from a single gas turbine operated at full load. Reducing propane condensing pressure using a closed fresh water condenser cooling loop is found result in propane cycle COP T and cooling capacity enhancements of 63% and 22%, respectively, but would require substantially higher capital investment than for propane subcooling, due to higher cooling load and thus higher waste heat requirements. Considering the present trend of short process enhancement payback periods in the

  7. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R.; Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Hense, Haiko; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system (γ-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  8. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Hense, Haiko [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system ({gamma}-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  9. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2017-03-21

    A six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the interaction of two rigid propane molecules was determined from supermolecular ab initio calculations up to the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations level of theory for 9452 configurations. An analytical site-site potential function with 14 sites per molecule was fitted to the calculated interaction energies. To validate the analytical PES, the second virial coefficient and the dilute gas shear viscosity and thermal conductivity of propane were computed. The dispersion part of the potential function was slightly adjusted such that quantitative agreement with the most accurate experimental data for the second virial coefficient at room temperature was achieved. The adjusted PES yields values for the three properties that are in very good agreement with the best experimental data at all temperatures.

  10. Two cases of acute propane/butane poisoning in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Suadoni, Fabio; Pieroni, Ludovica; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lancia, Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Hydrocarbon inhalation is seldom chosen as a means to commit suicide. This practice is exclusively a prerogative of the prison population; it is, however, only exceptionally found in this environment. The two cases of lethal inhalation of propane/butane gas observed by us over a very short time occurred in this context. Toxicologic analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography (head space) and revealed a propane/butane mixture in all specimens (heart blood, bile, and urine) except vitreous humor. Although fatal arrhythmia posthydrocarbon gas abuse is well known, the concentrations of the two hydrocarbons were sufficient to induce death by asphyxiation and were distributed (fairly) homogeneously in all biological fluids and organs examined, a parameter permitting one to assume that death occurred within a relatively short period of time. The absence of finding in vitreous humor and the trace amount in urine suggests that both men died very quickly. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. French butane propane committee. 2004 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2004 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  12. French butane propane committee. 2003 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This activity report presents the French butane-propane committee (CFBP), an association for the promotion of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), the characteristics of LPG fuels, the LPG market and its evolution, the CFBP's missions and the 2003 highlights: representation of subscribing companies, participation to standardization works, making techniques and regulations change, improving the safety of equipments and installations, training and information, promoting LPG products. (J.S.)

  13. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  14. The LP [liquefied petroleum] gas industry and auto-propane: Toward an integrated North American strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtze, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    The auto propane industry began in Canada in the 1980s as a result of government policies favoring alternate fuels. Total propane demand is ca 4.1 billion liters, with over 30% of this demand in the automotive fuel market. This market is concentrated in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta. The total number of propane-powered vehicles in Canada is ca 140,000, the number of propane service stations is over 5,000, and there are ca 850 shops where automobiles can be converted to run on propane. The number of conversions was 15,000 in 1992, down from nearly 23,000 in 1991. The cost of conversion ranges from $1,500 to $2,000. The advantages of propane over gasoline is lower emissions, notably in cold weather, and good performance. To maintain propane's environmental advantage, initiatives are being led by the Canadian Auto Propane Council to develop a multifaceted technical strategy. This strategy includes cooperation with the auto industry to encourage original equipment manufacture of a propane car, participation in gaseous and liquid fuel injection projects designed to permit vehicle conversion, introduction of a stand-alone automatic stop fill valve to eliminate emissions in the filling process, and research on conversion of medium- and heavy-duty engines. Cooperation with the industry in the USA is also recommended

  15. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  16. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  17. Propan-1-ol Oxidation Reaction on Au/TiO2 Catalysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... a decomposition pathway, producing CO2 and H2O. However, the presence of gold ... complete oxidation reaction of propan-1-ol on the catalysts. Keywords: Gold Catalysis ... flowed at a rate of 30 mL min-1. Propan- o-l was.

  18. Radiolytic oxidation of propane: computer modeling of the reaction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Hanrahan, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of gaseous propane under gamma radiolysis was studied at 100 torr pressure and 25 o C, at oxygen pressures from 1 to 15 torr. Major oxygen-containing products and their G-values with 10% added oxygen are as follows: acetone, 0.98; i-propyl alcohol, 0.86; propionaldehyde, 0.43; n-propyl alcohol, 0.11; acrolein, 0.14; and allyl alcohol, 0.038. The formation of major oxygen-containing products was explained on the basis that the alkyl radicals combine with molecular oxygen to give peroxyl radicals; the peroxyl radicals react with one another to give alkoxyl radicals, which in turn react with one another to form carbonyl compounds and alcohols. The reaction scheme for the formation of major products was examined using computer modeling based on a mechanism involving 28 reactions. Yields could be brought into agreement with the data within experimental error in nearly all cases. (author)

  19. Adsorption and separation of propane and propylene by porous hexacyanometallates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autie-Castro, G.; Autie, M.; Reguera, E.; Moreno-Tost, R.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.; Jimenez-Lopez, A.; Santamaria-Gonzalez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The separation capability for mixtures of propane and propylene by porous frameworks representatives of transition metal hexacyanometallates was studied from adsorption data under equilibrium conditions at 273.15 K and from inverse gas chromatography profiles at different column temperatures. Samples of two porous solids were considered; Cd 3 [Co(CN) 6 ] 2 , which is representative of Prussian blue analogues (cubic structure) with a porous framework related to vacancies for building block, and Zn 3 [Co(CN) 6 ] 2 (rhombohedral phase) where the porous framework results from the tetrahedral coordination for the Zn atoms. The two materials were found to be able for the mixtures separation, with the highest separation ability for the rhombohedral phase under equilibrium conditions but, in dynamic conditions the cubic one shown a better separation, which was ascribed to a kinetic contribution related to a smaller windows size.

  20. Polymeric membranes containing silver salts for propylene/propane separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Pollo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of olefin/paraffin mixtures is one of the most important processes of the chemical industry. This separation is typically carried out by distillation, which is an energy and capital intensive process. One promising alternative is the use of facilitated transport membranes, which contain specific carrier agents in the polymer matrix that interact reversibly with the double bond in the olefin molecule, promoting the simultaneous increase of its permeability and selectivity. In this study, polyurethane (PU membranes were prepared using two different silver salts (triflate and hexafluorantimonate. The membranes were structurally characterized and their performance for the separation of propylene/propane mixtures was evaluated. The results of the characterization analyses indicated that the triflate salt was the most efficient carrier agent. The membranes containing this salt showed the best performance, reaching an ideal selectivity of 10 and propylene permeability of 188 Barrer.

  1. Adsorption and separation of propane and propylene by porous hexacyanometallates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autie-Castro, G. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Autie, M. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Centro de Ingenieria y Proyectos (CIPRO), ISPJAE, La Habana (Cuba); Reguera, E., E-mail: ereguera@yahoo.com [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Unidad Legaria, Mexico DF (Mexico); Moreno-Tost, R.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.; Jimenez-Lopez, A.; Santamaria-Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    The separation capability for mixtures of propane and propylene by porous frameworks representatives of transition metal hexacyanometallates was studied from adsorption data under equilibrium conditions at 273.15 K and from inverse gas chromatography profiles at different column temperatures. Samples of two porous solids were considered; Cd{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2}, which is representative of Prussian blue analogues (cubic structure) with a porous framework related to vacancies for building block, and Zn{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} (rhombohedral phase) where the porous framework results from the tetrahedral coordination for the Zn atoms. The two materials were found to be able for the mixtures separation, with the highest separation ability for the rhombohedral phase under equilibrium conditions but, in dynamic conditions the cubic one shown a better separation, which was ascribed to a kinetic contribution related to a smaller windows size.

  2. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  3. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    The (p, {rho}, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK {<=} (T - T{sub c}) {<=} 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m{sup -3} {<=} ({rho} - {rho}{sub c}) {<=} 6 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T{sub c}, {rho}{sub c}, and p{sub c} was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  4. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T.; Uematsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK ≤ (T - T c ) ≤ 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m -3 ≤ (ρ - ρ c ) ≤ 6 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T c , ρ c , and p c was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  5. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, G.J.; Mamora, D.D. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory experiments have been conducted at Texas A and M University to examine the use of steam additives such as propane, methane and nitrogen to improve the production of heavy oils and increase steam recovery efficiency. In particular, the use of steam-propane injection for heavy Hamaca crude oil with API gravity of 9.3 and viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50 degrees C was examined. Experimental runs involved the injection of steam or propane into injection cells at a constant rate, temperature and cell outlet pressure. The experimental results suggest that the use of steam-propane injection may translate to reduction of fuel costs for field injections. Initially, propane-steam injection resulted in a two-month oil production acceleration compared to pure steam injection. A significant gain in discounted revenue and savings in steam injection costs could be realized. The study also showed the oil product rate peak with steam-propane injection was much higher than that with pure steam injection. The oil production acceleration increases with increasing propane content. Oil recovery at the end of a five-year forecast period increases by 6.7 per cent of original oil in place (OOIP) compared to 2.3 per cent OOIP with pure steam injection. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 28 figs.

  6. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    Propane has been a proven fuel for buses for decades. For the first time in 2007, Blue Bird rolled out a propane school bus using direct liquid injection, which was later followed by Thomas Built Buses and Navistar. Because this new technology is much more reliable than previous designs, it is essentially reintroducing propane buses to many school districts. During this same time period, vehicle emissions standards have tightened. To meet them, diesel engine manufacturers have added diesel particulate filters (DPF) and, more recently, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. As an alternative to diesel buses with these systems, many school districts have looked to other affordable, clean alternatives, and they've found that propane fits the bill.

  7. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Scott; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane

  8. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. According to program instructions and at the discretion of the USDOE, we conducted four additional propane surveys on January 11 and 25, and April 5 and 19, 1993. The heating oil surveys began on October 5, 1992 and ended on March 15, 1993. The propane surveys began on October 5, 1992 and ended on April 19, 1993. We submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates

  9. Iowa state heating oil and propane program: 1996--1997 winter heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the Iowa State Heating Oil and Propane Program is to develop a state-level, company-specific data collection effort so that retail price information on fuel oil and propane is collected by the staff of the Iowa Department of Natural Resources during the winter heating season. The second objective is to provide specific volume and retail price information to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration on No. 2 heating oil and propane on a semi-monthly basis. This report summarizes the results of the residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) price survey over the 1996--1997 winter heating season in Iowa. The Iowa Department of Natural Resources conducted the survey under a cooperative financial assistance grant with the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA)

  10. Desorption of acetone from alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolite after propane selective oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Mojet, Barbara; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    The desorption of products from a series of alkaline-earth exchanged Y zeolites after room-temperature propane selective oxidation was investigated by in situ infrared and mass spectroscopy. The intermediate product, isopropylhydroperoxide (IHP), did not desorb during

  11. Effective separation of propylene/propane binary mixtures by ZIF-8 membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang; Li, Tao; Lestari, Gabriella; Lai, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    The separation of propylene/propane mixtures is one of the most important but challenging processes in the petrochemical industry. A novel zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) membrane prepared by a facile hydrothermal seeded growth method showed

  12. Performance of 6FDA–6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses the challenges faced by previous researchers with 6FDA-6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations due to plasticization. A study of film annealing temperature is reported to optimize plasticization suppression in elevated

  13. Mutagenic activity of halogenated propanes and propenes: effect of bromine and chlorine positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låg, M; Omichinski, J G; Dybing, E; Nelson, S D; Søderlund, E J

    1994-10-01

    A series of halogenated propanes and propenes were studied for mutagenic effects in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in the absence or presence of NADPH plus liver microsomes from phenobarbital-induced rats as an exogenous metabolism system. The cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the halogenated propane 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) has previously been studied in our laboratories. These studies showed that metabolic activation of DBCP was required to exert its detrimental effects. All of the trihalogenated propane analogues were mutagenic when the microsomal activation system was included. The highest mutagenic activity was obtained with 1,2,3-tribromopropane, with approximately 50-fold higher activity than the least mutagenic trihalogenated propane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The order of mutagenicity was as follows: 1,2,3-tribromopropane > or = 1,2-dibromo- 3-chloropropane > 1,3-dibromo-2-chloropropane > or = 1,3-dichloro-2-bromopropane > 1-bromo-2,3-dichloropropane > 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Compared to DBCP, the dihalogenated propanes were substantially less mutagenic. Only 1,2-dibromopropane was mutagenic and its mutagenic potential was approximately 1/30 of that of DBCP. In contrast to DBCP, 1,2-dibromopropane showed similar mutagenic activity with and without the addition of an activation system. The halogenated propenes 2,3-dibromopropene and 2-bromo-3-chloropropene were mutagenic to the bacteria both in the absence and presence of the activation system, whereas 2,3-dichloropropene did not show any mutagenic effect. The large differences in mutagenic potential between the various halogenated propanes and propenes are proposed to be due to the formation of different possible proximate and ultimate mutagenic metabolites resulting from the microsomal metabolism of the various halogenated propanes and propenes, and to differences in the rate of formation of the metabolites. Pathways are proposed for the formation of genotoxic metabolites of di- and trihalogenated

  14. School Districts Move to the Head of the Class with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-12

    School districts across the country are under pressure to reduce their cost of operations and ensure their budgets are spent wisely. School bus fleets operate more than 675,000 buses in the United States, and many school districts have found the answer to their budget woes in the form of propane, or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Propane is a reliable, domestic fuel, and it's used in approximately 2% of school buses nationwide.

  15. High rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane, ethane and propane coupled to thiosulphate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Zuluaga, Diego A; Weijma, Jan; Timmers, Peer H A; Buisman, Cees J N

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction and the use of ethane and propane as electron donors by sulphate-reducing bacteria represent new opportunities for the treatment of streams contaminated with sulphur oxyanions. However, growth of microbial sulphate-reducing populations with methane, propane or butane is extremely slow, which hampers research and development of bioprocesses based on these conversions. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that the growth rate with possible alternative terminal electron acceptors such as thiosulphate and elemental sulphur may be higher, which would facilitate future research. Here, we investigate the use of these electron acceptors for oxidation of methane, ethane and propane, with marine sediment as inoculum. Mixed marine sediments originating from Aarhus Bay (Denmark) and Eckernförde Bay (Germany) were cultivated anaerobically at a pH between 7.2 and 7.8 and a temperature of 15 °C in the presence of methane, ethane and propane and various sulphur electron acceptors. The sulphide production rates in the conditions with methane, ethane and propane with sulphate were respectively 2.3, 2.2 and 1.8 μmol S L(-1) day(-1). For sulphur, no reduction was demonstrated. For thiosulphate, the sulphide production rates were up to 50 times higher compared to those of sulphate, with 86.2, 90.7 and 108.1 μmol S L(-1) day(-1) for methane, ethane and propane respectively. This sulphide production was partly due to disproportionation, 50 % for ethane but only 7 and 14 % for methane and propane respectively. The oxidation of the alkanes in the presence of thiosulphate was confirmed by carbon dioxide production. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of thiosulphate use as electron acceptor with ethane and propane as electron donors. Additionally, these results indicate that thiosulphate is a promising electron acceptor to increase start-up rates for sulphate-reducing bioprocesses coupled to short-chain alkane oxidation.

  16. Theoretical Study of Palladium Membrane Reactor Performance During Propane Dehydrogenation Using CFD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ghasemzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a 2D-axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD model to investigate the performance Pd membrane reactor (MR during propane dehydrogenation process for hydrogen production. The proposed CFD model provided the local information of temperature and component concentration for the driving force analysis. After investigation of mesh independency of CFD model, the validation of CFD model results was carried out by other modeling data and a good agreement between CFD model results and theoretical data was achieved. Indeed, in the present model, a tubular reactor with length of 150 mm was considered, in which the Pt-Sn-K/Al2O3 as catalyst were filled in reaction zone. Hence, the effects of the important operating parameter (reaction temperature on the performances of membrane reactor (MR were studied in terms of propane conversion and hydrogen yield. The CFD results showed that the suggested MR system during propane dehydrogenation reaction presents higher performance with respect to once obtained in the conventional reactor (CR. In particular, by applying Pd membrane, was found that propane conversion can be increased from 41% to 49%. Moreover, the highest value of propane conversion (X = 91% was reached in case of Pd-Ag MR. It was also established that the feed flow rate of the MR is to be the one of the most important factors defining efficiency of the propane dehydrogenation process.

  17. Novel Acetone Metabolism in a Propane-Utilizing Bacterium, Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the propane-utilizing bacterium Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, propane was shown to be oxidized to 2-propanol and then further oxidized to acetone. In this study, the subsequent metabolism of acetone was studied. Acetone-induced proteins were found in extracts of cells induced by acetone, and a gene cluster designated acmAB was cloned on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of acetone-induced proteins. The acmA and acmB genes encode a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) and esterase, respectively. The BVMO encoded by acmA was purified from acetone-induced cells of Gordonia sp. strain TY-5 and characterized. The BVMO exhibited NADPH-dependent oxidation activity for linear ketones (C3 to C10) and cyclic ketones (C4 to C8). Escherichia coli expressing the acmA gene oxidized acetone to methyl acetate, and E. coli expressing the acmB gene hydrolyzed methyl acetate. Northern blot analyses revealed that polycistronic transcription of the acmAB gene cluster was induced by propane, 2-propanol, and acetone. These results indicate that the acmAB gene products play an important role in the metabolism of acetone derived from propane oxidation and clarify the propane metabolism pathway of strain TY-5 (propane → 2-propanol → acetone → methyl acetate → acetic acid + methanol). This paper provides the first evidence for BVMO-dependent acetone metabolism. PMID:17071761

  18. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  19. Radiolytic oxidation of propane: Computer modeling of the reaction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash K.; Hanrahan, Robert J.

    The oxidation of gaseous propane under gamma radiolysis was studied at 100 torr pressure and 25°C, at oxygen pressures from 1 to 15 torr. Major oxygen-containing products and their G-values with 10% added oxygen are as follows: acetone, 0.98; i-propyl alcohol, 0.86; propionaldehyde, 0.43; n-propyl alcohol, 0.11; acrolein, 0.14; and allyl alcohol, 0.038. Minor products include i-butyl alcohol, t-amyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, n-amyl alcohol, and i-amyl alcohol. Small yields of i-hexyl alcohol and n-hexyl alcohol were also observed. There was no apparent difference in the G-values at pressures of 50, 100 and 150 torr. When the oxygen concentration was decreased below 5%, the yields of acetone, i-propyl alcohol, and n-propyl alcohol increased, the propionaldehyde yield decreased, and the yields of other products remained constant. The formation of major oxygen-containing products was explained on the basis that the alkyl radicals combine with molecular oxygen to give peroxyl radicals; the peroxyl radicals react with one another to give alkoxyl radicals, which in turn react with one another to form carbonyl compounds and alcohols. The reaction scheme for the formation of major products was examined using computer modeling based on a mechanism involving 28 reactions. Yields could be brought into agreement with the data within experimental error in nearly all cases.

  20. Environmental hazards due to rupture of a liquefied propane pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, O.A.; El-Sheikh, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Accidental leakages of liquefied propane from high-pressure pipelines may occur despite the use of sophisticated safety equipment and following strict monitoring procedures. Environmental impact of steady and transient leakages were considered from toxicity and flammability viewpoints for two specific scenarios of full pipe ruptures. For each case, calculated mass flow rate, velocity, and temperature of leaking gas were utilized in an EPA-based dispersion model to predict the ground level concentration profiles in the downwind and crosswind directions. For the specific pipeline conditions considered here, the first scenario of a nonjet release (a cloud) produced steady toxic and flammable zones which were about 20 times bigger than those produced in the transient case. The second scenario of a free vertical jet resulted in the formation of a flammable vertical plume, while at ground level it did not produce flammable nor toxic zones. A parametric study of the first scenario confirmed the expected effects of both the gas release time and the atmospheric stability on the size of the dangerous zones. Within the typical range, the wind speed was found to have opposite effects for steady and transient releases. For a steady release, the dangerous zone was wider for slower winds and vice versa for a transient case. Moreover, the size of the dangerous zone was found to be an exponential function of the pipe diameter, while the effect of the initial pipe pressure was insignificant

  1. Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.

  2. Study of propane partial oxidation on vanadium-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komashko, G.A.; Khalamejda, S.V.; Zazhigalov, V.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    The present results indicate that maximum selectivity to acrylic acid can be reached over V-P-Zr-O catalysts. When the hydrocarbon concentration is 5.1 vol.% the selectivity is about 30% at quite high paraffin conversion. Conclusively, some explanations to the observed facts can be given. The V-P-O catalyst promotion with lanthanum by means of mechanochemical treatment is distinguished by the additive uniform spreading all over the matrix surface. Such twophase system is highly active in propane conversion (lanthanum oxide) and further oxidation of the desired products. The similar properties are attributed to V-P-Bi-La-O catalyst. Bismuth, tellurium and zirconium additives having clearly defined acidic properties provoke the surface acidity strengthening and make easier desorption of the acidic product (acrylic acid) from the surface lowering its further oxidation. Additionally, since bismuth and zirconium are able to form phosphates and, according to, to create space limitations for the paraffin molecule movement out of the active group boundaries, this can be one more support in favour of the selectivity increase. With this point of view very interesting results were obtained. It has been shown that the more limited the size of the vanadium unit, the higher the selectivity is. Monoclinic phase AV{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 10} which consists in clusters of four vanadium atoms is sensibly more reactive than the orthorhombic phase consists in V{sub {infinity}} infinite chains. (orig.)

  3. Twiny pro: 5.1 kg of propane dressed in apple green; Twiny pro: 5.1 kg de propane en habillage vert pomme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-05-01

    Designed for professional and outdoors uses, Twini Pro - the new Primagaz 5.1 kg propane cylinder - is a complement to the Twiny butane 6 kg cylinder was launched during the first week of March in some 2,500 outlets, before 5,000 and 7,000 points later

  4. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  5. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  6. Vibration analysis of the synchronous motor of a propane compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, D.; Rangel Junior, J. de S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: diananogueira@petrobras.com.br, joilson_jr@petrobras.com.br; Moreira, R.G. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - PETROBRAS, Cabiunas, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ricgmoreira@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims at describing the Analysis of a synchronous electric motor which presented high vibration levels (shaft displacement and bearing housing vibration) during the commissioning process, as well as propose the best practices for the solution of vibration problems in similar situations. This motor belongs to the propane centrifugal compressor installed at a Gas Compression Station. The methodology used in this study conducted an investigation of the problems presented in the motor through the execution of many types of tests and the analysis of the results. The main evaluations were performed, such as the vibration analysis and the rotor dynamic analysis. The electric motor was shipped back to the manufacturer's shop, where the manufacturer made certain modifications to the motor structure so as to improve the structure stiffness, such as the improvement of the support and the increase of the thickness of the structural plates. In addition to that, the dynamic balancing of the rotating set was checked. Finally, the excitation at a critical speed close to the rated speed was found after Rotor Dynamics Analysis was performed again, because of the increase in bearing clearances. The bearing shells were replaced so as to increase the separation margin between these frequencies. In order to verify the final condition of the motor, the manufacturer repeated the standard tests - FAT (Factory Acceptance Tests) - according to internal procedure and international standards. As a result of this work, it was possible to conclude that there was a significant increase in the vibration levels due to unbalance conditions. It was also possible to conclude that there are close relationships between high vibration levels and unbalance conditions, as well as between high vibration levels and the stiffness of the system and its support. Certain points of attention related to the manufacturing process of the motor compressor are described at the end of this paper, based

  7. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  8. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  9. No. 2 heating oil/propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBrien, J.

    1995-05-01

    During the 1994--95 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1994 through March 1995. This program augmented the existing Massachusetts data collection system and served several important functions. The information helped the federal and state governments respond to consumer, congressional and media inquiries regarding No. 2 oil and propane. The information also provided policy decision-makers with timely, accurate and consistent data to monitor current heating oil and propane markets and develop appropriate state responses when necessary. In addition, the communication network between states and the DOE was strengthened through this program. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events that had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1994--95 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER's use of the data

  10. Potassium effects on kinetics of propane oxydehydrogenation on vanadia-titania catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, R.; Samson, K.

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODH) over V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 and V 2 O 5 /TiO 2 doped with K was carried out by measuring conversions and selectiveness for various feed compositions, contact times and temperatures. The results obtained for both catalysts were interpreted on the basis of the mechanism, in which propene is formed through Eley-Rideal sequence of steps, i.e. without participation of the adsorbed propane species. Kinetic constants (activation energies, pre-exponential factors) for the model of ODH reaction of propane on these catalysts, obtained on the basis of steady-state results, are given. Addition of K to vanadia-titania catalysts leads to decrease of total combustion of propane and consecutive combustion of propene. It has been found that the direct propane total oxidation is 5 - 9 times lower than that of the consecutive propene oxidation and is almost temperature independent for potassium doped catalyst, whereas it quickly decreases with temperature for a non-doped catalyst. Secondly, the addition of K to a vanadia-titania catalyst decreases the activation energies for propene formation (k 1 ), parallel formation of CO x (k 3 ) and reoxidation of the catalyst (k os ). Potassium exhibits a stronger inhibitory effect on the secondary propene combustion, what reflects the lower activity of V 5+ cations modified by the strongly basic alkali oxide species. (author)

  11. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1996--1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunton, G.

    1997-01-01

    The following is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor's Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1996-97 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. SHOPP was initiated in response to congressional inquires into supply difficulties and price spikes of heating oil and propane associated with the winter of 1989/90. This is important to New Hampshire because heating oil controls over 55% of the residential heating market statewide. Propane controls 10% of the heating market statewide and is widely used in rural areas where Natural GAs is not available. Lower installation cost, convenience, lower operating costs compared to electricity and its perception as a clean heating fuel has increased the popularity of propane in New Hampshire and should continue to do so in the future. Any disruption in supply of these heating fuels to New Hampshire could cause prices to skyrocket and leave many residents in the cold

  12. Microwave Spectrum and Structure of the Methane-Propane Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen I.; Lin, Wei; Arsenault, Eric A.; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Novick, Stewart E.

    2017-06-01

    Methane is exceptional in its solid-phase orientational disorder that persists down to 24 K. Only below that temperature does the structure become partially ordered, and full crystallinity requires even lower temperatures and high pressures. Not surprisingly, methane appears to freely rotate in most van der Waals complexes, although two notable exceptions are CH_4-HF and CH_4-C_5H_5N. Of interest to us is how alkane interactions affect the methane rotation. Except for CH_4-CH_4, rotationally-resolved spectra of alkane-alkane complexes have not been studied. To fill this void, we present the microwave spectrum of CH_4-C_3H_8 which is the smallest alkane complex with a practical dipole moment. The microwave spectrum of CH_4-C_3H_8 was measured using the Fourier Transform microwave spectrometer at Wesleyan University. In the region between 7100 and 25300 MHz, we observed approximately 70 transitions that could plausibly be attributed to the CH_4-C_3H_8 complex (requiring high power and the proper mixture of gases). Of these, 16 were assigned to the A-state (lowest internal rotor state of methane) and four to the F-state. The A-state transitions were fitted with a Watson Hamiltonian using nine spectroscopic constants of which A = 7553.8144(97) MHz, B = 2483.9183(35) MHz, and C = 2041.8630(21) MHz. The A rotational constant is only 1.5 MHz higher than that of Ar-C_3H_8 and, since the a-axis of the complex passes approximately through the centers of mass of the subunits, this indicates a similar relative orientation. Thus, we find that the CH_4 is located above the plane of the propane. The center-of-mass separation of the subunits in CH_4-C_3H_8 is calculated to be 3.993 Å, 0.16 Å longer than the Ar-C_3H_8 distance of 3.825 Å, a reasonable difference considering the larger van der Waals radius of CH_4. The four F-state lines, which were about twice as strong as the A-state lines, could be fitted to A, B, and C rotational constants, and further analysis is in progress.

  13. Production acceleration and injectivity enhancement using steam-propane injection for Hamaca extra-heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, J. A.; Mamora, D. D. [Texas A and M University, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The possibility of enhanced recovery in the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela, the world's largest known hydrocarbon deposit, by using propane as a steam additive, is discussed. In a laboratory study the steam-propane injection accelerated the start of oil production by 21 per cent, compared to production with steam alone. The experiments illustrated that the inclusion of even small amounts of propane has considerable beneficial effect on the rate of bitumen production. Even though total bitumen recovery and ultimate residual oil saturation did not change, the acceleration of bitumen recovery is considered to have a significant impact on the net present value of the recovery process. 17 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs.

  14. Differential Thermal Analysis and Dielectric Studies on 2-Methyl-2-Nitro-Propane under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsing, D.; Jenau, M.; Reuter, J.; Würflinger, A.; Tamarit, J. Li.

    1995-05-01

    Differential thermal analysis and dielectric studies under pressures up to 300 MPa and temperatures of about 200 to 350 K have been performed on 2-methyl-2-nitro-propane (TBN). TBN displays an orientationally disordered phase (ODIC), solid I, and two non-plastic phases, solids II and III. The coexistence region of the plastic phase I increases with increasing pressure, whereas the low-temperature phase II apparently vanishes at a triple point I, II, III, above 300 MPa. The static permittivity increases on freezing, characterizing the solid I as an ODIC phase. In the frame of the Kirkwood-Onsager-Fröhlich theory the g-factor is about unity, discounting specific dielectric correlations. The dielectric behaviour of TBN is similar to previously studied related compounds, such as 2-chloro-2-methyl-propane or 2-brome- 2-methyl-propane

  15. Effective separation of propylene/propane binary mixtures by ZIF-8 membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2012-02-01

    The separation of propylene/propane mixtures is one of the most important but challenging processes in the petrochemical industry. A novel zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) membrane prepared by a facile hydrothermal seeded growth method showed excellent separation performances for a wide range of propylene/propane mixtures. The membrane showed a permeability of propylene up to 200. barrers and a propylene to propane separation factor up to 50 at optimal separation conditions, well surpassing the "upper-bound trade-off" lines of existing polymer and carbon membranes. The experimental data also showed that the membranes had excellent reproducibility, long-term stability and thermal stability. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1993--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted twelve price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. According to program instructions and at the discretion of the USDOE, we conducted three additional propane surveys on January 31 and February 14 and 28, 1994. The surveys began on October 4, 1993 and ended on March 21, 1994. We submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates

  17. Dissociation behavior of pellet shaped mixed gas hydrate samples that contain propane as a guest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Taro; Sakamoto, Yasuhide; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Komai, Takeshi; Haneda, Hironori; Yoon, Ji-Ho; Ohga, Kotaro

    2006-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of mixed gas hydrates that contain propane as a guest molecule have been investigated. The mixed gas hydrates used in this work were artificially prepared using the binary gas mixture of methane-propane and the ternary gas mixture of methane-ethane-propane. The crystal structures and the guest compositions of the mixed hydrates were clearly identified by using Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The dissociation rates of the gas hydrates observed under several isothermal and isobaric conditions were discussed with an analytical model. The isobaric conditions were achieved by pressurizing with mixed gases using buffer cylinders, which had similar compositions to those of the initial gases used for synthesizing each hydrate sample. Interestingly, the calculated result agreed well with the experimentally observed results only when the composition of the vapor phase was assumed to be identical with that of the hydrate phase instead of the bulk (equilibrium) gas composition

  18. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1992/93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1993-05-01

    During the 1992--93 heating season, the Massachusetts Division Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1992 through March, 1993. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the petroleum markets prior to and during the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1992--93 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data.

  19. No. 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1990/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  20. Number 2 heating oil/propane program. Final report, 1991/92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1992-06-01

    During the 1991--92 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October, 1991 through March, 1992. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1991--1992 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states. Finally, the report outlines DOER`s use of the data and responses to the events which unfolded during the 1991--1992 heating season.

  1. Canada's future role as a propane supplier for the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.B.; Zittlau, W.T.

    In Canada, the fall of world crude oil prices that took hold at the beginning of 1986 coincided with the early stages of a long awaited program to dismantle the federal and provincial governments' regulatory framework for the industry. The momentum to deregulate has continued with the industry's support and most recently was manifested by the signing of The Canada-US Free Trade Agreement. Canada has historically been the major supplier of imported propane to the US market. This paper presents one producer and marketer's appraisal of the role Canada is likely to play in meeting US propane shortfalls through the 1990s. Canadian natural gas production will expand considerably during the 1990s to meet a modest expandion of domestic demand and in response to the growing opportunities of the US export market. Current forecasts suggest that gas exports to the US will increase from just under the 1 Tcf level achieved in 1987 to the 1.8 Tcf range by 1995/2000, thus pushing total sales of Canadian gas to 4.3 Tcf by 2000. The other factor to be considered when forecasting propane production from natural gas streams is the liquids content of the gas. Canadian end-use markets for propane are similar to those in the US: residential and commercial space heating, crop drying, specialty industrial applications, transportations and petrochemicals. In addition, over the next five years growing volumes are expected to be used in miscible flood projects. The petrochemical sector accounts for the balance of final consumption of propane in Canada. Based on the foregoing supply/demand analysis the authors see Canadian propane surpluses growing from an estimated 50 thousand b/d achieved in 1987 to nearly 65 thousand b/d in the early 1990s.

  2. How propane supply and demand in North America affects prices in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.

    2000-01-01

    Total North American demand for propane in 1999 was estimated at 1,700 MBPD, of which 1,300 MBPD represents demand by the United States. World-wide demand is about 3,500 MBPD, Europe and the Mid East combined, and Asia, each accounting for 800 to 850 MBPD. The United States is able to supply about 1,000 MBPD of its own demand ; the rest comes from imports. Total imports make up about 12 per cent of the U.S. supply; in 1999 just over 80 per cent, or about 120 MBPD of the imported propane came from Canada. The volume of export from Canada to the United states is expected to rise to about 170 MBPD, or 86 per cent of the total domestic supply shortfall in 2000. Prices at Edmonton ranged between 35 cents per gallon in Jan 1997, to about 42 cents per gallon in January 2000; during much of this period (from July 1997 to July 1999) the price was below 30 cents per gallon and as low as about 15 cents per gallon in January 1999. The price differential between Edmonton and Conway (the receiving point in the United States) was an average of 6 cents (US) per gallon. Total U.S. propane inventories during the same period and propane inventories against heating degree days and Conway propane prices are also shown in graphic form. The various graphs illustrate that in general, the price of propane at any given time is heavily influenced by the price of crude oil, however, in the short term competing fuels, weather conditions and inventory levels also play a part in determining prices. With regard to the future, a bullish outlook envisages flat to current prices, whereas a bearish outlook forecasts lower prices due to softening of the world economy, high U.S. and Canadian inventories, and the possibility of another warm winter. 18 viewgraphs

  3. A Study on the Kinetics of Propane-Activated Carbon: Theory and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar bin

    2013-08-01

    Experimental kinetics results of propane in Maxsorb III activated carbon is obtained at temperatures of 10°C and 30°C, and pressures up to 800kPa using a magnetic suspension balance. A multi-gradient linear driving force (LDF) approximation is used for adsorbate uptake as a function of time. The LDF mass-transfer-rate coefficients were thus determined. Using this approach, the experimentally derived LDF coefficients based on independently measured kinetic parameters for propane in the activated-carbon bed agree very well with experimental results. The computational efficiency is gained by adopting this extended LDF model. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  4. A Study on the Kinetics of Propane-Activated Carbon: Theory and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar bin; Loh, Wai Soong; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    Experimental kinetics results of propane in Maxsorb III activated carbon is obtained at temperatures of 10°C and 30°C, and pressures up to 800kPa using a magnetic suspension balance. A multi-gradient linear driving force (LDF) approximation is used for adsorbate uptake as a function of time. The LDF mass-transfer-rate coefficients were thus determined. Using this approach, the experimentally derived LDF coefficients based on independently measured kinetic parameters for propane in the activated-carbon bed agree very well with experimental results. The computational efficiency is gained by adopting this extended LDF model. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  5. State heating oil and propane program 1994--1995. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Board of Public Utilities (BPU), Division of Energy Planning and Conservation participated in an ongoing program to monitor retail prices of No. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, they conducted twelve price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary price information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. The surveys began on October 3, 1994 and ended on March 20, 1995. The authors submitted data collected as of specified report dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates

  6. State heating oil and propane program. Final report, 1995--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzolo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This reports documents the 1995-1996 United States Department of Energy (USDOE) program to monitor No. 2 heating oil and propane prices. Data reported encompass states that are heavily dependent on these products. Twelve surveys were conducted semimonthly to obtain the necessary price information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers. Surveys began on October 2, 1995 and ended on March 18, 1996. Responses were analyzed to avoid questionable prices. Tables and graphs included in the report reflect the general activity of the prices furnished during the surveys. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Field Demonstration of Propane Biosparging for In Situ Remediation of NNitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater. Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    fluidization pump, an influent distribution system and effluent/ biomass collection system, two biomass separators, 7,100 lbs of carbon media (coconut shell ...ratio of oxygen (O2) to propane (C3H8) for complete oxidation of propane to carbon dioxide (CO2; not accounting for microbial biomass incorporation

  8. Experimental analysis of the performance of an air-water heat pump designed for R22 working with propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, P.G.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.

    2001-01-01

    After describing the technical characteristics of a heat pump designed for R22, the changes necessary to fit the use of propane and the experimental set-up, in this article the research program on propane as refrigerant is presented, together with the experimental results of the chiller performance with R22 and R290 in cooling mode [it

  9. Conversion of chlorinated propanes by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing soluble methane monooxygenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T.; Janssen, D.B.

    Chlorinated propanes are important pollutants that may show persistent behaviour in the environment. The biotransformation of 1-chloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane was studied using resting cell suspensions of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing

  10. Speed of sound as a function of temperature and pressure for propane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, Francisco; Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New speed of sound data for six propane derivatives is reported. • Temperature and pressure ranges: (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa. • Data are compared with those available for other propane derivatives. • Temperature and pressure dependencies of sound speed are analyzed. - Abstract: The speed of sound in the temperature and pressure intervals (283.15–343.15) K and (0.1–95) MPa was measured for nitropropane, propionitrile, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, propylamine and propionic acid. An apparatus based on the acoustic wave time of flight determination, with a fully automatized temperature and pressure control, was used to this aim. The speed of sound derivatives against temperature and pressure, as well as the nonlinear acoustic coefficient was obtained from experimental values. The results are analyzed and compared with previously reported data for other propane derivatives: propane, 1-propanol, propanone, d-propanone, and several fluoropropanes. All obtained magnitudes are rationalized basing on the physicochemical properties of these fluids. Nearness to critical point and molar mass are revealed as key factors as regards the speed of sound behavior against temperature and pressure.

  11. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of elevated pressure on ethane and propane flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goswami, M.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Konnov, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Laminar burning velocities, SL, of ethane + air and propane + air flames within an equivalence ratio range between 0.8 and 1.3 were determined at atmospheric and elevated pressures up to 4 atm. Measurements were performed in non-stretched flames, stabilized on a perforated plate burner at adiabatic

  12. State heating oil and propane program: 1995-96 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a summary report of the New Hampshire Governor's Office of Energy and Community Services (ECS) participation in the State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) for the 1995/96 heating season. SHOPP is a cooperative effort, linking energy offices in East Coast and Midwest states, with the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the purpose of collecting retail price data for heating oil and propane. The program funded by the participating state with a matching grant from DOE. EIA provides ECS with a list of oil and propane retailers that serve customers in New Hampshire. In turn ECS conduct phone surveys twice per month from October through March to determine the average retail price for each fuel. Data collected by ECS is entered into the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO) and transmitted via modem to EIA. The results of the state retail price surveys along with wholesale prices, supply, production and stock levels for oil, and propane are published by EIA in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Data is also published electronically via the internet or through the Electronic Publication System

  13. Oxidative conversion of propane over lithium-promoted magnesia catalyst. I. Kinetics and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveles, L.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2003-01-01

    Oxidative conversion of lower alkanes over lithium-promoted magnesia catalysts offers a viable alternative for propene and ethene production. The catalytic performance of propane oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking shows yields up to 50% of olefin (propene and ethene). The reaction kinetics were

  14. Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane with K-MoO3/MgAl2O4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with potassium addition due to interaction with MoO3 sites. For this reason total ... in recent years.1–3 In ODH of propane reaction, there ... heptamolybdate (Merck), dissolved in water and Mg- .... Alkali metal promotion slows down the reduc-.

  15. Treatment of nuclear waste solutions using a new class of extractants: pentaalkyl propane diamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of bifunctional extractants pentaalkyl propane diamides is studied in order to extract trivalent cations (Am 3+ , Cm 3+ ...) and other actinides contained in waste solutions of nuclear industry. These solvents are completely incinerable and don't produce harmfull degradation products. Their main chemicals properties are reviewed. The results of a mixer-settler battery experiment are given

  16. Propan-1-ol Oxidation Reaction on Au/TiO 2 Catalysts | Nuhu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was further investigated using Pulse Flow reactor, TPFRP, TPD, and XRD,. The adsorption of propan-1-ol over TiO2 (P25) indicated a full monolayer with much of it in a dissociated state, forming propoxy group on the cationic site and hydroxyl group at anions. The propoxy is relatively stable until about 250oC, at which ...

  17. Discrepancy between simulated and observed ethane and propane levels explained by underestimated fossil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsøren, Stig B.; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Stohl, Andreas; Pisso, Ignacio; Schwietzke, Stefan; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Helmig, Detlev; Reimann, Stefan; Sauvage, Stéphane; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Read, Katie A.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Punjabi, Shalini; Wallasch, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Ethane and propane are the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. However, their emissions, atmospheric distribution, and trends in their atmospheric concentrations are insufficiently understood. Atmospheric model simulations using standard community emission inventories do not reproduce available measurements in the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we show that observations of pre-industrial and present-day ethane and propane can be reproduced in simulations with a detailed atmospheric chemistry transport model, provided that natural geologic emissions are taken into account and anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions are assumed to be two to three times higher than is indicated in current inventories. Accounting for these enhanced ethane and propane emissions results in simulated surface ozone concentrations that are 5-13% higher than previously assumed in some polluted regions in Asia. The improved correspondence with observed ethane and propane in model simulations with greater emissions suggests that the level of fossil (geologic + fossil fuel) methane emissions in current inventories may need re-evaluation.

  18. Surface Termination of M1 Phase and Rational Design of Propane Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliants, Vadim [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This final report describes major accomplishments in this research project which has demonstrated that the M1 phase is the only crystalline phase required for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile and that a surface monolayer terminating the ab planes of the M1 phase is responsible for their activity and selectivity in this reaction. Fundamental studies of the topmost surface chemistry and mechanism of propane ammoxidation over the Mo-V-(Te,Sb)-(Nb,Ta)-O M1 and M2 phases resulted in the development of quantitative understanding of the surface molecular structure – reactivity relationships for this unique catalytic system. These oxides possess unique catalytic properties among mixed metal oxides, because they selectively catalyze three alkane transformation reactions, namely propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile, propane oxidation to acrylic acid and ethane oxidative dehydrogenation, all of considerable economic significance. Therefore, the larger goal of this research was to expand this catalysis to other alkanes of commercial interest, and more broadly, demonstrate successful approaches to rational design of improved catalysts that can be applied to other selective (amm)oxidation processes.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming of propane and butane for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Xiaoti; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    /C) of 0.5–5 and O2/HC (hydrocarbon) ratio of 0–2.4. The simulations for the cracking and POX processes showed that olefins and acetylene can be easily generated through the cracking reactions and can be removed by adding an appropriate amount of oxygen. For SR and OSR of propane and butane, predicted...

  20. Isothermal vapour-liquid equilibria data of methanol + propan-2-OL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methylpropan-2-ol binary mixtures are investigated at 333.15k, using gas chromatographic technique. ... The y-x plots reveals that the mixtures methanol + propan-2-ol and methanol +2-methylpropan-2-ol deviate strongly from ideal solution behaviour.

  1. Operando Spectroscopy of the Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Propanal over Solid Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-giménez, Ana M.; Ruiz-martínez, Javier; Puértolas, Begoña; Pérez-ramírez, Javier; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-phase aldol condensation of propanal, taken as model for the aldehyde components in bio-oils, has been studied with a combined operando set-up allowing to perform FT-IR & UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with on-line mass spectrometry (MS). The selected solid base catalysts, a

  2. Oxidative Dehydrogenation and Ammoxidation of Ethane and Propane over Pentasil Ring Co-zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulánek, R.; Novoveská, K.; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 235, - (2002), s. 181-191 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/D073; GA ČR GA104/00/0640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : ethane * propane * ammoxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.915, year: 2002

  3. Growth potential in gas plant ethane production and the impact on propane import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In varying degrees in most ethylene plants, ethane and propane are used interchangeably as feedstocks. During the next five years, several new ethylene plants will be built in the Gulf Coast area. Most of these plants will be based on LPG feedstocks and will have some flexibility to operate with ethane and propane feedstocks. The completion of new ethylene plants will increase feedstock demand for ethane by 65--90 Mbpd by 1998 and by an additional 50--80 Mbpd by 2000. Thus, the availability of ethane will have a significant impact on Gulf Coast waterborne propane import requirements. Sustained growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability will effectively minimize waterborne propane import requirements for the next five to ten years. Petral Worldwide's approach to feedstock supply analysis highlights investment opportunities in domestic supply sources. Projects of these types will also limit a growth dependence on NGL feedstock supplies from politically unstable supply sources in North Africa and the Middle East. This paper examines the potential for growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability and the impact on Gulf Coast feedstock markets

  4. AC Response to Humidity and Propane of Sprayed Fe-Zn Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro AVILA-GARCÍA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron-zinc oxide films with different Zn contents were ultrasonically sprayed on glass substrates and inter-digital gold electrodes were evaporated upon them. Films were deposited from solutions containing 2, 10 and 30 at. % Zn. Hematite, amorphous and Franklinite structures turned out, respectively. They were assessed as humidity and propane detectors under alternating-current conditions for frequencies from 1 to 105 Hz and temperatures 30 and 250 oC. Their impedances in dry air, humid air and humid air plus propane were determined from voltage measurements with a Lock-In amplifier. Sensitivities to humidity (53 % RH. and 189, 500 and 786 ppm of propane from the response of the resistance, reactance and also the total impedance were determined as functions of frequency. The maximum sensitivity to humidity ranges from 24 % up to 308 %. For propane, the maximum sensitivity ranges from 45 % up to 711 %. The largest sensitivity values correspond in all cases to reactance. From the dynamical response, the response and recovery times are determined, along with the concentration-dependence of the sensitivity. The sensing mechanisms are commented.

  5. Experimental study of adiabatic cellular premixed flames of methane (ethane, propane) + oxygen + carbon dioxide mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnov, A.A.; Dyakov, I.V.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of adiabatic cellular flames of CH4 + O2 + CO2, C2H6 + O2 + CO2, and C3H8 + O2 + CO2 are presented. Visual and photographic observations of the flames were performed to quantify their cellular structure. Non-stretched flames of methane and propane were stabilized at atmospheric

  6. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    traps for the consumer market , which utilize the combustion of propane to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and other attractants. While these...Z. Abramsky, B.P. Kotler , R.S. Ostfeld, I.Yarom, and A.Warburg. 2003a. Anthropogenic disturbances enhance occurrence of cutaneous

  7. Development of packed bed membrane reactor for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotanjac, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    In this research, a reactor concept for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane was studied. First a literature survey was performed, to investigate which are the best catalyst systems and best operating conditions that result in the largest propylene yield. In the kinetic study of ODHP over a

  8. Stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The stepwise mechanism of oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over gallium-antimony oxide catalysts GaSb/sub 19/O/sub x/, GaSb/sub 3/Ni/sub 1.5/0/sub x/, and GaSb/sub 2.5/Ni/sub 1.5/PW/sub 0//sub 0.25/O/sub x/ was studied at 450/sup 0/ and 550/sup 0/C by introducing alternating pulses of 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/helium (to reduce the steady-state catalytic surface) and 0.5Vertical Bar3< propane/0.6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/1.86Vertical Bar3< oxygen/helium mixtures into a fluidized-bed catalytic reactor. Over all the catalysts studied, the rates of acrylonitrile formation during the two types of pulses were very similar, but carbon dioxide was formed much faster during the reducing pulses, particularly at 450/sup 0/C. These findings suggested that acrylonitrile is formed by a stepwise redox mechanism involving consecutive interaction of propane and ammonia with the surface oxygen of the catalysts and oxidation of the reduced catalyst surface by gas-phase oxygen. The formation of carbon dioxide proceeds by both stepwise and associative mechanisms, the latter being more important at higher temperatures. The results are similar to published results for ammoxidation of propylene and olefins.

  9. Zinc-substituted ZIF-67 nanocrystals and polycrystalline membranes for propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chongqing

    2016-09-09

    Continuous ZIF-67 polycrystalline membranes with effective propylene/propane separation performances were successfully fabricated through the incorporation of zinc ions into the ZIF-67 framework. The separation factor increases from 1.4 for the pure ZIF-67 membrane to 50.5 for the 90% zinc-substituted ZIF-67 membrane.

  10. Methane, Ethane, and Propane Sensor for Real-time Leak Detection and Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscioli, Joseph R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, Scott [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Nelson, David D. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Yacovitch, Tara [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The Phase I effort demonstrated the technical viability of a fast, sensitive, mobile hydrocarbon monitor. The instrument will enable the oil and gas industry, researchers, and regulators to rapidly identify and chemically profile leaks from facilities. This capability will allow operators to quickly narrow down and mitigate probable leaking equipment, minimizing product loss and penalties due to regulatory non-compliance. During the initial development phase, we demonstrated operation of a prototype monitor that is capable of measuring methane, ethane, and propane at sub-part-per-billion sensitivities in 1 second, using direct absorption infrared spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first instrument capable of fast propane measurements at atmospheric concentrations. In addition, the electrical requirements of the monitor have been reduced from the 1,200 W typical of a spectrometer, to <500 W, making it capable of being powered by a passenger vehicle, and easily deployed by the industry. The prototype monitor leverages recent advances in laser technology, using high-efficiency interband cascade lasers to access the 3 μm region of the mid-infrared, where the methane, ethane, and propane absorptions are strongest. Combined with established spectrometer technology, we have achieved precisions below 200 ppt for each compound. This allows the monitor to measure fast plumes from oil and gas facilities, as well as ambient background concentrations (typical ambient levels are 2 ppm, 1.5 ppb, and 0.7 ppb for methane, ethane and propane, respectively). Increases in instrument operating pressure were studied in order to allow for a smaller 125 W pump to be used, and passive cooling was explored to reduce the cooling load by almost 90% relative to active (refrigerated) cooling. In addition, the simulated infrared absorption profiles of ethane and propane were modified to minimize crosstalk between species, achieving <1% crosstalk between ethane and propane. Finally, a

  11. Membrane Modeling, Simulation and Optimization for Propylene/Propane Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    , product purity and the recovery ratio. These findings were utilized to develop simple and accurate empirical correlations to predict the attainability behavior in real membranes, which showed good agreement with experimental and simulation results for various applications. Furthermore, the attainability of the most promising two and three-stage membrane systems are discussed by considering the complete well mixed assumption. The same behaviors that describe single-stage attainability are also recognized for multiple-stages. This discussion leads to a major discovery regarding the nature of the relationship between the attainability parameters in a multiple-stage membrane system with that of a single-stage system. Study of the economics of the multiple-stage membrane process for propylene/propane separation identifies the technology as a potential alternative to the conventional distillation process, even at the existing membrane performance, but conditionally at low to moderate membrane cost and sufficient durability. To study the energy efficiency of membrane retrofitting to an existing distillation process, a shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane and distillation processes. It was discovered that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage, when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help to reduce the energy consumption; the higher the membrane selectivity the lower the energy requirement. The energy conservation is further improved as the pressure ratio increases. At the third stage, when both the selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit, resulting in a significant reduction in energy consumption

  12. Assessment of propane/commercial butane mixtures as possible alternatives to R134a in domestic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatouh, M.; El Kafafy, M.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrocarbon mixtures as working fluids to replace R134a in domestic refrigerators has been evaluated through a simulation analysis in the present work. The performance characteristics of domestic refrigerators were predicted over a wide range of evaporation temperatures (-35 to -10 o C) and condensation temperatures (40-60 deg. C) for various working fluids such as R134a, propane, commercial butane and propane/iso-butane/n-butane mixtures with various propane mass fractions. The performance characteristics of the considered domestic refrigerator were identified by the coefficient of performance (COP), volumetric cooling capacity, cooling capacity, condenser capacity, input power to compressor, discharge temperature, pressure ratio and refrigerant mass flow rate. The results showed that pure propane could not be used as a drop in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators because of its high operating pressures and low COP. Commercial butane yields many desirable characteristics but requires a compressor change. The coefficient of performance of the domestic refrigerator using a ternary hydrocarbon mixture with propane mass fractions from 0.5 to 0.7 is higher than that of R134a. Comparison among the considered working fluids confirmed that the average refrigerant mass flow rate of the propoane/commercial butane mixture is 50% lower than that of R134a. Also, the results indicated that R134a and the propoane/commercial butane mixture with 60% propane mass concentration have approximately the same values of saturation pressure, compressor discharge temperature, condenser heat load, input power, cooling capacity and volumetric cooling capacity. However, the pressure ratio of the hydrocarbon mixture with 60% propane is lower than that of R134a by about 11.1%. Finally, the reported results confirmed that the propane/iso-butane/n-butane mixture with 60% propane is the best drop in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators under normal

  13. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshid M. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the AuHAuCl4-Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst.

  14. Theoretical investigation of adiabatic capillary tubes working with propane/n-butane/iso-butane blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatouh, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to predict the refrigerant flow characteristics in adiabatic capillary tubes using propane/n-butane/iso-butane mixtures as working fluids in a domestic refrigerator. This model is based on the mass, energy and momentum conservation equations for a homogeneous refrigerant flow under different inlet conditions, such as subcooled, saturated and two phase flow. The effects of the inlet pressure (8-16 bar), inlet vapor quality (0.001-15%), inlet subcooling degree (1-15 o C), mass flow rate (1-5 kg/h), propane mass fraction (0.5-0.7), capillary tube inner diameter (0.6-1.0 mm) and the tube surface roughness on the capillary tube length are predicted. The results showed that the present model predicts data that are very close to the available experimental data in the literature with an average error of 2.65%. The pressure of the hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) decreases, while its vapor quality, specific volume and Mach number increase along the capillary tube. Also, the results indicated that the capillary tube length is largely dependent on the capillary tube diameter. Other parameters such as mass flow rate, inlet pressure, subcooling degree (or quality) and relative roughness influence the capillary tube length in that order. The capillary tube length as a function of the significant parameters is presented in equation form. Also, capillary tube selection charts either to predict the mass flow rates of propane/n-butane/iso-butane mixtures through adiabatic capillary tubes or to select the capillary tube size according to the required applications are developed. The comparison between R12, R134a and the hydrocarbon mixture (HCM) of propane/n-butane/iso-butane indicated that for a given mass flow rate, the pressure drop per unit length is about 4.13, 5.0 and 12.0 bar/m for R12, R134a and HCM, respectively. The ratios of the average mass flow rate of the HCM with a propane mass fraction of 0.6 to those of R12 and R134a are about

  15. Low temperature catalytic combustion of propane over Pt-based catalyst with inverse opal microstructure in microchannel reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, G.; Zapf, R.; Kolb, G.A.; Men, Y.; Hessel, V.; Löwe, H.; Ye, J.; Zentel, R.

    2007-01-01

    novel Pt-based catalyst with highly regular, periodic inverse opal microstructure was fabricated in a microchannel reactor, and catalytic testing revealed excellent conversion and stable activity for propane combustion at low temperatures

  16. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-21

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  17. Site-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Propane: Mass spectrometric methods, equilibrium temperature dependence, and kinetics of exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Ponton, C.; Kitchen, N.; Lloyd, M. K.; Lawson, M.; Formolo, M. J.; Eiler, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Intramolecular isotope ordering can constrain temperatures of synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and/or source substrates of organic compounds. Here we explore site-specific hydrogen isotope variations of propane. Statistical thermodynamic models predict that at equilibrium methylene hydrogen (-CH2-) in propane will be 10's of per mil higher in D/H ratio than methyl hydrogen (-CH3) at geologically relevant temperatures, and that this difference is highly temperature dependent ( 0.5-1 ‰/°C). Chemical-kinetic controls on site-specific D/H in propane could constrain the mechanisms, conditions and extents of propane synthesis or destruction. We have developed a method for measuring the difference in D/H ratio between methylene and methyl hydrogen in propane by gas source mass spectrometry. The data were measured using the Thermo Fisher Double Focusing Sector high resolution mass spectrometer (DFS), and involve comparison of the D/H ratios of molecular ion (C3H8+) and the ethyl fragmental ion (C2H5+). We demonstrate the accuracy and precision of this method through analysis of D-labeled and independently analyzed propanes. In the exchange experiments, propane was heated (100-200 oC) either alone or in the presence of D-enriched water (δD=1,1419 ‰ SMOW), with or without one of several potentially catalytic substrates for hours to weeks. Propane was found to exchange hydrogen with water vigorously at 200 °C in the presence of metal catalysts. In the presence of Ni catalyst, methylene hydrogen exchanges 2.5 times faster than methyl hydrogen. Hydrogen exchange in the presence of Pd catalyst is more effective and can equilibrate hydrogen isotope distribution on propane on the order of 7 days. Isotopic exchange in the presence of natural materials have also been tested, but is only measurable in the methylene group at 200 °C. High catalytic activity of Pd permits attainment of a bracketed, time-invariant equilibrium state that we use to calibrate the site

  18. Influence of promoters and oxidants on propane dehydrogenation over chromium-oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Shaporeva, N.Yu.; Trushin, D.V.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2010-12-30

    Possibilities for increasing the efficiency of supported on SiO{sub 2} chromium-oxide catalysts in propane oxidative dehydrogenation in CO{sub 2} presence are investigated: the introduction of Li, Na, K, Ca in catalysts and the addition of O{sub 2} in the reaction mixture. It was been found that the positive role of K - the increase of the selectivity to propene and stability of catalysts at long-duration tests - appeared at the relation of Cr:K=20. It was shown that the presence of little amount of O{sub 2} (2%) in the reaction mixtures of propane and carbon dioxide resulted in the increase of propene yield and catalyst stability. (orig.)

  19. High-Flux Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes for Propylene/Propane Separation by Postsynthetic Linker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Joo; Kwon, Hyuk Taek; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2018-01-02

    While zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-8, membranes show impressive propylene/propane separation, their throughput needs to be greatly improved for practical applications. A method is described that drastically reduces the effective thickness of ZIF-8 membranes, thereby substantially improving their propylene permeance (that is, flux). The new strategy is based on a controlled single-crystal to single-crystal linker exchange of 2-methylimidazole in ZIF-8 membrane grains with 2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde (ZIF-90 linker), thereby enlarging the effective aperture size of ZIF-8. The linker-exchanged ZIF-8 membranes showed a drastic increase in propylene permeance by about four times, with a negligible loss in propylene/propane separation factor when compared to as-prepared membranes. The linker-exchange effect depends on the membrane synthesis method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Observation of propane cluster size distributions during nucleation and growth in a Laval expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, Jorge J.; Chakrabarty, Satrajit; Schläppi, Bernhard; Signorell, Ruth [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-07

    We report on molecular-level studies of the condensation of propane gas and propane/ethane gas mixtures in the uniform (constant pressure and temperature) postnozzle flow of Laval expansions using soft single-photon ionization by vacuum ultraviolet light and mass spectrometric detection. The whole process, from the nucleation to the growth to molecular aggregates of sizes of several nanometers (∼5 nm), can be monitored at the molecular level with high time-resolution (∼3 μs) for a broad range of pressures and temperatures. For each time, pressure, and temperature, a whole mass spectrum is recorded, which allows one to determine the critical cluster size range for nucleation as well as the kinetics and mechanisms of cluster-size specific growth. The detailed information about the size, composition, and population of individual molecular clusters upon condensation provides unique experimental data for comparison with future molecular-level simulations.

  1. Distribution and origin of dissolved methane, ethane and propane in shallow groundwater of Lower Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloemer, S.; Elbracht, J.; Blumenberg, M.; Illing, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    More than 90% of Germany's domestic natural gas production and reserves are located in Lower Saxony, North Germany. Recently, research has been intensified with respect to unconventional shale gas, revealing a large additional resource potential in northern Germany. However, many concerns arise within the general public and government/political institutions over potential groundwater contamination from additional gas wells through hydraulic fracturing operations. In order to determine the naturally occurring background methane concentrations, ∼1000 groundwater wells, covering ∼48 000 km 2 , have been sampled and subsequently analyzed for dissolved methane, ethane and propane and the isotopic composition of methane (δ 13 C). Dissolved methane concentrations cover a range of ∼7 orders of magnitude between the limit of quantification at ∼20 nl/l and 60 ml/l. The majority of groundwater wells exhibit low concentrations (<1 μl/l), a small number of samples (65) reveal concentration in the range >10 ml/l. In 27% of all samples ethane and in 8% ethane and propane was detected. The median concentration of both components is generally very low (ethane 50 nl/l, propane 23 nl/l). Concentrations reveal a bimodal distribution of the dissolved gas, which might mirror a regional trend due to different hydrogeological settings. The isotopic composition of methane is normally distributed (mean ∼ −70‰ vs PDB), but shows a large variation between −110‰ and +20‰. Samples with δ 13 C values lower than −55‰ vs PDB (66%) are indicative for methanogenic biogenic processes. 5% of the samples are unusually enriched in 13 C (≥25‰ vs PDB) and can best be explained by microbial methane oxidation. According to a standard diagnostic diagram based on methane δ 13 C values and the ratio of methane over the sum over ethane plus propane (“Bernard”-diagram) less than 4% of the samples plot into the diagnostic field of typical thermogenic natural

  2. Method to obtain carbon nano-onions by pyrolisys of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Tomas; Rincon-Arevalo, Pedro; Campos-Martin, Gemma

    2013-11-01

    We present a new and simple method for carbon nano-onions (CNOs) production which is based on the pyrolysis of Propane. CNOs are originated in a laminar premixed Propane/Oxygen flame of approximately 1.8 of stoichiometric coefficient. The stream of gasses resulting from the combustion drives the carbon particles towards the aluminium surface on which nano-onions are deposited and collected. The structure and size of the deposited carbon onion on the metal wall are characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy technique (HRTEM). The experimental images show the presence of two different types of CNOs. The first particles have diameters in the range of 18-25 nm and the second ones around 10 nm.

  3. Computational fluid dynamic on the temperature simulation of air preheat effect combustion in propane turbulent flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwina; Yunardi; Bindar, Yazid

    2018-04-01

    this paper presents results obtained from the application of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.3 to modelling of temperature in propane flames with and without air preheat. The study focuses to investigate the effect of air preheat temperature on the temperature of the flame. A standard k-ε model and Eddy Dissipation model are utilized to represent the flow field and combustion of the flame being investigated, respectively. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data of propane flame taken from literature. The results of the study show that a combination of the standard k-ε turbulence model and eddy dissipation model is capable of producing reasonable predictions of temperature, particularly in axial profile of all three flames. Both experimental works and numerical simulation showed that increasing the temperature of the combustion air significantly increases the flame temperature.

  4. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs

  5. Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Near-Critical Propane Fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Agblevor, Foster A.

    2016-08-01

    Bio-oils produced by thermal process are promising sources of sustainable, low greenhouse gas alternative fuels. These thermal processes are also well suited to decentralized energy production due to low capital and operating costs. Algae feedstocks for bio-oil production are of particular interest, due in part to their high-energy growth yields. Further, algae can be grown in non-arable areas in fresh, brackish, salt water, or even waste water. Unfortunately, bio-oils produced by thermal processes present significant stability challenges. These oils have complex chemical compositions, are viscous, reactive, and thermally unstable. Further, the components within the oils are difficult to separate by fractional distillation. By far, the most effective separation and stabilization method has been solvent extraction. However, liquid phase extraction processes pose two main obstacles to commercialization; they require a significant amount of energy to remove and recover the solvent from the product, and they have a propensity for the solvent to become contaminated with minerals from the char and ash present in the original bio-oil. Separation and fractionation of thermally produced bio-oils using supercritical fluids (SCF) offers the advantages of liquid solvent extraction while drastically reducing energy demands and the predisposition to carry over solids into the extracted phase. SCFs are dense fluids with liquid-like solvent properties and gas-like transport properties. Further, SCF density and solvent strength can be tuned with minor adjustments in pressure, co-solvent addition, or gas anti-solvent addition. Catalytic pyrolysis oils were produced from Scenedesmus dimorphus algae using a fluid catalytic cracking catalyst. Bio-oil produced from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) was separated using critical fluids. Propane extraction was performed at 65 °C at a fluid reduced pressure of 2.0 (85 bar) using an eight to one solvent to feed ratio by weight. Extraction of

  6. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-08-20

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

  7. The flame structure in round and plane propane microjet combustion in a transverse acoustic field at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Grek, G. R.; Katasonov, M. M.; Korobeinichev, O. P.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Shmakov, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The results of experimental studies of the structure and features of flame evolution under propane combustion in round and plane microjet flows at low Reynolds numbers in a transverse acoustic field are discussed in this paper. The specific features of flame evolution under these conditions are shown. Based on the new information obtained on free microjet evolution, new phenomena in flame evolution in a transverse acoustic field with round and plane propane microjet combustion are discovered and explained.

  8. Electrochemical promotion of propane oxidation on Pt deposited on a dense β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eTsampas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of electrochemical catalyst based on a Pt porous catalyst film deposited on a β"-Al2O3 ceramic Ag+ conductor was developed and evaluated during propane oxidation. It was observed that upon anodic polarization, the rate of propane combustion was significantly electropromoted up to 400%. Moreover, for the first time, exponential increase of the catalytic rate was evidenced during galvanostatic transient experiment in excellent agreement with EPOC equation.

  9. Conversion of chlorinated propanes by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing soluble methane monooxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, T.; Janssen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Chlorinated propanes are important pollutants that may show persistent behaviour in the environment. The biotransformation of 1-chloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,3-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane was studied using resting cell suspensions of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressing soluble methane monooxygenase. The transformation followed first-order kinetics. The rate constants were in the order 1-chloropropane > 1,3-dichloropropane > 1,2-dichloropropane > 1,2,3-trichloropr...

  10. Dehydrogenation of propane in the presence of carbon dioxide over chromium and gallium oxides catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V.; Menshova, M.V.; Kunusova, R.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Effective chromium and gallium oxides supported catalysts were prepared and tested in longduration experiments for propane dehydrogenation in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The optimal concentrations of active metals were found. It was shown that the activity, selectivity and stability of chromium oxides catalysts were higher than these parameters for gallium ones. Mechanism of propane oxidative dehydrogenation was studied over both catalysts using unstationary and spectroscopic methods. The employment of these methods allowed to establish the differences in process mechanism. It was shown that surface hydroxides took participation in propene formation over Cr-catalysts and hydrides - over Ga-ones. Propane and carbon dioxide participated in the reaction from the adsorbed state over both catalysts but they were differed by the adsorption capacity of the reaction components: CO2 was tied more firmly than C{sub 3}H{sub 6} over both catalysts, CO{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} were tied more strongly with Cr-catalysts than with Ga-ones. It was shown that CO{sub 2} took active participation in reverse watergas shift reaction and in oxidation of catalyst surface over chromium oxides catalysts. The main role of CO{sub 2} in propane dehydrogenation over gallium catalysts consisted in a decrease of coke formation. Step-schemes of propene and cracking products formation were proposed on the basis of literature and obtained data: via the redox mechanism over Cr-catalysts and through a heterolytic dissociation reaction pathway over Ga-ones. (orig.)

  11. The preparation of 3-aminoxy-1-amino[1,1'-3H2]propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaskie, M.C.; Scholtz, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    3-Aminoxy-1-aminopropane (APA) has previously been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the polyamine biosynthesis enzymes ornithine decarboxylase, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, and spermidine synthase. Little information is known, however, regarding its mechanism of action, binding site mode(s), or cellular distribution. This report presents a relatively simple three step synthesis of 3-aminoxy-1-amino[1,1'- 3 H 2 ]propane via the catalytic tritiation of 3-aminoxypropionitrile hydrochloride. (author)

  12. Ion composition of a propane-butane-air flame at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, A.B.; Fialkov, B.S.

    1985-06-01

    Ion types and distributions are determined experimentally for propane-butane-air flames with excess oxidizer coefficients of 0.7-1.2 in the pressure range 4-65 KPa. It is shown that nonthermal ionization occurs not only in the known chemiionization zone (which practically coincides with the chemiluminescence zone) but also in the mixture preparation zone. A general mechanism for ion formation in the flame is proposed. 42 references.

  13. Selective bio-oxidation of propane to acetone using methane-oxidizing Methylomonas sp. DH-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Dong Hoon; Nguyen, Thu Thi; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2017-07-01

    Propane is the major component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Nowadays, the use of LPG is decreasing, and thus utilization of propane as a chemical feedstock is in need of development. An efficient biological conversion of propane to acetone using a methanotrophic whole cell as the biocatalyst was proposed and investigated. A bio-oxidation pathway of propane to acetone in Methylomonas sp. DH-1 was analyzed by gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing. Propane was oxidized to 2-propanol by particulate methane monooxygenase and subsequently to acetone by methanol dehydrogenases. Methylomonas sp. DH-1 was deficient in acetone-converting enzymes and thus accumulated acetone in the absence of any enzyme inhibition. The maximum accumulation, average productivity and specific productivity of acetone were 16.62 mM, 0.678 mM/h and 0.141 mmol/g cell/h, respectively, under the optimized conditions. Our study demonstrates a novel method for the bioconversion of propane to acetone using methanotrophs under mild reaction condition.

  14. Properties of flames propagating in rich propane-air mixtures at microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Pu, Y. K.; Jia, F.; Jarosinski, J.

    Under normal gravity conditions it was found that the rich flammability limits for propane-air mixture are 9 2 C 3 H 8 equivalence ratio phi 2 42 for upward and 6 3 C 3 H 8 phi 1 60 for downward propagating flames An extremely large concentration gap exists between these two limits which is attributed to the influence of buoyancy and preferential diffusion in the mixture The present study enables a better understanding of flame behaviors in rich propane-air mixtures through microgravity experiments in which flame propagation can be examined in the absence of buoyancy The experiments were carried out in a cubic closed vessel of 80 mm inner length made of quartz glass A high-speed camera recorded flame propagation in the combustion vessel while the pressure history was measured by a transducer to indicate corresponding changes in heat release rate and the temperature development was measured by a thermocouple During the microgravity experiments the vessel was located inside a drop tower assembly The experimental data were compared with similar experiments conducted under normal gravity The flame characteristics were investigated for mixture concentrations between 6 5 C 3 H 8 and 9 2 C 3 H 8 Reliable data related to laminar burning velocity and flame thickness were obtained Some new details of the flame propagation near rich flammability limits were deduced Comparative experiments revealed the influence of gravity on combustion processes of rich propane-air

  15. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics of Propane Hydrates in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Ru Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of both pure propane hydrates and the mixtures of hydrates and quartz sands were investigated by combustion experiments. The flame propagation, flame appearance, burning time and temperature in different hydrate layers were studied. For pure propane hydrate combustion, the initial flame falls in the “premixed” category. The flame propagates very rapidly, mainly as a result of burnt gas expansion. The flame finally self-extinguishes with some proportion of hydrates remaining unburned. For the hydrate-sand mixture combustion, the flame takes the form of many tiny discontinuous flames appearing and disappearing at different locations. The burn lasts for a much shorter amount of time than pure hydrate combustion. High porosity and high hydrate saturation is beneficial to the combustion. The hydrate combustion is the combustion of propane gas resulting from the dissociation of the hydrates. In both combustion test scenarios, the hydrate-dissociated water plays a key role in the fire extinction, because it is the main resistance that restrains the heat transfer from the flame to the hydrates and that prevents the hydrate-dissociated gas from releasing into the combustion zone.

  16. Saturated liquid densities of propane at T = (280 to 365) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Saturated liquid densities for propane were obtained by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer at T = (280, 300, 320, 340, 360, and 365) K. The mol-fraction purity of the propane used in the measurements was 0.99997. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, and density measurements were estimated to be less than ±3 mK, 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), and ±0.09%, respectively. For the determination of the saturation boundary at each temperature for propane, we measured the density data at intervals of about 20 kPa very close to the saturation boundary. After such measurements had been completed, the saturated liquid density data at each temperature were determined as the intersection between the isotherm and our previously determined vapour pressure value. The discrepancies between the three series in the present measurements, in which different sample fillings were used, were also confirmed to be sufficiently lower than the experimental uncertainty. The saturated liquid density correlation was also provided for the systematic comparisons between the present measurements and the literature data

  17. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995-1996 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan's Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply

  18. Effect of support on the activity of MoVCeZr catalyst for propane ammoxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita Ramli; Farinaa Md Jamil; Ishak Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide catalysts based on Mo-V have been known as the most active and selective in the ammoxidation of propane to ACN. A series of MoVCeZr (5 % wt/ wt) supported with MOR, TiO 2 and MgO have been prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method for propane ammoxidation reaction to ACN. The catalyst was calcined in a two step calcination process in static air between 350 - 600 degree Celsius for 10 hour. The surface area and pore size of these catalysts were measured using physical adsorption of nitrogen following Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET) equation. The textural and morphological of these catalysts were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The activities of all catalysts were tested using a fixed-bed reactor with online gas chromatography (GC) at 420 degree Celsius and atmospheric pressure in the presence of 0.5 ml catalyst with composition consisting of 5.8:7:17.4 (propane: ammonia: air) and helium as carrier to give a total flow of 120 ml. Result shows that MoVCeZr support gives a better conversion due to the surface area and pore size characteristic of the catalyst. (author)

  19. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, 'bulk' isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  20. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael; Eilers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, ‘bulk’ isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  1. Oxygen-assisted conversion of propane over metal and metal oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laate, Leiv

    2002-07-01

    An experimental set-up has been build and applied in activity/selectivity studies of the oxygen-assisted conversion of propane over metals and metal oxide catalysts. The apparatus has been used in order to achieve an improved understanding of the reactions between alkanes/alkenes and oxygen. Processes that have been studied arc the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over a VMgO catalyst and the selective combustion of hydrogen in the presence of hydrocarbons over Pt-based catalysts and metal oxide catalysts. From the experiments, the following conclusions are drawn: A study of the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane over a vanadium-magnesium-oxide catalyst confirmed that the main problem with this system is the lack of selectivity due to complete combustion. Selectivity to propene up to about 60% was obtained at 10% conversion at 500{sup o}C, but the selectivity decreased with increasing conversion. No oxygenates were detected, the only by- products were CO and CO{sub 2}. The selectivity to propene is a strong function of the conversion of propane. The reaction rate of propane was found to be 1.0 {+-} 0.1 order in propane and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 order in oxygen. The kinetic results are in agreement with a Mars van Krevelen mechanism with the activation of the hydrocarbons as the slow step. The rate of propene oxidation to CO{sub 2} was studied and found to be significantly higher than that of propane. Another possible process involves the simultaneous equilibrium dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes and combustion of the hydrogen formed to shift the equilibrium dehydrogenation reaction further to the product alkenes. A study of the selective combustion of hydrogen in the presence of propane/propene was found to be possible under certain reaction conditions over some metal oxide catalysts. In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}, unsupported Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZSM-5 show the ability to combust hydrogen in a gas mixture with propane and oxygen with good selectivity. Bi{sub 2

  2. Solubility and thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Siddiqui, Nasir A; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2015-12-01

    The solubilities of bioactive compound vanillin were measured in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures at T=(298-318)K and p=0.1 MPa. The experimental solubility of crystalline vanillin was determined and correlated with calculated solubility. The results showed good correlation of experimental solubilities of crystalline vanillin with calculated ones. The mole fraction solubility of crystalline vanillin was recorded highest in pure propane-1,2-diol (7.06×10(-2) at 298 K) and lowest in pure water (1.25×10(-3) at 298 K) over the entire temperature range investigated. Thermodynamic behavior of vanillin in various propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures was evaluated by Van't Hoff and Krug analysis. The results showed an endothermic, spontaneous and an entropy-driven dissolution of crystalline vanillin in all propane-1,2-diol+water cosolvent mixtures. Based on solubility data of this work, vanillin has been considered as soluble in water and freely soluble in propane-1,2-diol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Update from the Analysis of High Resolution Propane Spectra and the Interpretation of Titan's Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavans, V.; Nixon, C.; Hewagama, T.; Jennings, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Titan has an extremely thick atmosphere dominated by nitrogen, but includes a range of trace species such as hydrocarbons and nitriles. One such hydrocarbon is propane (C3H8). Propane has 21 active IR bands covering broad regions of the mid-infrared. Therefore, its ubiquitous signature may potentially mask weaker signatures of other undetected species with important roles in Titan's chemistry. Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Titan's atmosphere hint at the presence of such molecules. Unfortunately, C3H8 line atlases for the vibration bands V(sub 8), V(sub 21), V(sub 20), and V(sub 7) (869, 922, 1054, and 1157 per centimeter, respectively) are not currently available for subtracting the C3H8 signal to reveal, or constrain, the signature of underlying chemical species. Using spectra previously obtained by Jennings, D. E., et al. at the McMath-Pierce FTIR at Kitt Peak, AZ, as the source and automated analysis utilities developed for this application, we are compiling an atlas of spectroscopic parameters for propane that characterize the ro-vibrational transitions in the above bands. In this paper, we will discuss our efforts for inspecting and fitting the aforementioned bands, present updated results for spectroscopic parameters including absolute line intensities and transition frequencies in HITRAN and GEISA formats, and show how these optical constants will be used in searching for other trace chemical species in Titan's atmosphere. Our line atlas for the V(sub 21) band contains a total number of 2971 lines. The band integrated strength calculated for the V(sub 21) band is 1.003 per centimeter per (centimeter-atm).

  4. Effect of pressure on the transfer functions of premixed methane and propane swirl flames

    KAUST Repository

    Di Sabatino, Francesco

    2018-04-24

    This paper reports on the effect of pressure on the response of methane–air and propane–air swirl flames to acoustic excitation of the flow. These effects are analyzed on the basis of the flame transfer function (FTF) formalism, experimentally determined from velocity and global OH* chemiluminescence measurements at pressures up to 5 bar. In parallel, phase-locked images of OH* chemiluminescence are collected and analyzed in order to determine the associated flame dynamics. Flame transfer functions and visual flame dynamics at atmospheric pressure are found to be similar to previous studies with comparable experimental conditions. Regardless of pressure, propane flames exhibit a much larger FTF gain than methane flames. For both fuels, the effect of pressure primarily is to modify the gain response at the local maximum of the FTF, at a Strouhal number around 0.5 (176 Hz). For methane flames, this gain maximum increases monotonically with pressure, while for propane flames it increases from 1 to 3 bar and decreases from 3 to 5 bar. At this frequency and regardless of pressure, the flame motion is driven by flame vortex roll-up, suggesting that pressure affects the FTF by modifying the interaction of the flame with the vortex detached from the injector rim during a forcing period. The complex heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and combustion coupling in this configuration does not allow keeping the vortex properties constant when pressure is increased. However, the different trends of the FTF gain observed for methane and propane fuels with increasing pressure imply that intrinsic flame properties and fuel chemistry, and their variation with pressure, play an important role in controlling the response of these flames to acoustic forcing.

  5. Negative ion formation in dissociative electron attachment to selected halogen derivatives of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszczewska, W.; Kocísek, J.; Skalný, J.; Matejcík, V.; Matejcík, S.

    2008-11-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to halogenated derivatives of propane: 1-bromo-3-chloropropane, 2-bromo-1-chloropropane, 3-bromo-1,1,1-trichloropropane and 1,3-dibromo-1,1-difluoropropane was studied in the gas phase at ambient temperature using a high resolution crossed electron/molecule beams technique. The negative ions formed via DEA reaction were identified using mass spectrometric technique and the anion yields were measured in the electron energy range from 0 to 10 eV. The absolute partial cross sections for DEA to the molecules were estimated using the relative flow technique.

  6. Cationic Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and Dioleoyloxytrimethylammonium Propane Lipid Bilayers: Atomistic Insight for Structure and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, W.; Gurtovenko, A. A.; Vattulainen, I.

    2012-01-01

    We performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers consisting of a mixture of cationic dioleoyloxytrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) and zwitterionic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids at different DOTAP fractions. Our primary focus was the specific effects...... of unsaturated lipid chains on structural and dynamic properties of mixed cationic bilayers. The bilayer area, as well as the ordering of lipid tails, shows a pronounced nonmonotonic behavior when TAP lipid fraction increases. The minimum in area (maximum in ordering) was observed for a bilayer with TAP fraction...... lipids, which were found to form PC-PC and PC-TAP pairs, and the formation of lipid clusters....

  7. High Resolution Spectra of Carbon Monoxide, Propane and Ammonia for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher Andrew

    Spectroscopy is a critical tool for analyzing atmospheric data. Identification of atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure and the existence and concentrations of constituent gases via remote sensing techniques are only possible with spectroscopic data. These form the basis of model atmospheres which may be compared to observations to determine such parameters. To this end, this dissertation explores the spectroscopy of three molecules: ammonia, propane and carbon monoxide. Infrared spectra have been recorded for ammonia in the region 2400-9000 cm-1. These spectra were recorded at elevated temperatures (from 293-973 K) using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). Comparison between the spectra recorded at different temperatures yielded experimental lower state energies. These spectra resulted in the measurement of roughly 30000 lines and about 3000 quantum assignments. In addition spectra of propane were recorded at elevated temperatures (296-700 K) using an FTS. Atmospheres with high temperatures require molecular data at appropriate conditions. This dissertation describes collection of such data and the potential application to atmospheres in our solar system, such as auroral regions in Jupiter, to those of planets orbiting around other stars and cool sub-stellar objects known as brown dwarfs. The spectra of propane and ammonia provide the highest resolution and most complete experimental study of these gases in their respective spectral regions at elevated temperatures. Detection of ammonia in an exoplanet or detection of propane in the atmosphere of Jupiter will most likely rely on the work presented here. The best laboratory that we have to study atmospheres is our own planet. The same techniques that are applied to these alien atmospheres originated on Earth. As such it is appropriate to discuss remote sensing of our own atmosphere. This idea is explored through analysis of spectroscopic data recorded by an FTS on the Atmospheric Chemistry

  8. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  9. Select Components and Finish System Design of a Window Air Conditioner with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report describes the technical targets for developing a high efficiency window air conditioner (WAC) using propane (R-290). The baseline unit selected for this activity is a GE R-410A WAC. We established collaboration with a Chinese rotary compressor manufacturer, to select an R-290 compressor. We first modelled and calibrated the WAC system model using R-410A. Next, we applied the calibrated system model to design the R-290 WAC, and decided the strategies to reduce the system charge below 260 grams and achieve the capacity and efficiency targets.

  10. Pyrolysis of propane under vacuum carburizing conditions. An experimental and modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.U.; Bajohr, S.; Buchholz, D.; Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle, Engler Bunte Ring 1, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Minh, H.D.; Norinaga, K.; Janardhanan, V.M.; Tischer, S.; Deutschmann, O. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Propane has been pyrolyzed in a flow reactor system at different temperatures ranging from 640 C to 1010 C and at 8 mbar of partial pressure which are typical vacuum carburizing conditions for steel. Nitrogen was used as a carrier gas. The products of pyrolysis were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. The reactor was numerically simulated by 1D and 2D flow models coupled to a detailed gas phase reaction mechanism. The gas atmosphere composition has been predicted under the conditions of vacuum carburizing of steel. (author)

  11. Nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst GaSbNiPOx (1:3:1.5:1 atomic ratios of the elements) was studied by comparing the rate of this reaction at 550/sup 0/C and 5Vertical Bar3< by vol propane/6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/18.6Vertical Bar3< oxygen/70.4Vertical Bar3< helium reactant mixture with that of isobutane ammoxidation to methacrylonitrile under the same conditions, at low (Vertical Bar3; 20Vertical Bar3<) conversions that prevent secondary oxidation of the products. Both the over-all hydrocarbon conversion rate and that of nitrile formation were higher for propane, suggesting that the reactions proceed via the respective carbanions (probably primary carbanions), rather than carbocations or uncharged radicals.

  12. Analysis of tank safety with propane-butane on LPG distribution station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysiak Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the risk of failure in the safety valve – tank with propane-butane (LPG system has been conducted. An uncontrolled outflow of liquid LPG, caused by a failure of the above mentioned system has been considered as a threat. The main research goal of the study is the hazardous analysis of propane-butane gas outflow for the safety valve – LPG tank system. The additional goal is the development of an useful method to fast identify the hazard of a mismatched safety valve. The results of the research analysis have confirmed that safety valves are basic protection of the installation (tank against failures that can lead to loss of life, material damage and further undesired costs of their unreliability. That is why a new, professional computer program has been created that allows for the selection of safety valves or for the verification of a safety valve selection in installations where any technical or technological changes have been made.

  13. Performance of 6FDA–6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita

    2010-12-01

    This work addresses the challenges faced by previous researchers with 6FDA-6FpDA polyimide for propylene/propane separations due to plasticization. A study of film annealing temperature is reported to optimize plasticization suppression in elevated temperature permeation on properly annealed dense films made with high molecular weight polymer. A detailed analysis of pure and mixed gas results using different permeability models is shown in this work. The annealing effects in terms of plasticization suppression and permeability and selectivity changes are discussed in detail. According to our best knowledge, this is for the first time plasticization suppression for propylene/propane has been reported with any polyimide dense film membrane. Results of pure gas sorption experiments using a pressure decay method with un-annealed and annealed films are discussed and used to analyze the permeation data using the dual-mode model. Mixed gas permeation results also are explained with dual mode and bulk flow transport models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Stability and Behaviors of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen Micro Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takamitsu; Kinoshita, Koichiro; Kitamura, Hideki; Tanigawa, Ryoichi

    The flame stability limits essentially define the fundamental operation of the combustion system. Recently the micro diffusion flame has been remarked. The critical conditions of the flame stability limit are highly dependent on nozzle diameter, species of fuel and so on. The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen is formed by using the micro-scale nozzle of which inner diameter is less than 1mm. The configurations and behaviors of the flame are observed directly and visualized by the high speed video camera The criteria of stability limits are proposed for the micro diffusion flame. The objectives of the present study are to get further understanding of lifting/blow-off for the micro diffusion flame. The results obtained are as follows. (1) The behaviors of the flames are classified into some regions for each diffusion flame. (2) The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane cannot be sustained, when the nozzle diameter is less than 0.14 mm. (3) The diffusion flame cannot be sustained below the critical fuel flow rate. (4) The minimum flow which is formed does not depends on the average jet velocity, but on the fuel flow rate. (5) the micro flame is laminar. The flame length is decided by fuel flow rate.

  15. Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process for dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosjorde, A.; Kjelstrup, S.; Johannessen, E.; Hansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    We minimize the total entropy production of a process designed for dehydrogenation of propane. The process consists of 21 units, including a plug-flow reactor, a partial condenser, two tray distillation columns and a handful of heat exchangers and compressors. The units were modeled in a manner that made them relatively insensitive to changes in the molar flow rates, to make the optimization more flexible. The operating conditions, as well as to some degree the design of selected units, which minimized the total entropy production of the process, were found. The most important variables were the amount of recycled propane and propylene, conversion and selectivity in the reactor, as well as the number of tubes in the reactor. The optimal conversion, selectivity and recycle flows were results of a very clear trade-off among the entropy produced in the reactor, the partial condenser and the two distillation columns. Although several simplifying assumptions were made for computational reasons, this shows for the first time that it is also meaningful to use the entropy production as an objective function in chemical engineering process optimization studies

  16. Evolution of charged species in propane/air flames: mass-spectrometric analysis and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J M; Agneray, A; Jaffrezic, X; Bellenoue, M; Labuda, S; Leys, C; Chernukho, A P; Migoun, A N; Cenian, A; Savel'ev, A M; Titova, N S; Starik, A M

    2007-01-01

    Experimental and modelling studies of ion formation during combustion of propane/air mixtures are presented. The positive and negative ions mass/charge spectra in propane/air stoichiometric flame at atmospheric pressure are recorded in the range from 0 to 512 atomic mass units. The C 2 H 3 O + and HCO 2 - ions are found to be the most abundant ionic species in the flame front region. By increasing the distance from the flame front the ion composition changes significantly. In the burnt gas region the H 3 O + , NO + , CO 3 - , HCO 3 - ions are found to be the major charged species. To explain the experimental results the extended kinetic model describing the ion formation in flame and in the extraction system of the mass-spectrometer as well as ion-soot interaction is developed. It is shown that the ionic clusters, which are observed experimentally, form during the adiabatic expansion in the extraction system, and the presence of soot particles may change the total positive and negative ion concentrations in the gas phase

  17. Measurement of the burning velocity of propane-air mixtures using soap bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1988-12-20

    By filling a soap bubble with propane-air mixture of spacified equivalence ratio and by igniting it at the center, the flame propagation velocity was measured applying multiplex exposure Schlieren method. And the flow velocity of the unburnt propane-air mixture was also measured by a hot-wire anemometer. From the differences of the above two velocities, the burning velocity was obtained. The values of the burning velocity agreed well with the highly accurate results of usual measurements. The maximum value of the burning velocity, which exists at an equivalence ratio of 1.1, was 50cm/s. This value agreed well with the theoretical calculation result on the on-dimensional flame by Warnatz. The burning velocity in the range of from 0.7 to 1.5 equivalence ratios decreases symmetrically with the maximum value at the center. The velocity decrease in the excessive concentration range of fuel is only a little and converges between 7 and 10 cm/s. To evade the influence of the flame-front instability, measurements were done from 2 to 5cm from the ignition center. Thus accurate values were obtained. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  19. Double perovskites La2MMnO6 as catalyst for propane combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Tasca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structural, spectroscopic and morphological characterization; as well as the evaluation of the catalytic properties, of a family of oxides La2MMnO6, with M = Co, Ni and Cu are presented in this work. The materials were obtained by solid state reaction and through citrate route. The structure was determined by X-ray diffraction and a correlation was found between the crystal cell parameters and the M(II cation sizes, as a consequence of MO6 and MnO6 octahedral ordering. According to infrared spectroscospic characterization of the materials prepared by citrate route, a diminution of the M4+-O bond strength was observed, according with M(II sizes, in the sequence: Cu > Ni > Co. More labile O species should be present in La2CoMnO6-CIT. The electron microscopy morphology of this oxide confirmed the presence of agglomerated tiny particles. The presence of nanometic crystallites was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The catalytic tests, using propane as reaction test, were carried out in a fixed bed micro reactor, coupled with an “on line” chromatograph. The materials obtained by citrate route, despite M(II cations, are better suited for propane combustion and the catalyst La2CoMnO6 is the most active of the investigated series with T90 ∼ 500 °C.

  20. Effect of an alternating electric field on the polluting emission from propane flame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukradiga, I.; Turlajs, D.; Purmals, M.; Barmina, I.; Zake, M.

    2001-12-01

    The experimental investigations of the AC field effect on the propane combustion and processes that cause the formation of polluting emissions (NO_x, CO, CO_2) are performed. The AC-enhanced variations of the temperature and composition of polluting emissions are studied for the fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions of the flame core. The results show that the AC field-enhanced mixing of the fuel-rich core with the surrounding air coflow enhances the propane combustion with increase in the mass fraction of NO_x and CO_2 in the products. The reverse field effect on the composition of polluting emissions is observed under the fuel-lean conditions in the flame core. The field-enhanced CO_2 destruction is registered when the applied voltage increase. The destruction of CO_2 leads to a correlating increase in the mass fraction of CO in the products and enhances the process of NO_x formation within the limit of the fuel lean and low temperature combustion. Figs 11, Refs 18.

  1. A packed bed membrane reactor for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane on a Ga2O3 / MoO3 based catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotanjac, Ž.S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane has been studied over a Ga2O3/MoO3 based catalyst. Using a differentially operated packed bed reactor with premixed oxygen and propane feed, the kinetic parameters for the main reaction and the consecutive and parallel reactions were experimentally determined. It

  2. Effects of Bronsted acidity in the mechanism of selective oxidation of propane to acetone on CaY zeolite at room temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Mojet, Barbara; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2005-01-01

    The importance of Brønsted acid sites for partial oxidation of propane to acetone in CaY was investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy. With an increasing number of protons in Ca-Y, Volcano plots were observed for (1) amount of adsorbed propane; (2) initial acetone formation rate; (3) total amount

  3. Drop size distribution evolution after continuous or intermittent injection of butane or propane in a confined air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knubben, G.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Drop size distributions and velocities have been measured of n-butane and propane sprays, rapidly evaporating in air flowing at constant velocity, 15 m/s typically. The inlet air temperature has been found to be of main importance in the evaporation process. After a period of the order of the

  4. Recovery Act: Demonstration of a SOFC Generator Fueled by Propane to Provide Electrical Power to Real World Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessette, Norman [Acumentrics Corporation, Westwood, MA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this project provided with funds through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was to demonstrate a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator capable of operation on propane fuel to improve efficiency and reduce emissions over commercially available portable generators. The key objectives can be summarized as: Development of two portable electrical generators in the 1-3kW range utilizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and propane fuel; The development and demonstration of a proof-of-concept electro-mechanical propane fuel interface that provides a user friendly capability for managing propane fuel; The deployment and use of the fuel cell portable generators to power media production equipment over the course of several months at multiple NASCAR automobile racing events; The deployment and use of the fuel cell portable generators at scheduled events by first responders (police, fire) of the City of Folsom California; and Capturing data with regard to the systems’ ability to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Targets and evaluating the ease of use and potential barriers to further adoption of the systems.

  5. Oxidation of propane with oxygen, nitrous oxide and oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture over Co- and Fe-zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novoveská, K.; Bulánek, R.; Wichterlová, Blanka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 100, 3-4 (2005), s. 315-319 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/1120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : propene * propane oxidation * nitrous oxide * Fe-ZSM-5 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2005

  6. Phase behaviour of heavy petroleum fractions in pure propane and n-butane and with methanol as co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canziani, D.; Ndiaye, P.M.; Franceschi, Elton; Corazza, Marcos L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports phase equilibrium experimental results for heavy petroleum fractions in pure propane and n-butane as primary solvents and using methanol as co-solvent. Three kinds of oils were investigated from Marlim petroleum: a relatively light fraction coming from the first distillation of crude petroleum at atmospheric pressure (GOP - heavy gas oil of petroleum), the residue of such distillation (RAT) and the crude petroleum sample. Phase equilibrium measurements were performed in a high-pressure, variable-volume view cell, following the static synthetic method, over the temperature range of 323 K to 393 K, pressures up to 10 MPa and overall compositions of heavy component varying from 1 wt% to 40 wt%. Transition pressures for low methanol and oil concentrations were very close for GOP, RAT, and crude Marlim when using propane as the primary solvent. Close to propane critical temperature, two and three-phase transitions were observed for GOP and Marlim when methanol was increased. When n-butane was used as primary solvent, all transitions observed were of (vapour + liquid) type with transition pressure values smaller than those obtained for propane.

  7. Enhancing aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dibromoethane in groundwater using ethane or propane and inorganic nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Paul B; Streger, Sheryl H; Begley, James F

    2015-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide; EDB) is a probable human carcinogen that was previously used as both a soil fumigant and a scavenger in leaded gasoline. EDB has been observed to persist in soils and groundwater, particularly under oxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate options to enhance the aerobic degradation of EDB in groundwater, with a particular focus on possible in situ remediation strategies. Propane gas and ethane gas were observed to significantly stimulate the biodegradation of EDB in microcosms constructed with aquifer solids and groundwater from the FS-12 EDB plume at Joint Base Cape Cod (Cape Cod, MA), but only after inorganic nutrients were added. Ethene gas was also effective, but rates were appreciably slower than for ethane and propane. EDB was reduced to ethane gas and inorganic nutrients. An enrichment culture (BE-3R) that grew on ethane or propane gas but not EDB was obtained from the site materials. The degradation of EDB by this culture was inhibited by acetylene gas, suggesting that degradation is catalyzed by a monooxygenase enzyme. The BE-3R culture was also observed to biodegrade 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), a compound commonly used in conjunction with EDB as a lead scavenger in gasoline. The data suggest that addition of ethane or propane gas with inorganic nutrients may be a viable option to enhance degradation of EDB in groundwater aquifers to below current state or federal MCL values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amine modified polyethylenes, prepared in near critical propane, as adhesion promoting agents in multilayered HDPE/PET films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, de J.M.; Scheltus, M.; Koning, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    High d. polyethylene (HDPE) grafted with 0.13, 0.40 and 1.04 wt% maleic anhydride (abbreviation PEMA) was modified with an excess of a variety of diamines in near crit. propane. The resulting amic acid groups were quant. imidized to the corresponding imide (PEMI) in the melt. Increasing the

  9. 40 CFR 721.8145 - Propane,1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propane,1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluoro-3-methoxy-. 721.8145 Section 721.8145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified § 721...

  10. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  11. A metal-organic framework-based splitter for separating propylene from propane

    KAUST Repository

    Cadiau, Amandine

    2016-07-07

    The chemical industry is dependent on the olefin/paraffin separation, which is mainly accomplished by using energy-intensive processes. We report the use of reticular chemistry for the fabrication of a chemically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework (MOF) material (NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, also referred to as KAUST-7). The bridging of Ni(II)-pyrazine square-grid layers with (NbOF5)2- pillars afforded the construction of a three-dimensional MOF, enclosing a periodic array of fluoride anions in contracted square-shaped channels. The judiciously selected bulkier (NbOF5)2- caused the looked-for hindrance of the previously free-rotating pyrazine moieties, delimiting the pore system and dictating the pore aperture size and its maximum opening. The restricted MOF window resulted in the selective molecular exclusion of propane from propylene at atmospheric pressure, as evidenced through multiple cyclic mixed-gas adsorption and calorimetric studies.

  12. Structure of alumina supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin; Jensen, Anker Degn; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2013-01-01

    .%. The catalysts were subsequently characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, UV–vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as measurement of the catalytic performance. The catalysts had specific surface areas from 143 to 169 m2/g corresponding to average......A series of five vanadia on alumina catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propene were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) using vanadium(III)acetylacetonate and aluminium(III)acetylacetonate dissolved in toluene as precursors. The vanadium loading was 2, 3, 5, 7.5 and 10wt...... X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy showed that the vanadia can be reduced when operating at low oxygen concentrations. The catalyst performance was determined in fixed bed reactors with an inlet gas composition of C3H8/O2/N2=5/25/70. The main products were propene, CO and CO2...

  13. Study on nitrogen diluted propane-air premixed flames at elevated pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Chenglong; Zheng Jianjun [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Zuohua, E-mail: zhhuang@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Using a high pressure constant volume combustion vessel, the propagation and morphology of spark-ignited outwardly expanding nitrogen diluted propane-air flames were imaged and recorded by schlieren photography and high-speed digital camera. The unstretched laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were subsequently determined over wide range of initial temperatures, initial pressures and nitrogen dilution ratios. Two recently developed mechanisms were used to predict the reference laminar burning velocity. The results show that the measured unstretched laminar burning velocities agree well with those in the literature and the computationally predicted results. The flame images show that the diffusional-thermal instability is promoted as the mixture becomes richer, and the hydrodynamic instability is increased with the increase of the initial pressure and it is decreased with the increase of dilution ratio. The normalized laminar burning velocities show a linear correlation with respect to the dilution ratio, indicating that the effect of nitrogen dilution is more obvious at higher pressures.

  14. Effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in horizontal circular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianto, S.; Pamitran, A. S.; Nasruddin, Alhamid, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    Due to its friendly effect on the environment, natural refrigerants could be the best alternative refrigerant to replace conventional refrigerants. The present study was devoted to the effect of superficial velocity on vaporization pressure drop with propane in a horizontal circular tube with an inner diameter of 7.6 mm. The experiments were conditioned with 4 to 10 °C for saturation temperature, 9 to 20 kW/m2 for heat flux, and 250 to 380 kg/m2s for mass flux. It is shown here that increased heat flux may result in increasing vapor superficial velocity, and then increasing pressure drop. The present experimental results were evaluated with some existing correlations of pressure drop. The best prediction was evaluated by Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) with MARD 25.7%. In order to observe the experimental flow pattern, the present results were also mapped on the Wang flow pattern map.

  15. Active catalytic sites in the ammoxidation of propane and propene over V-Sb-O catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, S.A.; Zanthoff, H.W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The ammoxidation of propane over VSb{sub y}O{sub x} catalysts (y=1, 2, 5) was investigated with respect to the role of different oxygen species in the selective and non selective reaction steps using transient experiments in the Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor. Only lattice oxygen is involved in the oxidation reactions. Using isotopic labelled oxygen it is shown that two different active sites exist on the surface. On site A, which can be reoxidized faster by gas phase oxygen compared to site B, mainly CO is formed. On site B CO{sub 2} and acrolein as well as NO and N{sub 2}O in the presence of ammonia in the feed gas are formed and reoxidation mainly occurs with bulk lattice oxygen. (orig.)

  16. State heating oil and propane program (SHOPP). Final report, 1995/96 - Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Kentucky's second year of participation in SHOPP was successful. The survey started with a sample group of fifty (50), with forty-nine (49) actually participating. Survey participants were contacted by telephone each reporting period from October to March. Some companies reported supply problems, due to allocation, resulting in having to go greater distances to obtain the propane they needed and some reported only being supplied a portion of what they wanted. Most companies did not experience allocation or supply problems. The winter was colder and longer than usual. Wholesale prices did increase. However, most suppliers tried to keep prices down. There were a few reports of problems delivering to customers due to an abnormal amount of snow in eastern Kentucky

  17. [Smog chamber simulation of ozone formation from atmospheric photooxidation of propane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-hua; Mo, Chuang-rong; Xu, Yong-fu; Jia, Long

    2012-08-01

    Atmospheric photochemical reactions of propane and NO, were simulated with a self-made smog chamber. The effects of relative humidity (RH) and [C3H8]0/[NOx]0 ratio on ozone formation were studied. The results showed that both the maximum ozone concentration and the maximum value of incremental reactivity (IRmax) of propane decreased linearly with increasing RH. Under lower RH conditions, the occurrence time of peak ozone concentration was about 22 h after the beginning of reaction, and IRmax varied from 0.0231 to 0.0391, while under higher RH conditions the occurrence time of peak ozone concentration was 16 h, and IRmax ranged from 0.0172 to 0.0320. During the 20 h of reaction, within the first 12 h RH did not significantly affect the yield of acetone, whereas after 12 h the lower RH condition could lead to relatively greater amount of acetone. During the first 4-20 h of experiments, acetone concentrations ranged from 153 x 10(-9) to 364 x 10(-9) at 17% RH and from 167 x 10(-9) to 302 x 10(-9) at 62% RH, respectively. Maximum ozone concentrations decreased with increasing [C3H8]0/[NOx]0 ratio and a better negative linear relationship between them was obtained under the lower RH conditions. The smog chamber data and the results from simulation of the C3H8-NOx reactions using the sub-mechanism of MCM were compared, and a significant deviation was found between these two results.

  18. Comparative study on hydrogenation of propanal on Ni(111) and Cu(111) from density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Wei, E-mail: weian@sues.edu.cn; Men, Yong; Wang, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogenation of propanal is kinetically much faster on Ni(111) than Cu(111). • Hydroxyl route is prefered over alkoxy route on Ni(111). • Alkoxy route is prefered over hydroxyl route on Cu(111). • Activation barrier for hydrogenation of carbonyl is lowered by H-tunneling effect. • η{sup 2}(C,O)-adsorption mode is beneficial for hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of aldehyde. - Abstract: Using propanal as a probe molecule, we have comparatively investigated hydrogenation of carbonyl (C=O) in short carbon-chain aldehyde on Ni(111) and Cu(111) by means of periodic density functional theory. Our focus is in particular on the differentiation of reaction route in sequential hydrogenation on Ni(111) and Cu(111) following Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. Strong binding with alkoxy intermediates has great impact on altering reaction pathways on the two surfaces, where hydroxyl route via 1-hydroxyl propyl intermediate is dominant on Ni(111), but alkoxy route via propoxyl intermediate is more likely on Cu(111) due to a higher activiation barrier of initial hydrogenation in hydroxyl route. In comparison, hydrogenation of carbonyl on Ni(111) is kinetically much faster than that on Cu(111) as a result of much lower activation barrier in rate-determining step (i.e., 13.2 vs 26.8 kcal/mol) of most favorable reaction pathways. Furthermore, the discrepancy in calculated and experimental barriers can be well explained by using the concept of H-tunneling effect on bond forming with H atoms during sequential hydrogenation. The different features of electronic structure exhibited by the two metal surfaces provide insight into their catalytic behaviors.

  19. Stability and catalytic performance of vanadia supported on nanostructured titania catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kootenaei, A.H. Shahbazi; Towfighi, J.; Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vanadia supported on titanate nanotube shows enhanced dispersion of vanadia. • Deactivatoin during propane ODH related to the rutile development. • Titanate nanotube transfers to anatase due to calcinations and presence of vanadia. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the simple hydrothermal method and investigated as support for V 2 O 5 catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODP). The structures of pristine nanotubes as well as the prepared catalysts were investigated by XRD, Raman, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM, EDS, BET, and XPS techniques. The characterization of the as-synthesized nanotubes showed the synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanotube. The incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to prepare VTNT-x (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.% vanadia supported on nanotube) together with VTi5 (5 wt.% vanadia supported on Degussa P25). The anatase phase was developed in VTNT-x catalysts upon calcination along with specific surface area loss. Higher vanadia loading resulted in the lowering of support capacity in maintaining vanadia in dispersed state such that eventually crystalline vanadia appeared. The measured catalyst activity demonstrates that in spite of major support surface area loss in VTNT-5 catalyst, the propylene yield is superior in comparison with VTi5 catalyst. The catalyst activity can be correlated with maximum reduction temperature. Deactivation of VTi5 and VTNT-5 as well as VTNT-15 were studied for 3,000 min time-on-stream. It was found that the activity of VTNT-5 catalyst remain unchanged while a decline in catalytic activity observed in VTi5 and VTNT-15 catalysts. The development of rutile was considered as being a major element in the deactivation of the investigated catalysts which is influenced by the presence of vanadium and reaction atmosphere

  20. Stability and catalytic performance of vanadia supported on nanostructured titania catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kootenaei, A.H. Shahbazi [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Towfighi, J., E-mail: towfighi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Laboratory, Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Vanadia supported on titanate nanotube shows enhanced dispersion of vanadia. • Deactivatoin during propane ODH related to the rutile development. • Titanate nanotube transfers to anatase due to calcinations and presence of vanadia. - Abstract: Titanate nanotubes with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the simple hydrothermal method and investigated as support for V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODP). The structures of pristine nanotubes as well as the prepared catalysts were investigated by XRD, Raman, FTIR, HRTEM, SEM, EDS, BET, and XPS techniques. The characterization of the as-synthesized nanotubes showed the synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanotube. The incipient wetness impregnation method was utilized to prepare VTNT-x (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.% vanadia supported on nanotube) together with VTi5 (5 wt.% vanadia supported on Degussa P25). The anatase phase was developed in VTNT-x catalysts upon calcination along with specific surface area loss. Higher vanadia loading resulted in the lowering of support capacity in maintaining vanadia in dispersed state such that eventually crystalline vanadia appeared. The measured catalyst activity demonstrates that in spite of major support surface area loss in VTNT-5 catalyst, the propylene yield is superior in comparison with VTi5 catalyst. The catalyst activity can be correlated with maximum reduction temperature. Deactivation of VTi5 and VTNT-5 as well as VTNT-15 were studied for 3,000 min time-on-stream. It was found that the activity of VTNT-5 catalyst remain unchanged while a decline in catalytic activity observed in VTi5 and VTNT-15 catalysts. The development of rutile was considered as being a major element in the deactivation of the investigated catalysts which is influenced by the presence of vanadium and reaction atmosphere.

  1. Zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes and methods of making and using same for separation of c2- and c3+ hydrocarbons and separation of propylene and propane mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2012-12-06

    Certain embodiments are directed to processes for fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes. These ZIF membranes can be used in separating C2-hydrocarbons from C3+ hydrocarbons and propylene/propane mixtures.

  2. Zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes and methods of making and using same for separation of c2- and c3+ hydrocarbons and separation of propylene and propane mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping; Pan, Yichang

    2012-01-01

    Certain embodiments are directed to processes for fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes. These ZIF membranes can be used in separating C2-hydrocarbons from C3+ hydrocarbons and propylene/propane mixtures.

  3. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael P.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Welz, Oliver; Huang, Haifeng; Antonov, Ivan O.; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Zádor, Judit; Taatjes, Craig A.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-07-16

    We have developed a multi-scale approach (Burke, M. P.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B. Proc. Combust. Inst. 2013, 34, 547–555.) to kinetic model formulation that directly incorporates elementary kinetic theories as a means to provide reliable, physics-based extrapolation to unexplored conditions. Here, we extend and generalize the multi-scale modeling strategy to treat systems of considerable complexity – involving multi-well reactions, potentially missing reactions, non-statistical product branching ratios, and non-Boltzmann (i.e. non-thermal) reactant distributions. The methodology is demonstrated here for a subsystem of low-temperature propane oxidation, as a representative system for low-temperature fuel oxidation. A multi-scale model is assembled and informed by a wide variety of targets that include ab initio calculations of molecular properties, rate constant measurements of isolated reactions, and complex systems measurements. Active model parameters are chosen to accommodate both “parametric” and “structural” uncertainties. Theoretical parameters (e.g. barrier heights) are included as active model parameters to account for parametric uncertainties in the theoretical treatment; experimental parameters (e.g. initial temperatures) are included to account for parametric uncertainties in the physical models of the experiments. RMG software is used to assess potential structural uncertainties due to missing reactions. Additionally, branching ratios among product channels are included as active model parameters to account for structural uncertainties related to difficulties in modeling sequences of multiple chemically activated steps. The approach is demonstrated here for interpreting time-resolved measurements of OH, HO2, n-propyl, i-propyl, propene, oxetane, and methyloxirane from photolysis-initiated low-temperature oxidation of propane at pressures from 4 to 60 Torr and temperatures from 300 to 700 K. In particular, the multi-scale informed

  4. Oxidation of Propane with Oxygen and/or Nitrous Oxide over Fe-ZSM-5 with Low Iron Concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulánek, R.; Wichterlová, Blanka; Novoveská, K.; Kreibich, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 1 (2004), s. 13-22 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/03/1120; GA AV ČR IAA4040007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Fe-MFI * N2O * propane oxidation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.378, year: 2004

  5. Identification of Novel Methane-, Ethane-, and Propane-Oxidizing Bacteria at Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps by Stable Isotope Probing ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Molly C.; Valentine, David L.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2010-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps supply oil and gas to microorganisms in sediments and overlying water. We used stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify aerobic bacteria oxidizing gaseous hydrocarbons in surface sediment from the Coal Oil Point seep field located offshore of Santa Barbara, California. After incubating sediment with 13C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we confirmed the incorporation of 13C into fatty acids and DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes in 13C-DNA revealed groups of microbes not previously thought to contribute to methane, ethane, or propane oxidation. First, 13C methane was primarily assimilated by Gammaproteobacteria species from the family Methylococcaceae, Gammaproteobacteria related to Methylophaga, and Betaproteobacteria from the family Methylophilaceae. Species of the latter two genera have not been previously shown to oxidize methane and may have been cross-feeding on methanol, but species of both genera were heavily labeled after just 3 days. pmoA sequences were affiliated with species of Methylococcaceae, but most were not closely related to cultured methanotrophs. Second, 13C ethane was consumed by members of a novel group of Methylococcaceae. Growth with ethane as the major carbon source has not previously been observed in members of the Methylococcaceae; a highly divergent pmoA-like gene detected in the 13C-labeled DNA may encode an ethane monooxygenase. Third, 13C propane was consumed by members of a group of unclassified Gammaproteobacteria species not previously linked to propane oxidation. This study identifies several bacterial lineages as participants in the oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons in marine seeps and supports the idea of an alternate function for some pmoA-like genes. PMID:20675448

  6. Identification of novel methane-, ethane-, and propane-oxidizing bacteria at marine hydrocarbon seeps by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L; Sessions, Alex L

    2010-10-01

    Marine hydrocarbon seeps supply oil and gas to microorganisms in sediments and overlying water. We used stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify aerobic bacteria oxidizing gaseous hydrocarbons in surface sediment from the Coal Oil Point seep field located offshore of Santa Barbara, California. After incubating sediment with (13)C-labeled methane, ethane, or propane, we confirmed the incorporation of (13)C into fatty acids and DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes in (13)C-DNA revealed groups of microbes not previously thought to contribute to methane, ethane, or propane oxidation. First, (13)C methane was primarily assimilated by Gammaproteobacteria species from the family Methylococcaceae, Gammaproteobacteria related to Methylophaga, and Betaproteobacteria from the family Methylophilaceae. Species of the latter two genera have not been previously shown to oxidize methane and may have been cross-feeding on methanol, but species of both genera were heavily labeled after just 3 days. pmoA sequences were affiliated with species of Methylococcaceae, but most were not closely related to cultured methanotrophs. Second, (13)C ethane was consumed by members of a novel group of Methylococcaceae. Growth with ethane as the major carbon source has not previously been observed in members of the Methylococcaceae; a highly divergent pmoA-like gene detected in the (13)C-labeled DNA may encode an ethane monooxygenase. Third, (13)C propane was consumed by members of a group of unclassified Gammaproteobacteria species not previously linked to propane oxidation. This study identifies several bacterial lineages as participants in the oxidation of gaseous hydrocarbons in marine seeps and supports the idea of an alternate function for some pmoA-like genes.

  7. Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structures of Mononuclear Complexes of 1,3-Bis(8-quinolyloxy)propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mandhary, M.R.; Steel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The preparations and X-ray crystal structures of the first transition metal complexes of 1,3-bis(8-quinolyloxy)propane are described. The ligand acts as a trans-chelating N,N'-bidentate ligand in the three-coordinate silver nitrate complex and four-coordinate copper chloride complex, but as an N,O,O',N'-tetradentate ligand in the octahedral nickel chloride complex. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Australia

  8. Adsorption and reaction of propanal, 2-propenol and 1-propanol on Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Luis E.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2008-07-01

    The hydrogenation of acrolein (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd CH dbnd O) can lead to the formation of three hydrogenation products, 2-propenol (CH 2dbnd CH sbnd CH 2sbnd OH), propanal (CH 3sbnd CH 2sbnd CH dbnd O), and 1-propanol (CH 3sbnd CH 2sbnd CH 2sbnd OH). In the current study the adsorption and reaction of these three molecules were investigated on Ni/Pt(111) surfaces to understand the different hydrogenation pathways of acrolein, using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). TPD experiments showed that 2-propenol underwent isomerization toward propanal on Pt(111) and the Pt sbnd Ni sbnd Pt(111) bimetallic surface, with a dominant decarbonylation pathway on the Pt(111) surface. A self-hydrogenation (disproportionation) pathway toward 1-propanol was observed on the Ni(111) film, however, the decarbonylation pathway was found to be the most dominant on this surface. Unlike 2-propenol, propanal did not undergo isomerization or self-hydrogenation pathways on any of the surfaces, with the dominant pathway being primarily the decarbonylation on Pt(111) and Ni(111). In contrast, 1-propanol underwent mainly molecular desorption from all three surfaces. These results provided additional understanding of previous studies of hydrogenation pathways of acrolein on the Ni/Pt(111) surfaces.

  9. New polyamides based on 1,3-bis(4-carboxy phenoxy propane and hydantoin derivatives: synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Six new polyamides 5a-f containing flexible trimethylene segments in the main chain were synthesized through the direct polycondensation reaction of 1,3-bis(4-carboxy phenoxy propane 3 with six derivatives of hydantoins 5a-f in a medium consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, triphenyl phosphite, calcium chloride and pyridine. The polycondensation reaction produced a series of novel polyamides in high yield with inherent viscosities between 0.30-0.47 dL/g. The resulted polymers were fully characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, solubility tests and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Thermal properties of these polymers were investigated by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential thermal gravimetry (DTG. The glass-transition temperatures of these polyamides were recorded between 130 and 155 oC by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the 5% weight loss temperatures were ranging from 325 to 415 oC under nitrogen. 1,3-bis(4-Carboxy phenoxy propane 3 was prepared from the reaction of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid 1 with 1,3-dibromo propane 2 in the presence of NaOH solution.

  10. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys

  11. Effects of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase and Cl component on dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Changcheng; Ma, Aizeng; Rong, Junfeng; Da, Zhijian, E-mail: dazhijianripp@163.com; Zheng, Aiguo; Qin, Ling

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Comparative study of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase on dehydrogenation of propane was implemented. • Pore structures and acid properties of Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are correlated to the activities. • Pt-θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with abundant Cl content shows the highest activity and stability. - Abstract: The effects of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, γ- and θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Cl component on the performances of Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the dehydrogenation of propane were investigated in this work. The catalysts were systematically characterized by various techniques, such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), temperature-programmed desorption with ammonia as probe molecules (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). The characterizations and catalytic results show that: (i) the pore structures and acid properties of the two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases can change the quantity, location and property of the carbon deposition, (ii) the existence of Cl plays a significant role on the agglomeration of Pt particles and carbon deposition, which further influence the catalytic performances of Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with different support phases for propane dehydrogenation.

  12. Mechanism of influence water vapor on combustion characteristics of propane-air mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. M.; Mitrofanov, G. A.; Sachovskii, A. V.; Kozar, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of an experimental study of the effect of water vapor at the flame temperature. Propane-butane mixture with air is burning on a modified Bunsen burner. Steam temperature was varied from 180 to 260 degrees. Combustion parameters changed by steam temperature and its proportion in the mixture with the fuel. The fuel-air mixture is burned in the excess air ratio of 0.1. It has been established that the injection of steam changes the characteristics of combustion fuel-air mixture and increase the combustion temperature. The concentration of CO in the combustion products is substantially reduced. Raising the temperature in the combustion zone is associated with increased enthalpy of the fuel by the added steam enthalpy. Reducing the concentration of CO is caused by decrease in the average temperature in the combustion zone by applying steam. Concentration of active hydrogen radicals and oxygen increases in the combustion zone. That has a positive effect on the process of combustion.

  13. Reduced Mechanism Approach of Modeling Premixed Propane-Air Mixture using Ansys Fluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Odetunde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In computational analysis of combustion, reduced mechanisms are often used in place of detailed kinetic chemistry because the computational costs of including all the species in the reactor model are always prohibitively high; for this reason, many different reduced mechanisms have been developed for hydrocarbon oxidation. In this study we employed ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD package, (hereinafter referred to as Fluent to analyze propane oxidation mechanism in a conical reactor. The model employed for this work is based on the results of Westbrook and Dryer [15]. This simplified model consists of 5 chemical reactions and 12 species, namely, C3H8, CO2, CO, H2O, NO, O2, O, H, N, OH, N2 and H2. The computed mass fractions of the species, C3H8, CO2, CO and H2O were found to be in qualitative agreement with measured values presented in [26]. The results of the present study show that the bulk of the turbulent kinetic was produced in the inlet jet. The turbulent viscosity was found to be an excellent ”mixer” of the species. The computed results of y* were found to confirm that the use of the law-of-the-wall functions was valid and it also showed that the computational mesh used was adequate for resolving the flow dynamics in the near wall region.

  14. Simulations of Propane and Butane Gas Sensor Based on Pristine Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Haroon; Koel, Ants; Rang, Toomas

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade graphene and its derivatives have gained a remarkable place in research field. As silicon technology is approaching to its geometrical limits so there is a need of alternate that can replace it. Graphene has emerged as a potential candidate for future nano-electronics applications due to its exceptional and extraordinary chemical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties. Graphene based sensors have gained significance for a wide range of sensing applications like detection of biomolecules, chemicals and gas molecules. It can be easily used to make electrical contacts and manipulate them according to the requirements as compared to the other nanomaterials. The intention of the work presented in this article is to contribute in this field by simulating a novel and cheap graphene nanoribbon sensor for the household gas leakage detection. QuantumWise Atomistix (ATK) software is used for the simulations of propane and butane gas sensor. Projected device density of the states (PDDOS) and the transmission spectrum of the device in the proximity of gas molecules are calculated and discussed. The change in the electric current through the device in the presence of the gas molecules is used as a gas detection mechanism for the simulated sensor.

  15. Solubility of Methane, Ethane, and Propane in Pure Water Using New Binary Interaction Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Behrouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solubility of hydrocarbons in water is important due to ecological concerns and new restrictions on the existence of organic pollutants in water streams. Also, the creation of a thermodynamic model has required an advanced study of the phase equilibrium between water (as a basis for the widest spread muds and amines and gas hydrocarbon phases in wide temperature and pressure ranges. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop semi-empirical correlations, charts, or thermodynamic models for estimating the solubility of hydrocarbons in liquid water. In this work, a thermodynamic model based on Mathias modification of Sova-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equation of state is suggested using classical mixing rules with new binary interaction parameters which were used for two-component systems of hydrocarbons and water. Finally, the model results and their deviations in comparison with the experimental data are presented; these deviations were equal to 5.27, 6.06, and 4.1% for methane, ethane, and propane respectively.

  16. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  17. Recreational inhalation of butane and propane in adolescents: Two forensic cases of accidental death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Luca; Amadasi, Alberto; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    The recreational use of inhalants is a fairly widespread habit among adolescents because of the ease of availability and methods of assumption. Their use is however not free of risks, both for direct toxicity on several target organs and for a mechanism of gas replacement with lack of oxygen. The first case concerns a 12-year-old boy who died suddenly after sniffing a mix of butane and propane contained in a can of air freshener. The second case concerns a 14-year-old boy who died by acute poisoning by the same mixture contained in a refill for lighters. High concentrations of the compounds were found in the tissues by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds found in tissues and biological fluids were perfectly compatible with those contained in the containers used for the inhalation. The mechanisms of death were therefore assessed in a combination of the direct toxicity of the compound and oxygen replacement, thus highlighting the crucial help that toxicological analyses can provide in such cases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. PENINGKATAN KINERJA PERSEDIAAN PRODUK DI PT. PROPAN RAYA I.C.C SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tejo Prakoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is an internal process that is essential for the company's operations, especially in the field of industrial paints. Many types, colors and sizes of packaging paint often urged companies to hoard supplies. Nevertheless the possibility of failing to meet customer demand still occur, either due to exhaustion of stock, delivery delays, or for any other reason. Finished product inventory control in a way or innovative method must be developed to reduce excess inventory so as to minimize storage costs and to meet customer needs optimally. Use the ABC method and modifications VEN can be an alternative in inventory control application based on the classification of products and level of service companies. With a combination of ABC-VEN method, it will obtain 9 grade product inventory to the value of each service level that has been adjusted so that it can help determine the optimal inventory control policies for the company. From the research, suggested inventory control policy indicates that the inventory turnover rate suggested an average 3.14 times per year is the number of days supply of inventory was 76 days.This means that the inventory control policy suggested, PT. Propan Raya I.C.C can improve inventory performance by increasing the speed of inventory turnover amounted to 60.2% and increase the efficiency of the number of days supply of inventory by 37.7% of the current inventory.

  19. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from LPG (Propane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, P.; Czernichowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Small and medium size reformers that run on widely available Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, containing mostly the propane) can provide Synthesis Gas (or Hydrogen extracted from it) to some Fuel Cell powered cars, boats, homes, farms etc. reducing therefore costs of the pure Hydrogen distribution. We contribute to such idea realization through our simply, plasma-assisted reformer avoiding a need of poison resistant catalysts or prior LPG desulfurizer. In fact, any level of sulphur in LPG is accepted for our non-catalytic reformer based on high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc). The discharges catalytically assist the exothermic partial oxidation process. Electric power assistance is less than 2% of the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of produced SynGas. Recycling such a small portion of the energy is therefore an acceptable compromise. The unique oxidant source is air. This contribution presents our expanded tests with commercial LPG in a 1-L reactor working at atmospheric pressure. At a 0.1 kW electric power assistance we produce a Nitrogen-diluted SynGas containing up to 45% of H 2 +CO at the output flow rate corresponding up to 2.7 m 3 (n)/h of pure H 2 +CO mixture that is equivalent to LHV output power of 8.6 kW. The LPG is totally reformed at more than 70% energetic efficiency and at the total absence of soot. (author)

  20. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.

    2015-05-09

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  1. Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob. B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.

  2. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.; KC, Utsav; Varghese, P.L.; Barlow, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  3. OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OF PROPANE BY RARE EARTH PHOSPHATES SUPPORTED ON AL-PILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina De Los Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation of rare earth phosphates LnPO4 (where Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and of the same supported by an aluminum pillared clay, of high specific surface area, is presented. The solids were characterized by TGA, XRD, nitrogen adsorption and immediate analysis after reaction in order to determine eventual carbon formation. Catalytic assays were performed at temperatures in the range 400oC-600oC, the reaction mixture was C3H8/O2/Ar = 10/10/80. All the catalysts were active. The reaction products were H2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H4 and C3H6 and there were no organic oxygenated compounds detected. Although all the investigated systems were active, the Al-PILC supported catalysts presented a higher activity than the bulk materials. In this context, the samarium supported catalyst showed a propene yield increase from 4% to 10% compared with bulk samarium phosphate at 600°C. This effect was attributed to the increase in the specific surface area.

  4. Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fueled lift truck maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Beaudet, Y.; Lazure, L.; Menard, L.; Turcotte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas in the workplace can cause health problem. CO gas is colourless and odourless, and exposure to it can cause intoxication, particularly for mechanics working on internal combustion engines fed by propane-fueled lift trucks. Regular procedures for evacuating the gases emitted during routine mechanical repairs involve the use of rigid evacuating pipes attached to the building and hooked to a flexible pipe at the end of the exhaust pipe. With lift trucks, this procedure is limited because of the configuration of these vehicles, and also because this type of work is often done in places without access to permanent mechanical ventilation. The object of this study was to propose a new evacuation method for CO gas fumes that would lower the exposures of fumes for mechanics and for workstations. It identified the criteria that should be considered, such as the configuration of the existing exhaust system of lift trucks, and feasibility of using this system at a variety of on-site locations. The design of the device was described and evaluated. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  5. The role of Nb in rutile-type multi-component antimonates, catalysts for propane ammoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarini, N.; Cavani, F.; Cimini, M.; Trifiro, F. [Dip. Chimica Industriale e Materiali, INSTM, Research Unit of Bologna (Italy); Cornaro, U.; Ghisletti, D. [EniTecnologie SpA, San Donato Milanes (Italy); Catani, R. [Snamprogetti SpA, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Rutile-type Cr/V/Sb/Nb mixed oxides were prepared by coprecipitation from ethanolic solutions and calcination at 700 C. They were then tested as catalysts for the gas-phase ammoxidation of propane. The addition of increasing amounts of Nb to the rutile Cr/V antimonate led to a considerable increase of the selectivity to acrylonitrile, and to a lower selectivity to N{sub 2} derived from ammonia overoxidation. However, the effect was evident only when excess Sb was present with respect to the stoichiometric requirement for the formation of the rutile compound. Evidences were obtained for the development of rutile-type mixed Cr/V antimonate/niobate, in which the progressive increase of Nb concentration, due to the increased Nb loading, led to the segregation of Sb oxide, in the form of crystalline Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The multi-component rutile was a highly defective structure, and contained excess Sb{sup 5+} and Nb{sup 5+} with respect to the stoichiometric composition. The excess Sb provided the active sites for allcylic ammoxidation on intermediate absorbed propylene. The concomitant presence of Nb in the lattice improved the efficiency of these sites, and was responsible for the better catalytic performance with respect to the Cr/V/Sb/O systems. (orig.)

  6. Tuning PIM-PI-Based Membranes for Highly Selective Transport of Propylene/Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.

    2016-12-06

    To date there exists a great deal of energetic and economic inefficiency in the separation of olefins from paraffins because the principal means of achieving industrial purity requirements is accomplished with very energy intensive cryogenic distillation. Mitigation of the severe energy intensity of the propylene/propane separation has been identified as one of seven chemical separations which can change the landscape of global energy use, and membranes have been targeted as an emerging technology because they offer scalability and lower capital and operating costs. The focus of this work was to evaluate a new direction of material development for the very industrially relevant propylene/propane separation using membranes. The objective was to develop a rational design approach for generating highly selective membranes using a relatively new platform of materials known as polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs), the prospects of which have never been examined for the propylene/propane separation. Structurally, PIMs comprise relatively inflexible macromolecular architectures integrating contortion sites that help disrupt packing and trap microporous free volume elements (< 20 Å). To date most of the work reported in the literature on this separation is based on conventional low free volume 6FDA-based polyimides which in the best case show moderate C3H6/C3H8 selectivities (<20) with C3H6 permeabilities too low to garner industrial interest. Due to propylene and propane’s relatively large molecular size, we hypothesized that the use of more open structures can provide greater accessibility to the pores necessary to enhance membrane sieving and flux. It has been shown for numerous key gas separations that introduction of microporosity into a polymer structure can defy the notorious permeability/selectivity tradeoff curve and induce simultaneous boosts in both permeability and selectivity. The cornerstone approach to designing state of the art high

  7. Extracting properties of N,N,N'N'-tetraalkyl-2 alkyl propane -1,3 diamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigond, L.

    1992-01-01

    N,N,N',N'-tetraalkyl -2 alkyl propane -1,3 diamides (RR'NCO) 2 CHR'' are investigated in the aim to separate actinides from nuclear wastes. N,N'-dimethyl N,N'-dibutyl tetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA) was selected. This molecule can extract trivalent actinides in aliphatic diluents. Americium extraction is faster than iron extraction, hydrolytic degradation and solubility in aqueous phase are satisfactory. In non acidic media, diamides form aggregates, the size of which is function of diluent and diamide concentration. Extraction equilibria of HNO 3 , UO 2 2+ , Pu 4+ , Am 3+ and Fe 3+ are investigated.Four complexes are formed with nitric acid: L 2 HNO 3 , LHNO 3 , L 2 (HNO 3 ) 2 and L(HNO 3 ) 3 with L=DMDBTDMA. UO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ extraction takes place via the formation of neutral complexes: LUO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , LPu(NO 3 ) 4 and L 2 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 for any nitric acid concentration. Am 3+ extraction takes place via the formation of LAm(NO 3 ) 3 and L 2 Am(NO 3 ) 3 for low nitric acid concentration and L x H y Am(NO 3 ) 3+y at higher acidity. Fe 3+ extraction involves anionic complexes L x HFe(NO 3 ) 4 for any acid concentration. In the presence of metallic cations, two kinds of interactions are observed: in the inner sphere of the metal diamide-metal ion complexation and in the outer sphere diamide-metallic complex interaction. The malonamide DMDBTDMA can be used to separate (III), (IV) and (VI) actinides from radioactive wastes

  8. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane - influence of the niobium oxide doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, S.; Hallmeier, K.H.; Wendt, G. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Mineralogie; Lippold, G. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften

    1998-12-31

    The oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of light alkanes is an alternative way for the production of olefins. A wide variety of catalytic systems has been investigated. Vanadium oxide based catalysts were described in the literature as effective catalysts for the ODH of propane. The catalytic activity and selectivity depend on the kind of support material, the kind of dopants and the formation of complex metal oxide phases. In recent papers it was claimed that both orthovanadate and/or pyrovanadate species are selective for the ODH of propane. Niobia based materials were investigated as catalysts for acidic and selective oxidation type reactions. In the ODH of propane niobia exhibited a high selectivity to propene but the conversion of propane was low. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts proved to be catalytically active and selective and showed no formation of oxygenates. In the present study the influence of the niobia dopant of the catalytic properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts in the ODH of propane was examined. The structural and textural properties of the catalysts were investigated using several methods. (orig.)

  9. Study of the performance of vanadium based catalysts prepared by grafting in the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, E.; Carotenuto, G.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane has been investigated by using many different vanadia based catalysts, prepared by grafting technique and containing variable amounts of active phase supported on SiO{sub 2} previously coated, by grafting in three different steps, with multilayer of TiO{sub 2}. A depth catalytic screening, conducted in a temperature range of 400-600 C, at atmospheric pressure and in a range of residence time W/F=0.08-0.33 ghmol{sub -1}, has shown that the vanadium oxide catalysts on TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} support, prepared by grafting have good performances in the ODH of propane. In particular, a preliminary study has demonstrated that higher selectivities can be obtained employing catalysts having a well dispersed active phase that can be achieved with a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} content lower than 10%{sub w}t. It is well known that, in the case of redox catalysts, an increase of the selectivity can be achieved not only by using an adequate catalytic system but also via engineering routes like decoupling catalytic steps of reduction and re-oxidation. In fact it has been observed that by operating in dehydrogenating mode, on the same catalysts, a higher selectivity is obtained although the catalyst is poisoned by the formation of coke on the surface. As consequence of the results obtained in dehydrogenation, in this work has been explored the possibility to feed low amounts of oxygen, below the stoichiometric level with the aim to keep clean the surface from coke but maintaining high the selectivity, because, dehydrogenation reaction prevails. In this work, the behavior of catalysts containing different amounts of V2O5 has been studied in the propane-propene reaction by using different ratios C{sub 3}H{sub 8}/O{sub 2} included in the range 0-2. (orig.)

  10. Kinetics of propane dehydrogenation in CO{sub 2} presence over chromium and gallium oxide catalysts based on MCM-41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V.; Agafonov, A.Yu.; Botavina, M.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Chromium and gallium catalysts based on MCM-41 with different contents of active metals were prepared and tested for propane dehydrogenation in the presence and absence of CO{sub 2}. It was shown that CO{sub 2} increased the yield of propene and decreased considerably the rate of deactivation of Cr/MCM-41 and decreased propene yield and slightly improved the stability of Ga/MCM-41. The study of kinetics in unstationary and stationary fields showed that the decrease of propene yield was connected with strong competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2} over Ga-catalysts what presented difficulties for propane adsorption. The formation of cracking products was decreased in CO{sub 2} presence over both catalysts. The catalysts were differed by the adsorption capacity of the reaction components: C{sub 3}H{sub 6} was tied more strongly than CO{sub 2} over Cr-catalysts, CO{sub 2} was tied more firmly than C{sub 3}H{sub 6} over Ga-catalysts. Kinetic data showed that of H{sub 2} was bounded with the surface of Ga-catalysts very firmly, reverse watergas shift reaction proceeded in considerably more extent over Cr-catalysts than over Gaones. CO{sub 2} took active participation in oxidation of coke and surface of Cr-catalysts. The positive role of CO{sub 2} in propane dehydrogenation over Ga-catalysts consisted in a decrease of coke and cracking products. Kinetic equations and step-schemes for propene and cracking products formation were proposed. (orig.)

  11. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N. [Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  12. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  13. Cryosurgical treatment of warts: dimethyl ether and propane versus liquid nitrogen - case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nicholas V; Burkhart, Craig G

    2011-10-01

    For years, dermatologists have relied on cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen as a safe and effective treatment for warts. More recently, several over-the-counter (OTC) wart-freezing therapies have become available. Manufacturers have substituted liquid nitrogen with dimethyl ether and propane (DMEP), and marketed these new preparations to be safe and effective alternatives to in-office cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. However, data from in vitro studies and comparative studies in humans refute manufacturers' claims that these products reproduce in-office cryotherapy.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of microporous inorganic membranes for propylene/propane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H 8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H 6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H 6/C3H8 mixture separation. CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous gamma-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H 6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N 2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C 3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores. CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C 3H8 separation

  15. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2018-01-11

    Partially premixed turbulent flames with non-homogeneous jet of propane were generated in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner in order to investigate the effect of the coflow on the stability and flame structure. The flame stability is first mapped and then high-speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, SPIV, plus OH planar laser-induced fluorescence, OH-PLIF, measurements were conducted on a subset of four flames. The jet equivalence ratio Φ = 2, Jet exit Reynolds number Re = 10,000, and degree of premixing are kept constant for the selected flames, while the coflow velocity, Uc, is progressively changed from 0 to 15 m/s. The results showed that the flame is stable between two extinction limits of mixture inhomogeneity, and the optimum stability is obtained at certain degree of mixture inhomogeneity. Increasing Φ, increases the span between these two extinction limits, while these limits converge to a single point (corresponding to optimum mixture inhomogeneity) with increasing Re. Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads to optimum flame stability. The time averaged SPIV results show that the coflow induces a big annular recirculation zone surrounds the jet flames. The size and the location of this zone is seen to be sensitive to Uc. However, the instantaneous images show the existence of a small vortical structure close to the shear layer, where the flame resides there in the case of no-coflow. These small vertical structures are seen playing a vital role in the flame structure, and increasing the flame corrugation close to the nozzle exit. Increasing the coflow velocity expands the central jet at the expense of the jet velocity, and drags the flame in the early flame regions towards the recirculation zone, where the flame tracks

  16. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Scott

    2016-03-24

    The propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half of the Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity (DCJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3-2.0 m or 317-488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 DCJ and 0.95 DCJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity histories using dynamical systems ideas

  17. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) fruit using compressed propane and supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ciro E F; Scapinello, Jaqueline; Bohn, Aline; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Magro, Jacir Dall; Palliga, Marshall; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Tres, Marcus V

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Ilex paraguariensis leaves are consumed in tea form or as typical drinks like mate and terere, while the fruits are discarded processing and has no commercial value. The aim of this work to evaluate phytochemical properties, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Ilex paraguariensis fruits obtained from supercritical CO 2 and compressed propane extraction. The extraction with compressed propane yielded 2.72 wt%, whereas with supercritical CO 2 1.51 wt% was obtained. The compound extracted in larger amount by the two extraction solvents was caffeine, 163.28 and 54.17 mg/g by supercritical CO 2 and pressurized propane, respectively. The antioxidant activity was more pronounced for the supercritical CO 2 extract, with no difference found in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration for Staphylococcus aureus for the two extracts and better results observed for Escherichia coli when using supercritical CO 2 .

  18. Poly[propane-1,3-diammonium [cuprate(II-bis(μ2-pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylato] trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Hooshmand

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title polymeric compound {(C3H12N2[Cu(C7H3NO42]·3H2O}n or {(pnH2[Cu(py-2,3-dc2]·3H2O}n (pn is propane-1,3-diamine and py-2,3-dcH2 is pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, was synthesized by reaction of copper(II chloride dihydrate with a proton-transfer compound, propane-1,3-diammonium pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate or (pnH2(py-2,3-dc, in aqueous solution. The anion is a six-coordinate complex (site symmetry overline{1}, with a distorted octahedral geometry around CuII, consisting of two bidentate pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate groups and two O atoms of bridging ligands from (py-2,3-dc2− fragments, which are located in trans positions. The (pnH22+ cation is disordered over two sites by the center of inversion. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds, π–π [centroid–centroid distances of 3.539 (3 Å] and C—O...π stacking interactions [O...Cg = 3.240 (5 Å; Cg is the center of the pyridine ring], connect the various components into a supramolecular structure.

  19. Separation of Binary Mixtures of Propylene and Propane by Facilitated Transport through Silver Incorporated Poly(Ether-Block-Amide Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Murali R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The separation of propylene and propane is a challenging task in petroleum refineries due to the similar molecular sizes and physical properties of two gases. Composite Poly(ether-block-amide (Pebax-1657 membranes incorporated with silver tetra fluoroborate (AgBF4 in concentrations of 0-50% of the polymer weight were prepared by solution casting and solvent evaporation technique. The membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR and wide-angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD to study surface and cross-sectional morphologies, effect of incorporation on intermolecular interactions and degree of crystallinity, respectively. Experimental data was measured with an indigenously built high-pressure gas separation manifold having an effective membrane area of 42 cm2. Permeability and selectivity of membranes were determined for three different binary mixtures of propylene-propane at pressures varying in the range 2-6 bar. Selectivity of C3H6/C3H8 enhanced from 2.92 to 17.22 and 2.11 to 20.38 for 50/50 and 66/34 C3H6+C3H8 feed mixtures, respectively, with increasing loading of AgBF4. Pebax membranes incorporated with AgBF4 exhibit strong potential for the separation of C3H6/C3H8 mixtures in petroleum refineries.

  20. VO x /SiO 2 Catalyst Prepared by Grafting VOCl 3 on Silica for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Dong, Hailin; Llorens, Isabelle; Saih, Youssef; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The VOx/SiO2 catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were synthesized by a simple grafting method. The VOCl3 was first grafted at the surface of SiO2, which was dehydrated at different temperature (from 200 to 1000°C). The formed grafted complexes were then calcined in air, leading to the formation of VOx/SiO2 catalysts. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The SiO2 pretreatment temperature has an evident effect on the loading and dispersion of VOx on SiO2, which finally affects their catalytic performance. High SiO2 treatment temperature is beneficial to dispersing the vanadium oxide species at the SiO2 surface. These materials are efficient catalysts for the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propylene. The best selectivity to propylene is achieved on the VOx/SiO2-(1000) catalyst. The high selectivity and activity are well maintained for three days catalytic reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. VO x /SiO 2 Catalyst Prepared by Grafting VOCl 3 on Silica for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2015-09-07

    The VOx/SiO2 catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were synthesized by a simple grafting method. The VOCl3 was first grafted at the surface of SiO2, which was dehydrated at different temperature (from 200 to 1000°C). The formed grafted complexes were then calcined in air, leading to the formation of VOx/SiO2 catalysts. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The SiO2 pretreatment temperature has an evident effect on the loading and dispersion of VOx on SiO2, which finally affects their catalytic performance. High SiO2 treatment temperature is beneficial to dispersing the vanadium oxide species at the SiO2 surface. These materials are efficient catalysts for the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propylene. The best selectivity to propylene is achieved on the VOx/SiO2-(1000) catalyst. The high selectivity and activity are well maintained for three days catalytic reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Evaluation of a fuel cell polymer electrolyte with Pt-Sn anode operating with H2, H2-CO mixture, propane and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsalve, Carlos; Hoyos, Bibian

    2005-01-01

    In this work it was tested a proton Exchange membrane fuel cell with a Pt-Sn anode (in a 90:10 ratio) fed with H 2 , a H 2 -CO mixture, propane and methane under a pressure of 10 psi and temperatures of 30, 50 y 70 Celsius degrade. It was found good catalyst tolerance to the CO presence in the hydrogen current, even with catalytic activity to the CO oxidation. For the pure CO, propane and methane cases, the catalytic activity was too low. This results show that the Pt-Sn catalyst it is not appropriated for those fuels.

  3. Poly[4,4'-(propane-1,3-diyl)dipyridinium bis{tetraaquabis(μ2-5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylato)bis[μ2-1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane]dicobalt(II)} pentahydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Ana María; Corsini, Gino; Garland, Maria Teresa; Baggio, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    The title polymeric compound, {(C(13)H(16)N(2))[Co(C(10)H(3)O(8))(C(13)H(14)N(2))(H(2)O)(2)](2)·5H(2)O}(n), is an ionic structure comprising an anionic two-dimensional mesh characterized by a {[Co(Hbtc)(bpp)(H(2)O)(2)](-)}(2) motif [Hbtc is 5-carboxybenzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate and bpp is 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], with interspersed 4,4'-(propane-1,3-diyl)dipyridinium cations, denoted (H(2)bpp)(2+), and water molecules providing the charge balance and structure stabilization. The reticular mesh consists of two independent types of [Co(H(2)O)(2)](2+) cationic nodes (lying on inversion centres), interconnected in the [101] direction by two independent sets of neutral bridging bpp ligands, both types of ligands being split by non-equivalent twofold axes. One set is formed by genuinely symmetric moieties, while those in the second set are only symmetric by disorder in the central propane bridge. These chains contain only one type of Co(II) centre and one type of bpp ligand; the metal cations therein are laterally bridged by Hbtc anions, thus forming transverse chains of alternating types of Co(II) cations. The elemental motif of the resulting grid is a highly distorted parallelogram, with metal-metal distances of 13.5242 (14) Å in the bpp direction and 9.105 (2) Å in the Hbtc direction, and a large internal angle of 138.42 (18)°. These two-dimensional structures have a profusion of hydrogen-bonding interactions with each other, either directly (with the aqua molecules as donors and the Hbtc anions as acceptors) or mediated by the unbound (H(2)bpp)(2+) cations and water molecules of hydration. These interactions generate a very complex hydrogen-bonding scheme involving all of the available N-H and O-H groups and which links these two-dimensional grids into a three-dimensional network.

  4. Studies of propane flame soot acting as heterogeneous ice nuclei in conjunction with single particle soot photometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Crawford

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation efficiency of propane flame soot particles with and without a sulphuric acid coating was investigated using the aerosol and cloud chamber facility AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere. The test soot for cloud formation simulations was produced using a propane flame Combustion Aerosol Standard generator (CAST, Jing-CAST Technologies. The organic carbon content (OC of the test soot was altered in a reproducible fashion by changing the fuel/air mixture of the generator. The soot content of ice nuclei was subsequently investigated using a combination of a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI to separate and evaporate the ice crystals, and a DMT single particle soot photometer (SP2 to examine the mixing state of the BC containing ice residuals.

    Ice nucleation was found to be most efficient for uncoated soot of low organic carbon content (~5 % organic carbon content where deposition freezing occurred at an ice saturation ratio Sice ~ 1.22 at a temperature T = 226.6 K with 25 % of the test soot becoming active as ice nuclei. Propane flame soot of higher organic carbon content (~30 % and ~70 % organic carbon content showed significantly lower ice nucleation efficiency (an activated fraction of the order of a few percent in the experiments than the low organic carbon content soot, with water saturation being required for freezing to occur. Ice nucleation occurred over the range Sice = 1.22–1.70, and T = 223.2–226.6 K. Analysis of the SP2 data showed that the 5 % organic carbon content soot had an undetectable OC coating whereas the 30 % organic carbon content soot had a thicker or less volatile OC coating.

    The application of a sulphuric acid coating to the flame soot shifted the threshold of the onset of freezing towards that of the homogeneous freezing of sulphuric acid; for the minimum OC flame soot this inhibited nucleation since the

  5. Letter to the Editor: About "Studies of Viscosity and Excess Molar Volume of Binary Mixtures of Propane-1,2 diol with Water at Various Temperatures"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 208, 1-2 (2003), s. 261-263 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : water * propane-1,2-diol * physical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2003

  6. Real-Time Quantitative Operando Raman Spectroscopy of a CrOx/Al2O3 Propane Dehydrogenation Catalyst in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Jesper J. H. B.; Mens, Ad M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Combined operando UV/vis-Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the deactivation of CrOx/Al2O3 catalyst extrudates in a pilot scale propane dehydrogenation reactor. For this purpose, UV/vis and Raman optical fiber probes have been designed, constructed and tested. The light absorption measured by

  7. Numerical study of influences of crosswind and additional steam on the flow field and temperature of propane non-premixed turbulence flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wusnah; Bindar, Y.; Yunardi; Nur, F. M.; Syam, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results the process of combustion propane using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the turbulent non-premixed flame under the influences of crosswinds and the ratio of fuel (propane) to steam, S. Configuration, discretization and boundary conditions of the flame are described using GambitTM software and integrated with FluentTM software for calculations of flow and reactive fields. This work focuses on the influence of various crosswind speeds (0–10 m/s) and values of S (0.14–2.35) while the velocity of fuel issued from the nozzle was kept constant at 20 m/s. A turbulence model, k-ɛ standard and combustion model, Eddy Dissipation model were employed for the calculation of velocity and temperature fields, respectively. The results are displayed in the form of predictive terrain profile of the propane flame at different crosswind speeds. The results of the propane flame profile demonstrated that the crosswind significantly affect the structure velocity and position of the flame which was off-center moving towards the direction of crosswind, eventually affect the temperature along the flame. As the values of S is increasing, the flame contour temperature decreases, until the flame was extinguished at S equals to 2.35. The combustion efficiency for a variety of crosswind speeds decreases with increasing values of S.

  8. A kinetic rate expression for the time-dependent coke formation rate during propane dehydrogenation over a platinum alumina monolithic catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Coke formation rates under propane dehydrogenation reaction conditions on a used monolithic Pt/¿-Al2O3 catalyst have been experimentally determined in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) as a function of time on stream covering wide temperature and concentration ranges. For relatively short times on

  9. A kinetic rate expression for the time-dependent coke formation rate during propane dehydrogenation over a platinum alumina monolithic catalyst.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    Coke formation rates under propane dehydrogenation reaction conditions on a used monolithic Pt/y-Al2O3 catalyst have been experimentally determined in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) as a function of time on stream covering wide temperature and concentration ranges. For relatively short times on

  10. A MAS NMR and DRIFT study of the Ga species in Ga/H-ZSM5 catalysts and their effect on propane ammoxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, P.; Quartararo, J.; Hamid, abd S.B.; Derouane, E.G.; Védrine, J.C.; Magusin, P.C.M.M.; Anderson, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    71Ga, 27Al and 29Si MAS-NMR and DRIFT spectroscopies were used to characterize the state of gallium in Ga/H-ZSM5 catalysts tested for their ability to catalyse the ammoxidation of propane. Ga-species were observed in two different possible environments: octahedrally-coordinated gallium in small

  11. Role of the acid-base properties of gallium-antimony oxide catalyst in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile (AN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-07-01

    The role of the acid-base properties of gallium-antimony oxide catalyst in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile (AN) was studied in a differential flow reactor at 550/sup 0/C, with the reaction mixture containing 5 3< by vol propane, 6 3< ammonia, and 18.6Vertical Bar3< oxygen diluted in helium, over ebulliated beds of a 5Vertical Bar3< Ga/Sb or a 1:3:1.5:1 Ga/Sb/Ni/P catalysts, the basicity of which was varied by adding 5 mole Vertical Bar3< of an alkaline earth metal (added as the nitrate and calcined). Both the rate of propane conversion and that of AN formation increased with increasing concentration of the basic sites (determined by back titration with benzoic acid) on both types of the catalysts and linearly correlated with the amount of nitrous oxide desorbed from the catalysts after the reaction. The presence of ammonia in the reaction mixture increased the activity and selectivity of the catalysts and the concentration of the active basic sites. Apparently, the reaction rate is limited by proton abstraction from a propane molecule with the formation of a carbanion stabilized on alkaline-earth metal cations. The rate-determining proton abstraction occurs on nucleophile basic sites, formed by dissociative adsorption of ammonia to form species such as NH, NH/sub 2/, and HNO, which are then oxidized to N/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O.

  12. Feeding biogas onto the national gas grid - Technical and economical aspects on omitting propane addition; Inmatning av biogas paa naturgasnaetet - Tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter paa slopad propantillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2012-07-01

    Biogas injection into the natural gas grid is a common practice in Sweden today. In order to condition the biogas to the quality matching the natural gas, propane (approx. 8 %) is injected in the biogas. This is a costly procedure which also introduces fossil components into a renewable gas flow. Because of this, it is desired to terminate the propane injection and inject biogas straight into the gas grid. This might affect certain customers and will affect billing procedures and this study has briefly examined the impact of injection of biogas in the gas grid without propane addition. The main findings are: 1. It seems technically possible to inject biogas without propane into the gas grid. Attention has to be paid to the quality requirements of certain sensitive customers, but most customers can accept the quality variations. 2. It is recommended that the minimum methane content of injected biogas is raised to 98 %. This might affect the operation and choice of upgrading equipment and will have to be evaluated from both a technical and an economical viewpoint in each case. 3. Downgrading the natural gas to biogas quality by air injection is not an option. 4. In order to make simplify billing procedures, the geographic location of biogas site injecting gas into the distribution network is crucial. The biogas site should be placed as close to the transmission network as possible. Further, two case studies concerning biogas injection into the transmission network are briefly discussed.

  13. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—I. Operation in absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    A pilot plant study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate reactant feeds is presented. The membrane consisted of a porous alumina tube activated by insertion into its pores of a Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The role of reactants concentration and of the feed flow rates were

  14. Catalytic combustion of propane in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants—II. Operation in presence of trans-membrane pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saracco, Guido; Veldsink, Jan Willem; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This is the second communication of a series dealing with an experimental and modelling study on propane catalytic combustion in a membrane reactor with separate feed of reactants. In paper I the behaviour of the reactor in the absence of trans-membrane pressure gradients was presented and

  15. Speed of sound in saturated aliphatic alcohols (propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol) and alkanediols (ethane-1,2-diol, propane-1,2- and -1,3-diol) at temperature between 253.15 K and 353.15 K and pressures up to 30 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dávila, María J.; Gedanitz, Holger; Span, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Speed of sound measurements were made in aliphatic alcohols and alkanediols. • Speeds of sound were measured in a wide temperature and pressure range. • A pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor operating at 8 MHz was employed. • A double polynomial equation was used to fit the experimental speed of sound data. • The accurate results were compared with available literature sources. - Abstract: Speeds of sound have been measured in three saturated aliphatic alcohols (propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol) and three alkanediols (ethane-1,2-diol, propane-1,2- and -1,3-diol) in the temperature range from (253.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 30 MPa by use of a pulse-echo method with a double path type sensor operating at 8 MHz. The expanded overall uncertainties (k = 2) in the speed of sound measurements are estimated to be 0.013% for propan-2-ol, 0.019% for butan-2-ol, 0.01% for 2-methylpropan-1-ol, 0.009% for ethane-1,2-diol, 0.02% for propane-1,2-diol, and 0.07% for propane-1,3-diol. Experimental speeds of sound data were correlated with the temperature and pressure with an empirical double polynomial equation. Our results were also compared with the available literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

  16. Cluster-derived Ir-Sn/SiO2 catalysts for the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane: A spectroscopic study

    KAUST Repository

    Gallo, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Ir-Sn bimetallic silica-based materials have been prepared via deposition of the molecular organometallic clusters (NEt4)2[Ir 4(CO)10(SnCl3)2] and NEt 4[Ir6(CO)15(SnCl3)] or via deposition of Sn organometallic precursor Sn(n-C4H9) 4 onto pre-formed Ir metal particles. These solids possess promising properties, in terms of selectivity, as catalysts for propane dehydrogenation to propene. Detailed CO-adsorption DRIFTS, XANES and EXAFS characterization studies have been performed on these systems in order to compare the structural and electronic evolution of systems in relation to the nature of the Ir-Sn bonds present in the precursor compounds and to propose a structural model of the Ir-Sn species present at the silica surface of the final catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Occurrence of 3-chloro-propane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and related compounds in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C G; Sadd, P A; Crews, C; Velísek, J; Baxter, D E

    2002-07-01

    A critical review of the occurrence of 3-chloro-propane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in foods not known to contain hydrolysed vegetable proteins is presented. The review covers the properties and chemistry of 3-MCPD and the current methods of analysis in foodstuffs. The results of UK surveys of 3-MCPD occurrence in both retail foods and commercial food ingredients are discussed with particular reference to cereal, meat and dairy products. The possible mechanisms for the formation and decay of 3-MCPD in foods are suggested. The review does not cover the detailed toxicology of 3-MCPD and its occurrence in hydrolysed vegetable proteins, which have been considered elsewhere, nor possible issues such as in-vivo formation.

  18. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-12-01

    A new one pot, surfactant-free, synthetic route based on the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) concept has been developed for the synthesis of Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn nanoparticles. Bu3SnH selectively reacts with [Pt]-H formed in situ at the surface of Pt nanoparticles, Pt NPs, obtained by reduction of K2PtCl4 by LiB(C2H5)3H. Chemical analysis, 1H MAS and 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR as well as two-dimensional double-quantum (DQ) and triple-quantum (TQ) experiments show that organo-tin moieties Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as-synthesized Pt-Sn NPs, enabling the bimetallic NPs to be well dispersed in THF. Additionally, the Pt-Sn nanoparticles can be supported on MgAl2O4 during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Some of the Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 catalyst thus prepared exhibits high activity in PROX of CO and an extremely high selectivity and stability in propane dehydrogenation to propylene. The enhanced activity in propane dehydrogenation is associated with the high concentration of inactive Sn at the surface of Pt nanoparticles which ”isolates” the active Pt atoms. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD, NMR, TEM, and XPS analysis.

  19. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Sing Ho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problem plaguing propane dehydrogenation process is the coke formation on the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst which leads to catalyst deactivation. Due to information paucity, the physicochemical characteristics of the commercially obtained regenerated Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalyst (operated in moving bed reactor and coke formation at different temperatures of reaction were discussed. The physicochemical characterization of regenerated catalyst gave a BET surface area of 104.0 m2/g with graphitic carbon content of 8.0% indicative of incomplete carbon gasification during the industrial propylene production. Effect of temperatures on coke formation was identified by studying the product yield via temperature-programmed reaction carried out at 500oC, 600oC and 700oC. It was found that ethylene was precursor to carbon laydown while propylene tends to crack into methane. Post reaction, the spent catalyst possessed relatively lower surface area and pore radius whilst exhibited higher carbon content (31.80% at 700oC compared to the regenerated catalyst. Significantly, current studies also found that higher reaction temperatures favoured the coke formation. Consequently, the propylene yield has decreased with reaction temperature. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th March 2013; Revised: 28th April 2013; Accepted: 6th May 2013[How to Cite: Kah, S.H., Joanna Jo, E.C., Sim, Y.C., Chin, K.C. (2013. Characterization of Industrial Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst and Transient Product Formations during Propane Dehydrogenation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 77-82. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4569.77-82] | View in  |

  20. Characterization studies of 1-(4-cyano-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl)-3-(4-cyano-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl) propane formed from the reaction of hydroxide Ion with 1,3-Bis-(4-cyano pyridinium)propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, Simone; Schuquel, Ivania T.A.; Meyer, Emerson; Hioka, Noboru; Silva, Idelcio N. da; Politi, Mario J.; Catalani, Luiz H.; Chaimovich, Hernan

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous alkaline reaction of 1,3.bis(4.cyanopyridinium)propane dibromide, a reactant constituted of two pyridinium rings linked by a three.methylene bridge, generates a novel compound, 1-(4-cyano-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl)-3-(4-cyano-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridyl) propane. The reaction pathway is attributed to the proximity of the OH. ion inserted between two pyridinium moieties, which occurs only in bis(pyridinium) derivatives connected by short methylene spacers, where charge-conformational effects are important. (author)

  1. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyngarden, A L; Pérez-Montaño, S; Bui, J V H; Li, E S W; Nelson, T E; Ha, K T; Leong, L; Iraci, L T

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal

  2. Quantification of the selective activation of C--H bonds in short chain alkanes: The reactivity of ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, and neopentane on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.F.; Weinberg, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The initial probabilities of precursor-mediated, dissociative chemisorption of the saturated hydrocarbons 13 C-labeled ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, and neopentane on the close-packed Ir(111) surface have been measured. The selective activation of primary (1 degree), secondary (2 degree), and tertiary (3 degree) C--H bonds has been quantified by examining the reactivities of the selectively deuterated isotopomers of propane, C 3 H 8 , CH 3 CD 2 CH 3 , and C 3 D 8 , and of isobutane, (CH 3 ) 3 CH, (CH 3 ) 3 CD, and (CD 3 ) 3 CH. With respect to the bottom of the physically adsorbed well for each hydrocarbon, the apparent C--H bond activation energies have been found to be 10.4±0.3 kcal/mol (ethane), 11.4±0.3 kcal/mol (propane), 11.5±0.3 kcal/mol (n-butane), 11.3±0.3 kcal/mol (i-butane), and 11.3±0.3 kcal/mol (neopentane). For all the alkanes examined, the ratios of the preexponential factors of the rate coefficients of reaction and desorption are 1x10 -2 . The C--D bond activation energies are higher than the corresponding C--H bond activation energies by 480 cal/mol (ethane), 630 cal/mol (propane), and 660 cal/mol (i-butane). By analyzing the primary kinetic isotope effects for the selectively deuterated isotopomers of propane and isobutane, the 2 degree C--H bond activation energy is found to be 310±160 cal/mol less than the 1 degree C--H bond activation energy on this surface, and similarly, 3 degree C--H bond cleavage is less by 80±70 cal/mol. The quantification of the branching ratios within the C--H bond activation channel for propane and isobutane on this surface shows that the formation of 1 degree-alkyl intermediates is, in general, favored over the formation of either 2 degree- or 3 degree-alkyl intermediates. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. TECHNICAL JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING PROPANE AS A CALIBRATION AGENT FOR TOTAL FLAMMABLE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) DETERMINATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the technical justification for choosing and using propane as a calibration standard for estimating total flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an air matrix. A propane-in-nitrogen standard was selected based on a number of criteria: (1) has an analytical response similar to the VOCs of interest, (2) can be made with known accuracy and traceability, (3) is available with good purity, (4) has a matrix similar to the sample matrix, (5) is stable during storage and use, (6) is relatively non-hazardous, and (7) is a recognized standard for similar analytical applications. The Waste Retrieval Project (WRP) desires a fast, reliable, and inexpensive method for screening the flammable VOC content in the vapor-phase headspace of waste containers. Table 1 lists the flammable VOCs of interest to the WRP. The current method used to determine the VOC content of a container is to sample the container's headspace and submit the sample for gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The driver for the VOC measurement requirement is safety: potentially flammable atmospheres in the waste containers must be allowed to diffuse prior to processing the container. The proposed flammable VOC screening method is to inject an aliquot of the headspace sample into an argon-doped pulsed-discharge helium ionization detector (Ar-PDHID) contained within a gas chromatograph. No actual chromatography is performed; the sample is transferred directly from a sample loop to the detector through a short, inert transfer line. The peak area resulting from the injected sample is proportional to the flammable VOC content of the sample. However, because the Ar-PDHID has different response factors for different flammable VOCs, a fundamental assumption must be made that the agent used to calibrate the detector is representative of the flammable VOCs of interest that may be in the headspace samples. At worst, we desire that calibration with the selected calibrating

  4. Coordination Polymers of N, Nʼ-di-(8-Hydroxyquinolinolyl- 5-methyl-N, N-diethyl-1,3-propane diamine (QEPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination polymers containing a novel bis(oxine bidentate ligand, namely N,Nʼ-di(8-hydroxyquinolinolyl-5-methyl-N,Nʼ-diethyl-1,3-propane diamine (QEPD have been prepared with the metal ions Zn(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and Mn(II. The novel bis-(bidentate ligand was synthesized by condensation of 5-chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline hydrochloride with N,Nʼ-diethyl-1,2- propane diamine in the presence of a base catalyses. All of these coordination polymers and the parent ligand were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectral and diffuse reflectance spectral studies. The thermal stability and number- average molecular weights (Mn¯ of all of the coordination polymers were determined by thermogravimetric analyses and non-aqueous conductometric titrations, respectively. In addition, all of the coordination polymers have been characterized by their magnetic susceptibilities.

  5. Vapour pressure and excess Gibbs free energy of binary mixtures of hydrogen sulphide with ethane, propane, and n-butane at temperature of 182.33K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, L.Q.; Ferreira, A.G.M.; Fonseca, I.M.A.; Senra, A.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The vapour pressure of binary mixtures of hydrogen sulphide with ethane, propane, and n-butane was measured at T=182.33K covering most of the composition range. The excess Gibbs free energy of these mixtures has been derived from the measurements made. For the equimolar mixtures G m E (x 1 =0.5)=(835.5+/-5.8)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+C 2 H 6 ) (820.1+/-2.4)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+C 3 H 8 ), and (818.6+/-0.9)J.mol -1 for (H 2 S+n-C 4 H 10 ). The binary mixtures of H 2 S with ethane and with propane exhibit azeotropes, but that with n-butane does not

  6. Influence of vanadium oxidation states on the performance of V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, L.; Navarrete, J.; Schacht, P.; Ramirez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were prepared by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides with vanadium interlayer doping. The obtained catalysts were tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, obtaining good results in catalytic activity (conversion 16.55 % and selectivity 99.97 %) Results indicated that catalytic performance of these materials depends on how vanadium is integrated in the layered structure, which is determined by the Mg/Al ratio. Vanadium interlayer doping modifies the oxidation state of vanadium and consequently catalytic properties. Surface properties were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and diffuse reflectance, UV-visible spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction. The analyses provided information about the oxidation state, before and after the reaction. From these results, it is suggested that selectivity to propylene and catalytic activity depend mainly of vanadium oxidation state. (Author)

  7. Diammine{N-[2-(hydroxyiminopropionyl]-N′-[2-(oxidoiminopropionyl]propane-1,3-diaminido-κ4N,N′,N′′,N′′′}iron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Tomyn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe(C9H13N4O4(NH32], the FeIII atom, lying on a mirror plane, is coordinated by four N atoms of a triply deprotonated tetradentate N-[2-(hydroxyiminopropionyl]-N′-[2-(oxidoiminopropionyl]propane-1,3-diaminide ligand in the equatorial plane and two N atoms of two ammonia molecules at the axial positions in a distorted octahedral geometry. A short intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the cis-disposed oxime O atoms stabilizes the pseudo-macrocyclic configuration of the ligand. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The ligand has a mirror-plane symmetry. One of the methylene groups of the propane bridge is disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancy factors.

  8. Influence of vanadium oxidation states on the performance of V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, L. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Av. IPN s/n, Edificio 9, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Navarrete, J.; Schacht, P.; Ramirez, M. A., E-mail: pschacha@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were prepared by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides with vanadium interlayer doping. The obtained catalysts were tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, obtaining good results in catalytic activity (conversion 16.55 % and selectivity 99.97 %) Results indicated that catalytic performance of these materials depends on how vanadium is integrated in the layered structure, which is determined by the Mg/Al ratio. Vanadium interlayer doping modifies the oxidation state of vanadium and consequently catalytic properties. Surface properties were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and diffuse reflectance, UV-visible spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction. The analyses provided information about the oxidation state, before and after the reaction. From these results, it is suggested that selectivity to propylene and catalytic activity depend mainly of vanadium oxidation state. (Author)

  9. 1-(2-Chlorobenzyloxy-3-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl-propan-2-ol Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and DFT-Based Descriptors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Román-Maldonado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of 1-(2-chlorobenzyloxy-3-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl-propan-2-ol derivatives was designed and synthesized using copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition in the key step. Theoretical investigation of molecular and electronic properties by means of global and local reactivity indexes of the synthetized compounds was carried out, using DFT (Density Functional Theory at PBEPBE/6-31++G⁎⁎ level.

  10. 1-[3-(2-Methyl-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-propane-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaoua Kedjadja

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel compound, 1-[3-(2-methyl-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-propane-1-one (3 has been synthesized by cyclocondensation of (E-1-(2-methyl-4-phenylquinolin-3-yl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (2 and hydrazine hydrate in propionic acid. The structure of this compound was established by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS data.

  11. Spin state of mixed crystals of iron with zinc or cobalt for the assembled complexes bridged by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S; Dote, T; Atsuchi, M; Inoue, K

    2010-01-01

    Mixed crystals, [Fe 1-x M x (NCX) 2 (bpp) 2 ] (M=Zn, Co; X=S, Se; bpp1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), had a similar structure with 2D interpenetrated structure of [Fe(NCX) 2 (bpp) 2 ]. The proportion of Fe II low-spin state in the mixed crystals of NCSe complex increased compared with that of the corresponding Fe complex, while such change in the Moessbauer spectra was not observed in the NCS complex.

  12. Propane-1,3-diammonium bis[aquachlorido(4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato-κ3O2,N,O6mercurate(II] tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghabozorg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of mercury(II chloride dihydrate, propane-1,3-diamine and 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid in a 1:1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, resulted in the formation of the title compound, (C3H12N2[Hg(C7H3NO5Cl(H2O]2·4H2O or (pnH2[Hg(hypydcCl(H2O]2·4H2O (where pn is propane-1,3-diamine and hypydcH2 is 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid. The metal atom is coordinated by one chloride group, one water molecule cis to the chloride ligand and one (hypydc2− ligand. The coordinated water molecule is almost perpendicular to the plane of the aromatic ring of (hypydc2−. The geometry of the resulting HgClNO3 coordination can be described as distorted square-pyramidal. This structure also contains propane-1,3-diammonium (site symmetry 2 as a counter-ion and four uncoordinated water molecules. There is a wide range of non-covalent interactions consisting of hydrogen bonding [of the types O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O, with D...A ranging from 2.548 (5 to 3.393 (6 Å] and ion pairing.

  13. Single-Site VO x Moieties Generated on Silica by Surface Organometallic Chemistry: A Way To Enhance the Catalytic Activity in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Barman, Samir

    2016-07-26

    We report here an accurate surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) approach to propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) using a μ2-oxo-bridged, bimetallic [V2O4(acac)2] (1) (acac = acetylacetonate anion) complex as a precursor. The identity and the nuclearity of the product of grafting and of the subsequent oxidative treatment have been systematically studied by means of FT-IR, Raman, solid-state (SS) NMR, UV-vis DRS, EPR and EXAFS spectroscopies. We show that the grafting of 1 on the silica surface under a rigorous SOMC protocol and the subsequent oxidative thermal treatment lead exclusively to well-defined and isolated monovanadate species. The resulting material has been tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane in a moderate temperature range (400-525 °C) and compared with that of silica-supported vanadium catalysts prepared by the standard impregnation technique. The experimental results show that the catalytic activity in propane ODH is strongly upgraded by the degree of isolation of the VOx species that can be achieved by employing the SOMC protocol. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  14. Single-Site VO x Moieties Generated on Silica by Surface Organometallic Chemistry: A Way To Enhance the Catalytic Activity in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Barman, Samir; Maity, Niladri; Bhatte, Kushal; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Dachwald, Oliver; Haeß ner, Carmen; Saih, Youssef; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Llorens, Isabelle; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Kö hler, Klaus; D’ Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    We report here an accurate surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) approach to propane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) using a μ2-oxo-bridged, bimetallic [V2O4(acac)2] (1) (acac = acetylacetonate anion) complex as a precursor. The identity and the nuclearity of the product of grafting and of the subsequent oxidative treatment have been systematically studied by means of FT-IR, Raman, solid-state (SS) NMR, UV-vis DRS, EPR and EXAFS spectroscopies. We show that the grafting of 1 on the silica surface under a rigorous SOMC protocol and the subsequent oxidative thermal treatment lead exclusively to well-defined and isolated monovanadate species. The resulting material has been tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane in a moderate temperature range (400-525 °C) and compared with that of silica-supported vanadium catalysts prepared by the standard impregnation technique. The experimental results show that the catalytic activity in propane ODH is strongly upgraded by the degree of isolation of the VOx species that can be achieved by employing the SOMC protocol. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. Infrared, Raman and density functional characterization and structural study of 2-Nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet Fatih; Bağlayan, Özge; Kaya, Esma Güneş; Alver, Özgür

    2017-12-01

    Nitro compound and nitro derivatives are industrially important to produce rubber and agricultural chemicals. In this study, one of the promising derivatives of nitro compound 2-Nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol (2NPP) is examined in detail. FT-Infrared and dispersive Raman spectra of 2NPP (C9H11NO4) were respectively recorded in 4000-10 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1. The bond distances and angles, conformational distributions, vibrational frequencies and the assignment of each mode, some thermodynamic parameters and reactivity descriptors: total energy, hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index, electronegativity, frontier orbitals energy gap of 2NPP were investigated by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31++G (d,p) basis set. In order to locate the global minimum on the potential energy surface of 2NPP, a beforehand conformational examinations were carried out using Spartan 10 along with semi-emprical PM6 method. The results of conformational analyses showed that there are five possible conformations having energies under 2 kcal/mol. Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results clearly indicates that density functional hybrid B3LYP/6-31++G (d,p) level of theory can be used to predict vibrational frequencies and structural parameters of 2NPP. Further, C1 geometry is considered to be the global minimum conformation of 2NPP.

  16. Enhanced propylene/propane separation by thermal annealing of an intrinsically microporous Hydroxyl-functionalized polyimide membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.; Ma, Xiaohua; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Effective separation of propylene/propane is vital to the chemical industry where C3H6 is used as feedstock for a variety of important chemicals. The purity requirements are currently met with cryogenic distillation, which is an extremely energy-intensive process. Hybrid arrangements incorporating highly selective membranes (α>20) have been proposed to “debottleneck” the process and potentially improve the economics. Selective and permeable membranes can be obtained by the design of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs). In this work, a 250 °C annealed polyimide (PIM-6FDA-OH) membrane produced among the highest reported pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity of 30 for a solution-processable polymer to date. The high selectivity resulted from enhanced diffusivity selectivity due to the formation of inter-chain charge-transfer-complexes. Although there were some inevitable losses in selectivity under 50:50 mixed-gas feed conditions due to competitive sorption, relatively high selectivities were preserved due to enhanced plasticization resistance.

  17. Sooting limit in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene/propane fuels and implication to threshold soot index

    KAUST Repository

    Joo, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of propane/ethylene fuels have been studied experimentally using a light scattering technique, including the effects of dilution, fuel mixing, and strain rate. The results are discussed in view of the threshold soot index (TSI). In soot-formation (SF) flames, where the flame is located on the oxidizer side of the stagnation plane, the sooting limit depends critically on fuel type and subsequently on flame temperature. The sooting limit has a non-linear dependence on the fuel-mixing ratio, which is similar to the non-linear mixing rule for TSI observed experimentally in rich premixed flames, where soot oxidation is absent for both SF and rich premixed flames. In soot-formation-oxidation (SFO) flames, where the flame is located on the fuel side, the sooting limit depends critically on flame temperature, while it is relatively independent on fuel type. This result suggests a linear mixing rule for sooting limits in SFO flames, which is similar to the TSI behavior for coflow diffusion flames. Soot oxidation takes place for both types of flames. The aerodynamic strain effect on the sooting limits has also been studied and an appreciable influence has been observed. Under sooting conditions, soot volume fraction was measured using a light extinction technique. The soot loadings in SF flames of the mixture fuels demonstrated a synergistic effect, i.e., soot production increased for certain mixture fuels as compared to the respective singlecomponent fuels. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Enhanced propylene/propane separation by thermal annealing of an intrinsically microporous Hydroxyl-functionalized polyimide membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy Jawdat

    2015-08-06

    Effective separation of propylene/propane is vital to the chemical industry where C3H6 is used as feedstock for a variety of important chemicals. The purity requirements are currently met with cryogenic distillation, which is an extremely energy-intensive process. Hybrid arrangements incorporating highly selective membranes (α>20) have been proposed to “debottleneck” the process and potentially improve the economics. Selective and permeable membranes can be obtained by the design of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs). In this work, a 250 °C annealed polyimide (PIM-6FDA-OH) membrane produced among the highest reported pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity of 30 for a solution-processable polymer to date. The high selectivity resulted from enhanced diffusivity selectivity due to the formation of inter-chain charge-transfer-complexes. Although there were some inevitable losses in selectivity under 50:50 mixed-gas feed conditions due to competitive sorption, relatively high selectivities were preserved due to enhanced plasticization resistance.

  19. Measurement and modelling of urea solubility in aqueous propane-1,2,3-triol and prop-2-enoic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jéssica dos J; Rocha, João A.A.B.; Costa, Glória M.N.; Cabral-Albuquerque, Elaine C.M.; Alves, Tito L.M.; Pinto, José C.; Fialho, Rosana L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities were shown to increase with temperature and to decrease with the increasing organic solvent content. • The UNIFAC method provided good fitting of the available data, after the estimation of a single model parameter. • The empirical method showed to be more efficient to describe several solution concentrations however, it is not predictive. - Abstract: The aim of the present study is to measure the solubility of urea in aqueous solutions of prop-2-enoic acid and propane-1,2,3-triol, as these compounds are used as co-monomers to produce urea base co-polymers. Experimental values have been obtained at several concentrations and temperatures. Solubility results were modelled with the help of an exponential empirical correlation, ideal solid-liquid equilibrium correlation and the Universal Functional Activity Coefficient (UNIFAC) method, used to describe the activity coefficient in the liquid phase. The empirical correlation requires two empirical parameters for each solvent and leads to the best fit for the available data. The UNIFAC method correlation also has a good numerical performance and is completely predictive, and it does not require the estimation of additional parameters.

  20. Pure- and mixed-gas propylene/propane permeation properties of spiro- and triptycene-based microporous polyimides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.; Ghanem, Bader; Swaidan, Raja; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processable polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs) comprising relatively inflexible and contorted backbones have demonstrated outstanding molecular-sieving behavior in membrane-based separation of gas/gas pairs. In this work, the effects of systematically increasing intra-chain rigidity on the propylene/propane separation properties were compared for PIM-PIs made from 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (TMPD) and (i) spiro-centered dianhyride (SPDA-TMPD or PIM-PI-1) and (ii) 9,10-diisopropyltriptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA-TMPD or KAUST PI-1). Pure-gas experiments at 2 bar and 35 oC showed significant increases in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity by transitioning from PIM-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=393 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=6) to KAUST-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=817 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=16), positioning KAUST-PI-1 considerably above the experimentally observed pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 polymer upper bound. However, 50:50 C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas feeds induced significant losses in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity relative to the 2 bar pure-gas data for PIM-PI-1 and KAUST-PI-1 as the C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 6 to 3 and 16 to 5, respectively, at 2 bar C3H6 partial pressure due to plasticization and competitive sorption.

  1. Molecular-dynamics study of propane-hydrate dissociation: Fluctuation-dissipation and non-equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaani, Mohammad Reza; English, Niall J

    2018-03-21

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar propane-hydrate interfaces in contact with liquid water over the 260-320 K range. Two types of hydrate-surface water-lattice molecular termination were adopted, at the hydrate edge with water, for comparison: a 001-direct surface cleavage and one with completed cages. Statistically significant differences in melting temperatures and initial break-up rates were observed between both interface types. Dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model, developed previously, was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps us to identify clearly two distinct hydrate-decomposition régimes; following a highly temperature-dependent break-up phase, a second well-defined stage is essentially independent of temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. Further equilibrium MD-analysis of the two-phase systems at their melting point, with consideration of the relaxation times gleaned from the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in a number of enclathrated guest molecules, led to statistically significant differences between the two surface-termination cases; a consistent correlation emerged in both cases between the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates sampled directly from melting with that from an equilibrium-MD fluctuation-dissipation approach.

  2. High performance ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM mixed matrix membrane for propylene/propane separations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2012-02-01

    We report significantly enhanced propylene/propane (C 3H 6/C 3H 8) selectivity in mixed matrix membranes fabricated using 6FDA-DAM polyimide and a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8). Equilibrium isotherms and sorption kinetics of C 3H 6 and C 3H 8 at 35°C were studied on a 200nm commercially available ZIF-8 sample produced by BASF. Mixed matrix dense films were formed with 6FDA-DAM and 200nm BASF ZIF-8 particles. SEM imaging showed generally good adhesion between the ZIF-8 and 6FDA-DAM without the need for surface-treating ZIF-8. Pure gas permeation showed significantly enhanced mixed matrix ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM membrane C 3H 6/C 3H 8 separation performance over the pure 6FDA-DAM membrane performance. A C 3H 6 permeability of 56.2Barrer and C 3H 6/C 3H 8 ideal selectivity of 31.0 was found in ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM mixed matrix membrane with 48.0wt% ZIF-8 loading, which are 258% and 150% higher than the pure 6FDA-DAM membrane, respectively for permeability and selectivity. Permeation properties of C 3H 6 and C 3H 8 in ZIF-8 were back-calculated by the Maxwell model for composite permeability using pure gas permeation data, leading to a C 3H 6 permeability of 277Barrer and C 3H 6/C 3H 8 selectivity of 122. Mixed gas permeation also verified that selectivity enhancements were achievable in mixed gas environment by ZIF-8. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. High performance ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM mixed matrix membrane for propylene/propane separations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen; Dai, Ying; Johnson, Justin R.; Karvan, Oguz; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We report significantly enhanced propylene/propane (C 3H 6/C 3H 8) selectivity in mixed matrix membranes fabricated using 6FDA-DAM polyimide and a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8). Equilibrium isotherms and sorption kinetics of C 3H 6 and C 3H 8 at 35°C were studied on a 200nm commercially available ZIF-8 sample produced by BASF. Mixed matrix dense films were formed with 6FDA-DAM and 200nm BASF ZIF-8 particles. SEM imaging showed generally good adhesion between the ZIF-8 and 6FDA-DAM without the need for surface-treating ZIF-8. Pure gas permeation showed significantly enhanced mixed matrix ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM membrane C 3H 6/C 3H 8 separation performance over the pure 6FDA-DAM membrane performance. A C 3H 6 permeability of 56.2Barrer and C 3H 6/C 3H 8 ideal selectivity of 31.0 was found in ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM mixed matrix membrane with 48.0wt% ZIF-8 loading, which are 258% and 150% higher than the pure 6FDA-DAM membrane, respectively for permeability and selectivity. Permeation properties of C 3H 6 and C 3H 8 in ZIF-8 were back-calculated by the Maxwell model for composite permeability using pure gas permeation data, leading to a C 3H 6 permeability of 277Barrer and C 3H 6/C 3H 8 selectivity of 122. Mixed gas permeation also verified that selectivity enhancements were achievable in mixed gas environment by ZIF-8. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pure- and mixed-gas propylene/propane permeation properties of spiro- and triptycene-based microporous polyimides

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy Jawdat

    2015-06-03

    Solution-processable polyimides of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PIs) comprising relatively inflexible and contorted backbones have demonstrated outstanding molecular-sieving behavior in membrane-based separation of gas/gas pairs. In this work, the effects of systematically increasing intra-chain rigidity on the propylene/propane separation properties were compared for PIM-PIs made from 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine (TMPD) and (i) spiro-centered dianhyride (SPDA-TMPD or PIM-PI-1) and (ii) 9,10-diisopropyltriptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA-TMPD or KAUST PI-1). Pure-gas experiments at 2 bar and 35 oC showed significant increases in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity by transitioning from PIM-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=393 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=6) to KAUST-PI-1 (P(C3H6)=817 Barrer, α(C3H6/C3H8)=16), positioning KAUST-PI-1 considerably above the experimentally observed pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 polymer upper bound. However, 50:50 C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas feeds induced significant losses in C3H6 permeability and C3H6/C3H8 selectivity relative to the 2 bar pure-gas data for PIM-PI-1 and KAUST-PI-1 as the C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 6 to 3 and 16 to 5, respectively, at 2 bar C3H6 partial pressure due to plasticization and competitive sorption.

  5. Gas Sensing Properties of NiSb2O6 Micro- and Nanoparticles in Propane and Carbon Monoxide Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica-M. Rodríguez-Betancourtt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nanoparticles of NiSb2O6 were synthesized by the microwave-assisted colloidal method. Nickel nitrate, antimony chloride, ethylenediamine, and ethyl alcohol were used. The oxide was obtained at 600°C and was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy, showing a trirutile-type structure with cell parameters a = 4.641 Å, c = 9.223 Å, and a space group P42/mnm (136. Average crystal size was estimated at ~31.19 nm, according to the XRD-peaks. The microstructure was scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, observing microrods measuring ~3.32 μm long and ~2.71 μm wide, and microspheres with an average diameter of ~8 μm; the size of the particles shaping the microspheres was measured in the range of ~0.22 to 1.8 μm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that nanoparticles were obtained with sizes in the range of 2 to 20 nm (~10.7 nm on average. Pellets made of oxide’s powders were tested in propane (C3H8 and carbon monoxide (CO atmospheres at different concentrations and temperatures. The response of the material increased significantly as the temperature and the concentration of the test gases rose. These results show that NiSb2O6 may be a good candidate for gas sensing applications.

  6. Medium scale fire tests of propane tanks to study the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) and transient two-phase jet release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhifei

    1994-07-01

    A series of medium scale fire tests were conducted to study boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVE) and transient jet releases resulting from thermally induced propane tank ruptures. The tests were conducted using commercial propane contained in automotive propane tanks with a capacity of ca 400 liters. The tanks were brought to failure using a combination of torch and pool fire impingement. Instrumentation was included to measure internal pressure, liquid, vapour and wall temperature distribution, tank and lading mass, external blast overpressure, and fireball thermal radiation. Video and still cameras were used to record the fireball and jet fire shapes and dimensions. Two different kinds of BLEVE failure were observed. For very weak tanks the BLEVE was a single step process where the rupture propagated rapidly along the length of the tank. The duration of these events was measured in milliseconds and it is suggested that the process is driven by the vapour space energy. The other type of BLEVE was a two step process where a crack would start in a weakened area, arrest in a stronger part of the tank, and then start again to end in catastrophic failure. Initial failure and jet type release results in violent boiling and pressure recovery in the tank, leading to restart of the crack and catastrophic failure. Time duration is measured in seconds, and is driven by energy stored in the liquid. A computer model was developed to simulate the transient jet release resulting from finite tank failures, and can predict transient mass flow, tank pressure decay, visible flame length and jet fire thermal radiation. 253 refs., 132 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. Phase behaviour of pseudo-binary systems of pressurized ((propane + L,L-lactide)) at different ethanol to L,L-lactide mole ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, João P.; Tres, Marcus V.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Ferreira, Sandra R.S.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase equilibrium data of (propane + L,L-lactide) system at different ethanol to monomer mole ratios. • Static synthetic method from (323 to 353) K and pressures up to 3.3 MPa. • (Vapour + liquid) (VLE) was observed with bubble point (BP) type transitions. • Experimental modelled using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation with the Wong–Sandler (PR–WS) rule. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium data of pressurized (propane + L,L-lactide) system at different ethanol to monomer mole ratios (9:1; 7:1; 5:1). Phase equilibrium experiments were accomplished in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell employing the static synthetic method. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for the pseudo-binary systems were determined within the temperature range from (323 to 353) K and pressures up to 3.3 MPa. For the systems investigated, (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) was visually recorded. It was observed that an increase in temperature or in propane concentration led to a pronounced rise in pressure transition values. On the other hand, an increase in the ethanol to L,L-lactide mole ratio led to a reduction in pressure transitions, whereas a reduction in ethanol concentration complicates the achievement of one-phase homogeneous system. Thus, rapid complete miscibility of the system can be controlled by the amount of ethanol added as a co-solvent. The experimental results were modelled using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state with the Wong–Sandler (PR–WS) mixing rule, providing a good representation of the experimental phase transition points

  8. Impact of ambient air temperature and heat load variation on the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers in propane cycles in LNG plants – Analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.F.M.; Nabih, H.I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical method regulated the air flow rate in an air-cooled heat exchanger. • Performance of an ACHE in a propane cycle in an LNG plant was evaluated. • Summer inlet air temperature had higher impact on ACHE air flow rate requirement. - Abstract: An analytical method is presented to evaluate the air flow rate required in an air-cooled heat exchanger used in a propane pre-cooling cycle operating in an LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant. With variable ambient air inlet temperature, the air flow rate is to be increased or decreased so as to assure and maintain good performance of the operating air-cooled heat exchanger at the designed parameters and specifications. This analytical approach accounts for the variations in both heat load and ambient air inlet temperature. The ambient air inlet temperature is modeled analytically by simplified periodic relations. Thus, a complete analytical method is described so as to manage the problem of determining and accordingly regulate, either manually or automatically, the flow rate of air across the finned tubes of the air-cooled heat exchanger and thus, controls the process fluid outlet temperature required for the air-cooled heat exchangers for both cases of constant and varying heat loads and ambient air inlet temperatures. Numerical results are obtained showing the performance of the air-cooled heat exchanger of a propane cycle which cools both NG (natural gas) and MR (mixed refrigerant) streams in the LNG plant located at Damietta, Egypt. The inlet air temperature variation in the summer time has a considerable effect on the required air mass flow rate, while its influence becomes relatively less pronounced in winter.

  9. trans-Bis(5,5-diphenylhydantoinato-κN3bis(propane-1,2-diamine-κ2N,N′nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiao Li

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Ni(pht2(pn2] (pht is 5,5-diphenylhydantoinate and pn is propane-1,2-diamine or [Ni(C15H11N2O22(C3H10N22], contains one-half [Ni(pht2(pn2] molecule. The NiII atom is situated on a crystallographic center of inversion and shows a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. A three-dimensional network structure is assembled by inter- and intramolecular N—H...O=C interactions.

  10. Site-Specific Rate Constant Measurements for Primary and Secondary H- and D-Abstraction by OH Radicals: Propane and n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Nasir, Ehson F.; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific rate constants for hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) abstraction by hydroxyl (OH) radicals were determined experimentally by monitoring the reaction of OH with two normal and six deuterated alkanes. The studied alkanes include propane (C3H8), propane 2,2 D2 (CH 3CD2CH3), propane 1,1,1-3,3,3 D6 (CD 3CH2CD3), propane D8 (C3D 8), n-butane (n-C4H10), butane 2,2-3,3 D4 (CH3CD2CD2CH3), butane 1,1,1-4,4,4 D6 (CD3CH2CH2CD3), and butane D10 (C4D10). Rate constant measurements were carried out over 840-1470 K and 1.2-2.1 atm using a shock tube and OH laser absorption. Previous low-temperature data were combined with the current high-temperature measurements to generate three-parameter fits which were then used to determine the site-specific rate constants. Two primary (P1,H and P 1,D) and four secondary (S00,H, S00,D, S 01,H, and S01,D) H- and D-abstraction rate constants, in which the subscripts refer to the number of C atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor C atom, are obtained. The modified Arrhenius expressions for the six site-specific abstractions by OH radicals are P1,H = 1.90 × 10-18T2.00 exp(-340.87 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); P1,D= 2.72 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-895.57 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1317 K); S00,H = 4.40 × 10-18 T1.93 exp(121.50 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); S00,D = 1.45 × 10-20 T2.69 exp(282.36 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1341 K); S01,H = 4.65 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-236.98 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (235-1407 K); S01,D = 1.26 × 10-18 T2.07 exp(-77.00 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (294-1412 K). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Fluid dynamic simulation of the fluidized bed using propane-air fuel; Simulacao dinamica de um combustor de leito fluidizado utilizando como combustivel o ar-propanado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, L.P.; Lucena, S.; Silva, D.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: limajun@br.inter.net

    2004-07-01

    This paper has for purpose to present the modeling and simulation of the homogeneous combustion of the mixture of propane-air in a combustor of fluidized bed with inert particles, basing on a stationary model with phases in series, being taken into account the thermal changes and mass changes among the phases and it changes thermal with the wall for radiation. Computational methods are used for such simulation and CFX 4.4 as dynamic flowing computation software (CFD), kindred of more proximity with the real aspects. Being studied like this dynamic and kinetic flowing parameters of the involved components. (author)

  12. Spin state of mixed crystals of iron with zinc or cobalt for the assembled complexes bridged by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, S [Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Dote, T; Atsuchi, M; Inoue, K, E-mail: snaka@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Mixed crystals, [Fe{sub 1-x}M{sub x}(NCX){sub 2}(bpp){sub 2}] (M=Zn, Co; X=S, Se; bpp1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), had a similar structure with 2D interpenetrated structure of [Fe(NCX){sub 2}(bpp){sub 2}]. The proportion of Fe{sup II} low-spin state in the mixed crystals of NCSe complex increased compared with that of the corresponding Fe complex, while such change in the Moessbauer spectra was not observed in the NCS complex.

  13. Ethene/ethane and propene/propane separation via the olefin and paraffin selective metal-organic framework adsorbents CPO-27 and ZIF-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Barth, Benjamin; Paula, Carolin; Kuhnt, Andreas; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Mundstock, Alexander; Caro, Jürgen; Hartmann, Martin

    2013-07-09

    Two types of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized and evaluated in the separation of C2 and C3 olefins and paraffins. Whereas Co2(dhtp) (=Co-CPO-27 = Co-MOF-74) and Mg2(dhtp) show an adsorption selectivity for the olefins ethene and propene over the paraffins ethane and propane, the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 behaves in the opposite way and preferentially adsorbs the alkane. Consequently, in breakthrough experiments, the olefins or paraffins, respectively, can be separated.

  14. Site-Specific Rate Constant Measurements for Primary and Secondary H- and D-Abstraction by OH Radicals: Propane and n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-07-03

    Site-specific rate constants for hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) abstraction by hydroxyl (OH) radicals were determined experimentally by monitoring the reaction of OH with two normal and six deuterated alkanes. The studied alkanes include propane (C3H8), propane 2,2 D2 (CH 3CD2CH3), propane 1,1,1-3,3,3 D6 (CD 3CH2CD3), propane D8 (C3D 8), n-butane (n-C4H10), butane 2,2-3,3 D4 (CH3CD2CD2CH3), butane 1,1,1-4,4,4 D6 (CD3CH2CH2CD3), and butane D10 (C4D10). Rate constant measurements were carried out over 840-1470 K and 1.2-2.1 atm using a shock tube and OH laser absorption. Previous low-temperature data were combined with the current high-temperature measurements to generate three-parameter fits which were then used to determine the site-specific rate constants. Two primary (P1,H and P 1,D) and four secondary (S00,H, S00,D, S 01,H, and S01,D) H- and D-abstraction rate constants, in which the subscripts refer to the number of C atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor C atom, are obtained. The modified Arrhenius expressions for the six site-specific abstractions by OH radicals are P1,H = 1.90 × 10-18T2.00 exp(-340.87 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); P1,D= 2.72 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-895.57 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1317 K); S00,H = 4.40 × 10-18 T1.93 exp(121.50 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); S00,D = 1.45 × 10-20 T2.69 exp(282.36 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1341 K); S01,H = 4.65 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-236.98 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (235-1407 K); S01,D = 1.26 × 10-18 T2.07 exp(-77.00 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (294-1412 K). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  15. Synthesis of 1,3-bis(organylchalcogeno)propanes and 1,2-dichalcogenolanes having different chalcogen atoms in the molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaev, A.V.; Grabel'nykh, V.A.; Russavskaya, N.V.; Klyba, L.V.; Zhanchipova, E.R.; Levanova, E.P.; Sukhomazova, Eh.N.; Albanov, A.I.; Mamaseva, T.V.; Korchevin, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Oligomeric trimethylene dichalcogenides and the corresponding 1,2-dichalcogenolanes having both similar and different chalcogen atoms in the molecule were synthesized by reactions of 1-bromo-3-chloropropanes with two elemental chalcogens (S, Se; S, Te; Se, Te) activated by the system hydrazine hydrate-alkali. Reductive cleavage of the oligomeric products in the system hydrazine hydrate-alkali, followed by alkylation with methyl iodide or ethyl bromide gave 1,3-bis(alkylchalcogeno)propanes. The latter were also obtained from the corresponding dialkyl dichalcogenides and 1-bromo-3-chloropropane in the alkaline reducing system [ru

  16. Fabric protectors. Part II - Propane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and petroleum distillates levels in air after application of fabric protectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otson, R; Williams, D T; Bothwell, P D

    1984-01-01

    Propane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and petroleum distillates levels in air which were generated during the use of aerosol type fabric protectors were monitored by means of the NIOSH charcoal tube, a glass bulb grab sampling, and the GASBADGE passive device techniques. Although 1982 ACGIH TLV-STEL were readily exceeded in an unventilated test room, when fabric was sprayed with 450 g of fabric protector in an unconfined area within a home the generated vapors quickly dispersed and STEL and 8-hour TWA-TLV were not exceeded.

  17. On different experimental behaviour of fast secondary particles produced in 12C interactions at relativistic energies as studied with radiochemistry and in a propane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, B.A.; Karachuk, J.; Gelovani, L.K.; Gridnev, T.G.; Sosnin, A.N.; Brandt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Energetic secondary fragments produced in the interaction of (41-44) GeV 12 C ions with copper exhibit experimentally a broader angular distribution as compared to energetic secondary fragments produced in the interactions at a lower 12 C-energy (15-25) GeV when studied with radiochemical techniques. Such a different experimental behaviour of secondary fragments produced by 12 C ions of the same two energy groups is not observed, when these secondary fragments are investigated with a propane bubble chamber. Separation of secondary particles is described

  18. Modifications induced by potassium addition on chromia/alumina catalysts and their influence on the catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombi, E.; Gazzoli, D.; Cutrufello, M.G.; De Rossi, S.; Ferino, I.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of propane was investigated on K-containing chromia/alumina catalysts, with nominal Cr and K loadings of 10 and 0-2 wt%, respectively. Their chemical composition, structure, texture, nature of surface species, redox features and surface acidity were determined. Catalytic behaviour was investigated in a continuous-flow micro-reactor under different conditions. Besides the nature and concentration of the chromium species, potassium addition was found to affect the reducibility of the catalysts as well as their acid surface features. Such modifications were found to condition the catalytic behaviour, which appeared somewhat peculiar in comparison with that of the catalytic systems reported in literature.

  19. Propane-1,3-diaminium–2-carboxypyridine-6-carboxylate–pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid–water (1/2/2/8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghabozorg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title proton-transfer compound, C3H12N22+·2C7H4NO4−·2C7H5NO4·8H2O or (pnH2(pydcH2.2(pydcH2·8H2O, was obtained by the reaction of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (pydcH2 and propane-1,3-diamine (pn in aqueous solution. Both neutral and monoanionic forms of the diacid are observed in the crystal structure. The negative charge of two monoanions is balanced by the dicationic propane-1,3-diaminium species. In addition, considerable π–π stacking interactions between the aromatic rings of the (pydcH− and (pydcH2 fragments [with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5108 (11–3.5949 (11 Å] are observed. The most important feature of this crystal structure is the presence of a large number of O—H...O, O—H...N, N—H...O, N—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds, with D...A ranging from 2.445 (2 to 3.485 (3 Å. These interactions as well as ion pairing and π–π stacking connect the various fragments into a supramolecular structure.

  20. Phenomenological Study of Confined Criticality: Insights from the Capillary Condensation of Propane, n-Butane, and n-Pentane in Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Elizabeth; Tan, Sugata P; Piri, Mohammad; Chen, Jin-Hong

    2018-04-17

    We use the comparison of experimentally measured isotherms for propane, n-butane, and n-pentane in 2.90, 4.19, and 8.08 nm MCM-41 to show that the current model for the progression of capillary condensation may not hold true for chain molecules, such as normal alkanes. Until now, the capillary condensation of gases in unconnected, uniformly sized and shaped nanopores has been shown to progress in two distinct stages before ending in supercriticality of the confined fluid. First, at relatively low temperatures in isothermal measurements, the phase change is accompanied by hysteresis of adsorption and desorption. Second, as temperature increases, the hysteresis critical temperature is surpassed, and the phase change occurs reversibly. Although propane followed this progression, we observed a new progression for n-butane and n-pentane, in which hysteresis continues into the supercritical region of the confined fluid. We attribute this behavior to the molecular chain lengths of the adsorbates. Through further comparison of the adsorption, desorption, and critical properties of the adsorbates, we discovered new pressure phenomena of the confined supercritical fluids.

  1. HFC404A vaporisation inside a Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger (BPHE): Comparison with the possible long-term low GWP substitutes HC290 (Propane) and HC1270 (Propylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Giovanni A.; Mancin, Simone; Righetti, Giulia; Zilio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper investigates HFC404A vaporisation inside a BPHE. • HC290 and HC1270 exhibit heat transfer coefficients similar to HFC404A. • HC290 and HC1270 exhibit frictional pressure drops higher than HFC404A. • The experimental measurements are complemented with an IR thermography analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents the heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drops measured during HFC404A vaporisation inside a commercial BPHE and the comparison of this data with previous measurements carried out during HC290 (Propane) and HC1270 (Propylene) vaporisation inside the same BPHE and similar operating condition in order to assess the capability of HydroCarbon refrigerants as long-term low GWP substitutes for HFC404A in commercial and industrial refrigeration. Propane and Propylene exhibit boiling heat transfer coefficient very similar and frictional pressure drops higher than to those of HFC404A, therefore, taking into account also their good thermodynamic properties, they seems to be very promising as long-term low GWP substitutes for HFC404A. The HFC404A boiling heat transfer coefficients were also compared with a new model for refrigerant boiling inside BPHE (Longo et al., 2015): the mean absolute percentage deviation between calculated and experimental data is 6.0%. The heat transfer measurements were also complemented with an IR thermography analysis for a better understanding of refrigerant vaporisation heat transfer regime inside a BPHE.

  2. Replacement of R404A with propane in a light commercial vertical freezer: A parametric study of performances for different system architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A.W.; Menna, L.; Vanoli, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Parametric analysis of heat exchangers volumes, charge, regenerative length of the capillary tube. • The optimized configuration reduces the charge with negligible effects on energy consumptions. • The replacement of R404A with propane reduces energy consumption. - Abstract: Among natural refrigerants, propane (R290) is one of the most interesting solution to guarantee energetic performance with a low direct environmental impact. Safety concerns related to its flammability are limiting its introduction in some fields of refrigeration, therefore the research is focused on new solutions to reduce refrigerant charge. In this work, two design options for a professional freezer working with R290 are considered: the first one with standard volumes heat exchangers available on the market and the second one with reduced volumes heat exchangers. After the optimization of the performances with respect to the refrigerant charge and the regenerative capillary tube length, a remarkable increase of the performance with respect to the baseline version, working with R404A, was observed, while containing the refrigerant charge amount in the limits allowed by actual standards

  3. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Gómez-Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas.

  4. Unearthing a Well-Defined Highly Active Bimetallic W/Ti Precatalyst Anchored on a Single Silica Surface for Metathesis of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja; Kavitake, Santosh Giridhar; Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Dey, Raju; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Two compatible organometallic complexes, W(Me)(6) (1) and TiNp4 (2), were successively anchored on a highly dehydroxylated single silica support (SiO2-700) to synthesize the well-defined bimetallic precatalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)(equivalent to Si-O-)Ti(Np)(3)] (4). Precatalyst 4 was characterized at the molecular level using advanced surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) characterization techniques. The strong autocorrelation observed between methyl of W and Ti in H-1-H-1 multiple-quantum NMR spectra demonstrates that W and Ti species are in close proximity to each other. The bimetallic precatalyst 4, with a turnover number (TON) of 9784, proved to be significantly more efficient than the silica-supported monometallic catalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] (3), with a TON of 98, for propane metathesis at 150 degrees C in a flow reactor. The dramatic improvement in the activity signifies the cooperativity between Ti and W and indicates that the key step of alkane metathesis (C-H bond activation followed by beta-H elimination) occurs on Ti, followed by olefin metathesis, which occurs on W. We have demonstrated the influence and importance of proximity of Ti to W for achieving such a significantly high activity. This is the first report demonstrating the considerably high activity (TON = 9784) in propane metathesis at moderate temperature (150 degrees C) using a well-defined bimetallic system prepared via the SOMC approach.

  5. Dehydrogenation of propane in the presence of CO{sub 2} over polyacid chromium oxide catalysts modified by Mo, W and Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Nekrasov, N.V.; Davydov, P.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Effective chromium oxide catalysts without additions and with addition of Mo, W and Mn were prepared and tested in long-duration experiments for propane dehydrogenation in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The optimal concentrations of metals were found. It was shown that the best combination of acid-base and redox properties necessary for a decrease of aggregation of chromium-oxide particles was observed over the following catalyst: (3.0 wt.%Cr-1.5 wt.% Mn)/SiO{sub 2}. This catalyst worked stably in durable tests (500 h). Mechanism of propane oxidative dehydrogenation was studied using unstationary response method. It was shown that the process mechanism was similar over all studied catalysts but the catalysts were differed by the adsorption capacity of the reaction components: CO{sub 2} was tied more firmly than C{sub 3}H{sub 6} over Cr and Cr-Mn, C{sub 3}H{sub 6} was tied more strongly than CO{sub 2} over Cr-W. The reverse water-gas shift reaction proceeded in more extent over chromium-oxide catalysts without additions. (orig.)

  6. A MAS NMR and DRIFT study of the Ga species in Ga/H-ZSM5 catalysts and their effect on propane ammoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, P. [Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India). Catalysis Division; Quartararo, J. [Liverpool Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom). Leverhulme Centre for Innovative Catalysis, Dept. of Chemistry; Abd Hamid, S.B. [Malaya Univ., Postgraduate School, Bangunan (Malaysia); Derouane, E.G. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Vedrine, J.C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surface, Paris (France). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Magusin, P.C.M.M.; Anderson, B.G. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Schuit Institute of Catalysis

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that sought information about the nature and environment of the gallium (Ga) species in Ga/H-ZSM5 zeolites following H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} redox treatments applied during their activation by use of magic-angle spinning (MAS) {sup 71}Ga, {sup 27}Al, and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy (Ga coordination) complemented by diffuse reflectance FT IR (DRIFT) spectroscopy (Bronsted acidity). This information was then correlated with their catalytic behavior for the ammoxidation of propane. Ga species were observed in several environments: octahedrally coordinated gallium in small Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles at the external surface of the zeolite crystals; octahedrally coordinated gallium in GaO(OH) or related species; and tetrahedrally coordinated gallium in cationic-exchange positions inside the zeolite. Redox (H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}) cycles promote the migration of gallium from the GaO(OH) or Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} species at the external surface of the zeolite crystals to cationic-exchange sites within the zeolite channels. It was concluded that the redox treatment had a beneficial effect on its catalytic performance for the ammoxidation of propane, which occurs via a bifunctional mechanism. The main product was acetonitrile at high gallium and aluminium contents. It was suggested that higher yields in acrylonitrile could be obtained through Ga-modified zeolites with a higher gallium and lower aluminium content. 22 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Unearthing a Well-Defined Highly Active Bimetallic W/Ti Precatalyst Anchored on a Single Silica Surface for Metathesis of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2017-02-10

    Two compatible organometallic complexes, W(Me)(6) (1) and TiNp4 (2), were successively anchored on a highly dehydroxylated single silica support (SiO2-700) to synthesize the well-defined bimetallic precatalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)(equivalent to Si-O-)Ti(Np)(3)] (4). Precatalyst 4 was characterized at the molecular level using advanced surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) characterization techniques. The strong autocorrelation observed between methyl of W and Ti in H-1-H-1 multiple-quantum NMR spectra demonstrates that W and Ti species are in close proximity to each other. The bimetallic precatalyst 4, with a turnover number (TON) of 9784, proved to be significantly more efficient than the silica-supported monometallic catalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] (3), with a TON of 98, for propane metathesis at 150 degrees C in a flow reactor. The dramatic improvement in the activity signifies the cooperativity between Ti and W and indicates that the key step of alkane metathesis (C-H bond activation followed by beta-H elimination) occurs on Ti, followed by olefin metathesis, which occurs on W. We have demonstrated the influence and importance of proximity of Ti to W for achieving such a significantly high activity. This is the first report demonstrating the considerably high activity (TON = 9784) in propane metathesis at moderate temperature (150 degrees C) using a well-defined bimetallic system prepared via the SOMC approach.

  8. Synthesis of ZnMn2O4 Nanoparticles by a Microwave-Assisted Colloidal Method and their Evaluation as a Gas Sensor of Propane and Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Morán-Lázaro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinel-type ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple and inexpensive microwave-assisted colloidal route. Structural studies by X-ray diffraction showed that a spinel crystal phase of ZnMn2O4 was obtained at a calcination temperature of 500 °C, which was confirmed by Raman and UV-vis characterizations. Spinel-type ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles with a size of 41 nm were identified by transmission electron microscopy. Pellet-type sensors were fabricated using ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles as sensing material. Sensing measurements were performed by exposing the sensor to different concentrations of propane or carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range from 100 to 300 °C. Measurements performed at an operating temperature of 300 °C revealed a good response to 500 ppm of propane and 300 ppm of carbon monoxide. Hence, ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles possess a promising potential in the gas sensors field.

  9. Pressure-jump in heterogeneous catalysis--2. Dehydrogenation of propane over a Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-K/sub 2/O catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y; Kaneko, I

    1979-05-01

    Dehydrogenation of propane over a Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-K/sub 2/O catalyst confirmed the previously derived Langmuir-Hinshelwood type equation with a rate constant for the rate-determining step of 1.81 x 10/sup 11/ molecules/sec/sq cm. The experiments were performed by monitoring the transient pressure change in a 3 l. vessel after hydrogen was admitted to an equilibrated mixture of propane/propylene/hydrogen at 443/sup 0/C.

  10. 3-[(3-(Trimethoxysilylpropylthio]propane-1-oxy-sulfonic acid: An efficient recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones/thiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Jetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones and thiones through one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, aryl aldehyde and urea or thiourea in ethanol using 3-[(3-(trimethoxysilylpropylthio]propane-1-oxy-sulfonic acid as catalyst is described. The use of 3-[(3-(trimethoxysilylpropylthio]propane-1-oxy-sulfonic acid as a catalyst offers several advantages such as high yields, short reaction times, mild reaction condition and a recyclable catalyst with a very easy work up.

  11. The Effect of Nitrogen Surface Ligands on Propane Metathesis: Design and Characterizations of N-modified SBA15-Supported Schrock-type Tungsten Alkylidyne

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ahmed A.

    2014-04-01

    Catalysis, which is primarily a molecular phenomenon, is an important field of chemistry because it requires the chemical conversion of molecules into other molecules. It also has an effect on many fields, including, but not limited to, industry, environment and life Science[1]. Surface Organometallic Chemistry is an effective methodology for Catalysis as it imports the concept and mechanism of organometallic chemistry, to surface science and heterogeneous catalysis. So, it bridges the gap between homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis[1]. The aim of the present research work is to study the effect of Nitrogen surface ligands on the activity of Alkane, Propane in particular, metathesis. Our approach is based on the preparation of selectively well-defined group (VI) transition metal complexes supported onto mesoporous materials, SBA15 and bearing amido and/or imido ligands. We choose nitrogen ligands because, according to the literature, they showed in some cases better catalytic properties in homogenous catalysis in comparison with their oxygen counterparts[2]. The first section covers the modification of a highly dehydroxylated SBA15 surface using a controlled ammonia treatment. These will result in the preparation of two kind of Nitrogen surface ligands: -\\tOne with vicinal silylamine/silanol, (≡SiNH2)(≡SiOH), noted [N,O]SBA15 and, -\\tAnother\\tone\\twith\\tvicinal\\tbis-silylamine moieties (≡SiNH2)2, noted [N,N]SBA15[3]. The second section covers the reaction of Schrock type Tungsten Carbyne [W(≡C- tBu)(CH2-tBu)3] with those N-surface ligands and their characterizations by FT-IR, multiple quantum solid state NMR (1H, 13C), elemental analysis and gas phase analysis. The third section covers the generation of the active site, tungsten hydride species. Their performance toward propane metathesis reaction using the dynamic reactor technique PID compared toward previous well-known catalysts supported on silica oxide or mesoporous materials[4]. A fairly good

  12. Lipase Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of rac-2-(3-Methoxy-4-methylphenyl) propan-1-ol and rac-2-(3-Hydroxy-4-methylphenyl)propyl propanoate for S-(+)-Xanthorrhizol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafioul, Azam Sharif Mohammed; Cheong, Chan Seong

    2012-01-01

    Xanthorrhizol is a bisabolane type of natural sesquiterpene, the major component of essential oils of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. 2-(3-Methoxy-4-methylphenyl)propan-1-ol and 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methyl phenyl)propan-1-ol could be essential building block for enantioselective synthesis of xanthorrhizol. Enantioselective (c = 53%, E = 80 ± 3) for R-(+)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl) propan-1-ol and (c = 58%, E = 27 ± 1) for R-(+)-2-(3- methoxy-4-methylphenyl) propan-1-ol resolution processes were developed via lipase-catalyzed reaction. We found lipase Aspergillus oryzae (AOL) and Porcine pancreas (PPL) are selective to transesterification and hydrolysis in organic and aqueous phase. Modified demethylated substrate is appropriate for enantioselective hydrolysis reaction without any additives. Enantiopure chiral alcohol was crystallized from ethyl acetate/ n-hexane co-solvent system. Gram scale resolved chiral intermediate will facilitate the synthesis of the unnatural S-(+)-xanthorrhizol, the corresponding isomer of the natural one

  13. Lipase Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of rac-2-(3-Methoxy-4-methylphenyl) propan-1-ol and rac-2-(3-Hydroxy-4-methylphenyl)propyl propanoate for S-(+)-Xanthorrhizol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafioul, Azam Sharif Mohammed [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Chan Seong [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Xanthorrhizol is a bisabolane type of natural sesquiterpene, the major component of essential oils of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. 2-(3-Methoxy-4-methylphenyl)propan-1-ol and 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methyl phenyl)propan-1-ol could be essential building block for enantioselective synthesis of xanthorrhizol. Enantioselective (c = 53%, E = 80 ± 3) for R-(+)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl) propan-1-ol and (c = 58%, E = 27 ± 1) for R-(+)-2-(3- methoxy-4-methylphenyl) propan-1-ol resolution processes were developed via lipase-catalyzed reaction. We found lipase Aspergillus oryzae (AOL) and Porcine pancreas (PPL) are selective to transesterification and hydrolysis in organic and aqueous phase. Modified demethylated substrate is appropriate for enantioselective hydrolysis reaction without any additives. Enantiopure chiral alcohol was crystallized from ethyl acetate/ n-hexane co-solvent system. Gram scale resolved chiral intermediate will facilitate the synthesis of the unnatural S-(+)-xanthorrhizol, the corresponding isomer of the natural one.

  14. Characterization and Catalytic Activity for the Oxidation of Ethane and Propane on Platinum and Copper Supported on CeO2/Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataluña R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethane and propane oxidation on platinum and copper supported on Al2O3 and CeO2/Al2O3 catalysts were studied comparatively by examining reaction rates as a function of temperature. Results show that the addition of cerium oxide shifts the catalytic activity to higher temperatures. This negative influence is less pronounced in the case of supported copper samples, which on the basis of EPR and FTIR of adsorbed CO results is attributed to the low relative amount of this metal is in contact with ceria. The decrease in activity the presence of ceria might be due to changes in metal particle size or to the stabilization of the oxidized states of the metals, induced by their interactions with cerium oxide. The higher activity of platinum, in comparison with copper, is attributed to its higher reducibility along with an easier hydrocarbon activation on that metal.

  15. Structure, activity and kinetics of supported molybdenum oxide and mixed molybdenum-vanadium oxide catalysts prepared by flame spray pyrolysis for propane OHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Martin; Kessler, Thomas; Beato, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy and evaluated as catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane. The results show that samples with high specific surface areas between 122 and 182 m2/g were obtained, resulting in apparent MoOx and VOx surface densities from 0.7 to 7.7 nm -2 and 1.5 to 1.9 nm-2......, respectively. Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and XRD confirmed the high dispersion of molybdenum and vanadia species on γ-Al2O3 as the main crystalline phase. Only at the highest loading of 15 wt% Mo, with theoretically more than monolayer coverage, some crystalline molybdenum oxide was observed...

  16. Synthesis and crystal structure of a polymeric zinc(II complex derived from 4-nitro- phenylacetic acid and propane-1,3-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-H. Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new polymeric zinc(II complex, [ZnL2(PDA]n, has been prepared by the reaction of zinc sulfate, 4-nitrophenylacetic acid, and propane-1,3-diamine (PDA in water. Structure of the complex has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes as orthorhombic space group Pnma, with unit cell dimensions a = 15.732(1 Å, b = 23.912(1 Å, c = 5.5565(3 Å, V = 2090.2(2 Å3, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0427, wR2 = 0.0968, S = 1.048. The Zn atom is coordinated in a tetrahedral geometry. Single crystals of the complex are stabilized by hydrogen bonds and p···p interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i2.17

  17. Radioiodinated 2-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(4-phenylpiperidinyl)propane: potential radiotracer for mapping central cholinergic innervation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efange, S.M.N.; Dutta, A.K.; Michelson, R.H.; Thomas, J.R.; Boudreau, R.J.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodinated 2-hydroxy-3-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(4-phenylpiperidinyl)propane, (4-HIPP), was synthesized and evaluated as a simple vesamicol-like radiotracer for mapping cholinergic pathways in the brain. Both enantiomers of 4-HIPP exhibit significant accumulation (approx. 2% of injected dose) and prolonged retention (t 1/2 > 3h) within the rat brain. The accumulation of radioiodinated 4-HIPP in the rat brain was reduced by up to 70% in the presence of vesamicol and its analogs. The levorotary isomer (-)-4-[ 123 I]HIPP exhibits significant accumulation in the monkey brain, with a half-life of about 9 h. Radioiodinated 4-HIPP may therefore be a useful tool for studying cholinergic pathways in the brain. (author)

  18. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′(sulfato-κ2O,O′cobalt(II propane-1,3-diol solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(SO4(C12H8N22]·C3H8O2, was obtained unexpectedly as a by-product during an attempt to synthesize a mixed-ligand complex of CoII with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen and melamine via a solvothermal reaction. The CoII metal ions are in a distorted octahedral coordination environment formed by four N atoms from two chelating phen ligands and two O atoms from a bidentate sulfate ligand. The two chelating N2C2 groups are almost perpendicular to each other [dihedral angle = 80.06 (8°]. A twofold rotation axis passes through the Co and S atoms, and also through the central C atom of the propane-1,3-diol solvent molecule. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds help to stabilize the structure.

  19. Crystal structure of 1-[2-(4-chlorophenyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl]propan-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H21ClN2O, crystallizes with two unique molecules in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, the central imidazole ring is substituted at the 2-, 4- and 5-positions by benzene rings. The 2-substituted ring carries a Cl atom at the 4-position. One of the imidazole N atoms in each molecule has a propan-2-ol substituent. In the crystal, a series of O—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, augmented by several C—H...π(ring interactions, generate a three-dimensional network of molecules stacked along the a-axis direction.

  20. Kinetics of phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of propan-1,3-diol and butan-1,4-diol by N-chlorosaccharin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic studies of N-chlorosaccharin (NCSA oxidation of propan-1,3-diol and butan-1,4-diol have been reported in presence of phophotungstic acid and in aqueous acetic acid medium. The reactions follow first-order in NCSA and one to zero order with respect to substrate and phosphotungstic acid. Increase in the concentration of added perchloric acid increases the rate of oxidation. A negative effect on the oxidation rate is observed for solvent whereas the ionic strength does not influence the rate of reaction. Addition of the reaction product, saccharin, exhibited retarding effect. Various activation parameters have been evaluated. The products of the reactions were identified as the corresponding aldehydes. A suitable scheme of mechanism consistent with the experimental results has been proposed.

  1. Preparation of 2-acrylamido-2 methyl propane-1-sulfonic acid/bentonite composite by radiation polymerization for adsorption of basic violet dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H.H.; Younes, M.M.; Abdel-Kareem, M.; Zohdy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Water uptake and the sorption properties of composite made by radiation polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2- methyl propane -1-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and a clay such as bentonite were investigated as a function of composition (2,6 and 10% w.t %) of bentonite and radiation dose. The prepared composite was characterized by FTIR and SEM. Swelling experiments were performed in water at 25 degree C. The prepared composite was applied for adsorption of basic violet dye at different ph values and the results showed that the prepared composite of composition (10% wt % of bentonite) showed the highest removal percent of basic violet dye at ph=9 compared with other compositions. Also, the adsorption capacity of basic violet at ph 3,7 and 9 were 3.5, 9 and 50 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process of basic violet follows both Freundlich and Langmuir models and followed pseudo second order kinetic model

  2. Application of a two-sinker densimeter for phase-equilibrium measurements: A new technique for the detection of dew points and measurements on the (methane + propane) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLinden, Mark O.; Richter, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new technique for detecting dew points in fluid mixtures is described. • The method makes use of a two-sinker densimeter. • The technique is based on a quantitative measurement of sample mass adsorbed onto the surface of the densimeter sinkers. • The dew-point density and dew-point pressure are determined with low uncertainty. • The method is applied to the (methane + propane) system and compared to traditional methods. - Abstract: We explore a novel method for determining the dew-point density and dew-point pressure of fluid mixtures and compare it to traditional methods. The (p, ρ, T, x) behavior of three (methane + propane) mixtures was investigated with a two-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter over the temperature range of (248.15–293.15) K; the measurements extended from low pressures into the two-phase region. The compositions of the gravimetrically prepared mixtures were (0.74977, 0.50688, and 0.26579) mole fraction methane. We analyzed isothermal data by: (1) a “traditional” analysis of the intersection of a virial fit of the (p vs. ρ) data in the single-phase region with a linear fit of the data in the two-phase region; and (2) an analysis of the adsorbed mass on the sinker surfaces. We compared these to a traditional isochoric experiment. We conclude that the “adsorbed mass” analysis of an isothermal experiment provides an accurate determination of the dew-point temperature, pressure, and density. However, a two-sinker densimeter is required.

  3. Synthesis of 1,3-di(4-amino-1-pyridinium)propane ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanosheets and its application in direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui; Liu, Changxian; Ma, Ming; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqing; Li, Buhai; Wang, Xian; Fang, Huaifang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Chunya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1,3-Di(4-amino-1-pyridinium)propane tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid was successfully synthesized. ► Ionic liquid modified graphene nanosheets were successfully prepared and fully characterized. ► Hb was immobilized on the as-prepared graphene–ionic liquid nanosheets. ► Direct electrochemistry of Hb was succeeded. ► Biocatalysis of Hb towards H 2 O 2 was demonstrated, and was used in H 2 O 2 determination. -- Abstract: 1,3-Di(4-amino-1-pyridinium)propane tetrafluoroborate (DAPPT) ionic liquid was successfully synthesized, and was used as a modifier to functionalize graphene nanosheets through covalent binding of amino groups and epoxy groups in an alkaline solution. The as-prepared graphene-DAPPT nanosheets (Gr-DAPPT) were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/vis and FTIR spectroscopy. A biocompatible platform based on Gr-DAPPT was constructed for the immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) through a cross-linking step with chitosan and glutaraldehyde. The direct electron transfer and bioelectrocatalytic reaction of Hb immobilized on Gr-DAPPT surface were achieved. A pair of reversible redox peaks of hemoglobin was observed, and bioelectrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 was also demonstrated, displaying a potential application for the fabrication of novel biosensors to sense H 2 O 2 . Such results indicated that Gr-DAPPT based interface would be a promising platform for biomacromolecular immobilization and biosensor preparation

  4. Propane-1,2-diammonium bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato-κ3O,N,O′nickelate(II tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghadermazi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of nickel(II nitrate hexahydrate, propane-1,2-diamine and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid in a 1:2:2 molar ratio in aqueous solution resulted in the formation of the title compound, (C3H12N2[Ni(C7H3NO42]·4H2O or (p-1,2-daH2[Ni(pydc2]·4H2O (where p-1,2-da is propane-1,2-diamine and pydcH2 is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid. The geometry of the resulting NiN2O4 coordination can be described as distorted octahedral. Considerable C=O...π stacking interactions are observed between the carboxylate C=O groups and the pyridine rings of the (pydc2− fragments, with O...π distances of 3.1563 (12 and 3.2523 (12 Å and C=O...π angles of 95.14 (8 and 94.64 (8°. In the crystal structure, a wide range of non-covalent interactions, consisting of hydrogen bonding [O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O, with D...A distances ranging from 2.712 (2 to 3.484 (2 Å], ion pairing, π–π [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.4825 (8 Å] and C=O...π stacking, connect the various components to form a supramolecular structure.

  5. Syntheses and biological evaluation of {sup 18}F-labeled 3-(1-benzyl-piperidin-4-yl)-1-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-1-ones for in vivo mapping of acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y.-S. E-mail: yschoe@samsung.co.kr; Oh, S.-J.; Shim, Insop; Naruto, Shunji; Chi, Dae Yoon; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung-Han; Choi, Yong; Kim, B.-T

    2000-04-01

    We synthesized novel {sup 18}F-labeled acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, 3-[1-(3- and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoromethylbenzyl)piperidin-4-yl]-1-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propan- 1-ones ([{sup 18}F]1 and [{sup 18}F]2) and 3-[1-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)piperidin-4-yl]-1-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propan- 1-one ([{sup 18}F]3) in high yields (decay-corrected, 25%-40%) and with high effective specific activities (>37 GBq/{mu}mol). Tissue distribution studies of the [{sup 18}F]1 and the [{sup 18}F]3 in mice showed the nonspecific bindings in brain regions, with metabolic defluorination of the [{sup 18}F]1. The result suggests that these radioligands may not be suitable agents for in vivo mapping of AChE, despite their potent in vitro anti-AChE activities.

  6. Singler-chamber SOFCs based on gadolinia doped ceria operated on methane and propane; Pilas de combustible de una sola camara, basadas en electrolitos de ceria dopada con gadolinia y operadas con metano y propano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M.; Roa, J. J.; Capdevila, X. G.; Segarra, M.; Pinol, S.

    2010-07-01

    The main advantages of single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) respect to dual-chamber SOFCs, are to simplify the device design and to operate in mixtures of hydrocarbon (methane, propane...) and air, with no separation between fuel and oxidant. However, this design requires the use of selective electrodes for the fuel oxidation and the oxidant reduction. In this work, electrolyte-supported SOFCs were fabricated using gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) as the electrolyte, Ni + GDC as the anode and LSC(La{sub 0}.5Sr{sub 0}.5CoO{sub 3}-{delta})-GDC-Ag{sub 2}O as the cathode. The electrical properties of the cell were determined in mixtures of methane + air and propane + air. The influence of temperature, gas composition and total flow rate on the fuel cell performance was investigated. As a result, the power density was strongly increased with increasing temperature, total flow rate and hydrocarbon composition. Under optimized gas compositions and total flow conditions, power densities of 70 and 320 mW/cm{sup 2} operating on propane at a temperature of 600 degree centigrade and methane (795 degree centigrade) were obtained, respectively. (Author)

  7. Phase equilibrium at high pressure of heavy oil fraction in propane and n-butane; Equilibrio de fases em alta pressao de fracoes pesadas do petroleo em propano e n-butano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canziani, Daniel B.; Ndiaye, Papa M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose V. de; Corazza, Marcos L. [Universidade Regional Integrada, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the biggest challenge of the oil industry is the preparation and adequacy of existing refineries for processing of heavy oil in large quantities. Specifically aims of this work is to measure phase equilibria date at high-pressure with systems involving GOP (Heavy Gasoil), RAT (Atmospheric Residue) and Marlim (crude oil) in n-butane and propane, using the static-synthetic method. The influence of the addition of methanol on the transition pressure is also investigated. With regard to tests made with the use of methanol as a co-solvent, those with higher levels of methanol (5% in mass fraction) had presented transition pressures a little higher than systems with 1% of methanol and systems without methanol. The systems without methanol showed similar pressures. All systems are PT diagrams of the type Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST). Among the solvents used the n-butane shown to be the most soluble for all solutes, in particular for the RAT. With the n-butane were observed only liquid-vapour equilibria, and with propane the liquid-liquid, liquid-liquid-vapour and liquid-liquid-fluid equilibria could be observed. The system Propane-5%Methanol-GOP presented liquid-liquid-vapour transitions, indicates be a diagram of the type V (according to the classification of van Konynenburg and Scott). (author)

  8. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on MgSb2O6 Nanorods to Indicate Variations in Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Guillén-Bonilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bystromite (MgSb2O6 nanorods were prepared using a colloidal method in the presence of ethylenediamine, after a calcination step at 800 °C in static air. From X-ray powder diffraction analyses, a trirutile-type structure with lattice parameters a = 4.64 Å and c = 9.25 Å and space group P42/mnm was identified. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, microrods with sizes from 0.2 to 1.6 μm were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses revealed that the nanorods had a length of ~86 nm and a diameter ~23.8 nm. The gas-sensing properties of these nanostructures were tested using pellets elaborated with powders of the MgSb2O6 oxide (calcined at 800 °C at temperatures 23, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The pellets were exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO and propane (C3H8 at these temperatures. The results showed that the MgSb2O6 nanorods possess excellent stability and high sensitivity in these atmospheres.

  9. An experimental study on the effects of swirling oxidizer flow and diameter of fuel nozzle on behaviour and light emittance of propane-oxygen non-premixed flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javareshkian Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stability and the light emittance of non-premixed propane-oxygen flames have been experimentally evaluated with respect to swirling oxidizer flow and variations in fuel nozzle diameter. Hence, three types of the vanes with the swirl angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° have been chosen for producing the desired swirling flows. The main aims of this study are to determine the flame behaviour, light emittance, and also considering the effect of variation in fuel nozzle diameter on combustion phenomena such as flame length, flame shape, and soot free length parameter. The investigation into the flame phenomenology was comprised of variations of the oxidizer and fuel flow velocities (respective Reynolds numbers and the fuel nozzle diameter. The results showed that the swirl effect could change the flame luminosity and this way could reduce or increase the maximum value of the flame light emittance in the combustion zone. Therefore, investigation into the flame light emittance can give a good clue for studying the mixing quality of reactants, the flame phenomenology (blue flame or sooty flame, localized extinction, and the combustion intensity in non-premixed flames.

  10. A Novel Gas Sensor Based on MgSb2O6 Nanorods to Indicate Variations in Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Bonilla, Héctor; Flores-Martínez, Martín; Rodríguez-Betancourtt, Verónica-María; Guillen-Bonilla, Alex; Reyes-Gómez, Juan; Gildo-Ortiz, Lorenzo; de la Luz Olvera Amador, María; Santoyo-Salazar, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Bystromite (MgSb2O6) nanorods were prepared using a colloidal method in the presence of ethylenediamine, after a calcination step at 800 °C in static air. From X-ray powder diffraction analyses, a trirutile-type structure with lattice parameters a = 4.64 Å and c = 9.25 Å and space group P42/mnm was identified. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microrods with sizes from 0.2 to 1.6 μm were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed that the nanorods had a length of ~86 nm and a diameter ~23.8 nm. The gas-sensing properties of these nanostructures were tested using pellets elaborated with powders of the MgSb2O6 oxide (calcined at 800 °C) at temperatures 23, 150, 200, 250 and 300 °C. The pellets were exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and propane (C3H8) at these temperatures. The results showed that the MgSb2O6 nanorods possess excellent stability and high sensitivity in these atmospheres. PMID:26840318

  11. Crystal structure of dichlorido{2-methyl-2-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino]propan-1-ol-κ3N,N′,O}copper(II from synchrotron data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CuCl2(C10H16N2O], has been synthesized and characterized by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and FT–IR spectroscopy. The 2-methyl-2-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino]propan-1-ol (mpmapOH ligand, including pyridine, amine and hydroxy groups, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde and was characterized by NMR spectroscopy. In its CuII complex, the metal ion has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry with two N and one O atom of the mpmapOH ligand and one chloride anion in the equatorial plane, and the second chloride in an axial position. The bond lengths involving the CuII ion range from 1.9881 (10 to 2.0409 (9 for the Cu—N and Cu—O bonds, and from 2.2448 (5 to 2.5014 (6 Å for the equatorial and axial Cu—Cl bonds, respectively. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds (N—H...Cl and O—H...Cl and face-to-face π–π interactions stabilize the molecular structure and give rise to a two-dimensional supramolecular structure extending parallel to (101.

  12. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  13. Influence of the Crystal Structure of Titanium Oxide on the Catalytic Activity of Rh/TiO2 in Steam Reforming of Propane at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Sato, Katsutoshi; Toriyama, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2018-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) reduce CO2 emissions due to their high energy-conversion efficiency. Although SOFCs can convert LPG directly, coking occurs easily by decomposition of hydrocarbons, including C-C bonds on the electrode of fuel cell stacks. It is therefore necessary to develop an active steam pre-reforming catalyst that eliminates the hydrocarbons at low temperature, where waste heat of SOFCs is used. Here we show that the crystal structure of the TiO2 that anchors Rh particles is crucial for catalytic activity of Rh/TiO2 catalysts for propane pre-reforming. Our experimental results revealed that strong metal support interaction (SMSI) induced during H2 pre-reduction were optimized over Rh/TiO2 with a rutile structure; this catalyst catalyzed the reaction much more effectively than conventional Rh/γ-Al2O3. In contrast, the SMSI was too strong for Rh/TiO2 with an anatase structure, and the surface of the Rh particles was therefore covered mostly with partially reduced TiO2. The result was very low activity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Spirobisindane-based polyimide as efficient precursor of thermally-rearranged and carbon molecular sieve membranes for enhanced propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy Jawdat

    2016-09-02

    High performance thermally-rearranged (TR) and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes made from an intrinsically microporous polymer precursor PIM-6FDA-OH are reported for the separation of propylene from propane. Thermal rearrangement of PIM-6FDA-OH to the corresponding polybenzoxazole (PBO) membrane resulted in a pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity of 15 and C3H6 permeability of 14 Barrer, positioning it above the polymeric C3H6/C3H8 upper bound. For the first time, the C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas properties of a TR polymer were investigated and showed a C3H6 permeability of 11 Barrer and C3H6/ C3H8 selectivity of 11, essentially independent of feed pressure up to 5 bar. The CMS membrane made by treatment at 600 C showed further improvement in performance as demonstrated with a pure-gas C3H8/C3H8 selectivity of 33 and a C3H6 permeability of 45 Barrer. The mixed-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity dropped from 24 to 17 from 2 to 5 bar feed pressure due to a decrease in C3H6 permeability most likely caused by competitive sorption without any evidence of plasticization. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Deposition of antibacterial of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) 20:80/gentamicin sulfate composite coatings by MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Socol, G.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Gittard, S.D.; Miller, P.R.; Martin, T.N.; Narayan, R.J.; Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on thin film deposition of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-sebacic anhydride)) 20:80 thin films containing several gentamicin concentrations by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the polymer-drug composite thin films. Release of gentamicin from these MAPLE-deposited polymer conjugate structures was assessed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the functional groups of the MAPLE-transferred materials were not changed by the deposition process nor were new functional groups formed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of gentamicin-doped films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using disk diffusion and antibacterial drop test. Our studies indicate that deposition of polymer-drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE is a suitable technique for performing controlled drug delivery. Antimicrobial thin film coatings have several medical applications, including use for indwelling catheters and implanted medical devices.

  16. [Antidotal effects of sulfhydryl compounds on acute poisonings by sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate, nereistoxin and cartap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B J; Chen, Z K; Chi, Z Q

    1990-03-01

    Sodium dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS) and sodium dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) were discovered to be effective antidotes for acute poisoning of insecticides SCD [sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate], nereistoxin (4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane) and cartap (dihydronereistoxin dicarbamate). In mice, DMPS (250 mg/kg) or DMS (1000 mg/kg) ip 20 min before SCD increased LD50 of ig SCD from 97 to 374 or 251 mg/kg, respectively. The prophylactic effect of DMPS was better than that of DMS. Administration of DMPS prior to cartap increased LD50 of ig cartap from 130 to 375 mg/kg. The therapeutic effect of DMPS was also demonstrated in SCD-poisoned conscious rabbits. DMPS 62.5 mg/kg or DMS 500 mg/kg iv completely antagonized the neuromuscular blockade and respiratory depression caused by SCD, nereistoxin and cartap in anesthetized rabbits. The antagonism of SCD-induced neuromuscular blockade by cysteine (400 mg/kg, iv) was less effective and of shorter duration than that by DMPS and DMS. Dimercaprol 50 mg/kg im showed little effect on SCD-induced paralysis. The antagonistic actions of sulfhydryl compounds on neuromuscular blockade induced by these insecticides probably belong to chemical antagonism.

  17. Chemical calibration of Isothermal Titration Calorimeters: An evaluation of the dilution of propan-1-ol into water as a test reaction using different calorimeters, concentrations, and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adão, Regina; Bai, Guangyue; Loh, Watson; Bastos, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We address the importance of test reactions in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. ► We re-evaluate a test reaction and provide a new value for it at 308.15 K. ► Different concentrations are tested to account for instrument sensitivity. ► We compare the performance of two very sensitive calorimeters of different design. ► We suggest appropriate experimental conditions for the use of this test reaction. - Abstract: The use of a good chemical calibration or test reaction in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry is crucial for getting reliable enthalpy values that can be compared across different laboratories. Indeed most titration calorimeters are used to measure both equilibrium constants and molar enthalpies of reaction. But a necessary prerequisite for such measurements is to first perform the enthalpy measurement accurately and precisely. The values of the equilibrium constant(s) are then calculated by regression from an appropriate model. As such, we found it timely to extensively test a previously proposed test reaction, the dilution of propan-1-ol into water, using two calorimeters of different design (heat conduction and power compensation calorimeters) and sensitivity. Experiments were performed at 298.15 K for the previously suggested 10% mass fraction propan-1-ol solution, as well as for the lower concentrations of 5% and 2% mass fractions. Due to our capacity to use insertion heaters with one of the used calorimeters, which allows for very accurate calibration constants to be obtained, we also determined a value for the enthalpy of dilution of 10% mass fraction solution at 308.15 K, previously not available, and closer to the temperatures commonly used in titration experiments involving biological samples. The observed change in the enthalpy of dilution was found to decrease in absolute value, but to an extent that did not justify the determination of new values for the less concentrated solutions. The values obtained with the two

  18. Vasodilator effects and putative guanylyl cyclase stimulation by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone and 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol on rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro de; Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; Lahlou, Saad; Pereira, José Geraldo de Carvalho; Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2018-07-05

    Compounds containing a nitro group may reveal vasodilator properties. Several nitro compounds have a NO 2 group in a short aliphatic chain connected to an aromatic group. In this study, we evaluated in rat aorta the effects of two nitro compounds, with emphasis on a putative recruitment of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway to induce vasodilation. Isolated aortic rings were obtained from male Wistar rats to compare the effects induced by 2-nitro-1-phenylethanone (NPeth) or 2-nitro-2-phenyl-propane-1,3-diol (NPprop). In aortic preparations contracted with phenylephrine or KCl, NPeth and NPprop induced vasorelaxant effects that did not depend on the integrity of vascular endothelium. NPeth had a lesser vasorelaxant efficacy than NPprop and only the NPprop effects were inhibited by pretreatment with the sGC inhibitors, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) or methylene blue. In an ODQ-preventable manner, NPprop inhibited the contractile component of the phenylephrine-induced response mediated by intracellular Ca 2+ release or by extracellular Ca 2+ recruitment through receptor- or voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels. In contrast, NPprop was inert against the transient contraction induced by caffeine in Ca 2+ -free medium. In an ODQ-dependent manner, NPprop inhibited the contraction induced by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate or by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. In silico docking analysis of a sGC homologous protein revealed preferential site for NPprop. In conclusion, the nitro compounds NPeth and NPprop induced vasorelaxation in rat aortic rings. Aliphatic chain substituents selectively interfered in the ability of these compounds to induce vasorelaxant effects, and only NPprop relaxed aortic rings via a sGC pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of hydrogen enrichment and bluff-body lip thickness on characteristics of blended propane/hydrogen bluff-body stabilized turbulent diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashir, Babak; Tabejamaat, Sadegh; Jalalatian, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of C 3 H 8 –H 2 bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated. • Decreasing the bluff-body lip thickness led into enhanced flame length. • CO mass fraction is increased with reducing hydrogen content in the fuel stream. • Augmenting hydrogen content increased the maximum temperature. • Jet-like zone in propane–hydrogen bluff-body stabilized flames is very unstable. - Abstract: At the beginning of this study, the well-known turbulent bluff-body stabilized diffusion flame of HM1 is simulated by a coupled flamelet/radiation approach. The HM1 flame comprises a CH 4 :H 2 [50:50 Vol.] jet flame at a Reynolds number of 15,800. The results showed reasonable agreement for the flow field and species. Afterwards, the abovementioned approach is employed to investigate the effects of hydrogen addition on bluff-body stabilized flames of propane–hydrogen. Adding hydrogen to the blended fuel of propane/hydrogen shifts the recirculation zone outwards the bluff-body and thus culminates in increased flame length. Besides this, the flame length is predicted to be enhanced with decreasing the lip thickness of the bluff-body configuration. The CO emission level is found to be decreased with hydrogen addition in near-burner and far field regions which might be attributed to the decrease of inflow carbon atoms. The local radiative heat power reveals higher values for fuel blends with decreased contents of hydrogen at the recirculation and jet-like zones. This might be attributed to the increased local heat release rate due to breaking further carbon bonds

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization, docking simulation and density functional studies of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) -3-(4-flurophenyl)-propan-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamees, Hussien Ahmed; Jyothi, Mahima; Khanum, Shaukath Ara; Madegowda, Mahendra

    2018-06-01

    The compound 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-flurophenyl)-propan-1-one (DFPO) was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and the single crystals were obtained by slow evaporation method. Three-dimensional structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method and exhibiting the triclinic crystal system with space group P-1. The crystal structure is stabilized by Csbnd H⋯O intermolecular and weak interactions. Computed molecular geometry has been obtained by density functional theory (DFT) and compared with experimental results. The spectra of both FT-IR in the range (4000-400 cm-1) and FT- Raman (3500-50 cm-1) of DFPO were recorded experimentally and computed by (DFT) using B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) as basis sets. Intramolecular charge transfer has been scanned using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and revealed the various contribution of bonding and lone pair to the stabilization of molecule. Nonlinear optical activity (NLO) of the title compound has been determined by second harmonic generation (SHG) and computed using DFT method. Hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, hardness, softness electronegativity and others Global reactivity descriptors of DFPO has been calculated and revealed complete picture of chemical reactivity of DFPO. Hirshfeld surface analyses were applied to investigate the intermolecular interactions and revealed that more than two-thirds of the inter contacts are associated with O⋯H, C⋯H and H⋯H interactions. Docking studies of DFPO showed inhibition of Vascular endothelial growth Factor human receptor (VEGFR-2) signalling pathway, which indicates DFPO as anti-angiogenesis, that play pivotal role in cancer, so we suggest it for clinical studies to evaluate its potential to treat human cancers.

  1. The use of side streams of ethane and propane as feedstocks in steam crackers. An outlook; Reststromen propaan en ethaan als grondstof in kraakinstallaties. Een verkenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van der Kolk, J. [Van der Kolk Advies, Soest (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    This outlook study focuses on the side streams of ethane and propane of two new businesses in the port of Rotterdam, which arise in the storage and transportation of LNG and biodiesel and could be deployed as a feedstock in the existing steam crackers in Southwest Netherlands. In this project the technical feasibility has been examined, a first business case has been drawn up and the impact on greenhouse gas emission in the chain has been mapped. As it turns out, rather large streams are involved here of up to 900 kton/year from the LNG terminal. This makes for an economically interesting option. Moreover, substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the chain are anticipated amounting to over 100 kton/year. The project has been conducted on assignment of NL Agency in collaboration with VNCI and the mentioned companies [Dutch] Dit verkennende onderzoek richt zich op de side-streams ethaan en propaan van twee nieuwe bedrijven in de Rotterdamse haven, bij opslag en transport van LNG en biodiesel, die als grondstof ingezet zouden kunnen worden bij de bestaande stoomkrakers in Zuidwest Nederland. In het project is onderzocht in hoeverre dit technisch mogelijk is, en is een eerste business-case opgesteld, en is de impact op broeikasgasemissies in de keten in kaart gebracht. Het blijkt om grote stromen te gaan, vanuit de LNG terminal tot 900 kton/jaar. Dit maakt dat het economisch interessant kan zijn. Tevens zijn substantiele reducties in broeikasgasemissies in de keten te voorzien, tot boven de 100 kton/jaar. Het project is uitgevoerd in opdracht van Agentschap NL, in samenwerking met de VNCI en de genoemde bedrijven.

  2. High-grade use of waste propane streams in the Dutch chemical industry. An exploratory study in the context of the Chemical Industry Roadmap; Hoogwaardig gebruik van reststromen propaan in de Nederlandse chemische industrie. Een verkenning binnen de Routekaart Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R.; Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of the Dutch chemical industry's Roadmap the industry is actively seeking concrete ways of improving the efficiency of its products and processes. One option is to make higher-grade use of current waste streams, as feedstocks for other products, for example. This study focuses on propane waste streams from the oil and gas processing industry. Today these are used partly as fuel (fuel gas) but there are no technical barriers to converting propane to propylene, which can then be used as a feedstock. Higher-grade use of this particular waste stream leads to CO2 emission reductions in the production chain. Given the high market price of propylene, such a move may also be economically attractive. The study focuses on the Rotterdam region, because propane suppliers and companies seeking propylene are in closest proximity there [Dutch] In het kader van de Routekaart Chemie is de chemische industrie actief op zoek naar concrete opties om in haar processen en producten de efficiency te verhogen. Een route is daarbij om reststromen hoogwaardiger te benutten en in te zetten als grondstof voor andere producten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op reststromen propaan uit de olie- en gasverwerkende industrie. Deze worden nu deels als brandstof (stookgas) ingezet maar technisch is het mogelijk propaan om te zetten in propeen, dat als grondstof voor de chemische industrie kan worden gebruikt. Door het hoogwaardiger benutten van deze reststroom wordt in de keten een reductie van CO2 gerealiseerd. Tegelijk kan het economisch interessant zijn, vanwege de hoge marktprijzen van propeen. De studie focust op de regio Rotterdam, omdat leveranciers van propaan en afnemers van propeen daar het meest dichtbij elkaar gevestigd zijn.

  3. Bis{μ-4,4′-dimethoxy-2,2′-[propane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato}bis({4,4′-dimethoxy-2,2′-[propane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenol}manganese(III bis(hexafluoridophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Habibi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Mn2(C19H20N2O42(C19H22N2O42](PF62, the MnIII ion is coordinated by two O [Mn—O = 1.855 (2 and 1.887 (2 Å] and two N [Mn—N = 1.982 (3 and 1.977 (3 Å] atoms from the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and a coordinated axial ligand [Mn—O = 2.129 (2 Å]. The centrosymmetric dimer contains two Jahn–Teller-distorted MnIII ions, each in a nearly octahedral geometry, connected through two phenolate bridges from two ligands. There are two stereogenic centers. The methyl group and the H atom attached to the middle propane C atom are disordered over two positions with occupancy factors in the ratio 0.58:0.42. The crystal is therefore a mixture of two diasteroisomers, viz. RS/SR and RR/SS. In the axial ligand, the two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 56.97 (5° and the dihedral angle between the two MnNC3O chelate rings is 2.98 (12°

  4. Stability conditions and guest distribution of the methane + ethane + propane hydrates or semiclathrates in the presence of tetrahydrofuran or quaternary ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Youngjun; Park, Sungwon; Kim, Yunju; Cha, Inuk; Seo, Yongwon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined the stability conditions and guest distributions of natural gas hydrates. • THF, TBAB, and TBAF could remarkably stabilize the hydrate dissociation conditions. • Preferential occupation of CH 4 molecules was observed at the stoichiometric concentrations. -- Abstract: In this study, the stability conditions and guest distributions of methane (CH 4 ) + ethane (C 2 H 6 ) + propane (C 3 H 8 ) hydrates or semiclathrates are examined in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and quaternary ammonium salts such as tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) through thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses. The three-phase equilibria of hydrate or semiclathrate (H), liquid water (L W ), and vapor (V) for the quinary CH 4 + C 2 H 6 + C 3 H 8 + THF + water, CH 4 + C 2 H 6 + C 3 H 8 + TBAB + water, and CH 4 + C 2 H 6 + C 3 H 8 + TBAF + water mixtures with various concentrations were experimentally measured in order to determine the hydrate or semiclathrate stability conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that all thermodynamic promoters such as THF, TBAB, and TBAF used in this study could remarkably stabilize the hydrate dissociation conditions even though the degree of stabilization was dependent on the type of promoters and on the concentrations of each promoter used. From the 13 C NMR analysis, preferential occupation of CH 4 molecules in the hydrate or semiclathrate lattices was observed at the stoichiometric concentrations of each hydrate or semiclathrate structure. However, at the THF mole fraction lower than 0.056, the large cages of structure II were shared by CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , and THF molecules, whereas the small cages were occupied by only CH 4 molecules. The results given in this study are very useful in understanding the thermodynamic stability, structural characteristics, and guest distribution of the hydrates or semiclathrates with multi-components in the presence of

  5. Synthesis of (R,S)-[2,3-13C2]-1-(1'-methyl-2'-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-one; {(R,S)-[2',3'-13C2]hygrinePound right bracePound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.W.; Leete, Edward

    1996-01-01

    2-Ethoxy-1-methyl-5-pyrrolidinone (1) was reacted with ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]-acetoacetate (2) in the presence of TiCl 4 to give ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]-2-(1'-methyl-5'-oxo-2'-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoate (3) in 85% yield. Decarboethoxylation of ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]-2-(1'-methyl-5'-oxo-2'-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutan-oate (3) was accomplished using NaCl and H 2 O in DMSO to give (R,S)-[2,3- 13 C 2 ]-1-(1'-methyl-5'-oxo-2'-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-o ne (4) in 91% yield. Protection of the ketone as a ketal (ethylene glycol, H + ), followed by reduction of the amide to the amine using LiAlH 4 and subsequent deprotection of the ketal gave (R,S)-[2,3- 13 C 2 ]-1-(1'-methyl-2'-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-one ((R,s)-[2', 3'- 13 C 2 ]Hygrine) (8) in 78% yield. (61% overall yield from ethyl [3,4- 13 C 2 ]acetoacetate). (Author)

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectroscopic characterization of trans-bis[(mu-1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane)(mu-(3-thiopheneacetate-O))(3-thiopheneacetate-O)]dicopper(II), [[Cu2(O2CCH2C4H3S)4mu-(BPP)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Maria Vanda; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Guedes, Kassilio J; Krambrock, Klaus; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Hörner, Manfredo; Machado, Flávia C; Teles, Wagner M

    2004-02-23

    From the reaction between a dinuclear paddle-wheel carboxylate, namely [Cu2mu-(O2CCH2C4H3S)4] (1), and the flexible ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (BPP) a neutral 2-D coordination polymer [[Cu2(O2CCH2C4H3S)4mu-(BPP)2

  7. The determination of some heavy metals in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after their separation-preconcentration on bis salicyl aldehyde, 1,3 propan diimine (BSPDI) loaded on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Shokrollahi, A.; Kianfar, A.H.; Mirsadeghi, A.S.; Pourfarokhi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous preconcentration of Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ and Zn 2+ in real samples has been reported. The method is based on the adsorption of analytes on bis salicyl aldehyde, 1,3 propan diimine (BSPDI) loaded on activated carbon. The adsorbed metals on modified activated carbon were eluted using 8 mL of 2 mol L -1 nitric acid in acetone or 10 mL of 4 mol L -1 HNO 3 . The influences of the analytical parameters including pH and sample volume were investigated. The effects of matrix ions on the retentions of the analytes were also examined. The recoveries of analytes were generally quantitative. The method has been successfully applied for these metals content evaluation in some food samples

  8. Crystal structure and spin state of mixed-crystals of iron with NCS and NCBH3 for the assembled complexes bridged by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruka Dote; Hiroki Yasuhara

    2015-01-01

    New mixed crystals, Fe(NCS) x (NCBH 3 )( 2-x )(bpp) 2 , (bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane) were synthesized. The formation of mixed crystals was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction patterns and single crystal X-ray structural analysis. Elemental analyses showed that all Fe(NCS) x (NCBH 3 )( 2-x )(bpp) 2 samples had more Fe(NCS) 2 unit than the preparation fraction. 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that all the spectra consist of only Fe(NCS) 2 unit and Fe(NCBH 3 ) 2 unit. And the fraction of low-spin state in the Fe(NCBH 3 ) 2 unit changed with the change of x. The results suggested that the high spin site of Fe(NCS) 2 unit affects the spin state of Fe(NCBH 3 ) 2 unit. (author)

  9. Crystal structure and spin state of mixed-crystals of iron with zinc and cobalt for the assembled complexes bridged by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dote, Haruka [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Nakashima, Satoru, E-mail: snaka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Hiroshima University, Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Mixed crystals of cobalt and zinc were synthesized using 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) as bridging ligand and NCS{sup - } as anion. Red crystals and blue crystals were obtained. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the former is in 2D interpenetrated structure, while the latter has the same structure with Zn(NCS){sub 2}(bpp). Iron ion was introduced both into the red crystals and blue crystals of the mixed crystals of cobalt with zinc. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrum of the red crystals showed a main doublet of Fe{sup II} high-spin state at 78 K, while the spectrum of blue crystals did not show Fe{sup II} high-spin state at 78 K.

  10. Crystal structure and spin state of mixed-crystals of iron with zinc and cobalt for the assembled complexes bridged by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Haruka; Nakashima, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Mixed crystals of cobalt and zinc were synthesized using 1,3–bis(4–pyridyl)propane (bpp) as bridging ligand and NCS  −  as anion. Red crystals and blue crystals were obtained. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the former is in 2D interpenetrated structure, while the latter has the same structure with Zn(NCS) 2 (bpp). Iron ion was introduced both into the red crystals and blue crystals of the mixed crystals of cobalt with zinc. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectrum of the red crystals showed a main doublet of Fe II high-spin state at 78 K, while the spectrum of blue crystals did not show Fe II high-spin state at 78 K.

  11. Practical synthesis of 1-(2-Nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-3-(tosyloxy)propan-2-yl acetate for the radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]-FMISO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Do; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Kim, Hee Kwon [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Rese arch Center, CyclotronResearch Center, Biomedica l Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital,Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Eun Taek; Lee, Seung Jae [Dept. of Chemistry and Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chonbuk National University,Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yong Ju [Dept. of Chemistry Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education (KOREATECH),Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Hypoxia is related with many tumors due to a decreased oxygen condition. Novel synthesis for 1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-3-(tosyloxy)propan-2-yl acetate for the radiosynthesis of the [{sup 18}F]-Flouromisonidazole ([{sup 18}F]-FMISO), a hypoxia imaging marker used in positron emission tomography, from the readily available starting material is described. In this approach, one-pot two-step syntheses were used for the preparation of the [{sup 18}F]-FMISO precursors that contain acetyl group. The mild reaction conditions and easy treatments are attractive features in this synthesis. This new synthetic route provides alternative choices for the preparation of hypoxia imaging marker.

  12. Intramolecular, Exciplex-Mediated, Proton-Coupled, Charge-Transfer Processes in N,N-Dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium Cations: Influence of Anion, Solvent Polarity, and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safko, Trevor M; Faleiros, Marcelo M; Atvars, Teresa D Z; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-06-16

    An intramolecular exciplex-mediated, proton-coupled, charge-transfer (PCCT) process has been investigated for a series of N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-ammonium cations with different anions (PyS) in solvents of low to intermediate polarity over a wide temperature range. Solvent mediates both the equilibrium between conformations of the cation that place the pyrenyl and ammonium groups in proximity (conformation C) or far from each other (conformation O) and the ability of the ammonium group to transfer a proton adiabatically in the PyS excited singlet state. Thus, exciplex emission, concurrent with the PCCT process, was observed only in hydrogen-bond accepting solvents of relatively low polarity (tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, and 1,4-dioxane) and not in dichloromethane. From the exciplex emission and other spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, the acidity of the ammonium group in conformation C of the excited singlet state of PyS (pKa*) has been estimated to be ca. -3.4 in tetrahydrofuran. The ratios between the intensities of emission from the exciplex and the locally excited state (IEx/ILE) appear to be much more dependent on the nature of the anion than are the rates of exciplex formation and decay, although the excited state data do not provide a quantitative measure of the anion effect on the C-O equilibrium. The activation energies associated with exciplex formation in THF are calculated to be 0.08 to 0.15 eV lower than for the neutral amine, N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-pyrenyl)propan-1-amine. Decay of the exciplexes formed from the deprotonation of PyS is hypothesized to occur through charge-recombination processes. To our knowledge, this is the first example in which photoacidity and intramolecular exciplex formation (i.e., a PCCT reaction) are coupled.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of cis- and trans-[Ir(tn)2Cl2]CF3SO3 and of [Ir(tn)3]Cl3 (tn=propane-1,3-diamine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Michael; Galsbøl, Frode; Simonsen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    for the preparation of [Rh(tn)3]Cl3 in quantitative yield from Rh(thtp)3Cl3 is also given. The complexes were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR and by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The conformation of the six-membered chelate rings of [Ir(tn)3]3+ in the solid state was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction of [Ir(tn)3......Procedures are given for the preparation and isolation of cis- and trans-[Ir(tn)2Cl2]CF3SO3 and of [Ir(tn)3]Cl3, (tn=propane-1,3-diamine). The compounds were prepared by the use of Ir(thtp)3Cl3 (thtp=tetrahydrothiophene) as starting material, using either DMSO or neat tn as solvent. A procedure......] [Co(CN)6] x 5H2O. The three chelate rings all adopt the energetically favoured chair conformation; however, the overall idealized symmetry is C1. A comparative ligand field analysis, based on Gaussian resolution of the solution UV/VIS spectra for a number of homoleptic [M(N6)]3+ (M=CoIII, RhIII, Ir...

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy (FT-IR and Laser-Raman) investigation, and computational (M06-2X and B3LYP) analysis on the structure of 4-(3-fluorophenyl)-1-(propan-2-ylidene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Yusuf; Miroslaw, Barbara; Çırak, Çağrı; Doğan, Hatice; Szulczyk, Daniel; Struga, Marta

    2014-07-15

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectral analysis of 4-(3-fluorophenyl)-1-(propan-2-ylidene)-thiosemicarbazone have been carried out. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm(-1)) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm(-1)) have been recorded for the solid state samples. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and angles) have been calculated for gas phase using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The diversity in molecular geometry of fluorophenyl substituted thiosemicarbazones has been discussed based on the X-ray crystal structure reports and theoretical calculation results from the literature. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies have been done on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA4 software. A good correlation was found between the computed and experimental geometric and vibrational data. In addition, the highest occupied (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied (LUMO) molecular orbital energy levels and other related molecular energy values of the compound have been determined using the same level of theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya

    2011-06-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2O)] n(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n(2), and [Cu 2(PHDA) 2(BPP)] n(3) (H 2PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 86 68 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state.

  16. Experimental measurement of vapor pressures and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for {1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) + propane (R290)} by a recirculation apparatus with view windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xueqiang; Gong Maoqiong; Liu Junsheng; Wu Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    The saturated vapor pressures of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and propane (R290), and the (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data at (255.000, 265.000, 275.000, and 285.000) K for the (R134a + R290) system were measured by a recirculation apparatus with view windows. The uncertainty of the temperatures, pressures, and compositions are less than ±5 mK, ±0.0005 MPa, and ±0.005, respectively. The saturated vapor pressures data were correlated by a Wagner type equation and compared with the reference data. The binary VLE data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) incorporating the Huron-Vidal (HV) mixing rule utilizing the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. For mixtures, the maximum average absolute relative deviation of pressure is 0.15%, while the maximum average absolute deviation of vapor phase mole fraction is 0.0045. Azeotropic behavior can be found for the (R134a + R290) system at measured temperatures.

  17. Experimental measurement of vapor pressures and (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for {l_brace}1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) + propane (R290){r_brace} by a recirculation apparatus with view windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xueqiang [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gong Maoqiong, E-mail: gongmq@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Junsheng [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wu Jianfeng, E-mail: jfwu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The saturated vapor pressures of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and propane (R290), and the (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data at (255.000, 265.000, 275.000, and 285.000) K for the (R134a + R290) system were measured by a recirculation apparatus with view windows. The uncertainty of the temperatures, pressures, and compositions are less than {+-}5 mK, {+-}0.0005 MPa, and {+-}0.005, respectively. The saturated vapor pressures data were correlated by a Wagner type equation and compared with the reference data. The binary VLE data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) incorporating the Huron-Vidal (HV) mixing rule utilizing the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. For mixtures, the maximum average absolute relative deviation of pressure is 0.15%, while the maximum average absolute deviation of vapor phase mole fraction is 0.0045. Azeotropic behavior can be found for the (R134a + R290) system at measured temperatures.

  18. Evolution of MoTeO x/SiO 2 and MoBiTeO x/SiO 2 catalysts in the partial oxidation of propane to acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiming; Wu, Ying

    2010-04-01

    A thorough investigation of the catalysts Mo 1Te 1O x/SiO 2 and Mo 1Bi 0.05Te 1O x/SiO 2 in the partial oxidation of propane is presented in this paper, in order to elucidate the nature and behavior of the active surface. The catalysts' structures and redox properties were investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H 2-TPR techniques. The results indicate that Te-polymolybdate is the main active phase on fresh catalysts. During reaction, the catalysts underwent a progressive reduction, resulting in the reconstruction of the active surface and the formation of a MoO 3 phase. The synergistic effect between Te-polymolybdate and MoO 3 was assumed to promote catalytic performance. The different stabilities of Mo 1Te 1O x/SiO 2 and Mo 1Bi 0.05Te 1O x/SiO 2 catalysts are also discussed.

  19. Poly[bis­[μ4-N-(2-hydroxy­imino­propion­yl)-N′-(2-oxidoimino­propion­yl)propane-1,3-diaminato]dimethano­lcalciumdicopper(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibabchuk, Valentina A.; Usenko, Natalia I.; Golenya, Irina A.; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.; Haukka, Matti

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [CaCu2(C9H13N4O4)2(CH3OH)2]n, the CaII atom lies on an inversion center and is situated in a moderately distorted octa­hedral environment. The CuII atom is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, defined by four N atoms belonging to the amide and oxime groups of the triply deprotonated residue of N,N′-bis­(2-hydroxy­imino­propano­yl)propane-1,3-diamine (H4pap) and one oxime O atom from a neighboring Hpap ligand at the apical site, forming a dimeric [Cu2(Hpap)2]2− unit. Each dimeric unit connects four Ca atoms and each Ca atom links four [Cu2(Hpap)2]2− units through Ca—O(amide) bonds, leading to a three-dimensional framework. The crystal structure involves intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21577475

  20. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, (1)H, (13)C NMR) investigations of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Anitha, R; Devi, L; Mohan, S; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-01-25

    Aromatic epoxides are causative factors for mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of polycyclic arenes. The 1,2- or 2,3-epoxy compounds are widely used to a considerable extent in the textile, plastics, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent and photochemical industries. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene and (1,2-epoxy-2-phenyl)propane are recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-311++G(**) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The IR and Raman intensities are determined. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method to display electrostatic potential (electron+nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of the compounds has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecules have been analysed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies on tautomeric structures of a newly synthesized 2,2‧(hydrazine-1,2-diylidenebis(propan-1-yl-1-ylidene))diphenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Tuncay; Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Subasi, Nuriye Tuna; Onaran, Abdurrahman; Ece, Abdulilah; Eker, Sıtkı; Kani, Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, a single crystal of a Schiff base, 2,2‧(hydrazine-1,2-diylidenebis(propan-1-yl-1-ylidene))diphenol, was synthesized. The structure of the synthesized crystal was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis techniques. Experimental and theoretical studies were carried out on two tautomeric structures. It has been observed that the title compound studied can be in two different tautomeric forms, phenol-imine and keto-amine. Theoretical calculations have been performed to support experimental results. Accordingly, the geometric parameters of the compound were optimized by the density functional theory (DFT) method using the Gaussian 09 and Quantum Espresso (QE) packet program was used for periodic boundary conditions (PBC) studies. Furthermore, the compound was also tested for in vitro antifungal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Monilinia fructigena plant pathogens. Promising inhibition profiles were observed especially towards A. solani. Finally, molecular docking studies and post-docking procedure based on Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-GBSA) were also carried out to get insight into the compound's binding interactions with the potential. Although theoretical calculations showed that the phenol-imine form was more stable, keto-amine form was predicted to have better binding affinity which was concluded to result from loss of rotational entropy in phenol-imine upon binding. The results obtained here from both experimental and computational methods might serve as a potential lead in the development of novel anti-fungal agents.

  2. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2 PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2 O)] n (1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n (2), and [Cu 2 (PHDA) 2 (BPP)] n (3) (H 2 PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 8 6 6 8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D → 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: → Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H 2 PHDA and BPP. → The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. → Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  3. The effect of mixed HCl–KCl competitive adsorbate on Pt adsorption and catalytic properties of Pt–Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in propane dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangeneh, Farnaz Tahriri, E-mail: tahriri_zangeneh@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Catalyst Research Group, Petrochemical Research and Technology Company, National Petrochemical Company, P.O. Box 14358-84711, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taeb, Abbas [Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Khodayar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahebdelfar, Saeed [Catalyst Research Group, Petrochemical Research and Technology Company, National Petrochemical Company, P.O. Box 14358-84711, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Impregnation is a critical step in preparation of Pt-based dehydrogenation catalysts. • A competitor ion could strongly influence the impregnation of Pt on alumina support. • The competitor type is much more effective than pH of impregnation solution. • HCl competitor can be partially replaced by KCl reducing acidic attack on support. • Adsorption parameters can be estimated by a simple equilibrium-based model. - Abstract: The effect of competitive adsorbate concentration and combination on the adsorption of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} onto γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the preparation and performance of PtSnK/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for propane dehydrogenation was investigated. The catalysts were prepared by sequential impregnation of Sn and Pt precursors. The effect of competitor concentration on Pt adsorption was studied by using hydrochloric acid (0.1–0.3 M) and the effect of pH was studied by using KCl/HCl mixtures at constant (0.1 M) total chloride ion concentration. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, XRD, XRF, SEM and CO chemisorption. The catalytic performance tests were carried out in a fixed-bed quartz reactor under kinetic controlled condition for proper catalyst screening. It was found that the corrosive competitor HCl could be partially substituted with KCl without appreciable impact on catalyst performance with the advantage of lower acid attack on the support and reduced leaching of the deposited tin. A model based on initial concentration and uptake of the adsorbates was developed to obtain the adsorption parameters. Values of 890 μmol/g and 600 lit/mol were obtained for adsorption site concentration of the tin-impregnated support and equilibrium constant for Pt adsorption, respectively, for HCl concentration range of 0.1–0.3 M.

  4. Synthesis of 1,3-bis(organylchalcogeno)propanes and 1,2-dichalcogenolanes having different chalcogen atoms in the molecule; Sintez 1,3-bis(organilkhal'kogeno)propanov i 1,2-dikhal'kogenolanov s razlichnymi atomami khal'kogenov v molekule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaev, A V; Grabel' nykh, V A; Russavskaya, N V; Klyba, L V; Zhanchipova, E R; Levanova, E P; Sukhomazova, Eh N; Albanov, A I; Mamaseva, T V; Korchevin, N A [SO RAN, Irkutskij Inst. Khimii im. A.E. Favorskogo, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-15

    Oligomeric trimethylene dichalcogenides and the corresponding 1,2-dichalcogenolanes having both similar and different chalcogen atoms in the molecule were synthesized by reactions of 1-bromo-3-chloropropanes with two elemental chalcogens (S, Se; S, Te; Se, Te) activated by the system hydrazine hydrate-alkali. Reductive cleavage of the oligomeric products in the system hydrazine hydrate-alkali, followed by alkylation with methyl io or ethyl bromide gave 1,3-bis(alkylchalcogeno)propanes. The latter were also obtained from the corresponding dialkyl dichalcogenides and 1-bromo-3-chloropropane in the alkaline reducing systemRuss.

  5. Experimental studies on the evaporative heat transfer and pressure drop of CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/propane mixtures flowing upward in smooth and micro-fin tubes with outer diameter of 5 mm for an inclination angle of 45

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Min; Kim, Min Soo [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yong Jin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Heat transfer characteristics show different tendency according to the tube orientations such as horizontal, vertical, and inclined positions. In this study, evaporative heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/propane mixtures flowing upward are investigated in inclined smooth and micro-fin tubes. Smooth and micro-fin tubes with outer diameter of 5 mm and length of 1.44 m with inclination angle of 45 were chosen as test tubes. Average inner diameters of test tubes are 4.0 mm (smooth tube) and 4.13 mm (micro-fin tube). The tests were conducted at mass fluxes from 212 to 656 kg/m{sup 2} s, saturation temperatures from -10 to 30 C and heat fluxes from 15 to 60 kW/m{sup 2} for CO{sub 2}. In addition, for CO{sub 2}/propane mixtures, the test was carried out at inlet temperatures from -10 to 30 C for several compositions (75/25, 50/50, 25/75 wt%) with the same mass fluxes, heat fluxes applied for CO{sub 2}. Heat transfer coefficients in inclined tube are approximately 1.8-3 times higher than those in horizontal tube and the average pressure drop of inclined tube exists between that of horizontal and vertical tubes. (author)

  6. The (p, ρ, T, x) properties of (x1 propane + x2n-butane) with x1 (0.0000, 0.2729, 0.5021, and 0.7308) over the temperature range from (280 to 440) K at pressures from (1 to 200) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Uematsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T, x) properties for (x 1 propane + x 2 n-butane) with x 1 = (0.0000, 0.2729, 0.5021, and 0.7308) in the compressed liquid phase were measured by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer over the temperature range from (280 to 440) K at pressures from (1 to 200) MPa. The mole fraction purities of the propane and n-butane used in the measurements were 0.9999 and 0.9997, respectively. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, density, and composition measurements have been estimated to be less than ±3 mK; 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa); 0.09%; and 4.4 . 10 -4 , respectively. In the region above 100 MPa at T = (280 and 440) K, the uncertainty in density measurements increases from 0.09% to 0.13% and 0.22%, respectively. Comparisons of the available equation of state with the present measurements are reported. On the basis of the present results, the excess molar volume v m E of the mixtures was calculated and illustrated as a function of temperature and pressure

  7. The (p, ρ, T, x) properties for {x propane + (1 - x) isobutane} with x = (1.0000, 0.2765, 0.5052, and 0.7468) in the temperature range from (280 to 440) K at pressures from (1 to 200) MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Shigetoyo, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2007-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T, x) properties for {x propane + (1 - x) isobutane} with x = (1.0000, 0.2765, 0.5052, and 0.7468) in the compressed liquid phase were measured by means of a metal-bellows variable volumometer in the temperature range from (280 to 440) K at pressures from (1 to 200) MPa. The mole fraction purities of the propane and isobutane used in the measurements were 0.9999 and 0.9999, respectively. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in temperature, pressure, density, and composition measurements have been estimated to be less than ±3 mK; 1.4 kPa (p ≤ 7 MPa), 0.06% (7 MPa 150 MPa); 0.09%; and 1.3 . 10 -4 , respectively. In the region above 100 MPa at T (280 and 440) K, the uncertainty in density measurements increases from 0.09% to 0.13% and 0.22%, respectively. Comparisons of the available equation of state with the present measurements are reported. On the basis of the present results, the excess molar volume V m E of the mixtures was calculated and illustrated as a function of temperature and pressure

  8. Synthesis of (R,S)-[2,3-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-1-(1`-methyl-2`-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-one; {l_brace}(R,S)-[2`,3`-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]hygrinePound right bracePound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, T.W.; Leete, Edward [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    2-Ethoxy-1-methyl-5-pyrrolidinone (1) was reacted with ethyl [3,4-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-acetoacetate (2) in the presence of TiCl{sub 4} to give ethyl [3,4-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-2-(1`-methyl-5`-oxo-2`-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoate (3) in 85% yield. Decarboethoxylation of ethyl [3,4-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-2-(1`-methyl-5`-oxo-2`-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutan-oate (3) was accomplished using NaCl and H{sub 2}O in DMSO to give (R,S)-[2,3-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-1-(1`-methyl-5`-oxo-2`-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-o ne (4) in 91% yield. Protection of the ketone as a ketal (ethylene glycol, H{sup +}), followed by reduction of the amide to the amine using LiAlH{sub 4} and subsequent deprotection of the ketal gave (R,S)-[2,3-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-1-(1`-methyl-2`-pyrrolidinyl)propan-2-one ((R,s)-[2`, 3`-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]Hygrine) (8) in 78% yield. (61% overall yield from ethyl [3,4-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]acetoacetate). (Author).

  9. [18 F]-(fluoromethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol ([18 F FPTC) a novel PET-ligand for cerebral beta-adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirfeizi, Leila; Rybczynska, Anna A.; Waarde, Aren van; Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan; Feringa, Ben L.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral β‐adrenergic receptors (β‐ARs) play important roles in normal brain and changes of β-AR expression are associated with several neuropsychiatric illnesses. Given the high density of β‐AR in several brain regions, quantification of β‐AR levels using PET is feasible. However, there is a lack of radiotracers with suitable biological properties and meeting safety requirements for use in humans. We developed a PET tracer for β‐AR by 18 F‐fluorination of 1-((9H-carbazol-4-yl)oxy)-3-4(4-((2-(2-(fluoromethoxy)-ethoxy) methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol ( 18 F-FPTC). Methods: [ 18 F] FPTC was synthesized by Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. First, 18 F‐PEGylated alkyne was prepared by 18 F‐fluorination of the corresponding tosylate. Next 18 F‐PEGylated alkyne was reacted with an azidoalcohol derivative of 4‐hydroxycarbazol in the presence of the phosphoramidite Monophos as a ligand and Cu(I) as a catalyst. After purification with radio‐HPLC, the binding properties of [ 18 F FPTC were tested in β‐AR‐expressing C6‐glioma cells in vitro and in Wistar rats in vivo using microPET. Results: The radiochemical yield of 18 F‐PEGylated alkyne was 74%–89%. The click reaction to prepare [ 18 F]FPTC proceeded in 10 min with a conversion efficiency of 96%. The total synthesis time was 55 min from the end of bombardment. Specific activities were > 120 GBq/μmol. Propranolol strongly and dose-dependently inhibited the binding of both [ 125 I]-ICYP and [ 18 F]FPTC to C6 glioma cells, with IC 50 values in the 50–60 nM range. However, although both FPTC and propranolol inhibited cellular [ 125 I]ICYP binding, FPTC decreased [ 125 I]ICYP uptake by only 25%, whereas propranolol reduced it by 83%. [ 18 F]FPTC has the appropriate lipophilicity to penetrate the blood brain barrier (logP + 2.48). The brain uptake reached a maximum within 2 min after injection of 20–25 MBq [ 18 F]FPTC. SUV values ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 and were not

  10. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 3-aryl-1-(1,1'-biphenyl-4-yl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanes as 'carba-analogues' of the N-arylmethyl-N-[(1,1'-biphenyl)-4-ylmethyl])-1H-imidazol-1-amines, a new class of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sabrina; Stefancich, Giorgio; Chillotti, Annalisa; Poni, Graziella

    2003-08-01

    A new series of 3-phenyl-1-(1,1'-biphenyl-4-yl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propane derivatives 2a-l (related to the antifungal bifonazole) was synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. A number of substituents on the phenyl ring were chosen to compare the relative biological properties with those of corresponding aza-analogues, previously described by us. The in vitro antifungal activities of the newly synthesized azoles were tested against several pathogenic fungi responsible for human disease. Test pathogens included representatives of yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Criptococcus neoformans), dermathophytes (Tricophyton verrucosum, Tricophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum) and moulds (Aspergillus fumigatus). Bifonazole and miconazole were used as reference drugs. Title compounds were prepared by alkylation of 1-biphenyl-4-yl-2-imidazol-1-yl-ethanone with the proper arylmethyl halide and subsequent reduction of corresponding ketones applying the Huang-Minlon modification of the Wolff-Kishner reaction.

  11. 1,5-Dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-one–4,4′-(propane-2,2-diylbis[1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-one] (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lyczko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C11H12N2O·C25H28N4O2, contains two different molecules. The smaller is known as antipyrine [systematic name: 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-one] and the larger is built up from two antypirine molecules which are connected through a C atom of the pyrazolone ring to a central propanyl part [systematic name: 4,4′-(propane-2,2-diylbis[1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-one]. Intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds occur in the latter molecule. In the crystal, C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to (001.

  12. Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium for the binary {l_brace}1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134) + propane (R290){r_brace} and {l_brace}1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134) + isobutane (R600a){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xueqiang [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gong Maoqiong, E-mail: gongmq@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Junsheng [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wu Jianfeng, E-mail: jfwu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-09-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary systems of {l_brace}1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134) + propane (R290){r_brace} and {l_brace}1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134) + isobutane (R600a){r_brace} were measured with a recirculation method at the temperatures ranging from (263.15 to 278.15) K and (268.15 to 288.15) K, respectively. All of the data were correlated by the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) with the Huron-Vidal (HV) mixing rules utilizing the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model. Good agreement can be found between the experimental data and the correlated results. Azeotropic behaviour can be found at the measured temperature ranges for these two mixtures.

  13. (μ-3-Acetyl-5-carboxylato-4-methylpyrazolido-1:2κ4N2,O3:N1,O5-μ-chlorido-tetrapyridine-1κ2N,2κ2N-chlorido-1κCl-dicopper(II propan-2-ol solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Malinkin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu2(C7H6N2O3Cl2(C5H5N4]·C3H8O, is a binuclear pyrazolate complex, in which the two CuII atoms have different coordination numbers and are connected by a bridging Cl atom. One CuII atom has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by two pyridine N atoms, one bridging Cl atom and an N,O-chelating pyrazolate ligand. The other CuII atom adopts an octahedral geometry defined by two pyridine N atoms at the axial positions, two Cl atoms and the coordinated pyrazolate ligand in the equatorial plane. An O—H...O hydrogen bond connects the complex molecules and propan-2-ol solvent molecules into pairs. These pairs form columns along the a axis.

  14. (μ-3-Acetyl-5-carboxyl­ato-4-methyl­pyrazolido-1:2κ4 N 2,O 3:N 1,O 5)-μ-chlorido-tetra­pyridine-1κ2 N,2κ2 N-chlorido-1κCl-dicopper(II) propan-2-ol solvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinkin, Sergey; Penkova, Larisa; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Haukka, Matti; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C7H6N2O3)Cl2(C5H5N)4]·C3H8O, is a binuclear pyrazolate complex, in which the two CuII atoms have different coordination numbers and are connected by a bridging Cl atom. One CuII atom has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by two pyridine N atoms, one bridging Cl atom and an N,O-chelating pyrazolate ligand. The other CuII atom adopts an octa­hedral geometry defined by two pyridine N atoms at the axial positions, two Cl atoms and the coordinated pyrazolate ligand in the equatorial plane. An O—H⋯O hydrogen bond connects the complex mol­ecules and propan-2-ol solvent mol­ecules into pairs. These pairs form columns along the a axis. PMID:21577764

  15. Vapor Permeation and Pervaporation of Propan- 1-ol and Propan- 2-ol in Polyethylene Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchytil, Petr; Petričkovič, Roman

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 209, - (2002), s. 67-79 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/01/0945 Keywords : vapor permeation * pervaporation * sorption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.965, year: 2002

  16. A study of inclusive antineutrino interactions in propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, F.A.

    1979-02-01

    Some results obtained using the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle situated at the CERN Proton Synchrotron neutrino beam facility are presented. The deep inelastic scattering of antineutrinos is analysed and interpreted in the theoretical framework of Bjorken scaling and the Quark Parton model of the nucleon. This model predicts that scaling should occur in regions of high four momentum squared. The effect of not being in that region is investigated. In particular the data suggest that in the region of low four momentum transfer the results can still be interpreted in the scaling framework. A model is presented which enables extraction of the neutron to proton cross section, and the result is interpreted within the quark model. (author)

  17. UOP Oleflex process for the dehydrogenation of propane and butanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, C.A. le; Wilcher, F P; Vora, B V; Pujado, P R [UOP, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1991-01-01

    Oleflex is based on two commercially successful UOP technologies: Pacol and CCR Platforming. The catalyst formulation was developed from the commercially proven Pacol catalyst system, and the reactor design and catalyst-regeneration section were developed from the widely accepted CCR Platforming unit designs. The Oleflex process offers the advantages of high yields, moderate capital costs, and low operating requirements. The process operates in a totally continuous mode, with uniform catalyst activity at all times and without changes in effluent composition or shutdowns for regenerations. The segregation of the reaction and the catalyst-regeneration sections allows each section to be operated under optimal conditions. In the current marketplace, great interest has been shown in the Oleflex process for the production of propylene and/or isobutylene. The propylene is typically used as the feed for a polypropylene unit, and the isobutylene is typically used for the production of MTBE. The updated information for propylene and MTBE production given in this paper shows that olefin complexes based on the Oleflex technology are economically attractive. (orig./EF).

  18. Adsorption kinetics of propane on energetically heterogeneous activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2014-11-01

    The modeling of the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of the adsorbent+adsorbate pair is essential in simulating the performance of a pressurized adsorption chiller. In this work, the adsorption kinetics is analyzed from data measured using a magnetic suspension balance. The Statistical Rate Theory describes the Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equation and extended to obtain an expression for transient analysis. Hence both the experimental excess equilibria data and the adsorption kinetics data may then be fitted to obtain the necessary parameters to fit the curves. The results fit the data very well within 6% of the error of regression. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2006 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - share of LPG fuels in the French energy mix; 3 - improvement of energy efficiency in the residential sector; 4 - advantages of LPG fuels; 5 - safety aspects. (J.S.)

  20. Membrane Modeling, Simulation and Optimization for Propylene/Propane Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is critical for sustainable industrial growth and the reduction of environmental impacts. Energy consumption by the industrial sector accounts for more than half of the total global energy usage and, therefore, greater attention

  1. 4,4′-(Propane-1,3-diyldioxydibenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Ali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H16O4, is a dialdehyde in which two formylphenoxy units are linked by a –CH2CH2CH2– chain; the molecule is V-shaped with the middle methylene C atom as the apex. The two benzene rings are aligned at 77.4 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers by pairs of non-classical C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Predicting the flammable region reach of propane vapor clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Villafañe, Diana; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Liquified gas fuels are widely used around the world, and the growth of LNG and LPG consumption continues to increase. However, using these fuels can lead to accidents if they are released to the environment. Consequently, the challenge to control and predict such hazards has become an objective in emergency planning and risk analysis. In a previous article the “Dispersion Safety Factor” (DSF) was proposed, defined as the ratio between the distance at which the lower flammability limit concen...

  3. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2005 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2005 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - information about the LPG fuels advantages; 3 - LPG market; 4 - CFBP's commitments for end-users, professionals and public authorities: energy efficiency improvement, environment protection, energy supply of French rural towns, safety improvements. (J.S.)

  4. Butane/Propane. An economical and technical turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, G.

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the sales of all energies dropped. Even for the liquid fuel, its consumption came back under the level of three million tons. To fight this regression, liquid fuels producers innovate in the cisterns and the bottles and carry on their efforts in logistic matters. Hopes are allowed thanks to the new taxing and the demand increasing in the car industry, for liquid fuels. (A.L.B.)

  5. 1,3-Bis[(4-nitrobenzylideneaminooxy]propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kui Dong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete molecule of title compound, C17H16N4O6, is generated by a crystallographic twofold axis. Within the molecule, the two benzene units are approximately perpendicular, making a dihedral angle of 85.91 (4°. In the crystal, molecules are linked into a three-dimensional network by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and short O...O and N...O interactions, with distances of 2.998 (2 and 2.968 (3 Å, respectively.

  6. On the conceptual design of pre-cooling stage of LNG plants using propane or an ethane/propane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.; Dorao, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LNG technologies are differentiated by heat exchanger type, compressor/driver, refrigerant type and others. ► The design of the pre-cooling system on the LNG technologies should start by compressor definition. ► Thermodynamically, pre-cooling based on a C3 has higher advantages than C 2 /C 3 mixed refrigerant cycle. ► The pre-cooling system needs to consider aspects: equipment number, costs, plot area, safety. ► A proper model is required for selection of the pre-cooling, including all aspects that could affect the costs. - Abstract: Today, LNG technologies are based on pure and mixed refrigerants cycles on the pre-cooling system, but the advantages and disadvantages of considering a mixed refrigerant or pure refrigerant cycle in the pre-cooling stage is not well understood. In this work an analysis of the compressors and the refrigerants in the pre-cooling system is carried out. The most relevant aspect of the evaluation is to establish some thermodynamical criteria for the selecting of the suitable refrigerant for the pre-cooling stage. For final decision-making process of the selection of the pre-cooling stage, a proper model is required which should take into account all aspects that could affect the capital and operation costs.

  7. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2015 activity report. Butane, propane, LPG - Immediately available solutions for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    This document presents the 2015 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - 2015 LPG market; 2 - CFBP missions and 2015 highlights: promotion of LPG industry and uses, contribution to standards development, safety of industrial sites, promoting LPG specificities, safety of LPG transports and training, ensuring clients' installations safety, promoting LPG in the energy mix, promoting LPGc potential, public information

  8. A economical and environmental friendly refrigeration with propane. Small chillers from standard components; Mit Propan wirtschaftlich und umweltfreundlich kuehlen. Kleine Kaltwassersaetze aus Standardkomponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Karl [HKT Huber-Kaelte-Technik GmbH, Halfing (Germany); Rehburg, Joerg [Wilhelm Schriefer GmbH, Diepenau-Lavelsloh (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In order to reduce the environmental impact during operation of refrigeration systems, the company Wilhelm Schriefer GmbH (Diepenau, Federal Republic of Germany) developed a cooling insert with a refrigerant with any potential of ozone depletion and with a minimal potential of greenhouse gases. The chilled water or brine chilling unit includes a reciprocating piston compressor from HKT Huber Kaelte Technik GmbH (Halfing, Federal Republic of Germany) and operated with R 290 as the refrigerant.

  9. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2006 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents the 2006 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - share of LPG fuels in the French energy mix; 3 - improvement of energy efficiency in the residential sector; 4 - advantages of LPG fuels; 5 - safety aspects. (J.S.)

  10. French Committee of Butane and Propane. 2005 activity report; Comite francais du butane et du propane. Rapport d'activite 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document presents the 2005 highlights of the French LPG fuels industry: 1 - presentation of the CFBP association and promotion of the LPG industry; 2 - information about the LPG fuels advantages; 3 - LPG market; 4 - CFBP's commitments for end-users, professionals and public authorities: energy efficiency improvement, environment protection, energy supply of French rural towns, safety improvements. (J.S.)

  11. Local health care system utilizing the LPG (liquid propane gas) network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, T; Hoshi, H; Tsuda, M; Horio, S; Itou, N; Neriki, T

    1998-07-01

    JAC's LPG monitoring network system is mainly provided in mountain villages. However, by using this system, it will be possible to start a Digital Network Program for the Elderly while maintaining superior economic feasibility and public benefit using existing information infrastructures. This project also has the capabilities for the creation of a fire/disaster monitoring system, as well as a health care system by using conventional LPG monitoring systems. Telemedicine is an option for the future, as well, by connecting medical equipment and a tele-conferencing system.

  12. Cummins Engine Company B5.9 Propane Engine Development, Certification, and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The ADEPT Group, Inc. (Los Angeles, California)

    1998-12-18

    The objective of this project was to successfuly develop and certify an LPG-dedicated medium-duty original equipment manufacturer (OEM) engine that could be put into production. The engine was launched into production in 1994, and more than 800 B5.9G engines are now in service in the United States and abroad. This engine is now offered by more than 30 bus and truck OEMs.

  13. Study of vanadium based mesoporous silicas for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulánek, R.; Kalužová, A.; Setnička, M.; Zukal, Arnošt; Čičmanec, P.; Mayerová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 1 (2012), s. 149-158 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/0196 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : vanadium * oxidative dehydrogenation * mesoporous silicas Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2012

  14. cis-Bromido(methylaminebis(propane-1,3-diaminecobalt(III dibromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kannan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [CoBr(CH5N(C3H10N22]Br2, the cobaltIII ion has a distorted octahedral coordination environment and is surrounded by four N atoms in the equatorial plane, with an additional N atom and the Br atom occupying the axial positions. In the crystal, the complex cation and the two counter anions are linked via N—H...Br and C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  15. Reynolds averaged modelling of low momentum propane jet diffusion flames in cross flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeski, A.J.; Chui, E.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Kostiuk, L.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    It is common practice to use continuous low flow rate flares to dispose of unwanted or by-product combustible gases resulting from the manufacturing process or oil recovery operations. This study evaluates the usefulness of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling in the context of low momentum flux reacting jets. The experimental data was gathered at the University of Alberta's Combustion Wind Tunnel. This data was used to compare data obtained from the CFD simulations. Only a small subset of the experimental conditions was used for the computational model. No attempt was made to fine tune any of the individual models. They were all part of the commercial CFD software package CFX-TASC flow, by ANSYS Inc. Flame length and angle results compared favourably with experiments. The shape of the plume changed significantly in the far field. This could be explained by distortion caused by the turbulence model used. A flame front model was incorporated in an effort to estimate combustion efficiency. The results obtained were not conclusive. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Lecithin microemulsions in dimethylether and propane for the generation of pharmaceutical aerosols containing polar solutes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sommerville, M. L.; Johnson, C. S.; Cain, J. B.; Rypáček, František; Hickey, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2002), s. 273-288 ISSN 1083-7450 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : block copolymer micelles * poly(D,L-lactide-block-ethylene oxide) * biodistribution Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.627, year: 2002

  17. New Look at odorization levels for propane gas. [Ethyl mercaptan; thiophane; equilibrium K values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Goetzinger, J.W.; Cotton, F.O.; Brinkman, D.W.; Thompson, C.J.

    1977-09-01

    Nearly 4,000 persons participated in a study to evaluate three odorant systems in four test modes and at 24 different test sites. Participants included trained panels, untrained ERDA employees, and several thousand untrained volunteer evaluators. The classical testing technique and three modified test modes were used to represent a spectrum of conditions that would define the effect of environmental familiarity and mental distractions upon olfactory responses to LP-gas. Significant efforts were directed toward determination of odorant levels that not only can be detected but also will be detected. The study showed that in addition to defects of the nasal anatomy, psychological factors also affect olfactory responses, and that unfamiliarity with a given environment as well as anxieties or mental distractions can produce reduced awareness to odorants intended to warn individuals of the presence of LP-gas. A second part of the study involved a laboratory determination of equilibrium K-values for both ethyl mercaptan and thiophane at three temperatures. Novel sample handling and gas chromatographic techniques provided reproducible results which were in close agreement with theoretical predictions. (28 tables, 29 tables)

  18. Topology of silica supported vanadium–titanium oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, N.; Wolfram, T.; Tzolova-Müller, G.; Hävecker, M.; Kröhnert, J.; Carrero, C.; Schomäcker, R.; Trunschke, A.; Schlögl, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich. This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively. Two-dimensional vanadia and titania surface clusters were hosted on the walls of the hierarchical pore system of mesoporous silica SBA-15. The topology of the catalyst surfa...

  19. Crystal structure of (2R-1-[(methylsulfonyloxy]propan-2-aminium chloride: a chiral molecular salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Rajegowda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title chiral molecular salt, C4H12NO3S+·Cl−, the cation is protonated at the N atom, producing [RNH3]+, where R is CH3SO2OCH2C(HCH3. The N atom in the cation is sp3-hybridized. In the crystal, cations and anions are connected by strong N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds to generate edge-shared 12-membered rings of the form {...Cl...HNH}3. This pattern of hydrogen bonding gives rise to zigzag supramolecular layers in the ab plane. The layers are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure was refined as an inversion twin.

  20. Effect of pressure on the transfer functions of premixed methane and propane swirl flames

    KAUST Repository

    Di Sabatino, Francesco; Guiberti, Thibault F.; Boyette, Wesley; Roberts, William L.; Moeck, Jonas P.; Lacoste, Deanna

    2018-01-01

    during a forcing period. The complex heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and combustion coupling in this configuration does not allow keeping the vortex properties constant when pressure is increased. However, the different trends of the FTF gain observed

  1. Tuning PIM-PI-Based Membranes for Highly Selective Transport of Propylene/Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.

    2016-01-01

    emphasizing enhancing inter-chain interactions by introduction of a flexible diamine and functionalization with hydroxyl groups to attempt to immobilize the polymer chains. In doing so, the polymer chains may be able to pack more efficiently and upon sub-Tg

  2. Novel combined cycle configurations for propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant (APCI) natural gas liquefaction cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Amir; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 10 New LNG plants driver cycle enhancement configurations were developed. • All the 14 enhancement options design variables were optimized to demonstrate their energy saving potentials. • The best driver cycle enhancement option improved the driver cycle energy efficiency by 38%. • The effects of technological advancements on the performances of the enhancement options were studied. - Abstract: A significant amount of energy is required for natural gas liquefaction. Due to the production scale of LNG plants, they consume an intensive amount of energy. Consequently, any enhancement to the energy efficiency of LNG plants will result in a considerable reduction in natural gas consumption and CO 2 emission. Compressor drivers are the main energy consumer in the LNG plants. In this paper, 14 different driver cycle enhancement options were considered. A number of these options have not been proposed for the LNG plants. The new driver cycle development was performed by analyzing and optimizing the design variables of four conventional driver cycle enhancement options. The optimization results were used to develop more efficient cycles through mitigating the active constrains and driver cycle innovations. Based on the current available technologies five of our newly developed driver cycle configurations have higher efficiency than the most efficient existing conventional driver cycle. The best developed driver cycle enhancement option improved the base driver cycle energy efficiency by 38%. The effects of technological advancement on the performances of the all driver cycle enhancement options were also considered

  3. Raman spectrum of methane in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ethane, and propane environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    Using binary CH4 - mixtures with varied concentrations of H2, N2, CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 and a fixed ambient pressure of 25 bar, the influence of the environment on spectral characteristics (Raman shift, half-width, peak intensity) of Q-branches of the ν1, ν2, ν3, and 2ν4 methane Raman bands are investigated. It is found that depending on the environment these bands demonstrate different changes in their Raman shifts and half-widths. It is shown that the ratios of peak intensities I(ν2)/I(ν1), I(ν3)/I(ν1) and I(2ν4)/I(ν1) are very sensitive to the environment. The Raman shifts and half-widths of CH4 bands are assumed to depend on the absolute concentration of molecules in the analyzed medium. The data obtained would be useful in Raman diagnostics of natural gas.

  4. Canadian Pacific Railway presentation to the Propane Gas Association of Canada erger mania, sustaining franchise value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, F.

    1997-12-31

    A profile of Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was presented. CPR owns and operates 17,400 miles of tracks in Canada and has a total freight revenue of $3.5 billion. Current rail industry issues, including service expectations, capital markets, safety and the environment, and industry responses to these issues, were reviewed. Restructuring, increasing effectiveness, product and service innovations, and mergers, are the usual answers. CPR`s internal restructuring, which included centralization, integration, better use of information technology and reduced management costs, were described. Impacts of industry-wide restructuring, measures put in place by CPR to manage and respond to the changing rail transportation scene were outlined. 16 figs.

  5. The McKesson prop--an essential tool for the emergency physician?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A P

    2010-02-01

    Facial trauma is a commonly encountered presentation to emergency departments. When associated airway compromise occurs, co-existing head and neck injuries serve to produce a challenging clinical situation. We describe two patients who suffered multi-system trauma, with severe maxillofacial injuries that necessitated prompt definitive airway management and mid-face stabilisation in the pre-hospital and emergency department phases of resuscitation. The McKesson prop is a simple yet highly effective tool for use in these injuries.

  6. Highly stabilized partially premixed flames of propane in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Senosy, M.S.; Zayed, M.F.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    . Regardless the value of Φ, increasing the coflow velocity improves the flame stability. The correlation between recessed distance of the burner tubes and the fluctuation of the mixture fraction, Δξ, shows that at Δξ around 40% of the flammability limits leads

  7. Rate constants for the slow Mu + propane abstraction reaction at 300 K by diamagnetic RF resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald G; Cottrell, Stephen P; McKenzie, Iain; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2015-08-14

    The study of kinetic isotope effects for H-atom abstraction rates by incident H-atoms from the homologous series of lower mass alkanes (CH4, C2H6 and, here, C3H8) provides important tests of reaction rate theory on polyatomic systems. With a mass of only 0.114 amu, the most sensitive test is provided by the rates of the Mu atom. Abstraction of H by Mu can be highly endoergic, due to the large zero-point energy shift in the MuH bond formed, which also gives rise to high activation energies from similar zero-point energy corrections at the transition state. Rates are then far too slow near 300 K to be measured by conventional TF-μSR techniques that follow the disappearance of the spin-polarised Mu atom with time. Reported here is the first measurement of a slow Mu reaction rate in the gas phase by the technique of diamagnetic radio frequency (RF) resonance, where the amplitude of the MuH product formed in the Mu + C3H8 reaction is followed with time. The measured rate constant, kMu = (6.8 ± 0.5) × 10(-16) cm(3) s(-1) at 300 K, is surprisingly only about a factor of three slower than that expected for H + C3H8, indicating a dominant contribution from quantum tunneling in the Mu reaction, consistent with elementary transition state theory calculations of the kMu/kH kinetic isotope effect.

  8. Single Component and Competitive Adsorption of Propane, Carbon Dioxide and Butane on Vycor Glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Marković, A.; Uchytil, Petr; Seidel-Morgenstern, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2008), s. 1586-1601 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : porous media * gases * adsorption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.884, year: 2008

  9. SUPPRESSION OF COKE FORMATION IN THE STEAM CRACKING OF ALKANES: ETHANE AND PROPANE. (R825412)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Collision processes of hydrocarbon species in hydrogen plasmas. II The ethane and propane families

    CERN Document Server

    Janev, R K

    2002-01-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients are provided for collision processes of electrons and protons with C sub x H sub y and C sub x H sub y sup + (x = 2, 3; 1 <= y <= 2x + 2) hydrocarbon species in a wide range of collision energies and plasma (gas) temperatures. The considered processes include: electron-impact ionization and dissociation of C sub x H sub y , dissociative excitation, ionization and recombination of C sub x H sub y sup + with electrons, and both charge transfer and atom exchange in proton channels are considered separately. Information is also provided for the energies of each individual reaction channel. The cross sections and rate coefficients are presented in compact analytic forms.

  11. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic modeling of ethane and propane hydrates in porous silica gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Lee, Seungmin; Cha, Inuk; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Huen

    2009-04-23

    In the present study, we examined the active role of porous silica gels when used as natural gas storage and transportation media. We adopted the dispersed water in silica gel pores to substantially enhance active surface for contacting and encaging gas molecules. We measured the three-phase hydrate (H)-water-rich liquid (L(W))-vapor (V) equilibria of C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8) hydrates in 6.0, 15.0, 30.0, and 100.0 nm silica gel pores to investigate the effect of geometrical constraints on gas hydrate phase equilibria. At specified temperatures, the hydrate stability region is shifted to a higher pressure region depending on pore size when compared with those of bulk hydrates. Through application of the Gibbs-Thomson relationship to the experimental data, we determined the values for the C(2)H(6) hydrate-water and C(3)H(8) hydrate-water interfacial tensions to be 39 +/- 2 and 45 +/- 1 mJ/m(2), respectively. By using these values, the calculation values were in good agreement with the experimental ones. The overall results given in this study could also be quite useful in various fields, such as exploitation of natural gas hydrate in marine sediments and sequestration of carbon dioxide into the deep ocean.

  12. 4-Aminobenzoic acid–4,4′-(propane-1,3-diyldipyridine (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fwu Ming Shen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C13H14N2·C7H7NO2, the 4,4′-trimethylene-dipyridine (TMDP molecule displays an approximately planar structure, the maximum atomic deviation excluding H atoms being 0.118 (2 Å and the dihedral angle between the pyridine rings 4.59 (10°. The TMDP and 4-aminobenzoic acid (ABA molecules are linked by O—H...N and N—H...N hydrogen bonding, while ABA molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonding. C—H...π interactions are also observed between the methylene groups of TMDP molecules and the benzene rings of ABA molecules.

  13. Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane with cobalt, tungsten and molybdenum based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurin Salamanca-Guzmán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano es una alternativa interesante para la obtención de olefinas. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano utilizando dos materiales a partir de cobalto, tungsteno y molibdeno. Los materiales fueron caracterizados utilizando Difracción de Rayos X (XRD, espectroscopia infrarroja con transformada de Fourier (FTIR, análisis termogravimétrico (TGA y análisis térmico diferencial (DTA. El material CoMo φ y al ser calcinado a 623 K se transforma en la fase β -CoMoO4 (CoMo φ y623, la misma fase es obtenida cuando el material se calcina a 873 K (CoMo φ y873. CoMo φ y623 muestra un buen desempeño en la deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano, se obtuvo un rendimiento a propeno de 3,4% a una temperatura de 623 K y una velocidad espacial de 100 mL g-1 min-1. El material CoWs φ y fue calcinado a 673 K, obteniéndose una fase wolframita de baja cristalinidad. Este material presenta una alta selectividad a propeno y un bajo rendimiento. CoMo φ y873 presenta una buena actividad y selectividad, comparable con otros materiales reportados en la literatura, y su potencial como catalizador en la deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano se hace más evidente con la prueba que muestra ser estable durante 24 h de operación continua a 773 K.

  14. Crystal structure of 1,3-bis[(E-4-methoxybenzylideneamino]propan-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rivera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base, C19H22N2O3, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of 1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol with 4-methoxybenzaldehyde using water as solvent. The molecule exists in an E,E conformation with respect to the C=N imine bonds and the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 37.25 (15°. In the crystal, O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into infinite C(5 chains propagating along the a-axis direction. The packing of these chains is consolidated by C—H...O interactions and C—H...π short contacts, forming a three-dimensional network.

  15. N,N-Dimethyl-N-propyl-propan-1-aminium chloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärnä, Minna; Lahtinen, Manu; Valkonen, Jussi

    2008-10-11

    The title compound, C(8)H(20)N(+)·Cl(-)·H(2)O, has been prepared by a simple one-pot synthesis route followed by anion exchange using resin. In the crystal structure, the cations are packed in such a way that channels exist parallel to the b axis. These channels are filled by the anions and water mol-ecules, which inter-act via O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds [O⋯Cl = 3.285 (3) and 3.239 (3) Å] to form helical chains. The cations are involved in weak inter-molecular C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The title compound is not isomorphous with the bromo or iodo analogues.

  16. N,N-Dimethyl-N-propyl?propan-1-aminium chloride monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?rn?, Minna; Lahtinen, Manu; Valkonen, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C8H20N+·Cl−·H2O, has been prepared by a simple one-pot synthesis route followed by anion exchange using resin. In the crystal structure, the cations are packed in such a way that channels exist parallel to the b axis. These channels are filled by the anions and water molecules, which interact via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds [O...Cl = 3.285 (3) and 3.239 (3) Å] to form helical chains. The cations are involved in weak intermolecular C...

  17. Field Demonstration of Propane Biosparging for In Situ Remediation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ER-200828 DECEMBER 2015 Paul B. Hatzinger, Ph.D. David Lippincott, P.G. CB&I Federal Services, LLC. Distribution Statement A This...Neil Harvey, Paul Weinhardt, and Sheryl Streger of CB&I were vital to project success. Their efforts ultimately lead to the quality experimental...Annable, M.D., K. Hatfield, J. Cho, H. Klammler, B.L. Parker, J.A. Cherry , and P.S.C. Rao. 2005. Field-scale evaluation of the passive flux meter

  18. Structured reactors as alternative to pellets catalyst for propane oxidative steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vita, A.; Pino, L.; Cipiti, F.; Lagana, M.; Recupero, V. [CNR - Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 Messina (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The performance of a Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalyst as packed bed, coated on monolith and as self-structured bed has been evaluated during C{sub 3}H{sub 8} oxidative steam reforming. Structured bed, prepared by a new aqueous tape casting method, combining high total porosity (80%) with a self-supported channel structure, offers a better and more efficient control of heat and mass transfer along the catalytic bed, showing, especially at high gas hourly space velocity (30 x 10{sup 4} h{sup -1}), better performance in terms of fuel conversion, hydrogen production and low by-products formation coupled with an economy of the catalyst of about to 43% with respect to the traditional packed bed system. (author)

  19. Synthesis of two new Nickel and Copper-Nickel vanadates used for propane oxidative dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probaron dos nuevos vanadatos en la deshidrogenación oxidativa de propano. Los catalizadores fueron sintetizados por el método hidrotérmico y de coprecipitación, la caracterización se llevó a cabo por medio de difracción de rayos X, absorción atómica, análisis termogravimétrico y análisis térmico diferencial. La reacción se realizó en un rango de temperatura de 350-500 °C. Con el vanadato de níquel se obtuvo una conversión de propano de 10.6 % y una selectividad hacia propeno del 29.9 % a 400 °C y con el vanadato de cobre y níquel se alcanzó a la misma temperatura una conversión de 1.9 % y una selectividad del 56.9 %.

  20. Bis[tris(propane-1,3-diamine-κ2N,N′nickel(II] diaquabis(propane-1,3-diamine-κ2N,N′nickel(II hexabromide dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymen Yangui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ni(C3H10N23]2[Ni(C3H10N22(H2O2]Br6·2H2O, one Ni2+ cation, located on an inversion centre, is coordinated by four N atoms from two ligands and by two water O atoms. The other Ni2+ cation, located in a general position, is coordinated by six N atoms from three ligands. In both cases, the Ni2+ cation has an octahedral coordination environment. The overall structural cohesion is ensured by three types of hydrogen bonds, N—H...Br, O—H...Br and O—H...O, which connect the two types of complex cations, the bromide counter-anions and the lattice water molecules into a three-dimensional network.

  1. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Hossain, Md. Awlad; Lee, Soonho; Lim, Jinseong; Jang, Hohyoun; Hong, Taehoon; Kim,; Kim, Whangi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  2. Modeling thermodynamic properties of propane or tetrahydrofuran mixed with carbon dioxide or methane in structure-II clathrate hydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Bin; Ning, Fulong; Cao, Pinqiang; Peng, Li; Wu, Jianyang; Zhang, Zhun; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2017-01-01

    A sound knowledge of thermodynamic properties of sII hydrates is of great importance to understand the stability of sII gas hydrates in petroleum pipelines and in natural settings. Here, we report direct molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the thermal expansion coefficient, the

  3. CCDC 978999: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 1-(4-methylphenyl)-2-(morpholin-4-yl)propan-1-one

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Wei-Guo

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. Cluster-derived Ir-Sn/SiO2 catalysts for the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane: A spectroscopic study

    KAUST Repository

    Gallo, Alessandro; Psaro, Rinaldo; Guidotti, Matteo; Dal Santo, Vladimiro; Pergola, Roberto Della; Masih, Dilshad; Izumi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Ir-Sn bimetallic silica-based materials have been prepared via deposition of the molecular organometallic clusters (NEt4)2[Ir 4(CO)10(SnCl3)2] and NEt 4[Ir6(CO)15(SnCl3)] or via deposition of Sn organometallic precursor Sn(n-C4H9) 4 onto pre

  5. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Wang, Qingxiao; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Emsley, Lyndon; Dong, Hailin; Laveille, Paco; Li, Lidong; Samal, Akshaya Kumar; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as

  6. Tris(propane-1,2-diamine-κ2N,N′nickel(II tetracyanidonickelate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Černák

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni(C3H10N23][Ni(CN4], is built up of [Ni(pn3]2+ cations (pn is 1,2-diaminopropane and [Ni(CN4]2− anions. Both NiII atoms in the cation and the anion lie on a mirror plane. The respective ions interact through Coulombic forces and through a complex network of hydrogen bonds. Extended disorder associated with the cation has been resolved. The occupancies of the respective disordered positions are 0.4:0.4:0.2.

  7. On the phase between pressure and heat release fluctuations for propane/hydrogen flames and its role in mode transitions

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Speth, Raymond L.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    and preheat temperatures. The combustor exhibits distinct acoustic response and dynamic flame shape (collectively referred to as "dynamic modes") depending on the operating conditions. We simultaneously measure the dynamic pressure and flame chemiluminescence

  8. CCDC 963853: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(bis(mu2-2-Methylimidazolato)-zinc propane)

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Swaidan, Raja; Belmabkhout, Youssef; du Plessis, Marike; Jacobs, Tia; Barbour, Leonard J.; Pinnau, Ingo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  9. CCDC 963852: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(bis(mu2-2-Methylimidazolato)-zinc propane)

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Swaidan, Raja; Belmabkhout, Youssef; du Plessis, Marike; Jacobs, Tia; Barbour, Leonard J.; Pinnau, Ingo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  10. CCDC 963851: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(bis(mu2-2-Methylimidazolato)-zinc propane)

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Swaidan, Raja; Belmabkhout, Youssef; du Plessis, Marike; Jacobs, Tia; Barbour, Leonard J.; Pinnau, Ingo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. On the phase between pressure and heat release fluctuations for propane/hydrogen flames and its role in mode transitions

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into mode-transitions observed in a 50-kW, atmospheric pressure, backward-facing step combustor burning lean premixed C3H8/H2 fuel mixtures over a range of equivalence ratios, fuel compositions and preheat temperatures. The combustor exhibits distinct acoustic response and dynamic flame shape (collectively referred to as "dynamic modes") depending on the operating conditions. We simultaneously measure the dynamic pressure and flame chemiluminescence to examine the phase between pressure (p\\') and heat release fluctuations (q\\') in the observed dynamic modes. Results show that the heat release is in phase with the pressure oscillations (θqp≈0) at the onset of a dynamic mode, while as the operating conditions change within the mode, the phase grows until it reaches a critical value θqp=θc, at which the combustor switches to another dynamic mode. According to the classical Rayleigh criterion, this critical phase (θc) should be π/2, whereas our data show that the transition occurs well below this value. A linear acoustic energy balance shows that this critical phase marks the point where acoustic losses across the system boundaries equal the energy addition from the combustion process to the acoustic field. Based on the extended Rayleigh criterion in which the acoustic energy fluxes through the system boundaries as well as the typical Rayleigh source term (p\\'q\\') are included, we derive an extended Rayleigh index defined as Re=θqp/θc, which varies between 0 and 1. This index, plotted against a density-weighted strained consumption speed, indicates that the impact of the operating parameters on the dynamic mode selection of the combustor collapses onto a family of curves, which quantify the state of the combustor within a dynamic mode. At Re=0, the combustor enters a mode, and switches to another as Re approaches 1. The results provide a metric for quantifying the instability margins of fuel-flexible combustors operating at a wide range of conditions. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations on gate opening in ZIF-8: Identification of factors for ethane and propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2013-07-16

    Gate opening of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) is an important microscopic phenomenon in explaining the adsorption, diffusion, and separation processes for large guest molecules. We present a force field, with input from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, for the molecular dynamics simulation on the gate opening in ZIF-8. The computed self-diffusivities for sorbed C1 to C3 hydrocarbons were in good agreement with the experimental values. The observed sharp diffusion separation from C2H6 to C3H8 was elucidated by investigating the conformations of the guest molecules integrated with the flexibility of the host framework. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Laboratory-Scale Demonstration Using Dilute Ammonia Gas-Induced Alkaline Hydrolysis of Soil Contaminants (Chlorinated Propanes and Explosives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    stabilization of metals (like Cr (VI)) and radionuclides ( uranium or technetium) (Thornton and Amonette 1999, Thornton et al. 2007). Master variable...successful at significantly reducing uranium mobility, although the effect was somewhat reversible. Ammonia oxidation and remediation Ammonia...activity of ammonia- oxidizing microorganisms. A 283-day experiment did not result in any measureable increase in ammonia- oxidizing microorganisms

  14. CCDC 893845: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (1,3-bis(di-t-butylphosphino)propane)-(trifluoromethanesulfonato)-palladium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    KAUST Repository

    Roesle, P.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  15. Cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding 1-aminocyclo- propane-1-carboxylate oxidase in Vanda flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Srifah Huehne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO gene in the final step of ethylene biosynthesis was isolated from ethylene-sensitive Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers. This consists of 1,242 base pairs (bp encoding for 326 amino acid residues. To investigate the specific divergence in orchid ACO sequences, the deduced Vanda ACO was aligned with five other orchid ACOs. The results reveal that the ACO sequences within Doritaenopsis, Phalaenopsis and Vanda show highly conserved and almost 95% identical homology, while the ACOs isolated from Cymbidium, Dendrobium and Cattleya are 8788% identical to Vanda ACO. In addition, the 2-oxoglutarate- Fe(II_oxygenase (Oxy domain of orchid ACOs consists of a higher degree of amino acid conservation than that of the non-haem dioxygenase (DIOX_N domain. The overall homology regions of Vanda ACO are commonly folded into 12 α-helices and 12 β-sheets similar to the three dimensional template-structure of Petunia ACO. This Vanda ACO cloned gene is highly expressed in flower tissue compared with root and leaf tissues. In particular, there is an abundance of ACO transcript accumulation in the column followed by the lip and the perianth of Vanda Miss Joaquim flowers at the fully-open stage.

  16. Dissolution patterns of biocompatible glasses in 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol (Tris) buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, S; Hupa, L; Hupa, M

    2013-02-01

    A continuous flow measurement system with sensitive on-line ion analysis has been applied to study the initial dissolution behaviour of biocompatible glasses in Tris. Altogether 16 glasses with widely varying compositions were studied. The measurement system allowed for quantitative determination of the time-dependent rates of dissolution of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, silicon and phosphorus during the first 10-15 min in contact with Tris solution. The dissolution rates of the different ions showed significant glass to glass variations, but all glasses studied showed one of four distinct dissolution patterns. The ion dissolution rates after an exposure of 1000 s, expressed as the normalized surface-specific mass loss rates, were compared with the in vitro and in vivo reactivity of the glasses as predicted by models in the literature. The results showed a clear correlation between the dissolution rates of the glasses in Tris and their reactivity as measured by other different methods. Consequently, the measured short-term dissolution patterns could be used to determine which glasses are suitable as bioactive, biodegradable, or inert biomaterials for medical devices. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consequences analysis of accidents in an air-propane plant; Analise de consequencias de acidentes numa planta de ar propanado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Sergio; Lima Flho, Nelson M. de; Martins, Andrea do N. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio Ricardo T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas (COPERGAS), Recife, PE (Brazil); Alencar, Joao Rui B. de [LAFEPE - Laboratorio Farmaceutico do Estado de Pernambuco S/A, Recife, PE (Brazil); Martins, Andrea do N. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte has been developing prototype ovens, which work with natural gas. All the project of the prototypes, which will be applied to ceramic, bread bake industry and incineration of the hospital garbage, needs to be studied, developed and tested carefully until its conclusion. Then VRML language (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) is used as a tool in the study of the engineering projects and simulation of some tests. The main benefits of the use of this tool are: finding and solving problems in the project of the prototypes faster; optimization in the project since the three-dimensional visualization facilitates the study ; and simulation of aspects of functioning of the ovens before its construction. (author)

  18. N1-(Thiophen-2-ylmethyl-N3,N3-bis[3-(thiophen-2-ylmethylammoniopropyl]propane-1,3-diammonium hexafluoridosilicate methanol trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Alamgir Hossain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H40N4S34+·2SiF62−·3CH3OH, the central tertiary amine function is protonated and is connected to three thiophen-2-ylmethylamino-n-propyl groups, forming the arms of a T-shaped cation that has two pockets. Each arm contains one protonated secondary amine function, and each pocket is occupied by one SiF62− anion bonded via two N—H...F interactions with the protonated amine group on the middle arm, while two methanol solvent molecules are N—H...O hydrogen-bonded with the other secondary protonated amine groups on the side arms. Weak O—H...O and O—H...F hydrogen bonds between the solvent molecules and between the solvent molecules and the anions, respectively, are also observed. All three thiophene groups in the arms are disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.828 (3:0.172 (3, 0.910 (2:0.090 (2 and 0.890 (3:0.110 (3.

  19. A Selected-Ion-Flow-Drift-Tube Study of Charge Transfer Processes between Atomic, Molecular, and Dimer Ion Projectiles and Polyatomic Molecules Ethane, Propane, and n-Butane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Praxmarer, C.; Hansel, A.; Lindinger, W.; Herman, Zdeněk

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (1998), s. 4246-4251 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/0351 Grant - others:FFWF(AT) P12429 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.147, year: 1998

  20. Removal of small hydrocarbons (ethane, propane, butane) from natural gas streams using the ionic 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Mota Martinez, M.T.; Berrouk, A.S.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    From our earlier work it was found that the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]) shows a very high carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility and a low methane (CH4) solubility, with the consequence that this ionic liquid has a high CO2/CH4

  1. Structure and critical function of Fe and acid sites in Fe-ZSM-5 in propane oxidative dehydrogenation with N2O and N2O decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; Sathu, Naveen Kumar; Tabor, Edyta; Wichterlová, Blanka; Sklenák, Štěpán; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 299, MAR 2013 (2013), s. 188-203 ISSN 0021-9517 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0624; GA ČR GA203/09/1627 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fe-ZSM-5 zeolite * Structure of Fe species * Steamed Fe-zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.073, year: 2013

  2. CCDC 820903: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (eta^5^-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)-(1-benzyl-3-[tri(propan-2-yl)-phosphanylidene]triaz-1-ene)-chloro-ruthenium

    KAUST Repository

    Lamberti, Marina; Fortman, George C.; Poater, Albert; Broggi, Julie; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Cavallo, Luigi; Nolan, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  3. {N,N′-Bis[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl­idene]­propane-1,3-diamine}­bromidocopper(II) tetra­fluoridoborate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, [CuBr(C17H20N4)]BF4, the CuII ion is five-coordinated by the four N atoms of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and by one bromide ion, thereby forming a square-pyramidal CuN4Br coordination geometry. The dihedral angle between the pyridine rings of the Schiff base is 54.39 (18)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by C—H...F interactions.

  4. A 121Sb Moessbauer Study of the Chemical State of Antimony in V-Sb-O Mixed-Oxide Catalysts for the Ammoxidation of Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievano, L.; Wagner, F. E.; Zanthoff, H. W.; Calogero, S.

    2002-01-01

    The structural changes of two representative samples of a group of V-Sb-oxide catalysts, a vanadium-rich and an antimony-rich specimen, are investigated by 121 Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy after treatment under propene or hydrogen at 673 K. The as-prepared catalysts contain both Sb(V) and Sb(III) as crystalline and microcrystalline α-Sb 2 O 4 and VSbO 4 , as well as an additional amorphous V 5+ oxide phase. The oxidation state of antimony does not change upon exposure to propene, whereas a partial reduction can be obtained by a more intense reduction under hydrogen. The Moessbauer results indicate that the antimony in VSbO 4 can be reduced more easily than that in α-Sb 2 O 4 , which appears to be more stable. These results are discussed in view of the observed depletion of vanadium at the surface of the catalyst particles under reaction conditions.

  5. Fe(III)-modified montmorillonite and bentonite: synthesis, chemical and UV-Vis spectral characterization, arsenic sorption, and catalysis of oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Hradil, David; Bezdička, Petr; Doušová, B.; Čapek, L.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2007), s. 165-176 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0221; GA AV ČR IAA3032401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : As sorption * Fe-montmorillonite * Fe- bentonite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.375, year: 2007

  6. CCDC 1047858: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[propane-1,3-diaminium tetrakis(mu-selenido)-germanium-manganese tetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guodong; Li, Peizhou; Ding, Junfeng; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Nie, Lina; Wu, Tao; Zhao, Yanli; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  7. {μ-6,6′-Dimethoxy-2,2′-[propane-1,3-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato}trinitratocopper(IIsamarium(III acetone solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Feng Hou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CuSm(C19H20N2O4(NO33]·CH3CO-CH3, the CuII atom is four-coordinated in a square-planar geometry by two O atoms and two N atoms of the deprotonated Schiff base. The SmIII atom is ten-coordinate, chelated by three nitrate groups and linked to the four O atoms of the deprotonated Schiff base.

  8. 3-[4-(10H-Indolo[3,2-b]quinolin-11-ylpiperazin-1-yl]propan-1-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Nichol

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H24N4O, the aromatic moiety is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation of a least-squares plane fitted through all non-H atoms = 0.0386 Å and is rotated by 89.98 (4° from the piperazine ring, which adopts the expected chair conformation. The propanol chain is not fully extended away from the piperazine ring. In the crystal, there are two unique hydrogen-bonding interactions. One is an O—H...N interaction which, together with an inversion-related symmetry equivalent, forms a ring motif. The second is an N—H...N interaction which links adjacent molecules by means of a chain motif which propagates in the c-axis direction. Overall, a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structure is formed.

  9. Bis{4-methylbenzyl 2-[4-(propan-2-ylbenzylidene]hydrazinecarbodithioato-κ2N2,S}nickel(II: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Nadia Md Yusof

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The complete molecule of the title hydrazine carbodithioate complex, [Ni(C19H21N2S22], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The NiII atom is N,S-chelated by two hydrazinecarbodithioate ligands, which provide a trans-N2S2 donor set that defines a distorted square-planar geometry. The conformation of the five-membered chelate ring is an envelope with the NiII atom being the flap atom. In the crystal, p-tolyl-C—H...π(benzene-iPr, iPr-C—H...π(p-tolyl and π–π interactions [between p-tolyl rings with inter-centroid distance = 3.8051 (12 Å] help to consolidate the three-dimensional architecture. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface confirms the importance of H-atom contacts in establishing the packing.

  10. The Effect of Nitrogen Surface Ligands on Propane Metathesis: Design and Characterizations of N-modified SBA15-Supported Schrock-type Tungsten Alkylidyne

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Catalysis, which is primarily a molecular phenomenon, is an important field of chemistry because it requires the chemical conversion of molecules into other molecules. It also has an effect on many fields, including, but not limited to, industry

  11. Spirobisindane-based polyimide as efficient precursor of thermally-rearranged and carbon molecular sieve membranes for enhanced propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Ramy J.; Ma, Xiaohua; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    -OH to the corresponding polybenzoxazole (PBO) membrane resulted in a pure-gas C3H6/C3H8 selectivity of 15 and C3H6 permeability of 14 Barrer, positioning it above the polymeric C3H6/C3H8 upper bound. For the first time, the C3H6/C3H8 mixed-gas properties of a TR polymer

  12. Critical properties and high-pressure volumetric behavior of the carbon dioxide+propane system at T=308.15 k. Krichevskii function and related thermodynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sofía T; Gil, Laura; García-Giménez, Pilar; Artal, Manuela; Otín, Santos; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2009-05-21

    Critical properties and volumetric behavior for the {CO2(1)+C3H8(2)} system have been studied. The critical locus was measured with a flow apparatus and detected by critical opalescence. For the mixtures, repeatabilities in critical temperature and pressure are rTcStructural properties such as direct and total correlation function integrals and cluster size were calculated using the Krichevskii function concept. Both the critical and volumetric behavior have been compared with literature data and with those obtained from the PC-SAFT and Patel-Teja equations of state.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiations on 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carloxylic acid metabolism in climateric fruits. Analysis of stress response and implication in fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrigaudiere, C.

    1989-12-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone which regulates many aspects of ripening, senescence and stress response. The results show that irradiation can also be considered as a stress factor. Ethylene production enhancement which follows irradiation is the consequence of ACC synthase activation, and results from a de novo synthesis of the enzyme and in some cases from a very fast (15 mn) translation of already presents mRNAS. In cherry tomatoe fruits the onset of the ripening process occurs earlier. This modification is the consequence of two contradictory effects: - the short term activation of the ACC metabolism. - the ionization impact on genome and the consecutive impairing of transcriptional processes. These two aspects are dependent on the irradiation dose. They bring in cherry tomatoes a synchronization of the ripening process. The stress response towards ionization and CuC12 was also investigated on cell fruit suspensions. Results are dependent on the stress nature, material and physiological cell condition. They confirm the previous observed activation of ACC synthesis, which seems to be a general feature in non senescent systems [fr

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 419 - Processes Included in the Determination of BAT Effluent Limitations for Total Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Phenolic Compounds (4AAP) Crude Processes 1. Atmospheric Crude Distillation 2. Crude Desalting 3. Vacuum Crude Distillation Cracking and Coking Processes 4. Visbreaking 5. Thermal Cracking 6. Fluid... Oil Manufacture 23. Propane Dewaxing, Propane Deasphalting, Propane Fractioning, Propane Deresining 24...

  15. Correlation and prediction of the phase behavior and thermal properties of binary and ternary systems of 2,2′-oxybis[propane] + benzene, toluene, cyclohexane or n-heptane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didaoui, Saéda, E-mail: sdidaoui@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et de modélisation moléculaire, Faculté de chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene B.P.32, El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger (Algeria); Ait-Kaci, Ahmed [Laboratoire de thermodynamique et de modélisation moléculaire, Faculté de chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene B.P.32, El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger (Algeria)

    2013-09-10

    Highlights: ► To provide original data of excess enthalpies of systems containing additive gasoline. ► To predict excess functions using statistical model. ► To examine the thermal behavior of ethers with hydrocarbons using theoretical models. ► Increasing information of thermodynamic behavior will increase quality of the fuel and economy. - Abstract: The experimental excess molar enthalpies data of liquid binary and ternary mixtures of DIPE with benzene, toluene, cyclohexane and n-heptane have been measured at 303.15 K and constant pressure using a Calvet type microcalorimeter, C80 (Setaram, France). A Redlich–Kister type equation was used to correlate experimental values. The theoretical results obtained by the DISQUAC model are significantly closer to the experimental values.

  16. CCDC 972836: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2-(1-(1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-2-yl)propan-2-ylidene)-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-aluminium

    KAUST Repository

    Jianghua,

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  17. CCDC 835523: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(mu~2~-1,1'-propane-1,3-diylbis(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene))-di-gold (ii) bis(hexafluorophosphate)

    KAUST Repository

    Baron, M.; Tubaro, C.; Biffis, A.; Basato, M.; Graiff, C.; Poater, A.; Cavallo, Luigi; Armaroli, N.; Accorsi, G.

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. 1-[3-(2-Benzyloxy-6-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl-5-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]propane-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Patel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C28H24F6N2O3, the mean plane of the central pyrazoline ring forms dihedral angles of 2.08 (9 and 69.02 (16° with the 2-benzyloxy-6-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl and 3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the pyrazoline and 3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl rings is 68.97 (9°. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond is observed, which forms an S(6 graph-set motif. In the crystal, pairs of weak C—H...F halogen interactions link the molecules into inversion dimers while molecular chains along [100] are formed by C—H...O contacts.

  19. Correlation and prediction of the phase behavior and thermal properties of binary and ternary systems of 2,2′-oxybis[propane] + benzene, toluene, cyclohexane or n-heptane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didaoui, Saéda; Ait-Kaci, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► To provide original data of excess enthalpies of systems containing additive gasoline. ► To predict excess functions using statistical model. ► To examine the thermal behavior of ethers with hydrocarbons using theoretical models. ► Increasing information of thermodynamic behavior will increase quality of the fuel and economy. - Abstract: The experimental excess molar enthalpies data of liquid binary and ternary mixtures of DIPE with benzene, toluene, cyclohexane and n-heptane have been measured at 303.15 K and constant pressure using a Calvet type microcalorimeter, C80 (Setaram, France). A Redlich–Kister type equation was used to correlate experimental values. The theoretical results obtained by the DISQUAC model are significantly closer to the experimental values

  20. Crystal structure of [propane-1,3-diylbis(piperidine-4,1-diyl]bis[(pyridin-4-ylmethanone]–4,4′-oxydibenzoic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Low

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title co-crystal, C25H32N4O2·C14H10O5, molecules are connected into supramolecular chains aligned along [102] by O—H...N hydrogen bonding. These aggregate into supramolecular layers oriented parallel to (20-1 by C—H...O interactions. These layers then stack in an ABAB pattern along the c crystal direction to give the full three-dimensional crystal structure. The central chain in the dipyridylamide has an anti–anti conformation. The dihedral angle between the aromatic ring planes is 29.96 (3°. Disorder is noted in some of the residues in the structure and this is manifested in two coplanar dispositions of one statistically disordered carboxylic acid group.

  1. CCDC 855138: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(mu~2~-1,1'-propane-1,3-diylbis(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene))-di-gold (ii) bis(hexafluorophosphate)

    KAUST Repository

    Baron, M.

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  2. Crystal structure and spin state of mixed-crystals of Fe(NCS)x(NCBH3)2-x(bpp)2 (bpp = 1,3-BIS(4-pyridyl)propane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Haruka; Yasuhara, Hiroki; Nakashima, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    New mixed crystals, Fe(NCS) x (NCBH 3 ) (2-x) (bpp) 2 were synthesized. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the ratio of low-spin state in the Fe(NCBH 3 ) 2 unit changed with the change of x. The results revealed that the high spin site of Fe(NCS) 2 unit affects the spin state of Fe(NCBH 3 ) 2 unit. (author)

  3. CCDC 875409: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (1,12-dihydrodibenzo[de,qr]hexacene-7,16-diyldiethyne-2,1-diyl)bis[tri(propan-2-yl)silane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuan; Heng, Wee-Kuan; Lee, Byung Sun; Aratani, N.; Zafra, J.L.; Bao, N.; Lee, R.; Sung, Young Mo; Sun, Zhe; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Webster, R.D.; Navarrete, J.T.L.; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, A.; Casado, J.; Ding, Jun; Wu, Jishan

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. CCDC 1047859: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[bis(2-aminopropan-1-aminium) (mu-3,5-diselanyl-3-(selanyl)-5-(selanyl)-1,2,4,3,5-triselenadigermolanato)-bis(propane-1,2-diamine)-selanyl-dimanganese

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. (2RS)-2-(2,4-Difluoro-phen-yl)-1-[(4-iodo-benz-yl)(meth-yl)amino]-3-(1H-1,2,4-tri-azol-1-yl)propan-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui-Ping; Gao, Shou-Hong; Li, Chun-Tong; Wu, Zhi-Jun

    2012-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND (COMMON NAME: iodiconazole), C(19)H(19)F(2)IN(4)O, there is an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond and mol-ecules are linked by weak inter-actions only, namely C-H⋯N, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds, and π-electron ring-π-electron ring inter-actions between the triazole rings with centroid-centroid distances of 3.725 (3) Å.

  6. LPG fuels in France in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    This short note gives a statement of the sales of butane, propane and LPG fuels in France during the year 1997. Details are given for conditioned butane and propane products, cylinders and fixed reservoirs. (J.S.)

  7. Model Validation Against The Modelers’ Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Transportation GUI Graphical User Interface HF Hydrogen Fluoride LNG Liquefied Natural Gas LPG Liquefied Propane Gas MDA Modelers’ Data...composition. b) Eight trials; 1.5- to 6-min releases of liquefied propane gas ( LPG ) forming a boiling liquid pool on a water surface. Molecular weight and...water surface. The other eight Maplin Sands trials consist of 1.5- to 6-min releases of liquefied propane gas ( LPG ) forming a boiling liquid pool on a

  8. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) poisoning: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, Y; Nishi, K

    1996-10-25

    Two autopsy cases of men who died while connecting a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pipe are reported. Their blood concentrations of propane (the main content of LPG) were 0.12 and 3.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The cause of death after exposure of LPG has generally been considered to be asphyxia from hypoxia. The large differences in the blood propane levels found here and reported in the literature, however, suggest that direct toxic effects of propane poisoning may be the cause of death in some cases. Propane concentrations and the cause of death are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Guidance for Facilities on Risk Management Programs (RMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes supplemental guidance specific to ammonia refrigeration, wastewater treatment, propane storage, warehouses, chemical distributors, offsite consequence analysis, retail agriculture, applicability of program levels, prevention, emergency response.

  10. CCDC 1055932: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : [(1,9-dimethylphenaleno[2,1-b]phenaleno[1',2':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiene-6,15-diyl)di(ethyne-2,1-diyl)]bis[tri(propan-2-yl)silane

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Xueliang; Lee, Sangsu; Son, Minjung; Zheng, Bin; Chang, Jingjing; Jing, Linzhi; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Kim, Dongho; Chi, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. CCDC 910699: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Tricarbonyl-(eta^5^-2-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-5-oxido-4,6-bis[tri(propan-2-yl)silyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrol-4-yl)-iron

    KAUST Repository

    Dentel, H.; Moulin, S.; Pagnoux-Ozherelyeva, A.; Gaillard, S.; Poater, A.; Cavallo, Luigi; Lohier, J.-F.; Renaud, J.-L.

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from

  12. CCDC 910698: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Tricarbonyl-(eta^5^-4,6-bis(t-butyl[di(propan-2-yl)]silyl)-2-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-5-oxido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrol-4-yl)-iron

    KAUST Repository

    Dentel, H.; Moulin, S.; Pagnoux-Ozherelyeva, A.; Gaillard, S.; Poater, A.; Cavallo, Luigi; Lohier, J.-F.; Renaud, J.-L.

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from

  13. CCDC 910699: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Tricarbonyl-(eta^5^-2-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-5-oxido-4,6-bis[tri(propan-2-yl)silyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrol-4-yl)-iron

    KAUST Repository

    Dentel, H.

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  14. CCDC 910698: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Tricarbonyl-(eta^5^-4,6-bis(t-butyl[di(propan-2-yl)]silyl)-2-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-5-oxido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyrrol-4-yl)-iron

    KAUST Repository

    Dentel, H.

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  15. CCDC 875408: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : [(1,9-dimethyl-1,3a,9,16c-tetrahydrodibenzo[de,op]pentacene-7,15-diyl)diethyne-2,1-diyl]bis[tri(propan-2-yl)silane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuan; Heng, Wee-Kuan; Lee, Byung Sun; Aratani, N.; Zafra, J.L.; Bao, N.; Lee, R.; Sung, Young Mo; Sun, Zhe; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Webster, R.D.; Navarrete, J.T.L.; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, A.; Casado, J.; Ding, Jun; Wu, Jishan

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. Surface Tension and p−ρ−T Data for 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfc) and 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-Heptafluoro-3-methoxy-propane (HFE-347mcc)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klomfar, Jaroslav; Součková, Monika; Pátek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2013), s. 2316-2325 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0010 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : surface tension * density * HFC-365mfc * HFE-347mcc Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2013

  17. Acridone-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase: discovery and SAR leading to the identification of N-(2-(6-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)propan-2-yl)-2- fluoro-9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-3-carboxamide (BMS-566419).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yufen; Gu, Henry H; Dhar, T G Murali; Xiao, Zili; Ballentine, Shelley K; Shen, Zhongqi; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Obermeier, Mary; Yang, Zheng; McIntyre, Kim W; Shuster, David J; Witmer, Mark; Dambach, Donna; Chao, Sam; Mathur, Arvind; Chen, Bang-Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Robl, Jeffrey A; Townsend, Robert; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2007-07-26

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, catalyzes the irreversible nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide dependent oxidation of inosine-5'-monophosphate to xanthosine-5'-monophosphate. Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of mycophenolic acid, has clinical utility for the treatment of transplant rejection based on its inhibition of IMPDH. The overall clinical benefit of MMF is limited by what is generally believed to be compound-based, dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity that is related to its specific pharmacokinetic characteristics. Thus, development of an IMPDH inhibitor with a novel structure and a different pharmacokinetic profile may reduce the likelihood of GI toxicity and allow for increased efficacy. This article will detail the discovery and SAR leading to a novel and potent acridone-based IMPDH inhibitor 4m and its efficacy and GI tolerability when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.

  18. Sharp separation of C2/C3 hydrocarbon mixtures by zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes synthesized in aqueous solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2011-01-01

    Exceptional high quality ZIF-8 membranes prepared through a novel seeded growth method in aqueous solutions at near room temperature exhibit excellent separation performance for C2/C3 hydrocarbon mixtures. The separation factors for mixtures of ethane/propane, ethylene/propylene and ethylene/propane are ∼80, ∼10 and ∼167, respectively. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with

  20. X-ray scattering on liquid-gas interfaces; Roentgenstreuung an Fluessigkeits-Gas Grenzflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Michael

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis two different theme-fields were studied with dhe methods of the elastic, surface sensitive X-ray scattering. In the first part of the thesis the liquid-gas interfaces water-propane and glycerol-isobutane were studied concerning the structure formation on these interfaces. The system water-propane served for the study of the gas hydrate formation on the water-gas interface. Studies on this interface could give no hints on the formation of propane hydrates or propane-hydrate fragments. However the adsorption of molecularly thin propane films on the water surface was observed. The adsorption behaviour of gases on liquid surfaces was studied by further experiments on the glycerol-isobutane interface. In the second part of the thesis the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions and water were studied. The lateralstructure of these liquid-gas interfaces was studied by the method of the diffuse X-ray scattering.

  1. The 36. Red Deer Seminar - still going strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues dominated the 36th Red Deer Seminar of the propane industry, among them changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, propane and automobile emissions and industry self-management. With regard to changes to the Alberta fuel tax collection system, details were provided on how the system, coming into effect on January 1, 1997, will impact on producers, distributors and retailers. In terms of automobile emissions, it was said that propane has lagged behind gasoline in technological development, hence propane no longer has advantages in emissions. It was noted, however, that with equivalent technology propane can still meet ultra-low emission standards. Regarding industry self-management, it was stressed that self-management did not mean deregulation since government retains policy, regulation and standard setting. It means a new partnership arrangement in which industry delivers services formerly provided by government. In this spirit of cooperation, it was announced that effective September 1996, administration of the auto propane vehicle conversion program will be transferred to the PGAC under the name of Alberta Propane Vehicle Administration Organization. 3 figs

  2. A route to quantitative 13C NMR analysis of multicomponent polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, S.

    1991-01-01

    A protocol for quantitative sequential 13C NMR analysis is developed for polyesters composed of trimethylol propane (TMP), neopentyl glycol (NPG), and adipic and isophthalic acids. TMP centred, structural models with methyl adipate and isophthalate branches in all possible combinations...

  3. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center; Vol. 5, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-04-18

    A quarterly magazine with articles on recent changes to the Clean Cities Program; the SuperTruck student engineering challenge; alternative fuel use in delivery fleets; and a propane vehicle rally and conference in February 2001, in Kansas City, Mo.

  4. Proof-of-Principle Polymer Engine-Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelrine, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    ... in excess of 1000 C, more than sufficient to produce high potential efficiencies. Over 10000 cycles (the project target) were successfully demonstrated using propane and butane fuels, and much longer lifetimes are undoubtedly feasible...

  5. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) of Ethylbenzene with and over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SALEM CHEKNOUN

    2018-03-27

    Mar 27, 2018 ... attention from both fundamental and industrial point of view because of their ... propane and isobutene selective oxidation to acrylic or isobutyric acids ... Ethylbenzene is one of the most important arylalka- nes, being a starting ...

  6. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  7. Resolução cinética de haloidrinas racêmicas com a lipase B de Candida antarctica e biotransformação de produtos naturais por micro-organismos

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Provedel Martins

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram realizadas as resoluções cinéticas das haloidrinas racêmicas (RS)-1-benziloxi-3-cloropropan-2-ol (4a), (RS)-1-benziloxi-3-bromopropan-2-ol (4b), (RS)-1-cloro-3-(4-metoxifenoxi)propan-2-ol (5a), (RS)-1-bromo-3-(4-metoxifenoxi)propan-2-ol (5b), (RS)-1-aliloxi-3-cloro-propan-2-ol (6a) e (RS)-1-aliloxi-3-bromo-propan-2-ol (6b) empregando-se a lipase comercial de Candida antarctica CALB como catalisador e acetato de vinila como agente acilante. As razões enantioméricas das res...

  8. Optical Remote Sensing to Determine Strength of Nonpoint Sources: Duke Forest Validation Study (ESTCP #CP-0214)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Ravl; Hashmonay, Ram; Kagann, Robery; Bolch, Adam

    2005-01-01

    ...-path Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometer (OP-FTIR). Trace gases, nitrous oxide, ethylene and acetylene, propylene and propane, are released in a controlled manner and their locations of release are recorded...

  9. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  10. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  11. Quantum-chemical study of hydride transfer in catalytic transformation of paraffins on zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazansky, V.B.; Frash, M.V.; Santen, van R.A.; Chon, H.; Ihm, S.-K.; Uh, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio quantum-chemical cluster calculations demonstrate that the activated complexes of hydride transfer reaction in catalytic transformation of paraffins on zeolites very much resembles adsorbed nonclassical carbonium ions. The calculated activation energies for reactions involving propane and

  12. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    promoted forms were prepared and tested for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. Catalysts were characterized with XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, TPR and XPS methods. Catalytic activity measurement was done with quartz microreactor between 450 ...

  13. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1321-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... good example of trading off response on propane for relative responses to other hydrocarbon species is... known volume of methanol is injected, using a microliter syringe, into the heated mixing zone (250 °F...

  15. Safety analysis of switching between reductive and oxidative conditions in a reaction coupling reverse flow reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    A new reverse flow reactor is developed where endothermic reactants (propane dehydrogenation) and exothermic reactants (fuel combustion) are fed sequentially to a monolithic catalyst, while periodically alternating the inlet and outlet positions. Upon switching from reductive to oxidative conditions

  16. Application of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation biomarkers for oxidative damage in mammalian cells. A comparison with two fluorescent probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orhan, H.; Gurer-Orhan, H.; Vriese, E.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Meerman, J.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    We recently developed two biomarker sets for oxidative damage: one for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO) degradation products; acetaldehyde, propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, malondialdehyde and acetone, by a gas chromatography-electron capture detection

  17. Vehicle Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, C.; Buttner, W.; Rivkin, C.

    2010-02-01

    This report identifies gaps in vehicle codes and standards and recommends ways to fill the gaps, focusing on six alternative fuels: biodiesel, natural gas, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, and propane.

  18. Distribution of electric potential in hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shcherbakov, N.D.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the distribution of electrical potential and temperatures in laminar methane and propane--butane flames when the excess air coefficient in the mixture is changed from 0 to 1.2. 7 references, 3 figures.

  19. Rate Constant and Temperature Dependence for the Reaction of Hydroxyl Radicals with 2-Flouropropane (FC-281ea) and Comparison with an Estimated Rate Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMore, W.; Wilson, E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiments were used to measure the rate constant and temperature dependence of the reaction of OH radicals with 2-fluoropropane (HFC-281ea), using ethane, propane, ethyl chloride as reference standards.

  20. Dynamics and Suppression Effectiveness of Monodisperse Water Droplets in Non-Premixed Counterflow Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zegers, E. J; Williams, B. A; Sheinson, R. S; Fleming, J. W

    2000-01-01

    ...-premixed propane/air counterflow flames are reported. Droplets were generated piezoelectrically, and the size and velocity distributions and the number density were determined by phase-Doppler particle anemometry...