WorldWideScience

Sample records for promoting marine invasions

  1. Towards Arctic Resource Governance of Marine Invasive Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and policy-oriented publications highlighting the magnitude of uncertainty in the changing Arctic and the possibilities for effective regional governance are proliferating, yet it remains a challenging task to examine Arctic marine biodiversity. Limited scientific data are currently...... available. Through analysis of marine invasions in the Arctic, we work to identify and assess patterns in the knowledge gaps regarding invasive species in the Arctic that affect the ability to generate improved governance outcomes. These patterns are expected to depend on multiple aspects of scientific...... research into invasive species threats in the Arctic, including the ways in which known marine invasions are related to different stakeholder groups and existing disparate national and international experiences with invasive species. Stakeholdergroups include dominant industries (fishing, shipping, tourism...

  2. Economic essays on marine invasive species and international fisheries agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, as explained in Chapter 1, which focus on different aspects of marine ecological change. Part A considers marine Invasive Alien Species (IAS), which are taxa introduced outside of their native range. The detrimental consequences of invasions for human

  3. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compliant lightweight non-invasive standalone “Marine Skin” tagging system

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Velling, Seneca J.; Diaz-Gaxiola, Andrea; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Geraldi, Nathan R.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Current marine research primarily depends on weighty and invasive sensory equipment and telemetric network to understand the marine environment, including the diverse fauna it contains, as a function of animal behavior and size, as well as equipment

  5. Does the globally invasive marine angiosperm, Halophila stipulacea, have high genetic diversity or unique mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquillo, K.; Campese, L.; Barber, P. H.; Willette, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems, and support a wide diversity of marine life. However, invasive seagrasses like Halophila stipulacea can have pronounced negative impacts on an ecosystem by displacing native seagrasses and changing the community composition of the reef. Endemic to the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, Halophila stipulacea has become invasive in the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, presumably as a result of the opening of the Suez Canal and international ship traffic. However, it is unclear why this marine angiosperm has become invasive in parts of its range and not others. It is hypothesized that invasive forms may have evolved rapidly in response to natural selection in new and novel environments. Alternatively, genetic variation of introduced populations may be uniquely suited to thrive in regions where it is invasive. In this study, we use RAD next-generation sequencing to screen thousands of SNPs to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation in both native and invasive populations. We test whether genes under selection in the native range are the same as in the invasive range, or whether new genes have arisen with the invasion of each marine basin. The comparison of SNP frequencies unique among basins and environmental variables will aid in predicting new areas of invasion, assisting in improved management strategies to combat this invasive seagrass.

  6. Promotion Factors For Enlisted Infantry Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Marine Corps. However, due to periods of growth during two major conflicts , quality has given way to quantity to fulfill the needs of the Marine...Corps. As conflicts draw down, the Marine Corps shifts from promoting and retaining quantity to high-quality Marines. Throughout this thesis, we use...historically possessed an innate drive to succeed, to excel in all that they do, including winning in combat. We will sustain this trait and ensure this

  7. Ecological consequences of invasion across the freshwater-marine transition in a warming world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Daniel; Solan, Martin; Leston, Sara; Pardal, Miguel A; Dolbeth, Marina

    2018-02-01

    The freshwater-marine transition that characterizes an estuarine system can provide multiple entry options for invading species, yet the relative importance of this gradient in determining the functional contribution of invading species has received little attention. The ecological consequences of species invasion are routinely evaluated within a freshwater versus marine context, even though many invasive species can inhabit a wide range of salinities. We investigate the functional consequences of different sizes of Corbicula fluminea -an invasive species able to adapt to a wide range of temperatures and salinity-across the freshwater-marine transition in the presence versus absence of warming. Specifically, we characterize how C. fluminea affect fluid and particle transport, important processes in mediating nutrient cycling (NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P). Results showed that sediment particle reworking (bioturbation) tends to be influenced by size and to a lesser extent, temperature and salinity; nutrient concentrations are influenced by different interactions between all variables (salinity, temperature, and size class). Our findings demonstrate the highly context-dependent nature of the ecosystem consequences of invasion and highlight the potential for species to simultaneously occupy multiple components of an ecosystem. Recognizing of this aspect of invasibility is fundamental to management and conservation efforts, particularly as freshwater and marine systems tend to be compartmentalized rather than be treated as a contiguous unit. We conclude that more comprehensive appreciation of the distribution of invasive species across adjacent habitats and different seasons is urgently needed to allow the true extent of biological introductions, and their ecological consequences, to be fully realized.

  8. Building upon cooperative prospects amongst stakeholders for fighting Arctic marine invasion challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina; Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda

    Biological invasions in Arctic marine environments are expected to noticeably affect the way the ecosystem will look and function in coming years. Along with many other rapid changes taking place in these previously isolated ecosystems, invasions of which we are both aware and unaware may have ir...... in the decision making process to help articulate incentive-compatible ecosystem management strategies that are adaptive to new information garnered from sustained Arctic observations....... expect that game theoretic environmental economic tools can help illuminate aspects of invasive species management significant for sound decision-making processes. Building blocks of such a game theoretic approach include the different players (stakeholders) involved. In our case study, we take...... environmental quality outcomes: Norwegian and Russian fishermen, Live and frozen crab markets, and Society, representing all possible beneficiaries of a healthy and well-sustained marine ecosystem in the Barents Sea as well as those in areas to which the invasion may spread. These actors must make decisions...

  9. Compliant lightweight non-invasive standalone “Marine Skin” tagging system

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2018-04-16

    Current marine research primarily depends on weighty and invasive sensory equipment and telemetric network to understand the marine environment, including the diverse fauna it contains, as a function of animal behavior and size, as well as equipment longevity. To match animal morphology and activity within the surrounding marine environment, here we show a physically flexible and stretchable skin-like and waterproof autonomous multifunctional system, integrating Bluetooth, memory chip, and high performance physical sensors. The sensory tag is mounted on a swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) and is capable of continuous logging of depth, temperature, and salinity within the harsh ocean environment. The fully packaged, ultra-lightweight (<2.4 g in water), and compliant “Marine Skin” system does not have any wired connection enabling safe and weightless cutting-edge approach to monitor and assess marine life and the ecosystem’s health to support conservation and management of marine ecosystems.

  10. Pokemon and MEF2D co-operationally promote invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Hong, Xing-Yu; Li, Tao; He, Cheng-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly human malignancy, and frequent invasion and metastasis is closely associated with its poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HCC invasion is still not completely elucidated. Pokemon is a well-established oncogene for HCC growth, but its contribution to HCC invasion has not been studied yet. In this paper, Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in MHCC-97H HCC cell line, which possesses higher invasiveness. Downregulation of Pokemon abolished the invasion of MHCC-97H HCC cell lines. Pokemon overexpression was able to enhance the invasion of MHCC-97L cells with lower invasiveness. MEF2D, an oncogene promoting the invasion of HCC cells, was further detected to be upregulated and downregulated when Pokemon was overexpressed and silenced, respectively. Online database analysis indicated that one Pokemon recognition site was located within the promoter of MEF2D. Chromatin co-precipitation, luciferase, and qPCR assays all proved that Pokemon can promote the expression of MEF2D in HCC cells. Restoration of MEF2D expression can prevent the impaired invasion of HCC cells with Pokemon silencing, while suppression of MEF2D abolished the effect of Pokemon overexpression on HCC invasion. More interestingly, MEF2D was also found to increase the transcription of Pokemon by binding myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) sites within its promoter region, implying an auto-regulatory circuit consisting of these two oncogenes that can promote HCC invasion. Our findings can contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism underlying HCC invasion, and provided evidence that targeting this molecular loop may be a promising strategy for anti-invasion therapy.

  11. Grp78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Rongjian; Li, Zhen; Li, Hongdan; Song, Huijuan; Bao, Cuifen; Wei, Jia; Cheng, Liufang

    2010-01-01

    Glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78) is involved in the invasion and metastasis in many human cancers including gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer. But the role of Grp78 in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. In this article, we examined if Grp78 was associated with the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the possible underlying mechanism. The Grp78 and FAK expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Grp78 overexpressing SMMC7721 cells were established by pcDNA3.1 (+)-Grp78 transfection and screened by G418. Grp78 and FAK levels in Grp78 overexpressing cells were down-regulated by siRNA transfection. The invasion status of tumor cells was evaluated by transwell assay in vitro, and chick embryo metastasis model in vivo. Cell spreading was determined by cell spreading assay, and quantitatively measured by Orisis software HUG. Grp78, pY397 FAK, pY576/577 FAK and FAK levels were detected by western blot. RhoA activity was detected by GST pulldown assay. The distribution of actin cytoskeleton was observed by fluorescent staining. Grp78 expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were negatively correlated with tumor grading, and positively correlated with portal invasion and intra-hepatic invasion. Overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells promoted the invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and this increase in tumor cell invasion was blocked by Grp78 siRNA knockdown. Our results also revealed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells accelerated the process of cell spreading and promoted lamellipodia formation. Further analysis showed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells increased pY397 and pY576/577 levels of FAK. Grp78 siRNA knockdown decreased FAK activation and activity. Our results also revealed that Grp78 overexpression in SMMC7721 cells decreased RhoA-GTP level, and Grp78 siRNA knockdown rescued Rho

  12. Grp78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hongdan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78 is involved in the invasion and metastasis in many human cancers including gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer. But the role of Grp78 in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. In this article, we examined if Grp78 was associated with the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the possible underlying mechanism. Methods The Grp78 and FAK expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Grp78 overexpressing SMMC7721 cells were established by pcDNA3.1 (+-Grp78 transfection and screened by G418. Grp78 and FAK levels in Grp78 overexpressing cells were down-regulated by siRNA transfection. The invasion status of tumor cells was evaluated by transwell assay in vitro, and chick embryo metastasis model in vivo. Cell spreading was determined by cell spreading assay, and quantitatively measured by Orisis software HUG. Grp78, pY397 FAK, pY576/577 FAK and FAK levels were detected by western blot. RhoA activity was detected by GST pulldown assay. The distribution of actin cytoskeleton was observed by fluorescent staining. Results Grp78 expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were negatively correlated with tumor grading, and positively correlated with portal invasion and intra-hepatic invasion. Overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells promoted the invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and this increase in tumor cell invasion was blocked by Grp78 siRNA knockdown. Our results also revealed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells accelerated the process of cell spreading and promoted lamellipodia formation. Further analysis showed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells increased pY397 and pY576/577 levels of FAK. Grp78 siRNA knockdown decreased FAK activation and activity. Our results also revealed that Grp78 overexpression in SMMC7721 cells decreased

  13. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  14. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2002-04-25

    Colonization by alien species poses one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Here I investigate the colonization by marine organisms of drift debris deposited on the shores of 30 remote islands from the Arctic to the Antarctic (across all oceans) and find that human litter more than doubles the rafting opportunities for biota, particularly at high latitudes. Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere are at these latitudes.

  15. The invasion risk of species associated with Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris in Pacific North America and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Thomas W; Nelson, Jocelyn C; Carlton, James T; Liggan, Lauran; Otani, Michio; Kawai, Hiroshi; Scriven, Danielle; Ruiz, Gregory M; Clarke Murray, Cathryn

    2018-01-25

    Marine debris from the Great Tsunami of 2011 represents a unique transport vector for Japanese species to reach Pacific North America and Hawaii. Here we characterize the invasion risk of invertebrate species associated with tsunami debris using a screening-level risk assessment tool - the Canadian Marine Invasive Screening Tool (CMIST). Higher-risk invertebrate invaders were identified for each of five different ecoregions. Some of these are well-known global invaders, such as the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the ascidian Didemnum vexillum which already have invasion histories in some of the assessed ecoregions, while others like the sea star Asterias amurensis and the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus have yet to invade large portions of the assessed ecoregions but also are recognized global invaders. In general, the probability of invasion was lower for the Gulf of Alaska and Hawaii, in part due to lower climate matches and the availability of other invasion vectors. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clonorchis sinensis infestation promotes three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihee Won

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM. Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM.

  17. Invasions and extinctions reshape coastal marine food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrett E Byrnes

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions ( approximately 70% occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores, while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores. These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes.

  18. The Dispersal and Persistence of Invasive Marine Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, E. R.; Pringle, J.

    2007-12-01

    The spread of invasive marine species is a continuing problem throughout the world, though not entirely understood. Why do some species invade more easily than the rest? How are the range limits of these species set? Recent research (Byers & Pringle 2006, Pringle & Wares 2007) has produced retention criteria that determine whether a coastal species with a benthic adult stage and planktonic larvae can be retained within its range and invade in the direction opposite that of the mean current experienced by the larvae (i.e. upstream). These results however, are only accurate for Gaussian dispersal kernels. For kernels whose kurtosis differs from a Gaussian's, the retention criteria becomes increasingly inaccurate as the mean current increases. Using recent results of Lutscher (2006), we find an improved retention criterion which is much more accurate for non- Gaussian dispersal kernels. The importance of considering non-Gaussian kernels is illustrated for a number of commonly used dispersal kernels, and the relevance of these calculations is illustrated by considering the northward limit of invasion of Hemigrapsus sanguineus, an important invader in the Gulf of Maine.

  19. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y.; Yan, Y.Q.; Yu, F.X.

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

  20. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  1. SNAI2/Slug promotes growth and invasion in human gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Wei; Menon, Lata G; Black, Peter M; Carroll, Rona S; Johnson, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Numerous factors that contribute to malignant glioma invasion have been identified, but the upstream genes coordinating this process are poorly known. To identify genes controlling glioma invasion, we used genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of primary human glioblastomas to develop an expression-based rank ordering of 30 transcription factors that have previously been implicated in the regulation of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Using this approach, we identified the oncogenic transcriptional repressor, SNAI2/Slug, among the upper tenth percentile of invasion-related transcription factors overexpressed in glioblastomas. SNAI2 mRNA expression correlated with histologic grade and invasive phenotype in primary human glioma specimens, and was induced by EGF receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of SNAI2/Slug increased glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promoted angiogenesis and glioblastoma growth in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous SNAI2/Slug in glioblastoma cells decreased invasion and increased survival in a mouse intracranial human glioblastoma transplantation model. This genome-scale approach has thus identified SNAI2/Slug as a regulator of growth and invasion in human gliomas

  2. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  3. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings--entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Murray R

    2009-07-27

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world's enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as 'marine debris') has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as 'hangers-on and hitch-hikers' as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats.

  4. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Murray R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world’s enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as ‘marine debris’) has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation, and are often related to stranding events and public perception. Among the less frequently recognized and recorded problems are global hazards to shipping, fisheries and other maritime activities. Today, there are rapidly developing research interests in the biota attracted to freely floating (i.e. pelagic) marine debris, commonly known as ‘hangers-on and hitch-hikers’ as well as material sinking to the sea floor despite being buoyant. Dispersal of aggressive alien and invasive species by these mechanisms leads one to reflect on the possibilities that ensuing invasions could endanger sensitive, or at-risk coastal environments (both marine and terrestrial) far from their native habitats. PMID:19528053

  5. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  6. miR-367 promotes proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by negatively regulating PTEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangrui, E-mail: mengxiangruibb2008@163.com [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, Peng [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Fan, Qingxia [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2016-01-29

    MicroRNAs play important roles in the carcinogenesis of many types of cancers by inhibiting gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the roles of microRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma, are still unclear. Here, we identified that miR-367 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene PTEN. The expression of miR-367 and PTEN are significantly inverse correlated in 35 HCC patients. In HCC cell line, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-367, while miR-367 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-367 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of HCC cells, whereas miR-367 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. Luciferase assays confirmed that miR-367 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PTEN, and western blotting showed that miR-367 suppressed the expression of PTEN at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-367 negatively regulates PTEN and promotes proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. Thus, miR-367 may represent a potential therapeutic target for HCC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-367 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-367 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. • miR-367 targets 3′UTR of PTEN in HCC cells. • miR-367 negatively regulates PTEN in HCC cells.

  7. MicroRNA-96 Promotes Tumor Invasion in Colorectal Cancer via RECK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Yasuhito; Shibutani, Masatsune; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Matsutani, Shinji; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2018-04-01

    miR-96 is reported to inhibit reversion cysteine-rich Kazal motif (RECK), which is associated with tumor invasion, in solid cancer types (e.g. breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, esophageal cancer). The purpose of this study is to clarify whether miR-96 is similarly associated with tumor invasion in colorectal cancer. We performed western blotting to investigate the expression of RECK when miR-96 mimics or inhibitors were transferred into HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. The RECK mRNA level was assessed by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. An invasion assay was used to evaluate tumor invasion. The expression of RECK was inhibited by the transfection of miR-96 mimics. RECK mRNA level was reduced by miR-96 mimics and increased by miR-96 inhibitor. In the invasion assay, miR-96 mimics were shown to promote tumor invasion. miR-96 may be associated with tumor invasion through inhibition of RECK expression in colorectal cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. The miR-599 promotes non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion via SATB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Wenjun; Wang, Guanghai; Liu, Yiqing; Huang, Zhenglan; Zhang, Caiqing; Ning, Kang; Yu, Cuixiang; Shen, Yajuan; Wang, Minghui; Li, Yuantang; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Zhao, Yaoran

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Here, we identified that miR-599 is up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It promoted NSCLC cell proliferation by negatively regulating SATB2. In NSCLC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation is promoted by miR-599 mimics. Transwell assay showed that miR-599 mimics promoted the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. Luciferase assays confirmed that miR-599 directly binds to the 3'untranslated region of SATB2, and western blotting showed that miR-599 suppresses the expression of SATB2 at the protein level. This study indicates that miR-599 promotes proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cell lines via SATB2. The miR-599 may represent a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment. - Highlights: • miR-599 is up-regulated in NSCLC. • miR-599 promotes the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells. • miR-599 inhibitors inhibits the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells. • miR-599 targets 3′ UTR of SATB2 in NSCLC cells. • miR-599 inhibits SATB2 in NSCLC cells.

  9. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  10. miR-4295 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma via CDKN1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Mingchen; Geng, Yiwei; Lu, Peng; Xi, Ying; Wei, Sidong; Wang, Liuxing; Fan, Qingxia; Ma, Wang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), has remained elusive. Here, we identified that miR-4295 promotes ATC cell proliferation by negatively regulates its target gene CDKN1A. In ATC cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-4295, while miR-4295 inhibitor significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-4295 mimics significantly promoted the migration and invasion of ATC cells, whereas miR-4295 inhibitors significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-4295 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of CDKN1A, and western blotting showed that miR-4295 suppressed the expression of CDKN1A at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A and promotes proliferation and invasion of ATC cell lines. Thus, miR-4295 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ATC intervention. - Highlights: • miR-4295 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ATC cells. • miR-4295 targets 3′UTR of CDKN1A in ATC cells. • miR-4295 negatively regulates CDKN1A in ATC cells

  11. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man, Alexander Stojadinovic, Jeffrey Mason, Itzhak Avital, Anton Bilchik, Bjoern Bruecher, Mladjan Protic, Aviram Nissan, Mina Izadjoo, Xichen Zhang, Anahid Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

  12. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    KAUST Repository

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami

    2016-07-07

    The actin-binding protein, gelsolin, is a well known regulator of cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanisms by which gelsolin promotes invasion are not well established. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to promote cancer cell invasion, we investigated on the hypothesis that gelsolin-induced changes in ROS levels may mediate the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells. Herein, we show that increased gelsolin enhances the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells, and this is mediated via gelsolin\\'s effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained elevation of intracellular O2 .-. Using microarray data of human colorectal cancer tissues from Gene Omnibus, we found that gelsolin gene expression positively correlates with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), an important matrix-degrading protease invovled in cancer invasion. Consistent with the in vivo evidence, we show that increased levels of O2 .- induced by gelsolin overexpression triggers the secretion of uPA. We further observed reduction in invasion and intracellular O2 .- levels in colon cancer cells, as a consequence of gelsolin knockdown using two different siRNAs. In these cells, concurrent repression of Cu/ ZnSOD restored intracellular O2 .- levels and rescued invasive capacity. Our study therefore identified gelsolin as a novel regulator of intracellular O2 .- in cancer cells via interacting with Cu/ZnSOD and inhibiting its enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings provide insight into a novel function of gelsolin in promoting tumor invasion by directly impacting the cellular redox milieu.

  13. Pokemon promotes the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma by enhancing MEF2D transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangqian; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-01

    Pokemon, a master oncogene crucial for the tumorigenicity and progression of a variety of cancers, has been demonstrated to enhance the proliferation and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the contribution of Pokemon to the invasiveness of HCC has not yet been studied. In this study, we employed HCC cells to investigate the role of Pokemon in the invasion of HCC with multidisciplinary approaches. Pokemon overexpression was found to be closely associated with invasion and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC in clinical specimens. Suppression of Pokemon attenuated the invasion of HCC cells by in vitro transwell and wound-healing assays. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), an oncogene that can promote the invasiveness of HCC, was found to be underexpressed during Pokemon silencing in HCC cells. Restoration of MEF2D abolished the effect of Pokemon downregulation on the migration of HCC cells. Further experiments verified that Pokemon binds two putative recognition sites located within the upstream region of the MEF2D promoter and enhances its transcription. The association between Pokemon and MEF2D was further confirmed in HCC specimens. Animal experiments further confirmed that Pokemon downregulation attenuated the metastasis of HCC cells in mice. Collectively, Pokemon was found to enhance the migration and invasion of HCC by increasing MEF2D expression. Thus, targeting Pokemon and MEF2D may be an effective strategy to suppress the metastasis of HCC.

  14. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Cooperation of Granulocytes and Macrophages Activated by Anti-tumor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Barbera-Guillem

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential role of anti-tumor antibodies and tumor antigens in the formation of immune complexes which promote matrix degradation and angiogenesis. B-cell deficient or B-cell depleted mice showed a reduction in tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro invasion assays and in vivo models of metastasis showed that anti-sTn antibodies and sTn tumor antigens form complexes which induce granulocytes and macrophages together to mediate tumor invasion and metastasis by processes including extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. These results suggest the existence of a tumor promoting role of a B-cell immune response induced by shed tumor associated antigens of solid, nonlymphoid tumors.

  15. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  16. Gα12/13 signaling promotes cervical cancer invasion through the RhoA/ROCK-JNK signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bo; Cui, Jinquan; Wang, Wuliang; Deng, Kehong

    2016-01-01

    Several reports have indicated a role for the members of the G12 family of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα12 and Gα13) in oncogenesis and tumor cell growth. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the role of G12 signaling in cervical cancer. We demonstrated that expression of the G12 proteins was highly upregulated in cervical cancer cells. Additionally, expression of the activated forms of Gα12/Gα13 but not expression of activated Gαq induced cell invasion through the activation of the RhoA family of G proteins, but had no effect on cell proliferation in the cervical cancer cells. Inhibition of G12 signaling by expression of the RGS domain of the p115-Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (p115-RGS) blocked thrombin-stimulated cell invasion, but did not inhibit cell proliferation in cervical cells, whereas the inhibition of Gαq (RGS2) had no effect. Furthermore, G12 signaling was able to activate Rho proteins, and this stimulation was inhibited by p115-RGS, and Gα12-induced invasion was blocked by an inhibitor of RhoA/B/C (C3 toxin). Pharmacological inhibition of JNK remarkably decreased G12-induced JNK activation. Both a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and a ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) reduced G12-induced JNK and c-Jun activation, and markedly inhibited G12-induced cellular invasion. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that stimulation of G12 proteins is capable of promoting invasion through RhoA/ROCK-JNK activation. -- Highlights: •Gα12/Gα13 is upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines. •Gα12/Gα13 is not involved in cervical cancer cell proliferation. •Gα12/Gα13 promotes cervical cancer cell invasion. •The role of Rho G proteins in G12-promoted cervical cancer cell invasion. •G12 promotes cell invasion through activation of the ROCK-JNK signaling axis.

  17. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  18. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing; Wang, Zehua

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs

  19. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yu

    Full Text Available Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  20. Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion.

  1. Potential effects of climate change on a marine invasion: The importance of current context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M. CÔTÉ, Stephanie J. GREEN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Species invasions threaten marine biodiversity globally. There is a concern that climate change is exacerbating this problem. Here, we examined some of the potential effects of warming water temperatures on the invasion of Western Atlantic habitats by a marine predator, the Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles. We focussed on two temperature-dependent aspects of lionfish life-history and behaviour: pelagic larval duration, because of its link to dispersal potential, and prey consumption rate, because it is an important determinant of the impacts of lionfish on native prey. Using models derived from fundamental metabolic theory, we predict that the length of time spent by lionfish in the plankton in early life should decrease with warming temperatures, with a concomitant reduction in potential dispersal distance. Although the uncertainty around change in dispersal distances is large, predicted reductions are, on average, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the current rate of range expansion of lionfish in the Caribbean. Nevertheless, because shorter pelagic larval duration has the potential to increase local retention of larvae, local lionfish management will become increasingly important under projected climate change. Increasing temperature is also expected to worsen the current imbalance between rates of prey consumption by lionfish and biomass production by their prey, leading to a heightened decline in native reef fish biomass. However, the magnitude of climate-induced decline is predicted to be minor compared to the effect of current rates of lionfish population increases (and hence overall prey consumption rates on invaded reefs. Placing the predicted effects of climate change in the current context thus reveals that, at least for the lionfish invasion, the threat is clear and present, rather than future [Current Zoology 58 (1: 1–8, 2012].

  2. The role of citzens in detecting and responding to a rapid marine invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scyphers, Stephen B.; Powers, Sean P.; Akins, J. Lad; Drymon, J. Marcus; Martin, Charles M.; Schobernd, Zeb H.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Shipp, Robert L.; Switzer, Theodore S.

    2015-01-01

    Documenting and responding to species invasions requires innovative strategies that account for ecological and societal complexities. We used the recent expansion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) throughout northern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters to evaluate the role of stakeholders in documenting and responding to a rapid marine invasion. We coupled an online survey of spearfishers and citizen science monitoring programs with traditional fishery-independent data sources and found that citizen observations documented lionfish 1–2 years earlier and more frequently than traditional reef fish monitoring programs. Citizen observations first documented lionfish in 2010 followed by rapid expansion and proliferation in 2011 (+367%). From the survey of spearfishers, we determined that diving experience and personal observations of lionfish strongly influenced perceived impacts, and these perceptions were powerful predictors of support for initiatives. Our study demonstrates the value of engaging citizens for assessing and responding to large-scale and time-sensitive conservation problems.

  3. MMP28 (epilysin) as a novel promoter of invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Pan; Yanfang, Tao; Zhuan, Zhou; Jian, Wang; Xueming, Zhu; Jian, Ni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate invasion and metastasis related genes in gastric cancer. The transwell migration assay was used to select a highly invasive sub-line from minimally invasive parent gastric cancer cells, and gene expression was compared using a microarray. MMP28 upregulation was confirmed using qRT-PCR. MMP28 immunohistochemistry was performed in normal and gastric cancer specimens. Invasiveness and tumor formation of stable cells overexpressing MMP28 were tested in vitro and in vivo. MMP28 was overexpressed in the highly invasive sub-cell line. Immunohistochemistry revealed MMP28 expression was markedly increased in gastric carcinoma relative to normal epithelia, and was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and poorer overall survival. Ectopic expression of MMP28 indicated MMP28 promoted tumor cell invasion in vitro and increased gastric carcinoma metastasis in vivo. This study indicates MMP28 is frequently overexpressed during progression of gastric carcinoma, and contributes to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. MMP28 may be a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of metastases in gastric cancer

  4. Hypoxia promotes uveal melanoma invasion through enhanced Notch and MAPK activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Asnaghi

    Full Text Available The transcriptional response promoted by hypoxia-inducible factors has been associated with metastatic spread of uveal melanoma. We found expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α protein in well-vascularized tumor regions as well as in four cell lines grown in normoxia, thus this pathway may be important even in well-oxygenated uveal melanoma cells. HIF-1α protein accumulation in normoxia was inhibited by rapamycin. As expected, hypoxia (1% pO2 further induced HIF-1α protein levels along with its target genes VEGF and LOX. Growth in hypoxia significantly increased cellular invasion of all 5 uveal melanoma lines tested, as did the introduction of an oxygen-insensitive HIF-1α mutant into Mel285 cells with low HIF-1α baseline levels. In contrast, HIF-1α knockdown using shRNA significantly decreased growth in hypoxia, and reduced by more than 50% tumor invasion in four lines with high HIF-1α baseline levels. Pharmacologic blockade of HIF-1α protein expression using digoxin dramatically suppressed cellular invasion both in normoxia and in hypoxia. We found that Notch pathway components, including Jag1-2 ligands, Hes1-Hey1 targets and the intracellular domain of Notch1, were increased in hypoxia, as well as the phosphorylation levels of Erk1-2 and Akt. Pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of Notch largely blocked the hypoxic induction of invasion as did the pharmacologic suppression of Erk1-2 activity. In addition, the increase in Erk1-2 and Akt phosphorylation by hypoxia was partially reduced by inhibiting Notch signaling. Our findings support the functional importance of HIF-1α signaling in promoting the invasive capacity of uveal melanoma cells in both hypoxia and normoxia, and suggest that pharmacologically targeting HIF-1α pathway directly or through blockade of Notch or Erk1-2 pathways can slow tumor spread.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of β-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Underwater itineraries at Egadi Islands: Marine biodiversity protection through actions for sustainable tourism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocito, Silvia; Delbono, Ivana; Barsanti, Mattia; Di Nallo, Giuseppina; Lombardi, Chiara; Peirano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable tourism is recognized as a high priority for environmental and biological conservation. Promoting protection of local biological and environmental resources is a useful action for conservation of marine biodiversity in Marine Protected Areas and for stimulating awareness among residents and visitors. The publication of two books dedicated to the description of 28 selected underwater itineraries, for divers and snorkelers, and a web site with underwater videos represent concrete actions by ENEA for the promotion of sustainable tourism at the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (Sicily, Italy). 177 species were recorded at Favignana, and around the same number at Marettimo and Levanzo islands: among those species, some of them are important for conservation and protection (e.g. Astrospartus mediterraneus), some of them are rare (i.e. Anthipatella subpinnata) and with a high aesthetic value (e.g. Paramuricea clavata, Savalia savaglia), while others are invasive (e.g. Caulerpa cylindracea) [it

  8. Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; O’Leary, Bethan C.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Cury, Philippe Maurice; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lubchenco, Jane; Pauly, Daniel; Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Wilson, Rod W.; Worm, Boris; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects. We explore the role of managed ecosystems in mitigating climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and by buffering against uncertainty in management, environmental fluctuations, directional change, and extreme events. We highlight both strengths and limitations and conclude that marine reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future. PMID:28584096

  9. Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, Callum M.

    2017-06-06

    Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects. We explore the role of managed ecosystems in mitigating climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and by buffering against uncertainty in management, environmental fluctuations, directional change, and extreme events. We highlight both strengths and limitations and conclude that marine reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future.

  10. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...

  11. KIF20A-Mediated RNA Granule Transport System Promotes the Invasiveness of Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Taniuchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancers are aggressive because they are highly invasive and highly metastatic; moreover, effective treatments for aggressive pancreatic cancers are lacking. Here, we report that the motor kinesin protein KIF20A promoted the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through transporting the RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 and IGF2BP3-bound transcripts toward cell protrusions along microtubules. We previously reported that IGF2BP3 and its target transcripts are assembled into cytoplasmic stress granules of pancreatic cancer cells, and that IGF2BP3 promotes the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of localized translation of IGF2BP3-bound transcripts in cell protrusions. We show that knockdown of KIF20A inhibited accumulation of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules in cell protrusions and suppressed local protein expression from specific IGF2BP3-bound transcripts, ARF6 and ARHGEF4, in the protrusions. Our results provide insight into the link between regulation of KIF20A-mediated trafficking of IGF2BP3-containing stress granules and modulation of the motility and invasiveness in pancreatic cancers.

  12. The Atypical Kinase RIOK1 Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Weinberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being overexpressed in different tumor entities, RIO kinases are hardly characterized in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of these atypical kinases in different cancer cells. Using isogenic colon-, breast- and lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that knockdown of RIOK1, but not of RIOK2 or RIOK3, strongly impairs proliferation and invasiveness in conventional and 3D culture systems. Interestingly, these effects were mainly observed in RAS mutant cancer cells. In contrast, growth of RAS wildtype Caco-2 and Bcr-Abl-driven K562 cells is not affected by RIOK1 knockdown, suggesting a specific requirement for RIOK1 in the context of oncogenic RAS signaling. Furthermore, we show that RIOK1 activates NF-κB signaling and promotes cell cycle progression. Using proteomics, we identified the pro-invasive proteins Metadherin and Stathmin1 to be regulated by RIOK1. Additionally, we demonstrate that RIOK1 promotes lung colonization in vivo and that RIOK1 is overexpressed in different subtypes of human lung- and breast cancer. Altogether, our data suggest RIOK1 as a potential therapeutic target, especially in RAS-driven cancers.

  13. miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes cell proliferation and invasion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hong; Miao, Mei-hua; Ji, Xue-qiang; Xue, Jun; Shao, Xue-jun, E-mail: xuejunshao@hotmail.com

    2015-04-03

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in leukaemia, particularly T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), has remained elusive. Here, we identified miR-664 and its predicted target gene PLP2 were differentially expressed in T-ALL using bioinformatics methods. In T-ALL cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-664, while miR-664 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation. Moreover, migration and invasion assay showed that overexpression of miR-664 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, whereas miR-664 inhibitor could reduce cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-664 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PLP2, and western blotting showed that miR-664 suppressed the expression of PLP2 at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cell lines. Thus, miR-664 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-ALL intervention. - Highlights: • miR-664 mimics promote the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 inhibitors inhibit the proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cells. • miR-664 targets 3′ UTR of PLP2 in T-ALL cells. • miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 in T-ALL cells.

  14. Leukemia inhibitory factor promote trophoblast invasion via urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qin; Dai, Kuixing; Cui, Xinyuan; Yu, Ming; Yang, Xuesong; Yan, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Yan, Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome which can cause perinatal mortality and morbidity. Inadequate invasion by trophoblast cells may lead to poor perfusion of the placenta, even result in preeclampsia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying placentation facilitates the better intervention of preeclampsia. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is involved in the physiological and pathological processes. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an important regulator in the establishment of pregnancy. However, the expression of uPAR in preeclamptic patients and its relationship with LIF remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the level of uPAR was relatively lower in the placentas from preeclamptic patients as compared with normal pregnant women. LIF promoted trophoblast cell outgrowth by upregulating uPAR in an explants culture, and LIF also enhanced migration and invasion potential through uPAR in trophoblast JAR and JEG-3 cell lines, and with increased gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The effect of LIF and uPAR on trophoblast migration and invasion was mediated by PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Our data indicates the roles of LIF in promoting trophoblast migration and invasion through uPAR and suggest that abnormal expression of uPAR might be associated with the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The WIP1 oncogene promotes progression and invasion of aggressive medulloblastoma variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, M C; Remke, M; Lee, J; Gandhi, K; Schniederjan, M J; Kool, M; Northcott, P A; Pfister, S M; Taylor, M D; Castellino, R C

    2015-02-26

    Recent studies suggest that medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, is comprised of four disease variants. The WIP1 oncogene is overexpressed in Group 3 and 4 tumors, which contain medulloblastomas with the most aggressive clinical behavior. Our data demonstrate increased WIP1 expression in metastatic medulloblastomas, and inferior progression-free and overall survival of patients with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma. Microarray analysis identified upregulation of genes involved in tumor metastasis, including the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, in medulloblastoma cells with high WIP1 expression. Stimulation with the CXCR4 ligand SDF1α activated PI-3 kinase signaling, and promoted growth and invasion of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells in a p53-dependent manner. When xenografted into the cerebellum of immunodeficient mice, medulloblastoma cells with stable or endogenous high WIP1 expression exhibited strong expression of CXCR4 and activated AKT in primary and invasive tumor cells. WIP1 or CXCR4 knockdown inhibited medulloblastoma growth and invasion. WIP1 knockdown also improved the survival of mice xenografted with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. WIP1 knockdown inhibited cell surface localization of CXCR4 by suppressing expression of the G protein receptor kinase 5, GRK5. Restoration of wild-type GRK5 promoted Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4 and inhibited the growth of WIP1-stable medulloblastoma cells. Conversely, GRK5 knockdown inhibited Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4, increased cell surface localization of CXCR4 and promoted the growth of medulloblastoma cells with low WIP1 expression. These results demonstrate crosstalk among WIP1, CXCR4 and GRK5, which may be important for the aggressive phenotype of a subclass of medulloblastomas in children.

  16. ELK3 promotes the migration and invasion of liver cancer stem cells by targeting HIF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Ho; Hur, Wonhee; Hong, Sung Woo; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Eun Byul; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality. HCC develops via a multistep process associated with genetic aberrations that facilitate HCC invasion and migration and promote metastasis. A growing body of evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumorigenesis, cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Despite the extremely small proportion of cancer cells represented by this subpopulation of HCC cells, CSCs play a key role in cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. ELK3 (Net/SAP-2/Erp) is a transcription factor that is activated by the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. It plays several important roles in various physiological processes, including cell migration, invasion, wound healing, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the role of ELK3 in cancer cell invasion and metastasis in CD133+/CD44+ liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). We isolated LCSCs expressing CD133 and CD44 from Huh7 HCC cells and evaluated their metastatic potential using invasion and migration assays. We found that CD133+/CD44+ cells had increased metastatic potential compared with non-CD133+/CD44+ cells. We also demonstrated that ELK3 expression was upregulated in CD133+/CD44+ cells and that this aberration enhanced cell migration and invasion. In addition, we identified the molecular mechanism by which ELK3 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. We found that silencing of ELK3 expression in CD133+/CD44+ LCSCs attenuated their metastatic potential by modulating the expression of heat shock-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α). Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrated that ELK3 overexpression promoted metastasis in CD133+/CD44+ cells by regulating HIF-1α expression and that silencing of ELK3 expression attenuated the metastatic potential of CD133+/CD44+ LCSCs. In conclusion, modulation of ELK3 expression may

  17. Pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase activation promotes medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through induction of vascular endothelial growth factor A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jamison

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that activation of the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress adapts tumor cells to the tumor microenvironment and enhances tumor angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A. Recent studies suggest that VEGF-A can act directly on certain tumor cell types in an autocrine manner, via binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2, to promote tumor cell migration and invasion. Although several reports show that PERK activation increases VEGF-A expression in medulloblastoma, the most common solid malignancy of childhood, the role that either PERK or VEGF-A plays in medulloblastoma remains elusive. In this study, we mimicked the moderate enhancement of PERK activity observed in tumor patients using a genetic approach and a pharmacologic approach, and found that moderate activation of PERK signaling facilitated medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion and increased the production of VEGF-A. Moreover, using the VEGFR2 inhibitor SU5416 and the VEGF-A neutralizing antibody to block VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling, our results suggested that tumor cell-derived VEGF-A promoted medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through VEGFR2 signaling, and that both VEGF-A and VEGFR2 were required for the promoting effects of PERK activation on medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion. Thus, these findings suggest that moderate PERK activation promotes medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through enhancement of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling.

  18. MicroRNA-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting LATS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Ying; Gao, Yan, E-mail: gaoyanhdhos@126.com

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • miR-181b is upregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues. • miR-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • LATS2 is a direct target of miR-181b. • LATS2 is involved in miR-181b-induced ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are strongly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we showed significant upregulation of miR-181b in ovarian cancer tissues, compared with the normal ovarian counterparts. Forced expression of miR-181b led to remarkably enhanced proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells while its knockdown induced significant suppression of these cellular events. The tumor suppressor gene, LATS2 (large tumor suppressor 2), was further identified as a novel direct target of miR-181b. Specifically, miR-181b bound directly to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of LATS2 and suppressed its expression. Restoration of LATS2 expression partially reversed the oncogenic effects of miR-181b. Our results indicate that miR-181b promotes proliferation and invasion by targeting LATS2 in ovarian cancer cells. These findings support the utility of miR-181b as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  19. DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) promotes invasion and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shitao; Shang, Zeng-Fu; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Shuyu; Wu, Jinchang; Huang, Min; Ding, Wei-Qun; Zhou, Jundong

    2016-05-31

    DNA polymerase iota (Pol ι) is an error-prone DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) that contributes to the accumulation of DNA mutations. We recently showed that Pol ι is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) tissues which promotes ESCC' progression. The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms by which Pol ι enhances the invasiveness and metastasis of ESCC cells. We found that the expression of Pol ι is significantly higher in ESCCs with lymph node metastasis compared to those without lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an inverse correlation between Pol ι expression and patient prognosis. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), two essential regulators of cells' invasiveness, were positively associated with Pol ι expression in ESCC tissues. Ectopic expression of Pol ι enhanced the motility and invasiveness of ESCC cells as evaluated by wound-healing and transwell assays, respectively. A xenograft nude mouse model showed that Pol ι promotes the colonization of ESCC cells in the liver, lung and kidney. Signaling pathway analysis identified the JNK-AP-1 cascade as a mediator of the Pol ι-induced increase in the expression of MMP-2/9 and enhancement of ESCC progression. These data demonstrate the underlying mechanism by which Pol ι promotes ESCC progression, suggesting that Pol ι is a potential novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC.

  20. Sublethal irradiation promotes invasiveness of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigerer, Lothar; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hecht, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite multiple clinical efforts, clinical outcome has remained poor. Neuroblastoma is considered to be radiosensitive, but some clinical studies including the German trial NB90 failed to show a clinical benefit of radiation therapy. The mechanisms underlying this apparent discrepancy are still unclear. We have therefore investigated the effects of radiation on neuroblastoma cell behaviour in vitro. We show that sublethal doses of irradiation up-regulated the expression of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met in some neuroblastoma cell lines. The increase in HGF/c-Met expression was correlated with enhanced invasiveness and activation of proteases degrading the extracellular matrix. Thus, irradiation at sublethal doses may promote the metastatic dissemination of neuroblastoma cells through activating the HGF/c-Met pathway and triggering matrix degradation

  1. Placental Growth Factor Promotes Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion via ZEB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aggressive manner of ovarian cancer (OVC cells accounts for the majority of its lethality. Recently, we have shown that placental growth factor (PLGF promotes metastases of OVC cells through miR-543-regulated MMP7. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of PLGF on another cell invasion associated protein, ZEB2, in OVC cells. Methods: The PLGF and ZEB2 levels in OVC tissues were compared to the paired adjacent non-tumor ovary tissue. We modified ZEB2 levels in OVC cells, and examined its effects on PLGF mRNA and protein levels by RT-qPCR and by Western blot, respectively. We also modified PLGF levels in OVC cells, and examined its effects on ZEB2 mRNA and protein levels by RT-qPCR and by Western blot, respectively. Then, we examined the cell invasiveness in PLGF-modified OVC cells in a transwell cell invasion assay. Finally, we used specific signal pathway inhibitors to treat PLGF-modified OVC cells and examined the effects on ZEB2 activation. Results: PLGF and ZEB2 levels were both significantly increased in OVC tissues, compared to the paired adjacent non-tumor ovary tissue. The PLGF and ZEB2 levels were strongly correlated. ZEB2 modification did not alter PLGF levels. Overexpression of PLGF in OVC cells significantly increased ZEB2 levels and cell invasiveness, while PLGF depletion in OVC cells significantly decreased ZEB2 levels and cell invasiveness. Application of a specific MAPK-p38 inhibitor, but not application of specific inhibitors for MAPK-p42/p44, PI3k/Akt, or JNK signaling pathways, to PLGF-overexpressing OVC cells substantially abolished the PLGF-induced ZEB2 activation. Conclusion: PLGF enhances OVC cell invasion through MAPK-p38-dependent activation of ZEB2.

  2. ΔNp63α induces the expression of FAT2 and Slug to promote tumor invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tuyen T.; Westcott, Jill M.; Maine, Erin A.; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Xing, Chao; Pearson, Gray W.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor invasion can be induced by changes in gene expression that alter cell phenotype. The transcription factor ΔNp63α promotes basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) migration by inducing the expression of the mesenchymal genes Slug and Axl, which confers cells with a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal state. However, the extent of the ΔNp63α regulated genes that support invasive behavior is not known. Here, using gene expression analysis, ChIP-seq, and functional testing, we find that ΔNp63α promotes BLBC motility by inducing the expression of the atypical cadherin FAT2, the vesicular binding protein SNCA, the carbonic anhydrase CA12, the lipid binding protein CPNE8 and the kinase NEK1, along with Slug and Axl. Notably, lung squamous cell carcinoma migration also required ΔNp63α dependent FAT2 and Slug expression, demonstrating that ΔNp63α promotes migration in multiple tumor types by inducing mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal genes. ΔNp63α activation of FAT2 and Slug influenced E-cadherin localization to cell-cell contacts, which can restrict spontaneous cell movement. Moreover, live-imaging of spheroids in organotypic culture demonstrated that ΔNp63α, FAT2 and Slug were essential for the extension of cellular protrusions that initiate collective invasion. Importantly, ΔNp63α is co-expressed with FAT2 and Slug in patient tumors and the elevated expression of ΔNp63α, FAT2 and Slug correlated with poor patient outcome. Together, these results reveal how ΔNp63α promotes cell migration by directly inducing the expression of a cohort of genes with distinct cellular functions and suggest that FAT2 is a new regulator of collective invasion that may influence patient outcome. PMID:27081041

  3. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basseres, Eugene; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Pfirrmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria monocyto......Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria...... of downstream ERK1/2- and AKT-dependent signalling in response to the natural ligand Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). The regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics was further confirmed by the induction of actin stress fibres in HeLa expressing the active enzyme but not the catalytic mutant UCH-L1(C90S...

  4. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro.

  5. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongsheng; Wu, Fenping; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chong; Su, Wenmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management

  6. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongsheng [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Wu, Fenping [The 7th People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Yan [The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Yan, Chong [School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Su, Wenmei, E-mail: wenmeisutg@126.com [Oncology of Affiliated Hospital Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  7. STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Corinne M

    2011-05-01

    -type. There was some variation among the different shRNA- silenced clones, but all had a reduction in 3H-Thymidine uptake ranging from 35%- 70% in U-1242MG and 40- 50% in U-87MG cells. Additionally, STAT6- depleted cells were less invasive than controls in our in vitro transmembrane invasion assay. Invasiveness was decreased by 25-40% and 30-75% in U-1242MG and U-87MG cells, respectively. The microarray analysis identified matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1 and urokinase Plasminogen activator (uPA as potential STA6 target genes involved in the promotion of GBM cell invasion. In a Kaplan-Meier survival curve based on Rembrandt 1 gene expression microarray and clinical data, there was a significant difference in survival (P Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest a role for STAT6 in enhancing cell proliferation and invasion in GBM, which may explain why up-regulation of STAT6 correlates with shorter survival times in glioma patients. This report thus identifies STAT6 as a new and potentially promising therapeutic target.

  8. The Invasion and Metastasis Promotion Role of CD97 Small Isoform in Gastric Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daren; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ye, Longyun

    2012-01-01

    CD97 is over-expressed in the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas and is associated with its dedifferentiation and aggressiveness. Our previous results demonstrated that out of three CD97 isoforms tested, only the small one was able to promote increased invasiveness in vitro. Based on these data ...

  9. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Council is co-chaired by the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of... of the most invaded marine/coastal environments in the world, with over 50 invasive species that... development of state invasive species councils. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...

  10. STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Barbara C; Owens, Jennifer L; Lopes, Maria-Beatriz S; Silva, Corinne M; Hussaini, Isa M

    2011-01-01

    different shRNA- silenced clones, but all had a reduction in 3 H-Thymidine uptake ranging from 35%- 70% in U-1242MG and 40- 50% in U-87MG cells. Additionally, STAT6- depleted cells were less invasive than controls in our in vitro transmembrane invasion assay. Invasiveness was decreased by 25-40% and 30-75% in U-1242MG and U-87MG cells, respectively. The microarray analysis identified matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and urokinase Plasminogen activator (uPA) as potential STA6 target genes involved in the promotion of GBM cell invasion. In a Kaplan-Meier survival curve based on Rembrandt [1] gene expression microarray and clinical data, there was a significant difference in survival (P < 0.05) between glioma patients with up- and down-regulated STAT6. Decreased STAT6 expression correlated with longer survival times. In two subsets of patients with either grade IV tumors (GBM) or Grade II/III astrocytomas, there was a similar trend that however did not reach statistical significance. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for STAT6 in enhancing cell proliferation and invasion in GBM, which may explain why up-regulation of STAT6 correlates with shorter survival times in glioma patients. This report thus identifies STAT6 as a new and potentially promising therapeutic target

  11. Brk activates rac1 and promotes cell migration and invasion by phosphorylating paxillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Shen, Che-Hung; Tsai, Yuh-Tyng; Lin, Feng-Chi; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Chen, Ruey-Hwa

    2004-12-01

    Brk (for breast tumor kinase) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase containing SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase catalytic domains. Brk was originally identified from a human metastatic breast tumor, and its overexpression is frequently observed in breast cancer and several other cancer types. However, the molecular mechanism by which this kinase participates in tumorigenesis remains poorly characterized. In the present study, we not only identified paxillin as the binding partner and substrate of Brk but also discovered a novel signaling pathway by which Brk mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced paxillin phosphorylation. We show that EGF stimulation activates the catalytic activity of Brk, which in turn phosphorylates paxillin at Y31 and Y118. These phosphorylation events promote the activation of small GTPase Rac1 via the function of CrkII. Through this pathway, Brk is capable of promoting cell motility and invasion and functions as a mediator of EGF-induced migration and invasion. In accordance with these functional roles, Brk translocates to membrane ruffles, where it colocalizes with paxillin during cell migration. Together, our findings identify novel signaling and biological roles of Brk and indicate the first potential link between Brk and metastatic malignancy.

  12. Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G; O'Neill, Adam J

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species are regarded as one of the top five drivers of the global extinction crisis. In response, extreme measures have been applied in an attempt to control or eradicate invasives, with little success overall. We tested the idea that state shifts to invasive dominance are symptomatic of losses in ecosystem resilience, due to the suppression of apex predators. This concept was investigated in Australia where the high rate of mammalian extinctions is largely attributed to the destructive influence of invasive species. Intensive pest control is widely applied across the continent, simultaneously eliminating Australia's apex predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). We show that predator management accounts for shifts between two main ecosystem states. Lethal control fractures dingo social structure and leads to bottom-up driven increases in invasive mesopredators and herbivores. Where control is relaxed, dingoes re-establish top-down regulation of ecosystems, allowing for the recovery of biodiversity and productivity.

  13. Invasive species: Ocean ecosystem case studies for earth systems and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pam; Brown, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine species are increasingly transferred from areas where they are native to areas where they are not. Some nonnative species become invasive, causing undesirable impacts to environment, economy and/or human health. Nonnative marine species can be introduced through a variety of vectors, including shipping, trade, inland corridors (such as canals), and others. Effects of invasive marine species can be dramatic and irreversible. Case studies of four nonnative marine species are given (green crab, comb jelly, lionfish and Caulerpa algae).

  14. Diverse effects of invasive ecosystem engineers on marine biodiversity and ecosystem functions: A global review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy-Haim, Tamar; Lyons, Devin A; Kotta, Jonne; Ojaveer, Henn; Queirós, Ana M; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Arvanitidis, Christos; Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo; Blight, Andrew J; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P; Rilov, Gil

    2018-03-01

    Invasive ecosystem engineers (IEE) are potentially one of the most influential types of biological invaders. They are expected to have extensive ecological impacts by altering the physical-chemical structure of ecosystems, thereby changing the rules of existence for a broad range of resident biota. To test the generality of this expectation, we used a global systematic review and meta-analysis to examine IEE effects on the abundance of individual species and communities, biodiversity (using several indices) and ecosystem functions, focusing on marine and estuarine environments. We found that IEE had a significant effect (positive and negative) in most studies testing impacts on individual species, but the overall (cumulative) effect size was small and negative. Many individual studies showed strong IEE effects on community abundance and diversity, but the direction of effects was variable, leading to statistically non-significant overall effects in most categories. In contrast, there was a strong overall effect on most ecosystem functions we examined. IEE negatively affected metabolic functions and primary production, but positively affected nutrient flux, sedimentation and decomposition. We use the results to develop a conceptual model by highlighting pathways whereby IEE impact communities and ecosystem functions, and identify several sources of research bias in the IEE-related invasion literature. Only a few of the studies simultaneously quantified IEE effects on community/diversity and ecosystem functions. Therefore, understanding how IEE may alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships should be a primary focus of future studies of invasion biology. Moreover, the clear effects of IEE on ecosystem functions detected in our study suggest that scientists and environmental managers ought to examine how the effects of IEE might be manifested in the services that marine ecosystems provide to humans. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Berna; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2011-11-10

    SLUG is a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family that plays a role in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Mechanisms by which SLUG promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancers remain elusive. Expression level of CXCR4 and CXCL12 was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and qPCR analyses. Forced expression of SLUG was mediated by retroviruses, and SLUG and CXCL12 was downregulated by shRNAs-expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of prostate cancer were measured by scratch-wound assay and invasion assay, respectively. We demonstrated that forced expression of SLUG elevated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, 22RV1, and LNCaP; conversely, reduced expression of SLUG by shRNA downregulated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression at RNA and protein levels in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SLUG increased MMP9 expression and activity in PC3, 22RV1, and DU-145 cells, and SLUG knockdown by shRNA downregulated MMP9 expression. We showed that CXCL12 is required for SLUG-mediated MMP9 expression in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we found that migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells was increased by ectopic expression of SLUG and decreased by SLUG knockdown. Notably, knockdown of CXCL12 by shRNA impaired SLUG-mediated migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Lastly, our data suggest that CXCL12 and SLUG regulate migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells independent of cell growth. We provide the first compelling evidence that upregulation of autocrine CXCL12 is a major mechanism underlying SLUG-mediated migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that CXCL12 is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis.

  16. Epigenetic regulation of CpG promoter methylation in invasive prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrar William L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, much attention has been focused on gaining a better understanding of the different populations of cells within a tumor and their contribution to cancer progression. One of the most commonly used methods to isolate a more aggressive sub-population of cells utilizes cell sorting based on expression of certain cell adhesion molecules. A recently established method we developed is to isolate these more aggressive cells based on their properties of increased invasive ability. These more invasive cells have been previously characterized as tumor initiating cells (TICs that have a stem-like genomic signature and express a number of stem cell genes including Oct3/4 and Nanog and are more tumorigenic compared to their 'non-invasive' counterpart. They also have a profile reminiscent of cells undergoing a classic pattern of epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT. Using this model of invasion, we sought to investigate which genes are under epigenetic control in this rare population of cells. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methylation, are key events regulating the process of normal human development. To determine the specific methylation pattern in these invasive prostate cells, and if any developmental genes were being differentially regulated, we analyzed differences in global CpG promoter methylation. Results Differentially methylated genes were determined and select genes were chosen for additional analyses. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase BMX and transcription factor SOX1 were found to play a significant role in invasion. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the methylated gene list frequently displayed genes from the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Cells which have decreased levels of the targets BMX and SOX1 also display loss of STAT3 activity. Finally, using Oncomine, it was determined that more aggressive metastatic prostate cancers in humans also have higher levels of both Stat3 and Sox1. Conclusions Using this

  17. Promotion of cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis emergence caused by olfactory receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenhaël Sanz

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, where they detect odorants, but also in other tissues with additional functions. Some ORs are even overexpressed in tumor cells. In this study, we identified ORs expressed in enterochromaffin tumor cells by RT-PCR, showing that single cells can co-express several ORs. Some of the receptors identified were already reported in other tumors, but they are orphan (without known ligand, as it is the case for most of the hundreds of human ORs. Thus, genes coding for human ORs with known ligands were transfected into these cells, expressing functional heterologous ORs. The in vitro stimulation of these cells by the corresponding OR odorant agonists promoted cell invasion of collagen gels. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cells, the stimulation of the PSGR (Prostate Specific G protein-coupled Receptor, an endogenously overexpressed OR, by β-ionone, its odorant agonist, resulted in the same phenotypic change. We also showed the involvement of a PI3 kinase γ dependent signaling pathway in this promotion of tumor cell invasiveness triggered by OR stimulation. Finally, after subcutaneous inoculation of LNCaP cells into NSG immunodeficient mice, the in vivo stimulation of these cells by the PSGR agonist β-ionone significantly enhanced metastasis emergence and spreading.

  18. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 promotes the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal breast carcinoma via canonical Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan-Yu; Han, Yang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Lian-He; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Jiang; Wu, Guang-Ping; Wang, En-Hua

    2017-06-01

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 is a scaffolding protein with multidomain which plays a role in modulating dishevelled (Dvl) nuclear translocation in canonical Wnt pathway. However, the biological function and mechanism of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) remain unknown. In this study, we found that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 expression was elevated in invasive ductal carcinoma, which was positively correlated with tumor grade, lymphatic metastasis, and poor prognosis. Coexpression of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 and Dvl in the nucleus and cytoplasm of invasive ductal carcinoma was significantly correlated but not in the membrane. Postoperative survival in the patients with their coexpression in the nucleus and cytoplasm was obviously lower than that without coexpression. The positive expression rates of c-myc and cyclin D1 were significantly higher in the patients with nuclear coexpression of Dvl and IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 than that with cytoplasmic coexpression, correlating with poor prognosis. IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma cell lines by interacting with Dvl in cytoplasm to promote Dvl nuclear translocation so as to upregulate the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. Collectively, our data suggest that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 may promote the malignant phenotype of invasive ductal carcinoma via canonical Wnt signaling, and it could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients.

  19. CAPN 7 promotes the migration and invasion of human endometrial stromal cell by regulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jiang, Yue; Jin, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Lihua; Shen, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junxia; Hu, Yali; Yan, Guijun; Sun, Haixiang

    2013-07-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) has been reported to be an important regulator of cell migration and invasion through degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in many diseases, such as cancer and endometriosis. Here, we found calcium-activated neutral protease 7 (CAPN 7) expression was markedly upregulated in the eutopic endometrium and endometrial stromal cells of women diagnosed with endometriosis. Our studies were carried out to detect the effects of CAPN 7 on human endometrial stromal cell (hESC) migration and invasion. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of CAPN 7 in endometriosis patients and normal fertile women. Scratch-wound-healing and invasion chamber assay were used to investigate the role of CAPN 7 in hESC migration and invasion. Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and zymography were carried out to detect the effect of CAPN 7 on the expressions and activity of MMP-2. CAPN 7 was markedly up-regulated in endometriosis, thereby promoting the migration and invasion of hESC. CAPN 7 overexpression led to increased expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2); CAPN 7 knockdown reversed these changes. CAPN 7 increased MMP-2 activity by increasing the ratio of MMP-2 to TIMP-2. We also found that OA-Hy (an MMP-2 inhibitor) decreased the effects of CAPN 7 overexpression on hESC migration and invasion by approximately 50% and 55%, respectively. Additionally, a coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that CAPN 7 interacted with activator protein 2α (AP-2α): an important transcription factor of MMP-2. CAPN 7 promotes hESC migration and invasion by increasing the activity of MMP-2 via an increased ratio of MMP-2 to TIMP-2.

  20. microRNA-495 promotes bladder cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Mingyue; Mu, Xingyu; Liu, Zhihong; Tao, Le; Wang, Jun; Ge, Jifu; Qiu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has linked deregulation of microRNA-495 (miR-495) to tumorigenesis; however, its function in tumor progression is controversial. This work was undertaken to explore the expression and biological roles of miR-495 in bladder cancer. The expression of miR-495 was examined in 67 pairs of bladder cancer and adjacent normal bladder tissues. The roles of miR-495 in bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo were determined. Direct target gene(s) mediating the activity of miR-495 in bladder cancer cells was identified. It was found that miR-495 was expressed at greater levels in bladder tissues and cell lines. High expression of miR-495 was significantly associated with larger tumor size, advanced TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of miR-495 significantly promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion, whereas inhibition of miR-495 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion. PTEN, a well-defined tumor suppressor was identified to be a target gene of miR-495. A significant inverse correlation between miR-495 and PTEN expression was noted in bladder cancer tissues (r = −0.3094, P = 0.0125). Overexpression of miR-495 led to reduction of PTEN expression in bladder cancer cells. Rescue experiments showed that enforced expression of PTEN impaired miR-495-mediated bladder cancer proliferation and invasion. In vivo mouse studies demonstrated that overexpression of miR-495 accelerated the growth of subcutaneous bladder cancer xenografts, which was associated with downregulation of PTEN. Overall, these findings indicate that miR-495 upregulation contributes to bladder cancer cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis by targeting PTEN and offer a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. - Highlights: • miR-495 upregulation induces aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer. • miR-495 is inversely correlated with PTEN in bladder cancer. • miR-495 promotes bladder cancer cell

  1. miRNA-135a promotes breast cancer cell migration and invasion by targeting HOXA10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yating; Zhang, Hongwei; Ma, Duan; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Huijun; Zhao, Jiayi; Xu, Cheng; Du, Yingying; Luo, Xin; Zheng, Fengyun; Liu, Rui

    2012-01-01

    miRNAs are a group of small RNA molecules regulating target genes by inducing mRNA degradation or translational repression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs correlates with various cancers. Although miR-135a has been implicated in several other cancers, its role in breast cancer is unknown. HOXA10 however, is associated with multiple cancer types and was recently shown to induce p53 expression in breast cancer cells and reduce their invasive ability. Because HOXA10 is a confirmed miR-135a target in more than one tissue, we examined miR-135a levels in relation to breast cancer phenotypes to determine if miR-135a plays role in this cancer type. Expression levels of miR-135a in tissues and cells were determined by poly (A)-RT PCR. The effect of miR-135a on proliferation was evaluated by CCK8 assay, cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell migration and invasion assays, and target protein expression was determined by western blotting. GFP and luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed to confirm the action of miR-135a on downstream target genes including HOXA10. Results are reported as means ± S.D. and differences were tested for significance using 2-sided Student's t-test. Here we report that miR-135a was highly expressed in metastatic breast tumors. We found that the expression of miR-135a was required for the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, but not their proliferation. HOXA10, which encodes a transcription factor required for embryonic development and is a metastasis suppressor in breast cancer, was shown to be a direct target of miR-135a in breast cancer cells. Our analysis showed that miR-135a suppressed the expression of HOXA10 both at the mRNA and protein level, and its ability to promote cellular migration and invasion was partially reversed by overexpression of HOXA10. In summary, our results indicate that miR-135a is an onco-miRNA that can promote breast cancer cell migration and invasion. HOXA10 is a target gene for mi

  2. P2Y2 Receptor and EGFR Cooperate to Promote Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via ERK1/2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Hua; Qiu, Ying; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Tian, Xin-Xia; Fang, Wei-Gang

    2015-01-01

    As one member of G protein-coupled P2Y receptors, P2Y2 receptor can be equally activated by extracellular ATP and UTP. Our previous studies have proved that activation of P2Y2 receptor by extracellular ATP could promote prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo via regulating the expressions of some epithelial-mesenchymal transition/invasion-related genes (including IL-8, E-cadherin, Snail and Claudin-1), and the most significant change in expression of IL-8 was observed after P2Y2 receptor activation. However, the signaling pathway downstream of P2Y2 receptor and the role of IL-8 in P2Y2-mediated prostate cancer cell invasion remain unclear. Here, we found that extracellular ATP/UTP induced activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. After knockdown of P2Y2 receptor, the ATP -stimulated phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 was significantly suppressed. Further experiments showed that inactivation of EGFR and ERK1/2 attenuated ATP-induced invasion and migration, and suppressed ATP-mediated IL-8 production. In addition, knockdown of IL-8 inhibited ATP-mediated invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells. These findings suggest that P2Y2 receptor and EGFR cooperate to upregulate IL-8 production via ERK1/2 pathway, thereby promoting prostate cancer cell invasion and migration. Thus blocking of the P2Y2-EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway may provide effective therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.

  3. Transcription Factor SOX5 Promotes the Migration and Invasion of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Part by Regulating MMP-9 Expression in Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesFibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS exhibit a unique aggressive phenotype in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Increased FLS migration and subsequent invasion of the extracellular matrix are essential to joint destruction in RA. Our previous research reported that transcription factor SOX5 was highly expressed in RA-FLS. Here, the effects of SOX5 in RA-FLS migration and invasion will be investigated.MethodsThe migration and invasion of RA-FLS were evaluated using a transwell chamber assay. The expression of several potential SOX5-targeted genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, 2, 3 and 9, chemokines (CCL4, CCL2, CCR5 and CCR2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6, were examined in RA-FLS using SOX5 gain- and loss-of-function study. The molecular mechanisms of SOX5-mediated MMP-9 expressions were assayed by luciferase reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP studies. The in vivo effect of SOX5 on FLS migration and invasion was examined using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in DBA/1J mice.ResultsKnockdown SOX5 decreased lamellipodium formation, migration, and invasion of RA-FLS. The expression of MMP-9 was the only gene tested to be concomitantly affected by silencing or overexpressing SOX5. ChIP assay revealed that SOX5 was bound to the MMP-9 promoter in RA-FLS. The overexpression of SOX5 markedly enhanced the MMP-9 promoter activity, and specific deletion of a putative SOX5-binding site in MMP-9 promoter diminished this promoter-driven transcription in FLS. Locally knocked down SOX5 inhibited MMP-9 expression in the joint tissue and reduced pannus migration and invasion into the cartilage in CIA mice.ConclusionSOX5 plays a novel role in mediating migration and invasion of FLS in part by regulating MMP-9 expression in RA.

  4. Transcription Factor SOX5 Promotes the Migration and Invasion of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Part by Regulating MMP-9 Expression in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yumeng; Wu, Qin; Xuan, Wenhua; Feng, Xiaoke; Wang, Fang; Tsao, Betty P; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) exhibit a unique aggressive phenotype in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased FLS migration and subsequent invasion of the extracellular matrix are essential to joint destruction in RA. Our previous research reported that transcription factor SOX5 was highly expressed in RA-FLS. Here, the effects of SOX5 in RA-FLS migration and invasion will be investigated. The migration and invasion of RA-FLS were evaluated using a transwell chamber assay. The expression of several potential SOX5-targeted genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, 2, 3 and 9), chemokines (CCL4, CCL2, CCR5 and CCR2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), were examined in RA-FLS using SOX5 gain- and loss-of-function study. The molecular mechanisms of SOX5-mediated MMP-9 expressions were assayed by luciferase reporter gene and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies. The in vivo effect of SOX5 on FLS migration and invasion was examined using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. Knockdown SOX5 decreased lamellipodium formation, migration, and invasion of RA-FLS. The expression of MMP-9 was the only gene tested to be concomitantly affected by silencing or overexpressing SOX5. ChIP assay revealed that SOX5 was bound to the MMP-9 promoter in RA-FLS. The overexpression of SOX5 markedly enhanced the MMP-9 promoter activity, and specific deletion of a putative SOX5-binding site in MMP-9 promoter diminished this promoter-driven transcription in FLS. Locally knocked down SOX5 inhibited MMP-9 expression in the joint tissue and reduced pannus migration and invasion into the cartilage in CIA mice. SOX5 plays a novel role in mediating migration and invasion of FLS in part by regulating MMP-9 expression in RA.

  5. HIF1 Contributes to Hypoxia-Induced Pancreatic Cancer Cells Invasion via Promoting QSOX1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ye Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1, which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to form disulfide bonds in proteins, is found to be over-expressed in various pancreatic cancer cell lines and patients. QSOX1 promotes invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by activating MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, its regulatory mechanism remains largely undefined. Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blot were employed to detect the expression of QSOX1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines under hypoxic condition. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays were used to assess the regulation of QSOX1 by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1. Small interfering RNA (siRNA was applied to knock down endogenous expression of QSOX1. Matrigel-coated invasion chamber essays were conducted to detect the invasion capacity of QSOX1-depleted cells. Results: Both hypoxia and hypoxia mimicking reagent up-regulated the expression of QSOX1 in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HIF-1α eliminated hypoxia induced QSOX1 expression. HIF-1α was found directly bound to two hypoxia-response elements (HRE of QSOX1 gene, both of which were required for HIF-1 induced QSOX1 expression. Moreover, QSOX1 silencing blocked hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer cells invasion. Conclusion: QSOX1 is a direct target of HIF-1 and may contribute to hypoxia-induced pancreatic cancer cells invasion.

  6. Promotion of double-duplex invasion of peptide nucleic acids through conjugation with nuclear localization signal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yuichiro; Honda, Yuta; Komiyama, Makoto

    2015-03-02

    Pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acid (pcPNA), as one of the most widely used synthetic DNA analogues, invades double-stranded DNA according to Watson-Crick rules to form invasion complexes. This unique mode of DNA recognition induces structural changes at the invasion site and can be used for a range of applications. In this paper, pcPNA is conjugated with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide, and its invading activity is notably promoted both thermodynamically and kinetically. Thus, the double-duplex invasion complex is formed promptly at low pcPNA concentrations under high salt conditions, where the invasion otherwise never occurs. Furthermore, NLS-modified pcPNA is successfully employed for site-selective DNA scission, and the targeted DNA is selectively cleaved under conditions that are not conducive for DNA cutters using unmodified pcPNAs. This strategy of pcPNA modification is expected to be advantageous and promising for a range of in vitro and in vivo applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Src-homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 promotes oral cancer invasion and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor invasion and metastasis represent a major unsolved problem in cancer pathogenesis. Recent studies have indicated the involvement of Src-homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) in multiple malignancies; however, the role of SHP2 in oral cancer progression has yet to be elucidated. We propose that SHP2 is involved in the progression of oral cancer toward metastasis. Methods SHP2 expression was evaluated in paired oral cancer tissues by using immunohistochemical staining and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Isogenic highly invasive oral cancer cell lines from their respective low invasive parental lines were established using a Boyden chamber assay, and changes in the hallmarks of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed to evaluate SHP2 function. SHP2 activity in oral cancer cells was reduced using si-RNA knockdown or enforced expression of a catalytically deficient mutant to analyze migratory and invasive ability in vitro and metastasis toward the lung in mice in vivo. Results We observed the significant upregulation of SHP2 in oral cancer tissues and cell lines. Following SHP2 knockdown, the oral cancer cells markedly attenuated migratory and invasion ability. We observed similar results in phosphatase-dead SHP2 C459S mutant expressing cells. Enhanced invasiveness was associated with significant upregulation of E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail/Twist1, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the highly invasive clones. In addition, we determined that SHP2 activity is required for the downregulation of phosphorylated ERK1/2, which modulates the downstream effectors, Snail and Twist1 at a transcript level. In lung tissue sections of mice, we observed that HSC3 tumors with SHP2 deletion exhibited significantly reduced metastatic capacity, compared with tumors administered control si-RNA. Conclusions Our data suggest that SHP2 promotes the invasion and metastasis of oral cancer cells. These results

  8. Upregulation of CD147 promotes cell invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and activates MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhou, Mingliang; Peng, Lipan; Kong, Shuai; Miao, Ruizheng; Shi, Yulong; Sheng, Hongguang; Li, Leping

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. CD147, a transmembrane protein, has been reported to be correlated with various cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of CD147 in regulating drug resistance, cell invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC cells. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to evaluated the expression of CD147 in 40 CRC cases and 4 cell lines. Increased expression of CD147 at both mRNA and protein levels was found in CRC samples, and the level of CD147 was correlated with lymph node metastasis. CD147 overexpression increased the 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance, enhanced the invasion and EMT of CRC cells by regulating EMT markers and MMPs. Adverse results were obtained in CD147 knockdown CRC cell line. Further investigation revealed that CD147 activated MAPK/ERK pathway, ERK inhibitor U0126 suppressed the CD147-induced cell invasion, migration and MMP-2, MMP-9 expression. Taken together, our study indicates that CD147 promotes the 5-FU resistance, and MAPK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in CD147-promoted invasion and EMT of CRC cells.

  9. Thioredoxin-1 promotes colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis through crosstalk with S100P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feiyan; Zhang, Peili; Zuo, Zhigui; Wang, Fule; Bi, Ruichun; Shang, Wenjing; Wu, Aihua; Ye, Ju; Li, Shaotang; Sun, Xuecheng; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-10

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a small redox-regulating protein, which plays an important role in several cellular functions. Despite recent advances in understanding the biology of Trx-1, the role of Trx-1 and its underlying signaling mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis have not been extensively studied. In this study, we observed that Trx-1 expression is increased in CRC tissues compared to the paired non-cancerous tissues and is significantly correlated with clinical staging, lymph node metastasis and poor survival. Overexpression of Trx-1 enhanced CRC cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, suppression of Trx-1 expression decreased cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, Trx-1 activates S100P gene transcription. S100P, in turn, promotes Trx-1 expression and nuclear localization by upregulating p-ERK1/2 and downregulating TXNIP expression. Our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of Trx-1/S100P axis in the promotion of CRC metastasis, and suggests that the Trx-1/S100P axis and their related signaling pathways could be novel targets for the treatment of metastatic CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop promotes the invasion ability of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ye, Wei; Wu, Juan; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Lina; Gao, Lu; Chen, Biliang; Zhang, Fanglin; Yang, Hong; Li, Yu

    2015-07-01

    CD147 is a novel cancer biomarker that has been confirmed to be overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, which is significantly associated with poor prognosis. Although the Sp1 protein regulates the expression level of CD147, it remains unclear whether Sp1 phosphorylation plays a role in this regulation. A dual-luciferase assay revealed that T453 and T739 mutations decreased the activity of Sp1 binding to the promoter of CD147, followed by a decrease in CD147 mRNA and protein expression. Western blot analysis showed that CD147 promoted Sp1 phosphorylation at T453 and T739 through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways. In addition, blocking the Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop reduced the invasion ability of HO-8910pm cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the components of the feedback loop were overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissues. The correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between phospho-Sp1 (T453), phospho-Sp1 (T739) and CD147 expression levels, with correlation coefficients of r=0.477 and r=0.461, respectively. Collectively, our results suggest that a Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop plays a critical role in the invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on invasion-promoting proteins secreted by glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangar, Vineet; Funk, Cory C; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Campbell, David S; Moritz, Robert L; Price, Nathan D

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and aggressive brain tumor with an invariably poor prognosis. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a primary influencer of invasion and proliferation in tumor cells and the constitutively active EGFRvIII mutant, found in 30-65% of Glioblastoma multiforme, confers more aggressive invasion. To better understand how EGFR contributes to tumor aggressiveness, we investigated the effect of EGFR on the secreted levels of 65 rationally selected proteins involved in invasion. We employed selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled internal peptide standards to quantity proteins in the secretome from five GBM (U87) isogenic cell lines in which EGFR, EGFRvIII, and/or PTEN were expressed. Our results show that cell lines with EGFR overexpression and constitutive EGFRvIII expression differ remarkably in the expression profiles for both secreted and intracellular signaling proteins, and alterations in EGFR signaling result in reproducible changes in concentrations of secreted proteins. Furthermore, the EGFRvIII-expressing mutant cell line secretes the majority of the selected invasion-promoting proteins at higher levels than other cell lines tested. Additionally, the intracellular and extracellular protein measurements indicate elevated oxidative stress in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that EGFR signaling has a significant effect on the levels of secreted invasion-promoting proteins, likely contributing to the aggressiveness of Glioblastoma multiforme. Further characterization of these proteins may provide candidates for new therapeutic strategies and targets as well as biomarkers for this aggressive disease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Apigenin inhibits HGF-promoted invasive growth and metastasis involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway and β4 integrin function in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-J.; Chen, W.-K.; Wang, C.-J.; Lin, W.-L.; Tseng, T.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, Met, known to control invasive growth program have recently been shown to play crucial roles in the survival of breast cancer patients. The diet-derived flavonoids have been reported to possess anti-invasion properties; however, knowledge on the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms in suppressing HGF/Met-mediated tumor invasion and metastasis is poorly understood. In our preliminary study, we use HGF as an invasive inducer to investigate the effect of flavonoids including apigenin, naringenin, genistein and kaempferol on HGF-dependent invasive growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Results show that apigenin presents the most potent anti-migration and anti-invasion properties by Boyden chamber assay. Furthermore, apigenin represses the HGF-induced cell motility and scattering and inhibits the HGF-promoted cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of apigenin on HGF-induced signaling activation involving invasive growth was evaluated by immunoblotting analysis, it shows that apigenin blocks the HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation but not Met, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation. In addition to MDA-MB-231 cells, apigenin exhibits inhibitory effect on HGF-induced Akt phosphorylation in hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells and lung carcinoma A549 cells. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy assay, apigenin inhibits the HGF-induced clustering of β4 integrin at actin-rich adhesive site and lamellipodia through PI3K-dependent manner. Treatment of apigenin inhibited HGF-stimulated integrin β4 function including cell-matrix adhesion and cell-endothelial cells adhesion in MDA-MB-231 cells. By Akt-siRNA transfection analysis, it confirmed that apigenin inhibited HGF-promoted invasive growth involving blocking PI3K/Akt pathway. Finally, we evaluated the effect of apigenin on HGF-promoted metastasis by lung colonization of tumor cells in nude mice and organ metastasis of tumor cells in chick embryo. By

  13. TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Taylor, Chase; Koumangoye, Rainelli B. [Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Revetta, Frank [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Loomans, Holli A. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Andl, Claudia D., E-mail: claudia.andl@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is essential to epithelial homeostasis and is often inhibited during progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, an important role for TGFβ signaling has been described in the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating squamous tumor cell invasion in mouse models of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Loss of TGFβ signaling, in either compartment, leads to HNSCC however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Using organotypic reconstruct cultures (OTC) to model the interaction between epithelial and stromal cells that occur in dysplastic lesions, we show that loss of TGFβ signaling promotes an invasive phenotype in both fibroblast and epithelial compartments. Employing immortalized esophageal keratinocytes established to reproduce common mutations of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we show that treatment of OTC with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling (A83-01 or SB431542) enhances invasion of epithelial cells into a fibroblast-embedded Matrigel/collagen I matrix. Invasion induced by A83-01 is independent of proliferation but relies on protease activity and expression of ADAMTS-1 and can be altered by matrix density. This invasion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1 and EGFR ligands HB-EGF and TGFα. Altering EGF signaling prevented or induced epithelial cell invasion in this model. Loss of expression of the TGFβ target gene ROBO1 suggested that chemorepulsion may regulate keratinocyte invasion. Taken together, our data show increased invasion through inhibition of TGFβ signaling altered epithelial-fibroblasts interactions, repressing markers of activated fibroblasts, and altering integrin-fibronectin interactions. These results suggest that inhibition of TGFβ signaling modulates an array of pathways that combined promote multiple aspects of tumor invasion. - Highlights: • Chemical inhibition of TGFβ signaling advances collective invasion

  14. Options in dealing with marine alien species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Sneekes, A.C.; Foekema, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can have strong impact on the local ecosystem, not only substantial impact on the local ecosystem, but also on economy and human health. This review on marine alien species outlines aspects of prevention, eradication and control strategies. When managing invasive species, prevention

  15. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  16. Phospholipase D promotes Arcanobacterium haemolyticum adhesion via lipid raft remodeling and host cell death following bacterial invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Petteri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is an emerging bacterial pathogen, causing pharyngitis and more invasive infections. This organism expresses an unusual phospholipase D (PLD, which we propose promotes bacterial pathogenesis through its action on host cell membranes. The pld gene is found on a genomic region of reduced %G + C, suggesting recent horizontal acquisition. Results Recombinant PLD rearranged HeLa cell lipid rafts in a dose-dependent manner and this was inhibited by cholesterol sequestration. PLD also promoted host cell adhesion, as a pld mutant had a 60.3% reduction in its ability to adhere to HeLa cells as compared to the wild type. Conversely, the pld mutant appeared to invade HeLa cells approximately two-fold more efficiently as the wild type. This finding was attributable to a significant loss of host cell viability following secretion of PLD from intracellular bacteria. As determined by viability assay, only 15.6% and 82.3% of HeLa cells remained viable following invasion by the wild type or pld mutant, respectively, as compared to untreated HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopy of HeLa cells inoculated with A. haemolyticum strains revealed that the pld mutant was contained within intracellular vacuoles, as compared to the wild type, which escaped the vacuole. Wild type-infected HeLa cells also displayed the hallmarks of necrosis. Similarly inoculated HeLa cells displayed no signs of apoptosis, as measured by induction of caspase 3/7, 8 or 9 activities. Conclusions These data indicate that PLD enhances bacterial adhesion and promotes host cell necrosis following invasion, and therefore, may be important in the disease pathogenesis of A. haemolyticum infections.

  17. Up-regulation of METCAM/MUC18 promotes motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guo-fang; Cai, Shao-xi; Wu, Guang-Jer

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM) in the Ig-like gene super-family, as both a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor in the development of breast cancer. To resolve this, we have re-investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Three breast cancer cell lines were used for the tests: one luminal-like breast cancer cell line, MCF7, which did not express any METCAM/MUC18, and two basal-like breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which expressed moderate levels of the protein. MCF7 cells were transfected with the human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones which expressed the protein and were used for testing effects of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility and invasiveness, and in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis. Both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells already expressed METCAM/MUC18. They were directly used for in vitro tests in the presence and absence of an anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody. In MCF7 cells, enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenesis), and in vivo tumorigenesis. In both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody inhibited both motility and invasiveness. Though both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells established a disorganized growth in 3D basement membrane culture assay, the introduction of the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody completely destroyed their growth in the 3D culture. These findings support the notion that human METCAM/MUC18 expression promotes the progression of human breast cancer cells by increasing their motility, invasiveness and tumorigenesis

  18. Up-regulation of METCAM/MUC18 promotes motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Shao-xi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting research has identified METCAM/MUC18, an integral membrane cell adhesion molecule (CAM in the Ig-like gene super-family, as both a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor in the development of breast cancer. To resolve this, we have re-investigated the role of this CAM in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines were used for the tests: one luminal-like breast cancer cell line, MCF7, which did not express any METCAM/MUC18, and two basal-like breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, which expressed moderate levels of the protein. MCF7 cells were transfected with the human METCAM/MUC18 cDNA to obtain G418-resistant clones which expressed the protein and were used for testing effects of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on in vitro motility and invasiveness, and in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis. Both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells already expressed METCAM/MUC18. They were directly used for in vitro tests in the presence and absence of an anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody. Results In MCF7 cells, enforced METCAM/MUC18 expression increased in vitro motility, invasiveness, anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenesis, and in vivo tumorigenesis. In both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody inhibited both motility and invasiveness. Though both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells established a disorganized growth in 3D basement membrane culture assay, the introduction of the anti-METCAM/MUC18 antibody completely destroyed their growth in the 3D culture. Conclusion These findings support the notion that human METCAM/MUC18 expression promotes the progression of human breast cancer cells by increasing their motility, invasiveness and tumorigenesis.

  19. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  20. By activating matrix metalloproteinase-7, shear stress promotes chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and lung colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Pei-Pei; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yue; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia-Yi; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhan-You; Wang, Pu

    2015-04-20

    Interstitial fluid flow and associated shear stress are relevant mechanical signals in cartilage and bone (patho)physiology. However, their effects on chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. Using human SW1353, HS.819.T and CH2879 chondrosarcoma cell lines as model systems, we found that fluid shear stress induces the accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn markedly enhance chondrosarcoma cell motility and invasion via the induction of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). Specifically, shear-induced cAMP and IL-1β activate PI3-K, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, which lead to the synthesis of MMP-7 via transactivating NF-κB and c-Jun in human chondrosarcoma cells. Importantly, MMP-7 upregulation in response to shear stress exposure has the ability to promote lung colonization of chondrosarcomas in vivo. These findings offer a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MMP-7 activation in shear-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells, and provide insights on designing new therapeutic strategies to interfere with chondrosarcoma invasion and metastasis.

  1. TROP2 overexpression promotes proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zanhua [Medical School of Nanchang University (China); The Chest Hospital of Jiangxi Province Department of Respiration (China); Jiang, Xunsheng [Department of Respiration, Medical School of Nanchang University (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: weizhangncu@gmail.com [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (China)

    2016-01-29

    Recent studies suggest that the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen TROP2 is highly expressed in a number of tumours and is correlated with poor prognosis. However, its role in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Here we examined TROP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a series of 68 patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC). We found significantly elevated TROP2 expression in ADC tissues compared with normal lung tissues (P < 0.05), and TROP2 overexpression was significantly associated with TNM (tumour, node, metastasis) stage (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.038), and histologic grade (P = 0.013). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high TROP2 expression correlated with poor prognosis (P = 0.046). Multivariate analysis revealed that TROP2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival of ADC patients. Moreover, TROP2 overexpression enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the NSCLC cell line A549, whereas knockdown of TROP2 induced apoptosis and impaired proliferation, migration, and invasion in the PC-9 cells. Altogether, our data suggest that TROP2 plays an important role in promoting ADC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease.

  2. Loss of p53 promotes anaplasia and local invasion in ret/PTC1-induced thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Perle, K M; Jhiang, S M; Capen, C C

    2000-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas in humans are associated with the ret/PTC oncogene and, following loss of p53 function, may progress to anaplastic carcinomas. Mice with thyroid-targeted expression of ret/PTC1 developed papillary thyroid carcinomas that were minimally invasive and did not metastasize. These mice were crossed with p53-/- mice to investigate whether loss of p53 would promote anaplasia and metastasis of ret/PTC1-induced thyroid tumors. The majority of p53-/- mice died or were euthanized by 17 weeks of age due to the development of thymic lymphomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and testicular teratomas. All ret/PTC1 mice developed thyroid carcinomas, but tumors in p53-/- mice were more anaplastic, larger in diameter, more invasive, and had a higher mitotic index than tumors in p53+/+ and p53+/- mice. Thyroid tumors did not metastasize in any of the experimental p53+/+ and p53+/- mice anaplasia and invasiveness of thyroid carcinomas.

  3. Disturbance promotes non-indigenous bacterial invasion in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Manqiang; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Invasion-biology is largely based on non-experimental observation of larger organisms. Here, we apply an experimental approach to the subject. By using microbial-based microcosm-experiments, invasion-biology can be placed on firmer experimental, and hence, less anecdotal ground. A better...... understanding of the mechanisms that govern invasion-success of bacteria in soil communities will provide knowledge on the factors that hinder successful establishment of bacteria artificially inoculated into soil, e.g. for remediation purposes. Further, it will yield valuable information on general principles...... of invasion biology in other domains of life....

  4. The marine alga Gelidium amansii promotes the development and complexity of neuronal cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Abdul; Kang, Ji-Young; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyunsook; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are vital not only to support neuronal development but also to protect mature neurons from atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases. As an effort to explore natural sources that possess neurotrophic activity, we screened common marine algae for their neuritogenic activity in the developing rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Of the 22 seaweed species examined, ethanol extracts of Gelidium amansii (GAE) exhibited potent neuritogenic activity, followed by Undaria pinnatifida and Sargassum fulvellum extracts. The effects of GAE were dose dependent with an optimum concentration of 15 µg/mL. The GAE significantly promoted the initial neuronal differentiation from the stage I into the stage II and increased the indices of axonal and dendritic development such as the length, the numbers of primary processes, and branching frequencies by a minimum of twofold compared with the vehicle control. These results show that marine algae are promising candidates for neurotrophic potentials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Polycomb complex protein BMI-1 promotes invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer stem cells by activating PI3K/AKT signaling, an ex vivo, in vitro, and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Cong; Jiao, Min; Wu, Tao; Jing, Li; Cui, Jie; Guo, Hui; Tian, Tao; Ruan, Zhi-ping; Wei, Yong-Chang; Jiang, Li-Li; Sun, Hai-Feng; Huang, Lan-Xuan; Nan, Ke-Jun; Li, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory indicates cancer stem cells are the key to promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Studies showed that BMI-1 could promote self-renew, differentiation and tumor formation of CSCs and invasion/metastasis of human cancer. However, whether BMI-1 could regulate invasion and metastasis ability of CSCs is still unclear. In our study, we found that up-regulated expression of BMI-1 was associated with tumor invasion, metastasis and poor survival of pancreatic cancer patients. CD133+ cells were obtained by using magnetic cell sorting and identified of CSCs properties such as self-renew, multi-differentiation and tumor formation ability. Then, we found that BMI-1 expression was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer stem cells. Knockdown of BMI-1 expression attenuated invasion ability of pancreatic cancer stem cells in Transwell system and liver metastasis capacity in nude mice which were injected CSCs through the caudal vein. We are the first to reveal that BMI-1 could promote invasion and metastasis ability of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Finally, we identified that BMI-1 expression activating PI3K/AKT singing pathway by negative regulating PTEN was the main mechanism of promoting invasion and metastasis ability of pancreatic CSCs. In summary, our findings indicate that BMI-1 could be used as the therapeutic target to inhibiting CSCs-mediated pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26840020

  6. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongge Yuan

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC, a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3 with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  7. LDH-A promotes malignant progression via activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and conferring stemness in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fujin [Department of Urinary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Urinary Surgery, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China); Ma, Song [Department of Urinary Surgery, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China); Xue, Yubao [Department of Medical Oncology, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China); Hou, Jianquan, E-mail: Jianquanhou@aliyun.com [Department of Urinary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Yongjie, E-mail: zhangyj0818@126.com [Department of Medical Oncology, Huai' an Hospital to Xuzhou Medical University, Huai' an, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-01-22

    Lactate dehydrogenase-A(LDH-A) is an important rate-limiting enzyme in the Warburg effect. Survival analysis indicated poor clinical outcomes in MIBC with high LDH-A expression. The results of in vitro experiment indicated that LDH-A promotes MIBC cells proliferation, invasion and migration. The positive relationship between LDH-A expression and CSC/EMT markers was confirmed both in invasive bladder cell line and in 136 MIBC specimens. Thus, we conclude that LDH-A may be a promising target for MIBC. - Highlights: • Survival analysis indicated poor clinical outcomes in MIBC with high LDH-A expression. • IHC analysis of 136 MIBC specimens revealed increased LDH-A is correlated with positive Oct4 and negative E-cadherin. • In vitro experiments demonstrated LDH-A promotes MIBC progression by positive regulation of EMT/CSC.

  8. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major......(Δ) (Ex2-6/) (Δ) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour...

  9. Density-dependent growth in invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2013-01-01

    Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion.

  10. Density-dependent growth in invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra E Benkwitt

    Full Text Available Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion.

  11. Advancing marine conservation in European and contiguous seas with the MarCons Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative human impacts have led to the degradation of marine ecosystems and the decline of biodiversity in the European and contiguous seas. Effective conservation measures are urgently needed to reverse these trends. Conservation must entail societal choices, underpinned by human values and worldviews that differ between the countries bordering these seas. Social, economic and political heterogeneity adds to the challenge of balancing conservation with sustainable use of the seas. Comprehensive macro-regional coordination is needed to ensure effective conservation of marine ecosystems and biodiversity of this region. Under the European Union Horizon 2020 framework programme, the MarCons COST action aims to promote collaborative research to support marine management, conservation planning and policy development. This will be achieved by developing novel methods and tools to close knowledge gaps and advance marine conservation science. This action will provide support for the development of macro-regional and national policies through six key actions: to develop tools to analyse cumulative human impacts; to identify critical scientific and technical gaps in conservation efforts; to improve the resilience of the marine environment to global change and biological invasions; to develop frameworks for integrated conservation planning across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments; to coordinate marine conservation policy across national boundaries; and to identify effective governance approaches for marine protected area management. Achieving the objectives of these actions will facilitate the integration of marine conservation policy into macro-regional maritime spatial planning agendas for the European and contiguous seas, thereby offsetting the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in this region.

  12. Promoting safe walking and biking to school: the Marin County success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Catherine E; Hubsmith, Deb; Kallins, Wendi

    2003-09-01

    Walking and biking to school can be an important part of a healthy lifestyle, yet most US children do not start their day with these activities. The Safe Routes to School Program in Marin County, California, is working to promote walking and biking to school. Using a multipronged approach, the program identifies and creates safe routes to schools and invites communitywide involvement. By its second year, the program was serving 4665 students in 15 schools. Participating public schools reported an increase in school trips made by walking (64%), biking (114%), and carpooling (91%) and a decrease in trips by private vehicles carrying only one student (39%).

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase 12 is induced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and promotes migration and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, I-Che; Li, Hsin-Pai; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Chung, An-Ko; Chao, Mei; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Hsueh, Chuen; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a DNA/RNA binding protein, is associated with metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the mechanisms underlying hnRNP K-mediated metastasis is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in hnRNP K-mediated metastasis in NPC. We studied hnRNP K-regulated MMPs by analyzing the expression profiles of MMP family genes in NPC tissues and hnRNP K-knockdown NPC cells using Affymetrix microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. The association of hnRNP K and MMP12 expression in 82 clinically proven NPC cases was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The hnRNP K-mediated MMP12 regulation was determined by zymography and Western blot, as well as by promoter, DNA pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The functional role of MMP12 in cell migration and invasion was demonstrated by MMP12-knockdown and the treatment of MMP12-specific inhibitor, PF-356231. MMP12 was overexpressed in NPC tissues, and this high level of expression was significantly correlated with high-level expression of hnRNP K (P = 0.026). The levels of mRNA, protein and enzyme activity of MMP12 were reduced in hnRNP K-knockdown NPC cells. HnRNP K interacting with the region spanning −42 to −33 bp of the transcription start site triggered transcriptional activation of the MMP12 promoter. Furthermore, inhibiting MMP12 by MMP12 knockdown and MMP12-specific inhibitor, PF-356231, significantly reduced the migration and invasion of NPC cells. Overexpression of MMP12 was significantly correlated with hnRNP K in NPC tissues. HnRNP K can induce MMP12 expression and enzyme activity through activating MMP12 promoter, which promotes cell migration and invasion in NPC cells. In vitro experiments suggest that NPC metastasis with high MMP12 expression may be treated with PF-356231. HnRNP K and MMP12 may be potential therapeutic markers for NPC, but

  14. Cancer/testis Antigen-Plac1 Promotes Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Cancer through Furin/NICD/PTEN Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfei; Chu, Jiahui; Li, Jun; Feng, Wanting; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yifan; Zhang, Yanhong; Sun, Chunxiao; Yang, Mengzhu; Vasilatos, Shauna N; Huang, Yi; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Yongmei

    2018-04-28

    Plac1 is a cancer-testis antigen that plays a critical role in promoting cancer initiation and progression. However, the clinical significance and mechanism of Plac1 in cancer progression remains elusive. Here we report that Plac1 is an important oncogenic and prognostic factor which physically interacts with Furin to drive breast cancer invasion and metastasis. We have shown that Plac1 expression positively correlates with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, HR status and overall patient survival. Overexpression of Plac1 promoted invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence cell staining assays revealed that interaction of Plac1 and Furin degraded Notch1 and generated Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) that could inhibit PTEN activity. These findings are consistent with the results of microarray study in MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing Plac1. A rescue study showed that inhibition of Furin and overexpression of PTEN in Plac1 overexpression cells blocked Plac1-induced tumor cell progression. Taken together, our findings suggest that functional interaction between Plac1 and Furin enhances breast cancer invasion and metastasis and the Furin/NICD/PTEN axis may act as an important therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. Molecular Oncology (2018) © 2018 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. B Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes Tumor Invasion and Predicts Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well established that many non-trophoblastic tumors secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin and that such secretion is correlated with the poor prognosis of tumor patients. This study aims to analyze the correlation between β-HCG expression and outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC and understand its role in CRC pathology Methods: We detected the mRNA and protein expression of β-HCG in human CRC tissues with RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, and we compared the clinical-pathological characteristics, prognosis and progression between the β-HCG positive and negative groups. We also generated CRC cell lines with β-HCG over-expression as well as β-HCG stable knockout, and evaluated cell function and mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Results: Fifty out of 136 CRC patients (37% expressed β-HCG at the invasive front. Clinical-pathological data showed that β-HCG was positively correlated with Dukes staging (P=0.031 and lymph node metastasis (P=0.012. Survival analysis suggested that the patients with high expression of β-HCG had poorer prognosis than those with low β-HCG expression (P=0.0289. β-HCG expression level was also positively correlated with tumor invasion in early-stage CRC patient tissues (P=0.0227. Additionally β-HCG promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that β-HCG was ectopically expressed in the CRC patients and its high expression correlated with poor prognosis of early-stage CRC. Additionally it worked as an oncogene that promotes the migration and invasion of CRC by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT.

  16. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  17. Template Dimerization Promotes an Acceptor Invasion-Induced Transfer Mechanism during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Minus-Strand Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Mini; Roques, Bernard P.; Fay, Philip J.; Bambara, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of template switching by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase and the role of template dimerization were examined. Homologous donor-acceptor template pairs derived from the HIV-1 untranslated leader region and containing the wild-type and mutant dimerization initiation sequences (DIS) were used to examine the efficiency and distribution of transfers. Inhibiting donor-acceptor interaction was sufficient to reduce transfers in DIS-containing template pairs, indicating that template dimerization, and not the mere presence of the DIS, promotes efficient transfers. Additionally, we show evidence that the overall transfer process spans an extended region of the template and proceeds through a two-step mechanism. Transfer is initiated through an RNase H-facilitated acceptor invasion step, while synthesis continues on the donor template. The invasion then propagates towards the primer terminus by branch migration. Transfer is completed with the translocation of the primer terminus at a site distant from the invasion point. In our system, most invasions initiated before synthesis reached the DIS. However, transfer of the primer terminus predominantly occurred after synthesis through the DIS. The two steps were separated by 60 to 80 nucleotides. Sequence markers revealed the position of primer terminus switch, whereas DNA oligomers designed to block acceptor-cDNA interactions defined sites of invasion. Within the region of homology, certain positions on the template were inherently more favorable for invasion than others. In templates with DIS, the proximity of the acceptor facilitates invasion, thereby enhancing transfer efficiency. Nucleocapsid protein enhanced the overall efficiency of transfers but did not alter the mechanism. PMID:12663778

  18. MicroRNA-21 directly targets MARCKS and promotes apoptosis resistance and invasion in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tao; Li, Dong; Sha, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yiran

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers in men. Recent studies have shown that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in various types of cancers including prostate cancer. Studies on glioma, colon cancer cells, hepatocellular cancer cells and breast cancer cells have indicated that miR-21 is involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, the roles of miR-21 in prostate cancer are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of miR-21 on prostate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined. In addition, the targets of miR-21 were identified by a reported RISC-coimmunoprecipitation-based biochemical method. Inactivation of miR-21 by antisense oligonucleotides in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC-3 resulted in sensitivity to apoptosis and inhibition of cell motility and invasion, whereas cell proliferation were not affected. We identified myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase c substrate (MARCKS), which plays key roles in cell motility, as a new target in prostate cancer cells. Our data suggested that miR-21 could promote apoptosis resistance, motility, and invasion in prostate cancer cells and these effects of miR-21 may be partly due to its regulation of PDCD4, TPM1, and MARCKS. Gene therapy using miR-21 inhibition strategy may therefore be useful as a prostate cancer therapy.

  19. ADAM33 gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation as a molecular marker in breast invasive lobular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Emanuel M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADAM33 protein is a member of the family of transmembrane glycoproteins composed of multidomains. ADAM family members have different activities, such as proteolysis and adhesion, making them good candidates to mediate the extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in cellular adhesion that characterise certain pathologies and cancer development. It was reported that one family member, ADAM23, is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation. This seems to correlate with tumour progression and metastasis in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the involvement of ADAM33, another ADAM family member, in breast cancer. Methods First, we analysed ADAM33 expression in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadCR treatment and DNA bisulphite sequencing to study the promoter methylation of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines. We evaluated ADAM33 methylation in primary tumour samples by methylation specific PCR (MSP. Finally, ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation was correlated with clinicopathological data using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results The expression analysis of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR revealed gene silencing in 65% of tumour cell lines. The corresponding lack of ADAM33 protein was confirmed by western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCR demethylation and bisulphite sequencing methodologies to confirm that gene silencing is due to ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation. Using MSP, we detected ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation in 40% of primary breast tumour samples. The correlation between methylation pattern and patient's clinicopathological data was not significantly associated with histological grade; tumour stage (TNM; tumour size; ER, PR or ERBB2 status; lymph node status; metastasis or recurrence. Methylation frequency in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC was 76.2% compared with 25.5% in invasive ductal carcinoma

  20. ADAM33 gene silencing by promoter hypermethylation as a molecular marker in breast invasive lobular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seniski, Gerusa G; Zanata, Silvio M; Costa, Fabrício F; Klassen, Giseli; Camargo, Anamaria A; Ierardi, Daniela F; Ramos, Edneia AS; Grochoski, Mariana; Ribeiro, Enilze SF; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Souza, Emanuel M de

    2009-01-01

    ADAM33 protein is a member of the family of transmembrane glycoproteins composed of multidomains. ADAM family members have different activities, such as proteolysis and adhesion, making them good candidates to mediate the extracellular matrix remodelling and changes in cellular adhesion that characterise certain pathologies and cancer development. It was reported that one family member, ADAM23, is down-regulated by promoter hypermethylation. This seems to correlate with tumour progression and metastasis in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the involvement of ADAM33, another ADAM family member, in breast cancer. First, we analysed ADAM33 expression in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR and western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadCR) treatment and DNA bisulphite sequencing to study the promoter methylation of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines. We evaluated ADAM33 methylation in primary tumour samples by methylation specific PCR (MSP). Finally, ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation was correlated with clinicopathological data using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. The expression analysis of ADAM33 in breast tumour cell lines by RT-PCR revealed gene silencing in 65% of tumour cell lines. The corresponding lack of ADAM33 protein was confirmed by western blotting. We also used 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCR) demethylation and bisulphite sequencing methodologies to confirm that gene silencing is due to ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation. Using MSP, we detected ADAM33 promoter hypermethylation in 40% of primary breast tumour samples. The correlation between methylation pattern and patient's clinicopathological data was not significantly associated with histological grade; tumour stage (TNM); tumour size; ER, PR or ERBB2 status; lymph node status; metastasis or recurrence. Methylation frequency in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) was 76.2% compared with 25.5% in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and this difference was

  1. Exosome-mediated transfer of miR-10b promotes cell invasion in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Pochampally, Radhika; Watabe, Kounosuke; Lu, Zhaohui; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2014-11-26

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, mediating diverse biological functions including tumor cell invasion, cell-cell communication and antigen presentation through transfer of proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs. Recent evidence suggests that microRNAs can be released through ceramide-dependent secretory machinery regulated by neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) enzyme encoded by the smpd3 gene that triggers exosome secretion. However, whether exosome-mediated microRNA transfer plays any role in cell invasion remains poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the exosomal microRNAs involved in breast cancer invasion. The expression level of endogenous and exosomal miRNAs were examined by real time PCR and the expression level of target proteins were detected by western blot. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy were used to characterize exosomes and to study its uptake and transfer. Luciferase reporter plasmids and its mutant were used to confirm direct targeting. Furthermore, the functional significance of exosomal miR-10b was estimated by invasion assay. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA carrying exosomes can be transferred among different cell lines through direct uptake. miR-10b is highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells as compared to non-metastatic breast cancer cells or non-malignant breast cells; it is actively secreted into medium via exosomes. In particular, nSMase2 or ceramide promotes the exosome-mediated miR-10b secretion whereas ceramide inhibitor suppresses this secretion. Moreover, upon uptake, miR-10b can suppress the protein level of its target genes such as HOXD10 and KLF4, indicating its functional significance. Finally, treatment with exosomes derived from MDA-MB-231 cells could induce the invasion ability of non-malignant HMLE cells. Together, our results suggest that a set of specific microRNAs may play an important role in modulating tumor microenvironment through

  2. Nonsense and missense mutation of mitochondrial ND6 gene promotes cell migration and invasion in human lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yang; Wang, Weixing; Li, Huizhong; Yu, Yongwei; Tao, Jin; Huang, Shengdong; Zeng, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Previous study showed that mitochondrial ND6 (mitND6) gene missense mutation resulted in NADH dehydrogenase deficiency and was associated with tumor metastasis in several mouse tumor cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutations in the metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma. The presence of mitND6 gene mutations was screened by DNA sequencing of tumor tissues from 87 primary lung adenocarcinoma patients and the correlation of the mutations with the clinical features was analyzed. In addition, we constructed cytoplasmic hybrid cells with denucleared primary lung adenocarcinoma cell as the mitochondria donor and mitochondria depleted lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell as the nuclear donor. Using these cells, we studied the effects of mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutations on cell migration and invasion through wounding healing and matrigel-coated transwell assay. The effects of mitND6 gene mutations on NADH dehydrogenase activity and ROS production were analyzed by spectrophotometry and flow cytometry. mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutations were detected in 11 of 87 lung adenocarcinoma specimens and was correlated with the clinical features including age, pathological grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and survival rate. Moreover, A549 cell containing mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutation exhibited significantly lower activity of NADH dehydrogenase, higher level of ROS, higher capacity of cell migration and invasion, and higher pAKT and pERK1/ERK2 expression level than cells with the wild type mitND6 gene. In addition, NADH dehydrogenase inhibitor rotenone was found to significantly promote the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Our data suggest that mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutation might promote cell migration and invasion in lung adenocarcinoma, probably by NADH dehydrogenase deficiency induced over-production of ROS

  3. miR-92a is upregulated in cervical cancer and promotes cell proliferation and invasion by targeting FBXW7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chuanyi; Shen, Liangfang; Mao, Lei; Wang, Bing; Li, Yang; Yu, Huizhi

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the cervical carcinogenesis and progression. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-92a in progression and invasion of cervical cancer. MiR-92a was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-92a led to remarkably enhanced proliferation by promoting cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase and significantly enhanced invasion of cervical cancer cells, while its knockdown significantly reversed these cellular events. Bioinformatics analysis suggested F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) as a novel target of miR-92a, and miR-92a suppressed the expression level of FBXW7 mRNA by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Expression of miR-92a was negatively correlated with FBXW7 in cervical cancer tissues. Furthermore, Silencing of FBXW7 counteracted the effects of miR-92a suppression, while its overexpression reversed oncogenic effects of miR-92a. Together, these findings indicate that miR-92a acts as an onco-miRNA and may contribute to the progression and invasion of cervical cancer, suggesting miR-92a as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of cervical cancer. - Highlights: • miR-92a is elevated in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-92a promotes cervical cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase and invasion. • FBXW7 is a direct target of miR-92a. • FBXW7 counteracts the oncogenic effects of miR-92a on cervical cancer cells

  4. Light-promoted rhodopsin expression and starvation survival in the marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Guo

    Full Text Available The discovery of microbial rhodopsins in marine proteobacteria changed the dogma that photosynthesis is the only pathway to use the solar energy for biological utilization in the marine environment. Although homologs of these rhodopsins have been identified in dinoflagellates, the diversity of the encoding genes and their physiological roles remain unexplored. As an initial step toward addressing the gap, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome sequencing on Oxyrrhis marina to retrieve rhodopsin transcripts, rapid amplification of cDNA ends to isolate full-length cDNAs of dominant representatives, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR to investigate their expression under varying conditions. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that O. marina contained both the proton-pumping type (PR and sensory type (SR rhodopsins, and the transcriptome data showed that the PR type dominated over the SR type. We compared rhodopsin gene expression for cultures kept under light: dark cycle and continuous darkness in a time course of 24 days without feeding. Although both types of rhodopsin were expressed under the two conditions, the expression levels of PR were much higher than SR, consistent with the transcriptomic data. Furthermore, relative to cultures kept in the dark, rhodopsin expression levels and cell survival rate were both higher in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of light-dependent promotion of starvation survival and concomitant promotion of PR expression in a eukaryote. While direct evidence needs to come from functional test on rhodopsins in vitro or gene knockout/knockdown experiments, our results suggest that the proton-pumping rhodopsin might be responsible for the light-enhanced survival of O. marina, as previously demonstrated in bacteria.

  5. NF-{kappa}B p50 promotes tumor cell invasion through negative regulation of invasion suppressor gene CRMP-1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Gao [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, P Y [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Lu, Y -S [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, W C [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, M -L [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, A -L [Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University, Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alcheng@ntu.edu.tw

    2008-11-14

    Lung adenocarcinoma Cl1-5 cells were selected from parental Cl1-0 cells based on their high metastatic potential. In a previous study, CRMP-1, an invasion suppressor gene, was shown to be suppressed in Cl1-5 cells. However, the regulation of CRMP-1 expression has not been explored. In this study, we showed nuclear factor-{kappa}B controls CRMP-1 expression. The electromobility shift assay showed that while Cl1-0 cells exhibited low NF-{kappa}B activity in response to TNF-{alpha}, an abundance of basal and TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-DNA complex was detected in Cl1-5 cells. Supershift-coupled EMSA and Western blotting of nuclear proteins, however, revealed p50 protein, but not classic p65/p50 heterodimer in the complex. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated that p50 binds to a {kappa}B site residing between -1753 and -1743 of the CRMP-1 promoter region. Transfection of antisense p50 gene into Cl1-5 cells increased the CRMP-1 protein level and decreased the invasive activity of Cl1-5 cells.

  6. NF-κB p50 promotes tumor cell invasion through negative regulation of invasion suppressor gene CRMP-1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ming; Yeh, P.Y.; Lu, Y.-S.; Chang, W.C.; Kuo, M.-L.; Cheng, A.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma Cl1-5 cells were selected from parental Cl1-0 cells based on their high metastatic potential. In a previous study, CRMP-1, an invasion suppressor gene, was shown to be suppressed in Cl1-5 cells. However, the regulation of CRMP-1 expression has not been explored. In this study, we showed nuclear factor-κB controls CRMP-1 expression. The electromobility shift assay showed that while Cl1-0 cells exhibited low NF-κB activity in response to TNF-α, an abundance of basal and TNF-α-induced NF-κB-DNA complex was detected in Cl1-5 cells. Supershift-coupled EMSA and Western blotting of nuclear proteins, however, revealed p50 protein, but not classic p65/p50 heterodimer in the complex. ChIP and EMSA demonstrated that p50 binds to a κB site residing between -1753 and -1743 of the CRMP-1 promoter region. Transfection of antisense p50 gene into Cl1-5 cells increased the CRMP-1 protein level and decreased the invasive activity of Cl1-5 cells

  7. Marine Invasive Species Management: Adapting in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and increased human disturbance of ecosystems in the Arctic is bringing urgency to concern over non-native species introductions and their potential threats to the marine environment and its economic productivity, where before environmental conditions served...

  8. Invasive lionfish use a diversity of habitats in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Akins, Lad; Gregoire-Lucente, Denise R.; Pawlitz, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    Two species of lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) are the first marine fishes known to invade and establish self-sustaining populations along the eastern seaboard of the United States. First documented off the coast of Florida in 1985, lionfish are now found along the Atlantic coast of the United States as well as in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Although long-term effects of this invasion are not yet fully known, there is early evidence that lionfish are negatively impacting native marine life.The lionfish invasion raises questions about which types of habitat the species will occupy in its newly invaded ecosystem. In their native range, lionfish are found primarily on coral reefs but sometimes are found in other habitats such as seagrasses and mangroves. This fact sheet documents the diversity of habitat types in which invasive lionfish have been reported within Florida’s coastal waters, based on lionfish sightings recorded in the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database (USGS-NAS).

  9. Functional role of bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis in promotion of host growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M. A.; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, M.; Torres, M. S.; White, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  10. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  11. Marine invasions by non-sea snakes, with thoughts on terrestrial-aquatic-marine transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C

    2012-08-01

    Few species of snakes show extensive adaptations to aquatic environments and even fewer exploit the oceans. A survey of morphology, lifestyles, and habitats of 2552 alethenophidian snakes revealed 362 (14%) that use aquatic environments, are semi-aquatic, or aquatic; about 70 (2.7%) of these are sea snakes (Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae). The ancient and aquatic family Acrochordidae contains three extant species, all of which have populations inhabiting brackish or marine environments, as well as freshwater. The Homalopsidae have the most ecologically diverse representatives in coastal habitats. Other families containing species exploiting saline waters with populations in freshwater environments include: the Dipsadidae of the western hemisphere, the cosmopolitan Natricidae, the African Grayinae, and probably a few Colubridae. Species with aquatic and semi-aquatic lifestyles are compared with more terrestrial (fossorial, cryptozoic, and arboreal) species for morphological traits and life histories that are convergent with those found in sea snakes; this may provide clues to the evolution of marine snakes and increase our understanding of snake diversity.

  12. Invasive Lionfish Drive Atlantic Coral Reef Fish Declines

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Stephanie; Akins, John; Maljković, Aleksandra; Cote, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Isl...

  13. Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by activating MEK/ERK/MMP-2 signaling pathways via S1P/S1PR1 axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Qinghua; Pan, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    Successful placentation depends on the proper invasion of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells into maternal tissues. Previous reports demonstrated that S1P receptors are expressed in the EVT cells and S1P could regulate migration and function of trophoblast cells via S1P receptors. However, little is known about roles of S1P in the invasion of EVT cells. Our study was performed to investigate S1P effect on the invasion of EVT cells. We used the extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo cells to evaluate the effect. In vitro invasion assay was employed to determine the invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells induced by S1P. MMP-2 enzyme activity and relative level in the supernatants of HTR8/SVneo was assessed by gelatin zymography and western blot. Based on the above, siRNA and specific inhibitors were used for the intervention and study of potential signal pathways, and Real-time qPCR and western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein level of potential signal targets. We found that S1P could promote HTR8/SVneo cell invasion and upregulates activity and level of MMP-2. The promotion requires activation of MEK-ERK and is dependent on the axis of S1P/S1PR1. Our investigation of S1P may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of EVT invasion.

  14. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  15. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb. Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  16. Gastrin regulates ABCG2 to promote the migration, invasion and side populations in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of NF-κB signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan; Xin, Beibei; Wang, Hui; He, Xiaodan [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Huanhu West Road, Tianjin 300060 (China); Shen, Xiaohong, E-mail: zebal2014@163.com [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Gastrin is absent in most normal adult pancreatic tissues but is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Although Gastrin expression was reported to be associated with tumor proliferation in human pancreatic cancer, studies on the relationship between Gastrin and tumor metastasis in pancreatic cancer are rare. In this study, we performed an analysis to determine the effects of Gastrin on modulating the side populations, cell proportion and tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. We indicated that Gastrin and ABCG2 were widely expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines and overexpressed in cancer tissues. Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression, and this effect was mediated by NF-κB activation. Gastrin regulated the SP proportion of BxPC-3 cells via modulating ABCG2 expression. Through the regulation of the functions of NF-κB/ABCG2, Gastrin functionally promoted the migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cell. The present study indicated that Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression by activating NF-κB and thereby modulated the SP proportion, tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity in pancreatic cancer. Gastrin could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the metastasis of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Gastrin induces ABCG2 expression mediated by NF-κB activation. • Gastrin regulates NF-κB's function that binds to the ABCG2 promoter in BxPC-3 cells. • Gastrin promotes the SP proportion in BxPC-3 cells by modulating ABCG2 expression via activation of NF-κB molecule. • Gastrin induces an increase in migration and invasion potential in pancreatic cancer cell by regulating NF-κB/ABCG2 signaling.

  17. Marine Research Infrastructure collaboration in the COOPLUS project framework - Promoting synergies for marine ecosystems studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranzoli, L.; Best, M.; Embriaco, D.; Favali, P.; Juniper, K.; Lo Bue, N.; Lara-Lopez, A.; Materia, P.; Ó Conchubhair, D.; O'Rourke, E.; Proctor, R.; Weller, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding effects on marine ecosystems of multiple drivers at various scales; from regional such as climate and ocean circulation, to local, such as seafloor gas emissions and harmful underwater noise, requires long time-series of integrated and standardised datasets. Large-scale research infrastructures for ocean observation are able to provide such time-series for a variety of ocean process physical parameters (mass and energy exchanges among surface, water column and benthic boundary layer) that constitute important and necessary measures of environmental conditions and change/development over time. Information deduced from these data is essential for the study, modelling and prediction of marine ecosystems changes and can reveal and potentially confirm deterioration and threats. The COOPLUS European Commission project brings together research infrastructures with the aim of coordinating multilateral cooperation among RIs and identifying common priorities, actions, instruments, resources. COOPLUS will produce a Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) which will be a shared roadmap for mid to long-term collaboration. In particular, marine RIs collaborating in COOPLUS, namely the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory: EMSO (Europe), the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI, USA), Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS, Australia), can represent a source of important data for researchers of marine ecosystems. The RIs can then, in turn, receive suggestions from researchers for implementing new measurements and stimulating cross-cutting collaborations and data integration and standardisation from their user community. This poster provides a description of EMSO, OOI, ONC and IMOS for the benefit of marine ecosystem studies and presents examples of where the analyses of time-series have revealed noteworthy environmental conditions, temporal trends and events.

  18. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  19. A locomotor innovation enables water-land transition in a marine fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Tong Tonia Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological innovations that significantly enhance performance capacity may enable exploitation of new resources and invasion of new ecological niches. The invasion of land from the aquatic realm requires dramatic structural and physiological modifications to permit survival in a gravity-dominated, aerial environment. Most fishes are obligatorily aquatic, with amphibious fishes typically making slow-moving and short forays on to land. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I describe the behaviors and movements of a little known marine fish that moves extraordinarily rapidly on land. I found that the Pacific leaping blenny, Alticus arnoldorum, employs a tail-twisting movement on land, previously unreported in fishes. Focal point behavioral observations of Alticus show that they have largely abandoned the marine realm, feed and reproduce on land, and even defend terrestrial territories. Comparisons of these blennies' terrestrial kinematic and kinetic (i.e., force measurements with those of less terrestrial sister genera show A. arnoldorum move with greater stability and locomotor control, and can move away more rapidly from impending threats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: My results demonstrate that axial tail twisting serves as a key innovation enabling invasion of a novel marine niche. This paper highlights the potential of using this system to address general evolutionary questions about water-land transitions and niche invasions.

  20. Removal of malachite green by using an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekci, Zehra; Seki, Yoldas; Cavas, Levent

    2009-01-01

    The biosorption of a cationic dye, malachite green oxalate (MG) from aqueous solution onto an invasive marine alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (CRC) was investigated at different temperatures (298, 308 and 318 K). The dye adsorption onto CRC was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. All of the isotherm parameters were calculated. The Freundlich model gave a better conformity than Langmuir equation. The mean free energy values (E) from DR isotherm were also estimated. In order to clarify the sorption kinetic, the fit of pseudo-first-order kinetic model, second-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model were investigated. It was obtained that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. From thermodynamic studies the free energy changes were found to be -7.078, -9.848 and -10.864 kJ mol -1 for 298, 308 and 318 K, respectively. This implied the spontaneous nature of biosorption and the type of adsorption as physisorption. Activation energy value for MG sorption (E a ) was found to be 37.14 kJ mol -1 . It could be also derived that this result supported physisorption as a type of adsorption

  1. Mena invasive (MenaINV) promotes multicellular streaming motility and transendothelial migration in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Balsamo, Michele; Alford, Shannon K; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Wang, Yarong; Pozzuto, Maria; Stobezki, Robert; Goswami, Sumanta; Segall, Jeffrey E; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Bresnick, Anne R; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2011-07-01

    We have shown previously that distinct Mena isoforms are expressed in invasive and migratory tumor cells in vivo and that the invasion isoform (Mena(INV)) potentiates carcinoma cell metastasis in murine models of breast cancer. However, the specific step of metastatic progression affected by this isoform and the effects on metastasis of the Mena11a isoform, expressed in primary tumor cells, are largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that elevated Mena(INV) increases coordinated streaming motility, and enhances transendothelial migration and intravasation of tumor cells. We demonstrate that promotion of these early stages of metastasis by Mena(INV) is dependent on a macrophage-tumor cell paracrine loop. Our studies also show that increased Mena11a expression correlates with decreased expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 and a dramatically decreased ability to participate in paracrine-mediated invasion and intravasation. Our results illustrate the importance of paracrine-mediated cell streaming and intravasation on tumor cell dissemination, and demonstrate that the relative abundance of Mena(INV) and Mena11a helps to regulate these key stages of metastatic progression in breast cancer cells.

  2. Syndecan-2 promotes perineural invasion and cooperates with K-ras to induce an invasive pancreatic cancer cell phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Oliveira Tiago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have identified syndecan-2 as a protein potentially involved in perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells. Methods Syndecan-2 (SDC-2 expression was analyzed in human normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC tissues. Functional in vitro assays were carried out to determine its role in invasion, migration and signaling. Results SDC-2 was expressed in the majority of the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines while it was upregulated in nerve-invasive PDAC cell clones. There were 2 distinct expression patterns of SDC-2 in PDAC tissue samples: SDC-2 positivity in the cancer cell cytoplasm and a peritumoral expression. Though SDC-2 silencing (using specific siRNA oligonucleotides did not affect anchorage-dependent growth, it significantly reduced cell motility and invasiveness in the pancreatic cancer cell lines T3M4 and Su8686. On the transcriptional level, migration-and invasion-associated genes were down-regulated following SDC-2 RNAi. Furthermore, SDC-2 silencing reduced K-ras activity, phosphorylation of Src and - further downstream - phosphorylation of ERK2 while levels of the putative SDC-2 signal transducer p120GAP remained unaltered. Conclusion SDC-2 is a novel (perineural invasion-associated gene in PDAC which cooperates with K-ras to induce a more invasive phenotype.

  3. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eira C. Carballo-Cárdenas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the lionfish (Pterois sp. invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean has been socially constructed by natural scientists, the media, and stakeholders associated with various marine protected areas in the Caribbean. By examining the use of data and metaphors by these actors, I identify where invasion discourses converge and diverge. Although consensus exists regarding the non-nativeness, introduction vector, and successful establishment of lionfish throughout the region, I also identify uncertainty surrounding lionfish impact and controversies regarding lionfish management and control. The dominant discourse frames lionfish as a threat and control efforts as a war to keep the enemy at bay, and promotes lionfish hunting and consumption by humans: the "ultimate predators." However, this view is challenged by a coalition that questions the safety, effectiveness, and morality of the practices promoted by the kill-and-eat lionfish coalition. A nascent discourse that frames lionfish as fulfilling the role of overexploited native species, primarily expressed in socioeconomic terms, is shifting lionfish impact perception from negative to positive among some stakeholder groups. Whereas the dominant discourse views humans as helping nature to regain balance through lionfish hunting, a minority coalition views lionfish as part of the ecosystem, where a new equilibrium will be reached. This study shows that scientific data and metaphors, amplified by the media, facilitated initial understanding of the lionfish phenomenon and are used to legitimize claims. In time, however, local knowledge and societal values have intermingled with scientific data, sometimes challenging scientific discourses, and contributing to a richer understanding of the invasion as a social-ecological phenomenon.

  4. Reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and caveolin 1 promotes invasive phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Peyda; Erdal, Esra; Kandemiş, Emine; Cokaklı, Murat; Nart, Deniz; Yılmaz, Funda; Can, Alp; Atabey, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    c-Met, the receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), overexpressed and deregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Caveolin 1 (CAV1), a plasma membrane protein that modulates signal transduction molecules, is also overexpressed in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate biological and clinical significance of co-expression and activation of c-Met and CAV1 in HCC. We showed that c-Met and CAV1 were co-localized in HCC cells and HGF treatment increased this association. HGF-triggered c-Met activation caused a concurrent rise in both phosphorylation and expression of CAV1. Ectopic expression of CAV1 accelerated c-Met signaling, resulted in enhanced migration, invasion, and branching-morphogenesis. Silencing of CAV1 downregulated c-Met signaling, and decreased migratory/invasive capability of cells and attenuated branching morphogenesis. In addition, activation and co-localization of c-Met and CAV1 were elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and CAV1 promoted oncogenic signaling of c-Met contributed to the initiation and progression of HCC.

  5. Reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and caveolin 1 promotes invasive phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyda Korhan

    Full Text Available c-Met, the receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, overexpressed and deregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. Caveolin 1 (CAV1, a plasma membrane protein that modulates signal transduction molecules, is also overexpressed in HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate biological and clinical significance of co-expression and activation of c-Met and CAV1 in HCC. We showed that c-Met and CAV1 were co-localized in HCC cells and HGF treatment increased this association. HGF-triggered c-Met activation caused a concurrent rise in both phosphorylation and expression of CAV1. Ectopic expression of CAV1 accelerated c-Met signaling, resulted in enhanced migration, invasion, and branching-morphogenesis. Silencing of CAV1 downregulated c-Met signaling, and decreased migratory/invasive capability of cells and attenuated branching morphogenesis. In addition, activation and co-localization of c-Met and CAV1 were elevated during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion reciprocal activating crosstalk between c-Met and CAV1 promoted oncogenic signaling of c-Met contributed to the initiation and progression of HCC.

  6. Patterns and drivers of marine bioinvasions in eight Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, fouling is the dominant vector of marine invasions, being responsible for 48% of the 86 alien introductions that are known. This study aimed to document alien species in fouling assemblages in eight Western Cape harbours and to assess patterns and potential drivers of these invasions. In each harbour, 10 ...

  7. β-Catenin promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion but induces apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chun-ming Yang,1 Shan Ji,2 Yan Li,3 Li-ye Fu,3 Tao Jiang,3 Fan-dong Meng31Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, 2Department of Endocrinology, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shenyang, 3Department of Biotherapy, Cancer Research Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, ChinaAbstract: β-Catenin (CTNNB1 gene coding protein is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway that has been shown to play an important role in the formation of certain cancers. Abnormal accumulation of CTNNB1 contributes to most cancers. This research studied the involvement of β-catenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were analyzed by using Cell Counting Kit-8 and by flow cytometry. Migration and invasion assays were measured by transwell analysis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of CTNNB1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCR4, and CCL18 in RCC cell lines. It was found that CTNNB1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis of A-498 cells. CTNNB1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibited apoptosis of 786-O cells. Moreover, knockdown of CTNNB1 decreased the levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCR4, and CCL18 expression, but CTNNB1 overexpression increased the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCR4, and CCL18. Further in vivo tumor formation study in nude mice indicated that inhibition of CTNNB1 delayed the progress of tumor formation through inhibiting PCNA and Ki67 expression. These results indicate that CTNNB1 could act as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for RCC.Keywords: kidney cancer, oncogene, β-catenin, survival time, tumor migration-related protein

  8. Exosomes Promote Ovarian Cancer Cell Invasion through Transfer of CD44 to Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Toda, Aska; Nakatsuka, Erika; Hashimoto, Kae; Mabuchi, Seiji; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Lengyel, Ernst; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells metastasize within the peritoneal cavity and directly encounter human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) as the initial step of metastasis. The contact between ovarian cancer cells and the single layer of mesothelial cells involves direct communications that modulate cancer progression but the mechanisms are unclear. One candidate mediating cell-cell communications is exosomes, 30-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin, through the cell-cell transfer of proteins, mRNAs, or microRNAs. Therefore, the goal was to mechanistically characterize how EOC-derived exosomes modulate metastasis. Exosomes from ovarian cancer cells were fluorescently labeled and cocultured with HPMCs which internalized the exosomes. Upon exosome uptake, HPMCs underwent a change in cellular morphology to a mesenchymal, spindle phenotype. CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, was found to be enriched in the cancer cell-derived exosomes, transferred, and internalized to HPMCs, leading to high levels of CD44 in HPMCs. This increased CD44 expression in HPMCs promoted cancer invasion by inducing the HPMCs to secrete MMP9 and by cleaning the mesothelial barrier for improved cancer cell invasion. When CD44 expression was knocked down in cancer cells, exosomes had fewer effects on HPMCs. The inhibition of exosome release from cancer cells blocked CD44 internalization in HPMCs and suppressed ovarian cancer invasion. In ovarian cancer omental metastasis, positive CD44 expression was observed in those mesothelial cells that directly interacted with cancer cells, whereas CD44 expression was negative in the mesothelial cells remote from the invading edge. This study indicates that ovarian cancer-derived exosomes transfer CD44 to HPMCs, facilitating cancer invasion. Mechanistic insight from the current study suggests that therapeutic targeting of exosomes may be beneficial in treating ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(1); 78-92. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American

  9. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cumeras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs. Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap. The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  10. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: a case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H K; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-09-12

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  11. Invasion of parasitic isopods in marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a detailed three-year observation study on isopod parasites infestation in fish. Methods: Fish samples were collected from different localities in various landing centers along the Tamil Nadu coastal area. The prevalence and mean intensity were calculated. The proximate composition of infestation and uninfestation were studied in different marine fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected regions of fishes were analysed. Results: Tweenty six species including 12 genera of isopods (Cymothoidae distributed in 39 species of marine fishes along the Tamil Nadu coast. The isopod parasites were attached in three different microhabitats in host fishes viz. , buccal, branchial and body surfaces. They exhibited host and site specific occurrence. Maximum prevalence 17.11% was recorded in March 2010 and minimum 0.27% in Febuary 2010. The intensity ranged from 1 to 1.7 parasites per fish during the different months from Decmber 2008 to November 2011. There was a decrease in the protein, carbohydrate and lipid content in the infested fishes compared to uninfected fishes. A comparative analysis of bacteria and fungi in the infected and uninfected region of fishes were analysed. It revealed that infected portions had dense bacterial load as observed in the lesions of infected fishes than uninfected fishes. Conclusion: Factors which are able to induce parasitic manifestation are stock quality, stocking density, environmental conditions, biological and physiological characteristics of parasite, zoo technical measures, food quantity, feeding strategies, etc.

  12. Fisetin inhibits human melanoma cell invasion through promotion of mesenchymal to epithelial transition and by targeting MAPK and NFκB signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Chandra Pal

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is responsible for approximately 75% of skin cancer-related deaths. BRAF plays an important role in regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascade in melanoma with activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF occurring in 60-70% of malignant melanomas. The BRAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK pathway is a key regulator of melanoma cell invasion. In addition, activation of NFκB via the MAPK pathway is regulated through MEK-induced activation of IKK. These pathways are potential targets for prevention and treatment of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin, a phytochemical present in fruits and vegetables, on melanoma cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and delineated the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of multiple human malignant melanoma cell lines with fisetin (5-20 µM resulted in inhibition of cell invasion. BRAF mutated melanoma cells were more sensitive to fisetin treatment, and this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin inhibited the activation of IKK leading to a reduction in the activation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of MEK1/2 (PD98059 or of NFκB (caffeic acid phenethyl ester also reduced melanoma cell invasion. Furthermore, treatment of fisetin promoted mesenchymal to epithelial transition in melanoma cells, which was associated with a decrease in mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and fibronectin and an increase in epithelial markers (E-cadherin and desmoglein. Employing three dimensional skin equivalents consisting of A375 cells admixed with normal human keratinocytes embedded onto a collagen-constricted fibroblast matrix, we found that treatment of fisetin reduced the invasive potential of melanoma cells into the dermis and increased the expression of E-cadherin with a concomitant decrease in vimentin. These results indicate that

  13. Fisetin Inhibits Human Melanoma Cell Invasion through Promotion of Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition and by Targeting MAPK and NFκB Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Sharma, Samriti; Strickland, Leah Ray; Katiyar, Santosh K.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is responsible for approximately 75% of skin cancer-related deaths. BRAF plays an important role in regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade in melanoma with activating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase BRAF occurring in 60–70% of malignant melanomas. The BRAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is a key regulator of melanoma cell invasion. In addition, activation of NFκB via the MAPK pathway is regulated through MEK-induced activation of IKK. These pathways are potential targets for prevention and treatment of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin, a phytochemical present in fruits and vegetables, on melanoma cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and delineated the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of multiple human malignant melanoma cell lines with fisetin (5–20 µM) resulted in inhibition of cell invasion. BRAF mutated melanoma cells were more sensitive to fisetin treatment, and this was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. In addition, fisetin inhibited the activation of IKK leading to a reduction in the activation of the NFκB signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with an inhibitor of MEK1/2 (PD98059) or of NFκB (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) also reduced melanoma cell invasion. Furthermore, treatment of fisetin promoted mesenchymal to epithelial transition in melanoma cells, which was associated with a decrease in mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and fibronectin) and an increase in epithelial markers (E-cadherin and desmoglein). Employing three dimensional skin equivalents consisting of A375 cells admixed with normal human keratinocytes embedded onto a collagen-constricted fibroblast matrix, we found that treatment of fisetin reduced the invasive potential of melanoma cells into the dermis and increased the expression of E-cadherin with a concomitant decrease in vimentin. These results indicate that fisetin

  14. Soil seed banks in plant invasions: promoting species invasiveness and long-term impakt on plant community dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gioria, M.; Pyšek, Petr; Moravcová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2012), s. 327-350 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : soil seed bank * plant invasions * species invasive ness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  15. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive..., related marine resources and species, and conservation efforts. Traditional access to the Monument by... activities do not degrade the Monument's coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or...

  16. Divergence and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Keystone Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fietz, Katharina

    A multitude of anthropogenic actions ranging from overexploitation, pollution, and eutrophication to the introduction of invasive species impact the marine environment today (Jansson & Dahlberg 1999; Islam & Tanaka 2004; Pauly et al. 2005; Molnar et al. 2008). In combination with rapid environmen......A multitude of anthropogenic actions ranging from overexploitation, pollution, and eutrophication to the introduction of invasive species impact the marine environment today (Jansson & Dahlberg 1999; Islam & Tanaka 2004; Pauly et al. 2005; Molnar et al. 2008). In combination with rapid...... and effective conservation actions. In this thesis, I took a population genetic approach to shed light on the above features of three different keystone organisms in the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea ecosystems. In Chapter 2, my colleagues and I combined modern and historic nuclear and mitochondrial genetic...

  17. Kempopeptin C, a Novel Marine-Derived Serine Protease Inhibitor Targeting Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma H. Al-Awadhi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kempopeptin C, a novel chlorinated analogue of kempopeptin B, was discovered from a marine cyanobacterium collected from Kemp Channel in Florida. The structure was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS. The presence of the basic Lys residue adjacent to the N-terminus of the 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp moiety contributed to its selectivity towards trypsin and related proteases. The antiproteolytic activity of kempopeptin C was evaluated against trypsin, plasmin and matriptase and found to inhibit these enzymes with IC50 values of 0.19, 0.36 and 0.28 μM, respectively. Due to the significance of these proteases in cancer progression and metastasis, as well as their functional redundancy with respect to targeting overlapping substrates, we examined the effect of kempopeptin C on the downstream cellular substrates of matriptase: CDCP1 and desmoglein-2 (Dsg-2. Kempopeptin C was shown to inhibit the cleavage of both substrates in vitro. Additionally, kempopeptin C reduced the cleavage of CDCP1 in MDA-MB-231 cells up to 10 µM. The functional relevance of targeting matriptase and related proteases was investigated by assessing the effect of kempopeptin C on the migration of breast cancer cells. Kempopeptin C inhibited the migration of the invasive MDA-MB-231 cells by 37 and 60% at 10 and 20 µM, respectively.

  18. Pepducin Based Intervention of Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Metalloprotease-1 Receptor that Promotes Invasion and Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer Cells. Cell 120, 303-313. (6) Arribas , J. (2005) Matrix Metalloproteases...promotes invasion and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Cell 2005;120:303–13. 6. Arribas J. Matrix metalloproteases and tumor inva- sion. N Engl J Med...to ala - provide a model for more aggressive, tamoxifen-insen- nine. The F43A PAR1 mutant does not transduce a sig- sitive, breast cancers. MDA-MB-231

  19. TGF-β2 initiates autophagy via Smad and non-Smad pathway to promote glioma cells’ invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2017-11-01

    -Smad pathway to promote glioma cells’ invasion.

  20. Tetraspanin 1 promotes invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölters, Sebastian; Anacker, Jelena; Jansen, Lars; Beer-Grondke, Katrin; Dürst, Matthias; Rubio, Ignacio

    2013-08-01

    Tetraspanins are a heterogeneous group of 4-transmembrane proteins that segregate into so-called tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) along with other cell surface proteins such as integrins. TEMs of various types are reportedly involved in the regulation of cell growth, migration and invasion of several tumour cell types, both as suppressors or supporting structures. Tetraspanin 1 (Tspan1, NET-1), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) of tetraspanins, is overexpressed in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and terminal carcinomas but its precise function in the context of carcinoma of the cervix uteri is not known. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the role of tetraspanin 1 in the cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and HeLa. We document that tetraspanin 1 increases the invasive potential of cervical cancer cells, whereas proliferation, growth in soft agar and adhesion are largely unaffected. In line with the latter findings, our data exclude the participation of testraspanin in integrin-mediated activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and in EGFR-dependent signalling to the Ras/Erk pathway. In conclusion, our data argue against a role for tetraspanin 1 as a genuine mediator of cell surface receptor signalling but rather document a role for tetraspanin 1 in the control of cervical cancer cell motility and invasion.

  1. Where the waters meet: sharing ideas and experiences between inland and marine realms to promote sustainable fisheries management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Bartley, Devin M.; Beard, T. Douglas; Cowx, Ian G.; Essington, Timothy E.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Watson, Reg

    2014-01-01

    Although inland and marine environments, their fisheries, fishery managers, and the realm-specific management approaches are often different, there are a surprising number of similarities that frequently go unrecognized. We contend that there is much to be gained by greater cross-fertilization and exchange of ideas and strategies between realms and the people who manage them. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of the potential or demonstrated benefits of working across aquatic boundaries for enhanced sustainable management of the world’s fisheries resources. Examples include the need to (1) engage in habitat management and protection as the foundation for fisheries, (2) rethink institutional arrangements and management for open-access fisheries systems, (3) establish “reference points” and harvest control rules, (4) engage in integrated management approaches, (5) reap conservation benefits from the link to fish as food, and (6) reframe conservation and management of fish to better engage the public and industry. Cross-fertilization and knowledge transfer between realms could be realized using environment-independent curricula and symposia, joint scientific advisory councils for management, integrated development projects, and cross-realm policy dialogue. Given the interdependence of marine and inland fisheries, promoting discussion between the realms has the potential to promote meaningful advances in managing global fisheries.

  2. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  3. Elevated chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) promotes cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fengqiong; Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Zifeng; Yao, Hong; Shen, Zan; Yu, Fang; Tang, Yiping; Fu, Dengli; Lin, Sheng; Lu, Gang; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Poon, Wai Sang; Huang, Yunchao; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi

    2012-12-14

    Chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor which plays a key role in lung dendritic cell trafficking to peripheral lymph nodes. The function and expression of CCRL2 in cancer is not understood at present. Here we report that CCRL2 expression level is elevated in human glioma patient samples and cell lines. The magnitude of increase is positively associated with increasing tumor grade, with the highest level observed in grade IV glioblastoma. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we further showed that CCRL2 did not regulate the growth of human glioblatoma U87 and U373 cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that over-expression of CCRL2 significantly enhanced the migration rate and invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that elevated CCRL2 in glioma promotes cell migration and invasion. The potential roles of CCRL2 as a novel therapeutic target and biomarker warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal modelling of ballast water discharge and ship-mediated invasion risk to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert C; Prowse, Thomas A A; Ross, Joshua V; Wittmann, Talia A; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Biological invasions have the potential to cause extensive ecological and economic damage. Maritime trade facilitates biological invasions by transferring species in ballast water, and on ships' hulls. With volumes of maritime trade increasing globally, efforts to prevent these biological invasions are of significant importance. Both the International Maritime Organization and the Australian government have developed policy seeking to reduce the risk of these invasions. In this study, we constructed models for the transfer of ballast water into Australian waters, based on historic ballast survey data. We used these models to hindcast ballast water discharge over all vessels that arrived in Australian waters between 1999 and 2012. We used models for propagule survival to compare the risk of ballast-mediated propagule transport between ecoregions. We found that total annual ballast discharge volume into Australia more than doubled over the study period, with the vast majority of ballast water discharge and propagule pressure associated with bulk carrier traffic. As such, the ecoregions suffering the greatest risk are those associated with the export of mining commodities. As global marine trade continues to increase, effective monitoring and biosecurity policy will remain necessary to combat the risk of future marine invasion events.

  5. RAF 7015: Strengthening Regional Capacities for Marine Risk Assessment Using Nuclear and Related Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, E.; Mwangi, S.

    2017-01-01

    To develop and implement harmonized and integrated regional sea food safety monitoring in the MS through the application of nuclear techniques for enhanced sustainability of marine resource. Rapid urbanization and industrialization are causing alterations of the characteristics of marine environment thus threatening the ecosystem health and sustainability of marine environment and Affects public health, recreational water quality and economic viability.Threats to marine ecosystem include Over-exploitation, habitat destruction, Global warming- rise in SST, HABs and invasive species, Ocean acidification and Marine pollution

  6. miR-367 regulation of DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Jiang, Haitao; Yu, Yifan; Xu, Yong; Zuo, Wenshan; Wang, Shouguo; Su, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Recently, miR-367 is reported to exert either oncogenic or tumor suppressive effects in human malignancies. Recent study reports that miR-367 is up-regulated in OS tissues and cell lines, and abrogates adriamycin-induced apoptosis. The clinical significance of miR-367 and its function in OS need further investigation. In our study, miR-367 expression in OS was markedly elevated compared with corresponding non-tumor tissues. High miR-367 expression was associated with malignant clinical features and poor prognosis of OS patients. In accordance, the levels of miR-367 were dramatically up-regulated in OS cells. Loss of miR-367 expression in Saos-2 cells obviously inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. Meanwhile, miR-367 restoration promoted these malignant behaviors of MG-63 cells. Mechanistically, miR-367 negatively regulated DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) abundance in OS cells. Hereby, DAB2IP was recognized as a direct target gene of miR-367 in OS. DAB2IP mRNA level was down-regulated and inversely correlated with miR-367 expression in OS specimens. DAB2IP overexpression prohibited proliferation, migration and invasion in Saos-2 cells, while DAB2IP knockdown showed promoting effects on proliferation, migration and invasion of MG-63 cells. Furthermore, the role of miR-367 might be mediated by DAB2IP-regulated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT in OS cells. To conclude, miR-367 may function as a biomarker for prediction of prognosis and a target for OS therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Macrophage colony stimulating factor enhances non-small cell lung cancer invasion and metastasis by promoting macrophage M2 polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Yang, L; Wang, L P; Zhang, Y

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To investigate the key cytokine which polarizes M2 macrophages and promotes invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: After co-culture with A549 cells in vitro, the proportion of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) levels in culture supernatant were detected by flow cytometry, ELISA assay and real-time qPCR, respectively. The effects of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages on invasion of A549 cells and angiogenesis of HUVEC cells were measured by transwell assay and tubule formation assay, respectively. The clinical and prognostic significance of M-CSF expression in NSCLC was further analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD14(+) CD163(+) M2 macrophages in monocytes and the concentration of M-CSF in the supernatant followed by co-culture was (12.03±0.46)% and (299.80±73.76)pg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(2.80±1.04)% and (43.07±11.22)pg/ml, respectively, P macrophages in vitro . M2 macrophages enhanced the invasion of A549 cells (66 cells/field vs. 26 cells/field) and the angiogenesis of HUVEC cells (22 tubes/field vs. 8 tubes/field). The mRNA expression of M-CSF in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients (16.23±4.83) was significantly lower than that in stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ (53.84±16.08; P macrophages, which can further promote the metastasis and angiogenesis of NSCLC. M-CSF could be used as a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC.

  8. Using ensemble forecasting to examine how climate change promotes worldwide invasion of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juncheng; Chen, Lian; Li, Hong

    2017-08-01

    The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, is one of the world's 100 most notorious invasive alien species. Knowledge about the critical climate variables that limit the global distribution range of the snail, as well as predictions of future species distributions under climate change, is very helpful for management of snail. In this study, the climatically suitable habitats for this kind of snail under current climate conditions were modeled by biomod2 and projected to eight future climate scenarios (2 time periods [2050s, 2080s] × 2 Representative Concentration Pathways [RCPs; RCP2.6, RCP8.5] × 2 atmospheric General Circulation Models [GCMs; Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)]). The results suggest that the lowest temperature of coldest month is the critical climate variable to restrict the global distribution range of P. canaliculata. It is predicted that the climatically suitable habitats for P. canaliculata will increase by an average of 3.3% in 2050s and 3.8% in 2080s for the RCP2.6 scenario, while they increase by an average of 8.7% in 2050s and 10.3% in 2080s for the RCP8.5 scenario. In general, climate change in the future may promote the global invasion of the invasive species. Therefore, it is necessary to take proactive measures to monitor and preclude the invasion of this species.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor C promotes cervical cancer cell invasiveness via regulation of microRNA-326/cortactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Jiang, Shuyi; Yuan, Jin; Liu, Junxiu; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2018-04-16

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) accelerates cervical cancer metastasis, while the detailed mechanism remains largely unknown. Recent evidence indicates that microRNA play a crucial role in controlling cancer cell invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-326 in VEGF-C-induced cervical cancer cell invasion. VEGF-C expression was higher and miR-326 was much lower in primary cervical cancer specimens than that in non-cancerous specimens, and a negative correlation between VEGF-C and miR-326 was found. On cervical carcinoma cell line SiHa cells, treatment with VEGF-C downregulated miR-326 level and increased cortactin protein expression. Transfection with miR-326 mimic reversed cortactin expression induced by VEGF-C, suggesting that VEGF-C increased cortactin via downregulation of miR-326. VEGF-C activated c-Src and c-Src inhibitor PP2 abolished VEGF-C effect on miR-326 and cortactin expression, implying that VEGF-C regulated miR-326/cortactin via c-Src signaling. VEGF-C promoted SiHa cell invasion index, which was largely inhibited by transfection with miR-326 antagonist or by siRNA against cortactin. In conclusion, our findings implied that VEGF-C reduced miR-326 expression and increased cortactin expression through c-Src signaling, leading to enhanced cervical cancer invasiveness. This may shed light on potential therapeutic strategies for cervical cancer therapy.

  10. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J.; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  11. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rech

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus. The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a

  12. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Sabine; Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  13. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  14. Osteopontin Promotes Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell HEC-1A Through AKT and ERK1/2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghua; Xie, Yunpeng; Cui, Dan; Ma, Yanni; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, Chenyang; Kong, Hui; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM) molecule and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. OPN is a well-known multifunctional factor involved in various aspects of cancer progression, including endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the significance of OPN in endometrial cancer. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of HEC-1A cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Wound scratch assay and transwell. Western blots were employed to detect the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in HEC-1A cells treated with rhOPN. rhOPN promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN influenced EMT-related factors and MMP-2 expression in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN promoted HEC-1A cells migration, invasion and EMT through protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. These results may open up a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer: namely, rhOPN have important roles in controlling growth of endometrial of cancer cells and suggest a novel target pathway for treatment of this cancer. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Osteopontin Promotes Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell HEC-1A Through AKT and ERK1/2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Osteopontin (OPN is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM molecule and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. OPN is a well-known multifunctional factor involved in various aspects of cancer progression, including endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the significance of OPN in endometrial cancer. Methods: The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of HEC-1A cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, Wound scratch assay and transwell. Western blots were employed to detect the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related factors in HEC-1A cells treated with rhOPN. Results: rhOPN promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN influenced EMT-related factors and MMP-2 expression in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN promoted HEC-1A cells migration, invasion and EMT through protein kinase B (PKB/AKT and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Conclusions: These results may open up a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer: namely, rhOPN have important roles in controlling growth of endometrial of cancer cells and suggest a novel target pathway for treatment of this cancer.

  16. CTHRC1 Acts as a Prognostic Factor and Promotes Invasiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by Activating Wnt/PCP-Rho Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ze Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1 in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis.

  17. Deregulation of a STAT3-IL8 Signaling Pathway Promotes Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Núria; Konopka, Genevieve; Lim, Kah Leong; Nutt, Catherine L.; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.; Frank, David A.; Mischel, Paul S.; Louis, David N.; Bonni, Azad

    2009-01-01

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN is recognized as a major event in the pathogenesis of the brain tumor glioblastoma. However, the mechanisms by which PTEN loss specifically impacts the malignant behavior of glioblastoma cells including their proliferation and propensity for invasiveness remain poorly understood. Genetic studies suggest that the transcription factor STAT3 harbors a PTEN-regulated tumor suppressive function in mouse astrocytes. Here, we report that STAT3 plays a critical tumor suppressive role in PTEN-deficient human glioblastoma cells. Endogenous STAT3 signaling is specifically inhibited in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells. Strikingly, reactivation of STAT3 in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells inhibits their proliferation, invasiveness, and ability to spread on myelin. We also identify the chemokine IL8 as a novel target gene of STAT3 in human glioblastoma cells. Activated STAT3 occupies the endogenous IL8 promoter and directly represses IL8 transcription. Consistent with these results, IL8 is upregulated in PTEN-deficient human glioblastoma tumors. Importantly, IL8 repression mediates STAT3-inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and spreading on myelin. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel link between STAT3 and IL8 whose deregulation plays a key role in the malignant behavior of PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells. These studies suggest that STAT3 activation or IL8 inhibition may have potential in patient-tailored treatment of PTEN-deficient brain tumors. PMID:18524891

  18. State-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain: invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Christian; Blanch, Lluis; Murias, Gaston; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases) has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

  19. Nicotine promotes cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa migration and invasion by activating PI3k/Akt/NF-κB pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengze; Gu, Weiting; Zhang, Yunpeng; Ji, Yawen; Wen, Yong; Xu, Xin

    2017-07-05

    Cigarette smoking is one of highly risk factors of cervical cancer. Recently nicotine has been reported to increase proliferation and invasion in some smoking related cancers, like non-small cell lung cancer and esophageal squamous cell cancer. However, the effects and mechanisms of nicotine stimulation on cervical cancer cells are not clear. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of nicotine stimulation on HeLa cells in vitro. In our study, we found that nicotine could accelerate HeLa cells migration and invasion, activate PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways and increase the expression of Vimentin in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrated that the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could reverse nicotine-induced cell migration and invasion, NF-κB activation and up-regulation of Vimentin. Inhibition of NF-κB by Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) also antagonized nicotine-induced cell migration, invasion and up-regulation of Vimentin. Simply put, these findings suggest that nicotine promotes cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa migration and invasion by activating PI3k/Akt/NF-κB pathway in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The Need to Increase Marine Corps Special Operations Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Operations University presentation by Major Mark Raney for USSOCOM elective (lecture, MCU, Quantico VA, 17 Feb 20Q9). 5 Stew Magnuson, "Marine Special...2008 Posture Statement.doc (Accessed 23 December, 2008) 20 David Tucker and Christopher J. Lamb , United States Special Operations Forces (New York...invasion of Afghanistan encroached on the Marine Corps historical role of being "soldiers from the sea." 38 David Tucker and Christopher J. lamb , 182

  1. Upregulation of long non-coding RNA TUG1 promotes bladder cancer cell 5 proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting miR-29c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Guohui; Meng, Jialin; He, Qian; Li, Zhihui; Guan, Yawei

    2018-01-10

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the word. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) plays an important role in the development and progression of numerous cancers, including BC. However, the exact role of TUG1 in modulating BC progression is still poorly known. In this study, we found that TUG1 was upregulated and microRNA-29c (miR-29c) was downregulated in BC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of TUG1 promoted the cell proliferation of T24 and EJ cells, whereas TUG1 knockdown had the opposite effect. Upregulation of TUG1 obviously facilitated the migration and invasion of T24 and EJ cells. In contrast, TUG1 silencing repressed the migration and invasion of T24 and EJ cells. Furthermore, TUG1 knockdown markedly increased the expression of miR-29c in vitro. On the contrary, overexpression of TUG1 remarkably decreased the expression of miR-29c. Transfection with plasmids containing mutant TUG1 has no effect on the expression of miR-29c. There were direct interactions between miR-29c and the binding sites of TUG1. In addition, the inhibitory effects of small interfering RNA specific for TUG1 on BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion were reversed by downregulation of miR-29c. Collectively, our study strongly demonstrates that TUG1 promotes BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting miR-29c, suggesting that lncRNATUG1 may be a promising target for BC gene therapy.

  2. Active PI3K pathway causes an invasive phenotype which can be reversed or promoted by blocking the pathway at divergent nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J Wallin

    Full Text Available The PTEN/PI3K pathway is commonly mutated in cancer and therefore represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. To investigate the primary phenotypes mediated by increased pathway signaling in a clean, patient-relevant context, an activating PIK3CA mutation (H1047R was knocked-in to an endogenous allele of the MCF10A non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line. Introduction of an endogenously mutated PIK3CA allele resulted in a marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and invasive phenotype, compared to isogenic wild-type cells. The invasive phenotype was linked to enhanced PIP(3 production via a S6K-IRS positive feedback mechanism. Moreover, potent and selective inhibitors of PI3K were highly effective in reversing this phenotype, which is optimally revealed in 3-dimensional cell culture. In contrast, inhibition of Akt or mTOR exacerbated the invasive phenotype. Our results suggest that invasion is a core phenotype mediated by increased PTEN/PI3K pathway activity and that therapeutic agents targeting different nodes of the PI3K pathway may have dramatic differences in their ability to reverse or promote cancer metastasis.

  3. A Mena invasion isoform potentiates EGF-induced carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippar, Ulrike; Roussos, Evanthia T; Oser, Matthew; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Kim, Hyung-Do; Giampieri, Silvia; Wang, Yarong; Goswami, Sumanta; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John S; Gertler, Frank B

    2008-12-01

    The spread of cancer during metastatic disease requires that tumor cells subvert normal regulatory networks governing cell motility to invade surrounding tissues and migrate toward blood and lymphatic vessels. Enabled (Ena)/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins regulate cell motility by controlling the geometry of assembling actin networks. Mena, an Ena/VASP protein, is upregulated in the invasive subpopulation of breast cancer cells. In addition, Mena is alternately spliced to produce an invasion isoform, Mena(INV). Here we show that Mena and Mena(INV) promote carcinoma cell motility and invasiveness in vivo and in vitro, and increase lung metastasis. Mena and Mena(INV) potentiate epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced membrane protrusion and increase the matrix degradation activity of tumor cells. Interestingly, Mena(INV) is significantly more effective than Mena in driving metastases and sensitizing cells to EGF-dependent invasion and protrusion. Upregulation of Mena(INV) could therefore enable tumor cells to invade in response to otherwise benign EGF stimulus levels.

  4. Removal of Invasive Fire-Prone Grasses to Increase Training Lands in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Boone Kauffman. U.S. Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Center. Hilo . Hawaii . SWCA, Inc. 39 SWCA also acknowledges Amy Brown Curtis...Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Marine Corps Training Area Bellows (MCTAB), Army installations Makua Valley, Schofield Barracks, Pohakuloa Training...Area, the Hawaii Army National Guard facility at Diamond Head Crater, and at the Naval Magazine on the Island of Guam. Invasive, fire-prone

  5. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction.

  6. Economic impacts of marine ecological change: Review and recent contributions of the VECTORS project on European marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bartelings, Heleen; Börger, Tobias; Bosello, Francesco; Buisman, Erik; Delpiazzo, Elisa; Eboli, Fabio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hamon, Katell G.; Hattam, Caroline; Loureiro, Maria; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke E.; Simons, Sarah L.; Walker, Adam N.

    2018-02-01

    Marine ecological change is likely to have serious potential economic consequences for coastal economies all over the world. This article reviews the current literature on the economic impacts of marine ecological change, as well as a number of recent contributions to this literature carried out under the VECTORS project. We focus on three main types of change, namely invasive alien species; outbreak-forming species, such as jellyfish and toxic algae; and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity. The case studies available in the literature demonstrate that the impacts of invasions and outbreaks on fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism can potentially amount to several tens of millions of dollars each year in some regions. Moreover, stated preference studies suggest a substantial impact on coastal tourism and non-use values that is likely not visible in case studies of specific outbreak events. Climate-driven gradual changes in distribution and productivity of commercial fish stocks will have an impact on fisheries, although these impacts are likely to be overshadowed by much larger changes in prices of seafood and fuel.

  7. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-03-07

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  8. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  9. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Rönty, Mikko [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sutinen, Eva [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Myllärniemi, Marjukka [Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Koli, Katri, E-mail: katri.koli@helsinki.fi [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  10. IL-17A promotes the migration and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells by coordinately activating MMPs expression via the p38/NF-κB signal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjuan Feng

    Full Text Available IL-17A plays an important role in many inflammatory diseases and cancers. We aimed to examine the effect of IL-17A on the invasion of cervical cancer cells and study its related mechanisms.Wound healing and matrigel transwell assays were used to examine the effect of IL-17A on cervical cancer cell migration and invasion by a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. The levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs were investigated using western blotting. The activity of p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway was detected too.Here, we showed that IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Further molecular analysis showed that IL-17A could up-regulate the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and down-regulate the expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Furthermore, IL-17A also activates p38 signal pathway and increased p50 and p65 nuclear expression. In addition, treatment of cervical cancer cells with the pharmacological p38/NF-κB signal pathway inhibitors, SB203580 and PDTC, potently restored the roles of invasion and upregulation of MMPs induced by IL-17A.IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cell via up-regulating MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and down-regulating TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression via p38/NF-κB signal pathway. IL-17A may be a potential target to improve the prognosis for patients with cervical cancer.

  11. Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine species from coastal and offshore waters of Cyprus is presented. Records were compiled based on the existing scientific and grey literature, including HCMR database of Mediterranean alien species, technical reports, scientific congresses, academic dissertations, and websites, as well as on unpublished/personal observations. The listed species were classified in one of five categories: established, invasive, casual, cryptogenic, and questionable. The mode of introduction and the year of first sighting were also reported for each species. Eight new records based on personal observations of the authors were reported (Chondria coerulescens, Neosiphonia sphaerocarpa, Enchelycore anatina, Lagocephalus spadiceus, Lagocephalus suezensis, Scomberomorus commerson, Sillago sihama, and Sphoeroides pachygaster. Nine species, previously reported as aliens in Cypriot waters, were excluded from the inventory for various reasons. Ten established species were characterized as invasive (Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Cerithium scabridum, Strombus persicus, Trochus erythraeus, Brachidontes pharaonis, Pinctada radiata, Fistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Siganus luridus, and Siganus rivulatus as they have a substantial impact on biodiversity and/or local economy. The impact of alien marine species in Cyprus is expected to grow in the close future, and further effort directed towards recording alien invasions and their impact will be needed.

  12. Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies in the diet of piscivorous fish in a European lowland river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Roche, Kevin Francis; Všetičková, Lucie; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2017), s. 157-171 ISSN 1863-9135 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive gobiids * fish prey * predatory fish diet * food web structure * invasive species impacts Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  13. ITGBL1 promotes migration, invasion and predicts a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao; Feng, Jue-Rong; Qiu, Jun; Liu, Lan; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Qiu

    2018-05-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide; its progression and prognosis are associated with oncogenes. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and explore the role and potential mechanism of integrin subunit β like 1 (ITGBL1) in CRC. The microarray dataset GSE41258 was used to screen DEGs involved in CRC. Survival analysis was performed to predict the prognosis of CRC patients. To validate ITGBL1 expression, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were performed in CRC tissues and cells. Subsequently, the effects of ITGBL1 were evaluated through colony formation, cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays. Finally, we took advantage of Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to explore potential function and mechanism of ITGBL1 in CRC. In our study, 182 primary CRC tissues and 54 normal colon tissues were contained in GSE41258 dataset. A total of 318 DEGs were screened, among which ITGBL1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in CRC, and its high expression was associated with shortened survival of CRC patients. Moreover, knockdown of ITGBL1 promoted CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Finally, GO analysis revealed that ITGBL1 was associated with cell adhesion. GSEA indicated that ITGBL1 was enriched in ECM receptor interaction and focal adhesion. In conclusion, a novel oncogene ITGBL1 was identified and demonstrated to be associated with the progression and prognosis of CRC, which might be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for CRC patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Anthropogenic disturbance can determine the magnitude of opportunistic species responses on marine urban infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties). Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a possible outcome of policies that consider the ecological features of built infrastructures and

  15. Anthropogenic disturbance can determine the magnitude of opportunistic species responses on marine urban infrastructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Airoldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coastal landscapes are being transformed as a consequence of the increasing demand for infrastructures to sustain residential, commercial and tourist activities. Thus, intertidal and shallow marine habitats are largely being replaced by a variety of artificial substrata (e.g. breakwaters, seawalls, jetties. Understanding the ecological functioning of these artificial habitats is key to planning their design and management, in order to minimise their impacts and to improve their potential to contribute to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to assess the role of human disturbances in shaping the structure of assemblages on marine artificial infrastructures. We tested the hypothesis that some negative impacts associated with the expansion of opportunistic and invasive species on urban infrastructures can be related to the severe human disturbances that are typical of these environments, such as those from maintenance and renovation works. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maintenance caused a marked decrease in the cover of dominant space occupiers, such as mussels and oysters, and a significant enhancement of opportunistic and invasive forms, such as biofilm and macroalgae. These effects were particularly pronounced on sheltered substrata compared to exposed substrata. Experimental application of the disturbance in winter reduced the magnitude of the impacts compared to application in spring or summer. We use these results to identify possible management strategies to inform the improvement of the ecological value of artificial marine infrastructures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that some of the impacts of globally expanding marine urban infrastructures, such as those related to the spread of opportunistic, and invasive species could be mitigated through ecologically-driven planning and management of long-term maintenance of these structures. Impact mitigation is a

  16. Downregulation of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and invasion and promotes apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Bin; Hao, Junhai; Man, Weitao; Chang, Yongkai; Ma, Shunchang; Hu, Yeshuai; Liu, Fusheng; Yang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Expression of the long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is associated with various aggressive tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the biological function of TUG1 in regulating apoptosis, proliferation, invasion and cell cycle distribution in human glioma U251 cells. Lentivirus-mediated TUG1-specific microRNA was transfected into U251 cells to abrogate the expression of TUG1. Flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of U251 cells. Cellular proliferation was examined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and invasion was examined by Transwell assays. The apoptotic rate of cells in the TUG1-knockdown group was significantly higher than in the negative control (NC) group (11.58 vs. 9.14%, PTUG1-knockdown group was lower compared with that of the NC group. A Transwell invasion assay was performed, which revealed that the number of invaded cells from the TUG1-knockdown group was the less compared with that of the NC group. In addition, the G 0 /G 1 phase population was significantly increased within the treated group (44.85 vs. 38.45%, PTUG1 may inhibit proliferation and invasion, and promote glioma U251 cell apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of TUG1 may have an effect on cell cycle arrest. The data presented in the current study indicated that TUG1 may be a novel therapeutic target for glioma.

  17. A non-invasive approach to study lifetime exposure and bioaccumulation of PCBs in protected marine mammals: PBPK modeling in harbor porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Covaci, Adrian; Yang, Raymond S.H.; Das, Krishna; Blust, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have increasingly been developed to explain the kinetics of environmental pollutants in wildlife. For marine mammals specifically, these models provide a new, non-destructive tool that enables the integration of biomonitoring activities and in vitro studies. The goals of the present study were firstly to develop PBPK models for several environmental relevant PCB congeners in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), a species that is sensitive to pollution because of its limited metabolic capacity for pollutant transformation. These models were tested using tissue data of porpoises from the Black Sea. Secondly, the predictive power of the models was investigated for time trends in the PCB concentrations in North Sea harbor porpoises between 1990 and 2008. Thirdly, attempts were made to assess metabolic capacities of harbor porpoises for the investigated PCBs. In general, results show that parameter values from other species (rodents, humans) are not always suitable in marine mammal models, most probably due to differences in physiology and exposure. The PCB 149 levels decrease the fastest in male harbor porpoises from the North Sea in a time period of 18 years, whereas the PCB 101 levels decrease the slowest. According to the models, metabolic breakdown of PCB 118 is probably of lesser importance compared to other elimination pathways. For PCB 101 and 149 however, the presence of their metabolites can be attributed to bioaccumulation of metabolites from the prey and to metabolic breakdown of the parent compounds in the harbor porpoises. - Highlights: → PBPK modeling was used to study the kinetics of several PCBs in a marine mammal. → Harbor porpoises are sensitive to pollution and therefore ideal model organisms. → Black Sea data were used for parameterization. → North Sea data for assessing temporal trends (1990-2008). → PBPK modeling is a non-invasive and non-destructive tool.

  18. Marine alien species as an aspect of global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport of organisms across oceans is an anthropogenic agent of global change that has profoundly affected the natural distribution of littoral biota and altered the makeup of biogeographic regions. The homogenization of marine biotas is a phenomenon especially affecting coastal regions and is spearheaded by a suite of opportunistic species at the expense of native species. Climate change may exacerbate the trend: sea surface temperatures, hydrodynamics, pH and carbonate cycles, already show marked fluctuations compared to the past. Alien invasive species are impacted by the change of marine climate in a variety of ways, which are we have just begun to notice, observe and interpret. A conceptual framework has yet to be conceived that links theories on biological introductions and invasions with the physical aspects of global change. Therefore predicting the scale of invasions or their impact on biodiversity is a daunting task. Integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change. The recorded spread of alien species and analysis of patterns of invasions may serve as the starting point for searching connections with climate change descriptors. The Mediterranean Sea is home to an exceptionally large number of alien species, resulting from its exceptional history and multiple vectors. For much of the twentieth century alien thermophilic species, which had entered the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal, have been confined to the Levantine Basin. In recent years climate driven hydrographic changes have coincided with a pronounced expansion of alien thermophilic biota to the central and western basins of the Mediterranean. We discuss some changes in emergent functions and services in Mediterranean ecosystems under the combined effect of invasive species and climate changes.

  19. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  20. The diacylglycerol kinase α/atypical PKC/β1 integrin pathway in SDF-1α mammary carcinoma invasiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rainero

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα, by phosphorylating diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, provides a key signal driving cell migration and matrix invasion. We previously demonstrated that in epithelial cells activation of DGKα activity promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and matrix invasion by recruiting atypical PKC at ruffling sites and by promoting RCP-mediated recycling of α5β1 integrin to the tip of pseudopods. In here we investigate the signaling pathway by which DGKα mediates SDF-1α-induced matrix invasion of MDA-MB-231 invasive breast carcinoma cells. Indeed we showed that, following SDF-1α stimulation, DGKα is activated and localized at cell protrusion, thus promoting their elongation and mediating SDF-1α induced MMP-9 metalloproteinase secretion and matrix invasion. Phosphatidic acid generated by DGKα promotes localization at cell protrusions of atypical PKCs which play an essential role downstream of DGKα by promoting Rac-mediated protrusion elongation and localized recruitment of β1 integrin and MMP-9. We finally demonstrate that activation of DGKα, atypical PKCs signaling and β1 integrin are all essential for MDA-MB-231 invasiveness. These data indicates the existence of a SDF-1α induced DGKα - atypical PKC - β1 integrin signaling pathway, which is essential for matrix invasion of carcinoma cells.

  1. Exotic mammals disperse exotic fungi that promote invasion by exotic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Martin A; Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Amico, Guillermo C; Dimarco, Romina D; Barrios-Garcia, M Noelia; Simberloff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are often complex phenomena because many factors influence their outcome. One key aspect is how non-natives interact with the local biota. Interaction with local species may be especially important for exotic species that require an obligatory mutualist, such as Pinaceae species that need ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. EM fungi and seeds of Pinaceae disperse independently, so they may use different vectors. We studied the role of exotic mammals as dispersal agents of EM fungi on Isla Victoria, Argentina, where many Pinaceae species have been introduced. Only a few of these tree species have become invasive, and they are found in high densities only near plantations, partly because these Pinaceae trees lack proper EM fungi when their seeds land far from plantations. Native mammals (a dwarf deer and rodents) are rare around plantations and do not appear to play a role in these invasions. With greenhouse experiments using animal feces as inoculum, plus observational and molecular studies, we found that wild boar and deer, both non-native, are dispersing EM fungi. Approximately 30% of the Pinaceae seedlings growing with feces of wild boar and 15% of the seedlings growing with deer feces were colonized by non-native EM fungi. Seedlings growing in control pots were not colonized by EM fungi. We found a low diversity of fungi colonizing the seedlings, with the hypogeous Rhizopogon as the most abundant genus. Wild boar, a recent introduction to the island, appear to be the main animal dispersing the fungi and may be playing a key role in facilitating the invasion of pine trees and even triggering their spread. These results show that interactions among non-natives help explain pine invasions in our study area.

  2. Marine incursion: the freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are the product of a marine invasion into west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B Wilson

    Full Text Available The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25-50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics.

  3. Protecting marine parks and sanctuaries from aquatic nuisance species releases from ballast during emergency response events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A. Green

    2011-01-01

    Commercial shipping activities that release aquatic invasive species are recognized globally as a dominant transport vector for marine invasions. Aquatic nuisance species (ANS) introductions have resulted in billions of dollars of damages and immeasurable biological devastation within the Great Lakes. National Park Service managers are working with United States...

  4. Economics of Arctic Fisheries and Marine Invasive Species Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kourantidou, Melina

    Bioeconomics of Red King Crab in the Barents Sea involves the crab’s dual nature as invader and market commodity. We apply a spatial dynamic model to find the optimal joint management of international invasive species threats with historic management of the Red King Crab by Norway and Russia...

  5. 76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... issues during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive species prevention and control. Other potential threats to the ecosystem (e.g., trespass; illegal...

  6. How many marine aliens in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN; http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/, an inventory of marine alienspecies in Europe was created by critically reviewing existing information in 34 global, European, regional and national databases. In total, 1369 marine alien species have been reported in the European seas (including 110 cryptogenic and 139 questionable species; this is a substantial increase from the 737 species previously reported in 2009 based on the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe; http://www.europe-aliens.org dataset. Most of the reported species were invertebrates (63.3%, followed by chromists (13.7%, vertebrates (11.6%, and plants (10.1%. Mollusca is the most numerous phylum, followed by Arthropoda, Chordata, and Annelida. Thecountries with the highest reported numbers of marine alien species were Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, Egypt and Greece. A reporting bias is evident as efforts for monitoring and reporting alien species vary among countries.

  7. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.

  8. Lost in translation? Standardising the terminology used in marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confusion between terms and ambiguities among definitions have long plagued the field of invasion biology. One result is disruption in flow of information from researchers to policy-makers and managers who rely on science to inform regulatory frameworks and management actions. We reviewed the South African marine ...

  9. Upregulation of metastasis-associated gene 2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minhua Wu,1,2,* Xiaoxia Ye,2,* Xubin Deng,3,* Yanxia Wu,4 Xiaofang Li,4 Lin Zhang11Department of Histology and Embryology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 3Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Cancer Center of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 4Pathological Diagnosis and Research Center, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAims: Metastasis-associated gene 2 (MTA2 is reported to play an important role in tumor progression, but little is known about the role of MTA2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The aim of the study was to explore the expression and function of MTA2 in NPC.Methods: Expression of MTA2 in NPC tissues and cell lines was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Relationship between MTA2 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. Stable MTA2-overexpressing and MTA2-siliencing NPC cells were established by transfection with plasmids encoding MTA2 cDNA and lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA, respectively. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assay. Cell migration ability was evaluated by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The impact of MTA2 knockdown on growth and metastasis of CNE2 cells in vivo was determined by nude mouse xenograft models. Expression of several Akt pathway proteins was detected by Western blotting.Results: MTA2 was upregulated in NPC tissues and three NPC cell lines detected (CNE1, CNE2, and HNE1. MTA2 expression was related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of patients with NPC. MTA2 upregulation promoted proliferation and invasion of CNE1 cells, while MTA2 depletion had opposite effects on CNE2 cells. Moreover, MTA2 depletion suppressed growth and metastasis of CNE2 cells in vivo. MTA2 overexpression

  10. Oncostatin M promotes STAT3 activation, VEGF production, and invasion in osteosarcoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossey, Stacey L; Bear, Misty D; Kisseberth, William C; Pennell, Michael; London, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    enhancing the expression/activation of MMP2 and VEGF, ultimately promoting invasive behavior and tumor angiogenesis. As such, OSM and its receptor may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in OSA

  11. Oncostatin M promotes STAT3 activation, VEGF production, and invasion in osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisseberth William C

    2011-04-01

    human and canine OSA cells induces STAT3 activation, thereby enhancing the expression/activation of MMP2 and VEGF, ultimately promoting invasive behavior and tumor angiogenesis. As such, OSM and its receptor may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in OSA.

  12. Forkhead Box Protein C2 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Migration and Invasion in Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (SKOV3/CDDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Forkhead Box Protein C2 (FOXC2 has been reported to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. However, it is unclear whether FOXC2 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of FOXC2 on EMT and invasive characteristics of CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: MTT, Western blot, scratch wound healing, matrigel transwell invasion, attachment and detachment assays were performed to detect half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of CDDP, expression of EMT-related proteins and invasive characteristics in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV3/CDDP and its parental cell line (SKOV3. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA was used to knockdown FOXC2 and analyze the effect of FOXC2 knockdown on EMT and invasive characteristics of SKOV3/CDDP cells. Also, the effect of FOXC2 upregulation on EMT and invasive characteristics of SKOV3 cells was analyzed. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying FOXC2-regulating EMT in ovarian cancer cells was determined. Results: Compared with parental SKOV3 cell line, SKOV3/CDDP showed higher IC50 of CDDP (43.26μM (PConclusions: Taken together, these data demonstrate that FOXC2 may be a promoter of EMT phenotype in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  13. Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K. A.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G-J.; Herndl, G.

    2013-01-01

    Burial of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism

  14. Surface-associated plasminogen binding of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes extracellular matrix invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Stie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of illness and death in persons with predisposing factors, including: malignancies, solid organ transplants, and corticosteroid use. C. neoformans is ubiquitous in the environment and enters into the lungs via inhalation, where it can disseminate through the bloodstream and penetrate the central nervous system (CNS, resulting in a difficult to treat and often-fatal infection of the brain, called meningoencephalitis. Plasminogen is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues. This fibrinolytic system is utilized by cancer cells during metastasis and several pathogenic species of bacteria have been found to manipulate the host plasminogen system to facilitate invasion of tissues during infection by modifying the activation of this process through the binding of plasminogen at their surface.The invasion of the brain and the central nervous system by penetration of the protective blood-brain barrier is a prerequisite to the establishment of meningoencephalitis by the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. neoformans. In this study, we examined the ability of C. neoformans to subvert the host plasminogen system to facilitate tissue barrier invasion. Through a combination of biochemical, cell biology, and proteomic approaches, we have shown that C. neoformans utilizes the host plasminogen system to cross tissue barriers, providing support for the hypothesis that plasminogen-binding may contribute to the invasion of the blood-brain barrier by penetration of the brain endothelial cells and underlying matrix. In addition, we have identified the cell wall-associated proteins that serve as plasminogen receptors and characterized both the plasminogen-binding and plasmin-activation potential for this significant human pathogen.The results of this study provide evidence for the

  15. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    environments. This may be particularly true in the world's boreal oceans as melting sea ice facilitates new migratory passages between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Moreover, as the ebb and flow of biodiversity intensifies under anthropogenic climate change, novel climates and communities of species......Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  16. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, Renske J.E.; Koelmans, Bart; Besseling, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Microplastics (<5 mm) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and are ingested by zooplankton with possible negative effects on survival, feeding, and fecundity. The majority of laboratory studies has used new and pristine microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as

  17. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carballo Cárdenas, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how the lionfish (Pterois sp.) invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean has been socially constructed by natural scientists, the media, and stakeholders associated with various marine protected areas in the Caribbean. By examining the use of data and metaphors by these actors,

  18. Plant invasions in mountains: global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith L. McDougall; Anzar A. Khuroo; Lloyd L. Loope; Catherine G. Parks; Anibal Pauchard; Zafar A. Reshi; Ian Rushworth; Christoph. Kueffer

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are...

  19. Antagonistic interactions between an invasive alien and a native coccinellid species may promote coexistence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hentley, W.T.; Vanbergen, A.J.; Beckerman, A.P.; Brien, M.N.; Hails, R.S.; Jones, T.H.; Johnson, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    1. Despite the capacity of invasive alien species to alter ecosystems, the mechanisms underlying their impact remain only partly understood. Invasive alien predators, for example, can significantly disrupt recipient communities by consuming prey species or acting as an intraguild predator (IGP). 2. Behavioural interactions are key components of interspecific competition between predators,yet these are often overlooked invasion processes. Here, we show how behavioural, nonlethal IGP intera...

  20. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  1. An analysis of the effect of marital/dependency status on retention, promotion, and on-the-job productivity of male Marine Corps officers

    OpenAIRE

    Cerman, Guray; Kaya, Bulent

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis investigates the effect of marital and family status on the performance and job productivity of male U.S. Marine Corps officers. The analysis includes evaluation of fitness reports, retention, and promotion to O-4 and O-5 ranks as performance measures. The primary goal is to examine the existence of any marriage premium on officers' performance and productivity and to investigate potential causal hypotheses. The personnel ...

  2. Marine Corps Promotion System: Rewarding Merit or Seniority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    friendship, family, intimacy). As a Marine moves up the Hierarchy of Needs , new, more intrinsic motivations begin to occur along the lines of esteem...a career could be very beneficial to growth in leadership through the stages of Maslow’s Hierarchy of 19 Needs . The next section is focused...gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or

  3. Research on Customer Satisfaction in Marine Cultural and Sustainable Tourism—A Case Study of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, marine cultural tourism, an emerging tourism mode, has become more and more popular among tourists, and demonstrates broad market prospects. However, Chinese marine cultural tourism is still in the development and growth stage, and the level of customer satisfaction is uneven. The improvement of the customer satisfaction level is conducive to meeting customers’ demands in marine cultural tourism and enhancing the competitiveness of Chinese marine cultural tourism. Based on theoretical research and the practical situation of marine cultural tourism, this paper implements empirical investigation and research into customer satisfaction in marine cultural tourism in Shanghai, China. According to the research results, it proposes improving the level of customer satisfaction in Chinese marine cultural tourism from the perspectives of ocean culture tourism promotion, customer satisfaction evaluation, service level management and environment construction of scenic spots, tourism branding and the marine cultural accomplishments of tourists, so as to promote the sustainable development of marine cultural tourism.

  4. Implications of Rho GTPase signaling in glioma cell invasion and tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Patricia Fortin Ensign

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most malignant of primary adult brain tumors, characterized by a highly locally-invasive cell population, as well as abundant proliferative cells, neoangiogenesis, and necrosis. Clinical intervention with chemotherapy or radiation may either promote or establish an environment for manifestation of invasive behavior. Understanding the molecular drivers of invasion in the context of glioma progression may be insightful in directing new treatments for patients with GB. Here, we review current knowledge on Rho family GTPases, their aberrant regulation in GB, and their effect on GB cell invasion and tumor progression. Rho GTPases are modulators of cell migration through effects on actin cytoskeleton rearrangement; in non-neoplastic tissue, expression and activation of Rho GTPases are normally under tight regulation. In GB, Rho GTPases are deregulated, often via hyperactivity or overexpression of their activators, Rho GEFs. Downstream effectors of Rho GTPases have been shown to promote invasiveness and, importantly, glioma cell survival. The study of aberrant Rho GTPase signaling in GB is thus an important investigation of cell invasion as well as treatment resistance and disease progression.

  5. Marine microorganisms. Umi no biseibutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, U. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Applied Biological Science)

    1992-11-10

    This paper explains properties, interactions, and activities of marine microorganisms. Marine bacteria include bacteria of vibrio family of arteromonas genus, luminous bacteria, and aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of marine bacteria is halophilic, and many proliferate at 5[degree]C or lower. Some of them can proliferate at 20[degree]C to 30[degree]C, or as high temperature as 80[degree]C and higher. Spongiaria and tumicata have many symbiotic microorganisms, and genes equivalent to luminous bacteria genes were discovered in DNA of light emitting organs in luminous fishes. It was verified that animal groups in upwelling zones are supported by bacteria that assimilate inorganics supplied from ocean bottoms. Marine bacteria decompose almost all of organics brought in from land to sea, and those produced in sea. Marine bacteria engage in complex interrelations with other organisms for competition, antagonism, parasitism, and symbiosis. The bacteria make antibacterial substances, anti-algae bacteria, enzyme inhibitors, toxins, pharmacologically active substances, and such physiologically active substances as deposition promoting substances to undersea structures including shells and barnacles, and deposition blocking substances. 53 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Global change and marine communities: Alien species and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Anthropogenic influences on the biosphere since the advent of the industrial age are increasingly causing global changes. Climatic change and the rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are ranking high in scientific and public agendas, and other components of global change are also frequently addressed, among which are the introductions of non indigenous species (NIS) in biogeographic regions well separated from the donor region, often followed by spectacular invasions. In the marine environment, both climatic change and spread of alien species have been studied extensively; this review is aimed at examining the main responses of ecosystems to climatic change, taking into account the increasing importance of biological invasions. Some general principles on NIS introductions in the marine environment are recalled, such as the importance of propagule pressure and of development stages during the time course of an invasion. Climatic change is known to affect many ecological properties; it interacts also with NIS in many possible ways. Direct (proximate) effects on individuals and populations of altered physical-chemical conditions are distinguished from indirect effects on emergent properties (species distribution, diversity, and production). Climatically driven changes may affect both local dispersal mechanisms, due to the alteration of current patterns, and competitive interactions between NIS and native species, due to the onset of new thermal optima and/or different carbonate chemistry. As well as latitudinal range expansions of species correlated with changing temperature conditions, and effects on species richness and the correlated extinction of native species, some invasions may provoke multiple effects which involve overall ecosystem functioning (material flow between trophic groups, primary production, relative extent of organic material decomposition, extent of benthic-pelagic coupling). Some examples are given, including a special

  7. Horizontal gene transfer and mobile genetic elements in marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Hazen, Tracy H

    2009-01-01

    The pool of mobile genetic elements (MGE) in microbial communities consists of viruses, plasmids, and associated elements (insertion sequences, transposons, and integrons) that are either self-transmissible or use mobile plasmids and viruses as vehicles for their dissemination. This mobilome facilitates the horizontal transfer of genes that promote the evolution and adaptation of microbial communities. Efforts to characterize MGEs from microbial populations resident in a variety of ecological habitats have revealed a surprisingly novel and seemingly untapped biodiversity. To better understand the impact of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as well as the agents that promote HGT in marine ecosystems and to determine whether or not environmental parameters can effect the composition and structure of the mobilome in marine microbial communities, information on the distribution, diversity, and ecological traits of the marine mobilome is presented. In this chapter we discuss recent insights gained from different methodological approaches used to characterize the biodiversity and ecology of MGE in marine environments and their contributions to HGT. In addition, we present case studies that highlight specific HGT examples in coastal, open-ocean, and deep-sea marine ecosystems.

  8. Interaction of species traits and environmental disturbance predicts invasion success of aquatic microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Mächler

    Full Text Available Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species' identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary.

  9. Silencing NPAS2 promotes cell growth and invasion in DLD-1 cells and correlated with poor prognosis of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Liu, Fei; Han, Ye; Li, Pu; Yuan, Bin; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yan; Kuang, Yuting; Zhi, Qiaoming; Zhao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NPAS2 mRNA was down-regulated in clinical colorectal cancer tissues. • Low NPAS2 level was associated with the tumor size, TNM stage and distance metastasis in CRC. • Silencing NPAS2 promoted cell proliferation, the wound healing and cell invasion abilities. - Abstract: Emerging evidences show that circadian rhythm disorder is an important factor of tumor initiation and development. Neuronal PAS domain protein2 (NPAS2), which is the largest circadian gene, has been proved to be a novel prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, the potential functions of NPAS2 in colorectal cancer are still unknown. In our present study, we detected the mRNA expressions of NPAS2 in 108 CRC patients by RT-PCR, and found that NPAS2 expression was significantly down-regulated in tumor tissues than that in NATs. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that low expression of NPAS2 was associated with the tumor size, TNM stage and tumor distance metastasis in colorectal cancer (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we effectively down-regulated NPAS2 mRNA expression by transfecting RNA interfere fragments into DLD-1 cells, and our results in vitro demonstrated that silencing NPAS2 expression could promote cell proliferation, cell invasion and increase the wound healing ability (p < 0.05). However, down-regulating NPAS2 expression did not influence the apoptotic rate in DLD-1 cells (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our study suggested that NPAS2, functioned as a potential tumor suppressor gene, could serve as a promising target and potential prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer

  10. Silencing NPAS2 promotes cell growth and invasion in DLD-1 cells and correlated with poor prognosis of colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Xiaofeng [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Fei [Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Han, Ye [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Li, Pu [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Gastric Neoplasms, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Yuan, Bin; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yan; Kuang, Yuting [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhi, Qiaoming, E-mail: strexboy@163.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhao, Hong, E-mail: zhaohong600@sina.com [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • NPAS2 mRNA was down-regulated in clinical colorectal cancer tissues. • Low NPAS2 level was associated with the tumor size, TNM stage and distance metastasis in CRC. • Silencing NPAS2 promoted cell proliferation, the wound healing and cell invasion abilities. - Abstract: Emerging evidences show that circadian rhythm disorder is an important factor of tumor initiation and development. Neuronal PAS domain protein2 (NPAS2), which is the largest circadian gene, has been proved to be a novel prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, the potential functions of NPAS2 in colorectal cancer are still unknown. In our present study, we detected the mRNA expressions of NPAS2 in 108 CRC patients by RT-PCR, and found that NPAS2 expression was significantly down-regulated in tumor tissues than that in NATs. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that low expression of NPAS2 was associated with the tumor size, TNM stage and tumor distance metastasis in colorectal cancer (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we effectively down-regulated NPAS2 mRNA expression by transfecting RNA interfere fragments into DLD-1 cells, and our results in vitro demonstrated that silencing NPAS2 expression could promote cell proliferation, cell invasion and increase the wound healing ability (p < 0.05). However, down-regulating NPAS2 expression did not influence the apoptotic rate in DLD-1 cells (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our study suggested that NPAS2, functioned as a potential tumor suppressor gene, could serve as a promising target and potential prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer.

  11. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos E L; Luiz, Osmar J; Floeter, Sergio R; Lucena, Marcos B; Barbosa, Moysés C; Rocha, Claudia R; Rocha, Luiz A

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion.

  12. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  14. Predicting free-space occupancy on novel artificial structures by an invasive intertidal barnacle using a removal experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Bracewell

    Full Text Available Artificial structures can create novel habitat in the marine environment that has been associated with the spread of invasive species. They are often located in areas of high disturbance and can vary significantly in the area of free space provided for settlement of marine organisms. Whilst correlation between the amount of free space available and recruitment success has been shown in populations of several marine benthic organisms, there has been relatively little focus on invasive species, a group with the potential to reproduce in vast numbers and colonise habitats rapidly. Invasion success following different scales of disturbance was examined in the invasive acorn barnacle, Austrominiusmodestus, on a unique art installation located in Liverpool Bay. Population growth and recruitment success were examined by comparing recruitment rates within disturbance clearings of 4 different sizes and by contrasting population development with early recruitment rates over a 10 week period. Disturbed areas were rapidly recolonised and monocultures of A. modestus formed within 6 weeks. The size of patch created during disturbance had no effect on the rate of recruitment, while a linear relationship between recruit density and patch size was observed. Density-dependent processes mediated initial high recruitment resulting in population stability after 8-10 weeks, but densities continued to greatly exceed those reported in natural habitats. Given that artificial structures are likely to continue to proliferate in light of climate change projections, free-space is likely to become more available more frequently in the future supporting the expansion of fast-colonising species.

  15. Predicting free-space occupancy on novel artificial structures by an invasive intertidal barnacle using a removal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, Sally A; Robinson, Leonie A; Firth, Louise B; Knights, Antony M

    2013-01-01

    Artificial structures can create novel habitat in the marine environment that has been associated with the spread of invasive species. They are often located in areas of high disturbance and can vary significantly in the area of free space provided for settlement of marine organisms. Whilst correlation between the amount of free space available and recruitment success has been shown in populations of several marine benthic organisms, there has been relatively little focus on invasive species, a group with the potential to reproduce in vast numbers and colonise habitats rapidly. Invasion success following different scales of disturbance was examined in the invasive acorn barnacle, Austrominiusmodestus, on a unique art installation located in Liverpool Bay. Population growth and recruitment success were examined by comparing recruitment rates within disturbance clearings of 4 different sizes and by contrasting population development with early recruitment rates over a 10 week period. Disturbed areas were rapidly recolonised and monocultures of A. modestus formed within 6 weeks. The size of patch created during disturbance had no effect on the rate of recruitment, while a linear relationship between recruit density and patch size was observed. Density-dependent processes mediated initial high recruitment resulting in population stability after 8-10 weeks, but densities continued to greatly exceed those reported in natural habitats. Given that artificial structures are likely to continue to proliferate in light of climate change projections, free-space is likely to become more available more frequently in the future supporting the expansion of fast-colonising species.

  16. Antagonistic interactions between an invasive alien and a native coccinellid species may promote coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentley, William T; Vanbergen, Adam J; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brien, Melanie N; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-07-01

    Despite the capacity of invasive alien species to alter ecosystems, the mechanisms underlying their impact remain only partly understood. Invasive alien predators, for example, can significantly disrupt recipient communities by consuming prey species or acting as an intraguild predator (IGP). Behavioural interactions are key components of interspecific competition between predators, yet these are often overlooked invasion processes. Here, we show how behavioural, non-lethal IGP interactions might facilitate the establishment success of an invading alien species. We experimentally assessed changes in feeding behaviour (prey preference and consumption rate) of native UK coccinellid species (Adalia bipunctata and Coccinella septempunctata), whose populations are, respectively, declining and stable, when exposed to the invasive intraguild predator, Harmonia axyridis. Using a population dynamics model parameterized with these experimental data, we predicted how intraguild predation, accommodating interspecific behavioural interactions, might impact the abundance of the native and invasive alien species over time. When competing for the same aphid resource, the feeding rate of A. bipunctata significantly increased compared to the feeding in isolation, while the feeding rate of H. axyridis significantly decreased. This suggests that despite significant declines in the UK, A. bipunctata is a superior competitor to the intraguild predator H. axyridis. In contrast, the behaviour of non-declining C. septempunctata was unaltered by the presence of H. axyridis. Our experimental data show the differential behavioural plasticity of competing native and invasive alien predators, but do not explain A. bipunctata declines observed in the UK. Using behavioural plasticity as a parameter in a population dynamic model for A. bipunctata and H. axyridis, coexistence is predicted between the native and invasive alien following an initial period of decline in the native species. We

  17. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) promotes invasion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhihui; Yuan, Hongyan; Yin, Yuzhi; Zeng, Xiao; Bai, Renkui; Glazer, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer with tumor cell invasion playing a crucial role in the metastatic process. PDK1 is a key molecule that couples PI3K to cell proliferation and survival signals in response to growth factor receptor activation, and is oncogenic when expressed in mouse mammary epithelial cells. We now present evidence showing that PDK1-expressing cells exhibit enhanced anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and are highly invasive when grown on Matrigel. These properties correlate with induction of MMP-2 activity, increased MT1-MMP expression and a unique gene expression profile. Invasion assays in Matrigel, MMP-2 zymogram analysis, gene microarray analysis and mammary isografts were used to characterize the invasive and proliferative function of cells expressing PDK1. Tissue microarray analysis of human breast cancers was used to measure PDK1 expression in invasive tumors by IHC. Enhanced invasion on Matrigel in PDK1-expressing cells was accompanied by increased MMP-2 activity resulting from stabilization against proteasomal degradation. Increased MMP-2 activity was accompanied by elevated levels of MT1-MMP, which is involved in generating active MMP-2. Gene microarray analysis identified increased expression of the ECM-associated genes decorin and type I procollagen, whose gene products are substrates of MT1-MMP. Mammary fat pad isografts of PDK1-expressing cells produced invasive adenocarcinomas. Tissue microarray analysis of human invasive breast cancer indicated that PDK1pSer241 was strongly expressed in 90% of samples. These results indicate that PDK1 serves as an important effector of mammary epithelial cell growth and invasion in the transformed phenotype. PDK1 mediates its effect in part by MT1-MMP induction, which in turn activates MMP-2 and modulates the ECM proteins decorin and collagen. The presence of increased PDK1 expression in the majority of invasive breast cancers suggests its

  18. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Mario; Freitas, Raul; Crespi, Antonio L.; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, Joao Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: → Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. → Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. → Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.→ Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.→ Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  19. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mario, E-mail: mgsantoss@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Freitas, Raul, E-mail: raulfreitas@portugalmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Crespi, Antonio L., E-mail: aluis.crespi@gmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Department of Forest and Landscape, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, Joao Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  20. Epigenetic Alteration by DNA Methylation of ESR1, MYOD1 and hTERT Gene Promoters is Useful for Prediction of Response in Patients of Locally Advanced Invasive Cervical Carcinoma Treated by Chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, S; Patel, F D; Ghosh, S; Arora, A; Dhaliwal, L K; Srinivasan, R

    2015-12-01

    Locally advanced invasive cervical cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB/III] is treated by chemoradiation. The response to treatment is variable within a given FIGO stage. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene promoter methylation profile and corresponding transcript expression of a panel of six genes to identify genes which could predict the response of patients treated by chemoradiation. In total, 100 patients with invasive cervical cancer in FIGO stage IIB/III who underwent chemoradiation treatment were evaluated. Ten patients developed systemic metastases during therapy and were excluded. On the basis of patient follow-up, 69 patients were chemoradiation-sensitive, whereas 21 were chemoradiation-resistant. Gene promoter methylation and gene expression was determined by TaqMan assay and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, in tissue samples. The methylation frequency of ESR1, BRCA1, RASSF1A, MLH1, MYOD1 and hTERT genes ranged from 40 to 70%. Univariate and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that gene promoter methylation of MYOD1, ESR1 and hTERT could predict for chemoradiation response. A pattern of unmethylated MYOD1, unmethylated ESR1 and methylated hTERT promoter as well as lower ESR1 transcript levels predicted for chemoradiation resistance. Methylation profiling of a panel of three genes that includes MYOD1, ESR1 and hTERT may be useful to predict the response of invasive cervical carcinoma patients treated with standard chemoradiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Renske J E; Koelmans, Albert A; Besseling, Ellen; Halsband, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics (microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2-4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Liping [Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Huang, Lan [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Zhang, Bin [Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, PR China (China); Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Medicine-Division of Hematology/Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Sun, Yan [Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (China); and others

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells.

  3. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng; Wang, Liping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Bin; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells

  4. FUS-CHOP Promotes Invasion in Myxoid Liposarcoma through a SRC/FAK/RHO/ROCK-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tornin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulated SRC/FAK signaling leads to enhanced migration and invasion in many types of tumors. In myxoid and round cell liposarcoma (MRCLS, an adipocytic tumor characterized by the expression of the fusion oncogene FUS-CHOP, SRC have been found as one of the most activated kinases. Here we used a cell-of-origin model of MRCLS and an MRCLS cell line to thoroughly characterize the mechanisms of cell invasion induced by FUS-CHOP using in vitro (3D spheroid invasion assays and in vivo (chicken chorioallantoic membrane model approaches. FUS-CHOP expression activated SRC-FAK signaling and increased the invasive ability of MRCLS cells. In addition, FAK expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor aggressiveness in sarcoma patient samples. The involvement of SRC/FAK activation in FUS-CHOP–mediated invasion was further confirmed using the SRC inhibitor dasatinib, the specific FAK inhibitor PF-573228, and FAK siRNA. Notably, dasatinib and PF573228 could also efficiently block the invasion of cancer stem cell subpopulations. Downstream of SRC/FAK signaling, we found that FUS-CHOP expression increases the levels of the RHO/ROCK downstream effector phospho-MLC2 (T18/S19 and that this activation was prevented by dasatinib or PF573228. Moreover, the ROCK inhibitor RKI-1447 was able to completely abolish invasion in FUS-CHOP–expressing cells. These data uncover the involvement of SRC/FAK/RHO/ROCK signaling axis in FUS-CHOP–mediated invasion, thus providing a rationale for testing inhibitors of this pathway as potential novel antimetastatic agents for MRCLS treatment.

  5. Laser damage to marine plankton and its application to checking biofouling and invasion by aquatic species: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Obika, Hideki; Sreekumari, Kurissery; Utsumi, Akihiro; Ooie, Toshihiko; Yano, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    In this laboratory study, the ability of low-power pulsed laser irradiation to kill planktonic organisms in a flowing water system was examined, thus, to test the possibility of using this technique as a water treatment strategy to reduce biofouling growth in condenser tubes of power plants and to reduce bioinvasion via the ballast water of ships. Two flow rates (4.6 and 9.0 l h(-1)) were tested on three planktonic organisms: two marine centric diatoms viz. Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros gracilis and a dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama. A low-power pulsed laser irradiation at 532 nm with a fluence of 0.1 J cm(-2) from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was used as the irradiation source. The laser irradiation resulted in a heavy mortality of the test cells. The mortality observed was >90% for S. costatum and H. circularisqama and >70% for C. gracilis. The results suggest that laser irradiation has the potential to act as a water treatment strategy to reduce biofouling of condenser tubes in power plants as well as to reduce species invasion via the ballast water of ships.

  6. Microparasites and Placental Invasiveness in Eutherian Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Placental invasiveness-the number of maternal tissue layers separating fetal tissues from maternal blood-is variable across mammalian species. Although this diversity is likely to be functionally important, variation in placental invasiveness remains unexplained. Here we test the hypothesis that increased risk of transplacental transmission of pathogens from the mother to the fetus promotes the evolution of non-invasive placentation, the most likely derived condition in eutherian mammals. Specifically, we predict that non-invasive placentation is associated with increased microparasite species richness relative to more invasive placental types, based on the assumption that higher numbers of microparasites in a population reflects greater risk of transplacental transmission to fetuses. As predicted, higher bacteria species richness is associated with non-invasive placentation. Protozoa species richness, however, shows the opposite pattern. Because invasive placentae facilitate the transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus, we propose that the ancestral condition of invasive placentation is retained under selection for protection of newborns from higher risk of postnatal protozoan infection. Hence, our findings suggest that a tradeoff exists between protection against bacterial infection prenatally and protozoan infection postnatally. Future studies are needed to investigate how maternal prevalence of infection and the relative pre- versus postnatal risk of fetal infection by different microparasite groups vary among mammalian hosts in relation to placental invasiveness.

  7. US annual report to the ICES working group on introductions and transfers of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides annual update on new introductions to the US, new regulations, and major research/management efforts in the US related to marine invasive species, with focus on activities in the North Atlantic

  8. Long Noncoding RNA Taurine-Upregulated Gene 1 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Invasion in Gastric Cancer via Negatively Modulating miRNA-145-5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kewei; Li, Zhen; Li, Yahua; Zhang, Wenzhe; Han, Xinwei

    2017-05-24

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) is involved in the development and carcinogenesis of various tumors, suggesting the diagnostic potential of TUG1 in these cancers. However, the exact role of TUG1 and its underlying mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) remain unknown. In this study, the expression of TUG1 and miR-145-5p in GC cell lines and nonmalignant gastric epithelial cell lines was detected by qRT-PCR. BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells were transfected with si-TUG1, pcDNA 3.1-TUG1, miR-145-5p mimics, or matched controls. The biological function of TUG1 and miR-145-5p in GC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo was investigated by MTT assay, Transwell invasion assay, and tumor xenograft experiments. The regulating relationship between TUG1 and miR-145-5 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that TUG1 was significantly overexpressed and miR-145-5p was dramatically downregulated in GC cell lines. TUG1 knockdown strikingly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and markedly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, TUG1 could directly bind to miR-145-5p and repress miR-145-5p expression. TUG1 overexpression significantly relieved the inhibition on GC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, mediated by miR-145-5p overexpression. In conclusion, TUG1 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in GC via negatively modulating miRNA-145-5p, which undoubtedly contributes to understanding the mechanism of GC occurrence and development.

  9. Marine Cyclotripeptide X-13 Promotes Angiogenesis in Zebrafish and Human Endothelial Cells via PI3K/Akt/eNOS Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Pei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotripeptide X-13 is a core of novel marine compound xyloallenoide A isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (no. 2508. We found that X-13 dose-dependently induced angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and in human endothelial cells, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt and NO release. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/eNOS by LY294002 or l-NAME suppressed X-13-induced angiogenesis. The present work demonstrates that X-13 promotes angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways.

  10. Autocrine HBEGF expression promotes breast cancer intravasation, metastasis and macrophage-independent invasion in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. N.; Sharma, V. P.; Beaty, B. T.; Roh-Johnson, M.; Peterson, E. A.; Van Rooijen, N.; Kenny, P. A.; Wiley, H. S.; Condeelis, J. S.; Segall, J. E.

    2014-10-13

    Increased expression of HBEGF in estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors is correlated with enhanced metastasis to distant organ sites and more rapid disease recurrence upon removal of the primary tumor. Our previous work has demonstrated a paracrine loop between breast cancer cells and macrophages in which the tumor cells are capable of stimulating macrophages through the secretion of colony-stimulating factor-1 while the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), in turn, aid in tumor cell invasion by secreting epidermal growth factor. To determine how the autocrine expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands by carcinoma cells would affect this paracrine loop mechanism, and in particular whether tumor cell invasion depends on spatial ligand gradients generated by TAMs, we generated cell lines with increased HBEGF expression. We found that autocrine HBEGF expression enhanced in vivo intravasation and metastasis and resulted in a novel phenomenon in which macrophages were no longer required for in vivo invasion of breast cancer cells. In vitro studies revealed that expression of HBEGF enhanced invadopodium formation, thus providing a mechanism for cell autonomous invasion. The increased invadopodium formation was directly dependent on EGFR signaling, as demonstrated by a rapid decrease in invadopodia upon inhibition of autocrine HBEGF/EGFR signaling as well as inhibition of signaling downstream of EGFR activation. HBEGF expression also resulted in enhanced invadopodium function via upregulation of matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 expression levels. We conclude that high levels of HBEGF expression can short-circuit the tumor cell/macrophage paracrine invasion loop, resulting in enhanced tumor invasion that is independent of macrophage signaling.

  11. Downregulation of survivin by siRNA inhibits invasion and promotes apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Liang, H. [Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Cao, W. [Department of Obstetrics, Qingdao Central Hospital, Qingdao (China); Xu, R.; Ju, X.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-05-23

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that occurs mainly in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have a poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are not very effective. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of the apoptosis protein family, plays a significant role in cell division, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of cell proliferation and invasion. Previous studies found that survivin is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas and is correlated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether survivin could serve as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma. We employed RNA interference to reduce survivin expression in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line and analyzed the effect of RNA interference on cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. RNA interference of survivin led to a significant decrease in invasiveness and proliferation and increased apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells in vitro. RNA interference of survivin inhibited tumor growth in vivo by 68±13% (P=0.002) and increased the number of apoptotic cells by 9.8±1.2% (P=0.001) compared with negative small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment controls. Moreover, RNA interference of survivin inhibited the formation of lung metastases by 92% (P=0.002) and reduced microvascular density by 60% (P=0.0003). Survivin siRNA resulted in significant downregulation of survivin mRNA and protein expression both in vitro and in vivo compared with negative siRNA treatment controls. RNA interference of survivin was found to be a potent inhibitor of SH-SY5Y tumor growth and metastasis formation. These results support further clinical development of RNA interference of survivin as a treatment of neuroblastoma and other cancer types.

  12. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Proctor, Caitlin; Hammes, Frederik; Johnson, David; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Graham, David; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fodelianakis, Stylianos; Hahn, Nicole; Boon, Nico; Smets, Barth F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  13. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Proctor, Caitlin; Hammes, Frederik; Johnson, David; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Graham, David; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Hahn, Nicole; Boon, Nico; Smets, Barth F

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in controlling—promoting or avoiding—the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process. PMID:27137125

  14. A conceptual framework for invasion in microbial communities

    KAUST Repository

    Kinnunen, Marta

    2016-05-03

    There is a growing interest in controlling-promoting or avoiding-the invasion of microbial communities by new community members. Resource availability and community structure have been reported as determinants of invasion success. However, most invasion studies do not adhere to a coherent and consistent terminology nor always include rigorous interpretations of the processes behind invasion. Therefore, we suggest that a consistent set of definitions and a rigorous conceptual framework are needed. We define invasion in a microbial community as the establishment of an alien microbial type in a resident community and argue how simple criteria to define aliens, residents, and alien establishment can be applied for a wide variety of communities. In addition, we suggest an adoption of the community ecology framework advanced by Vellend (2010) to clarify potential determinants of invasion. This framework identifies four fundamental processes that control community dynamics: dispersal, selection, drift and diversification. While selection has received ample attention in microbial community invasion research, the three other processes are often overlooked. Here, we elaborate on the relevance of all four processes and conclude that invasion experiments should be designed to elucidate the role of dispersal, drift and diversification, in order to obtain a complete picture of invasion as a community process.

  15. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  16. Biodiversity characterisation and hydrodynamic consequences of marine fouling communities on marine renewable energy infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Andrew; Crawford, Rebecca; Kakkonen, Jenni; Kiddie, Greg; Miller, Susan; Harris, Robert E; Porter, Joanne S

    2017-08-01

    As part of ongoing commitments to produce electricity from renewable energy sources in Scotland, Orkney waters have been targeted for potential large-scale deployment of wave and tidal energy converting devices. Orkney has a well-developed infrastructure supporting the marine energy industry; recently enhanced by the construction of additional piers. A major concern to marine industries is biofouling on submerged structures, including energy converters and measurement instrumentation. In this study, the marine energy infrastructure and instrumentation were surveyed to characterise the biofouling. Fouling communities varied between deployment habitats; key species were identified allowing recommendations for scheduling device maintenance and preventing spread of invasive organisms. A method to measure the impact of biofouling on hydrodynamic response is described and applied to data from a wave-monitoring buoy deployed at a test site in Orkney. The results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of the measurement resources for power generation. Further applications are suggested for future testing in other scenarios, including tidal energy.

  17. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Veronica; Chen, Tingan; Lloyd, Mark; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan; Cornnell, Heather H; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Bailey, Kate; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Rothberg, Jennifer M; Sloane, Bonnie F; Johnson, Joseph; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. The hypothesis that acid mediates invasion proposes that H(+) diffuses from the proximal tumor microenvironment into adjacent normal tissues where it causes tissue remodeling that permits local invasion. In the current work, tumor invasion and peritumoral pH were monitored over time using intravital microscopy. In every case, the peritumoral pH was acidic and heterogeneous and the regions of highest tumor invasion corresponded to areas of lowest pH. Tumor invasion did not occur into regions with normal or near-normal extracellular pH. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that cells in the invasive edges expressed the glucose transporter-1 and the sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1, both of which were associated with peritumoral acidosis. In support of the functional importance of our findings, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate was sufficient to increase peritumoral pH and inhibit tumor growth and local invasion in a preclinical model, supporting the acid-mediated invasion hypothesis. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1524-35. ©2012 AACR. ©2012 AACR.

  18. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  19. Evaluation of invasions and declines of submersed aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P.A.; Barko, J.W.; Smith, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past 60 yr, sightings of aquatic macrophyte species in geographic regions where they had previously not been found have occurred with increasing frequency, apparently due to both greater dispersal of the plants as a result of human activities as well as better documentation of plant distribution. Intercontinental invasions, such as Myriophyllum spicatum and Hydrilla into North America, Elodea canadensis into Europe and Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa and Cabomba caroliniana into Japan, have generally been well documented. However, the spread of an exotic species across a continent after its initial introduction (e.g., Potamogeton crispus in North America) or the expansion of a species native to a continent into hitherto unexploited territory (e.g.,the expansion of the North American native Myriophyllum heterophyllum into New England) have received little attention. Natural declines in aquatic macrophyte communities have also received little scientific study although there are many accounts of macrophyte declines. The best-documented example comes from the marine literature where extensive declines of eelgrass (Zostera) occurred in the 1930s along the Atlantic coast due to a pathogenic marine slime mold (''wasting disease''). The aim of this workshop was to identify examples of invasions or natural declines of aquatic macrophyte species throughout the world and assess the importance of environmental factors in their control. Forty-five scientists and aquatic plant managers from ten countries participated in the workshop. Eleven of the participants contributed written evaluations of species invasions and declines in their geo-graphic region. These were distributed to registered participants prior to the meeting and served as the starting-point of workshop discussions. To address the topics raised in the working papers, the participants divided into four working groups to evaluate: 1. Environmental controls of species invasions. 2. Biotic controls of species

  20. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans for the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E L Ferreira

    Full Text Available The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion.

  1. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products promote the migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by activating the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Bashir, Qudsia; Kim, In Ki; Hong, Sung-Jong; Maeng, Sejung; Bahk, Young Yil; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2017-06-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a slow-growing but highly metastatic cancer. Its metastatic potential largely explains its high mortality rate. A recognized risk factor for CCA development is infection with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis. We previously reported that the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis promoted the three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of CCA cells. In the present study, a quantitative real-time PCR array of extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules was used to examine the regulatory mechanism of ESP-mediated CCA cell migration and invasion. In particular, the expression levels of integrin α isoforms and β4 were upregulated in response to ESPs. Increased expression of integrin β4 was probably correlated with activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the steroid receptor coactivator (Src) family kinase and the subsequent activation of two downstream focal adhesion molecules, paxillin and vinculin. Moreover, inhibition of FAK/Src activation reduced paxillin and vinculin phosphorylation and attenuated ESP-induced CCA cell migration and invasion. These findings suggest that the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling axis may play a crucial role in clonorchiasis-associated CCA metastasis during tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An eHealth Project on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Comprehensive Evaluation of a Promotional Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Carozzo, Stefano; Signori, Alessio; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background The recently launched Pneumo Rischio eHealth project, which consists of an app, a website, and social networking activity, is aimed at increasing public awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The launch of this project was prompted by the inadequate awareness of IPD among both laypeople and health care workers, the heavy socioeconomic burden of IPD, and the far from optimal vaccination coverage in Italy, despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. Objective The objectives of our study were to analyze trends in Pneumo Rischio usage before and after a promotional campaign, to characterize its end users, and to assess its user-rated quality. Methods At 7 months after launching Pneumo Rischio, we established a 4-month marketing campaign to promote the project. This intervention used various approaches and channels, including both traditional and digital marketing strategies. To highlight usage trends, we used different techniques of time series analysis and modeling, including a modified Mann-Kendall test, change-point detection, and segmented negative binomial regression of interrupted time series. Users were characterized in terms of demographics and IPD risk categories. Customer-rated quality was evaluated by means of a standardized tool in a sample of app users. Results Over 1 year, the app was accessed by 9295 users and the website was accessed by 143,993 users, while the project’s Facebook page had 1216 fans. The promotional intervention was highly effective in increasing the daily number of users. In particular, the Mann-Kendall trend test revealed a significant (P ≤.01) increasing trend in both app and website users, while change-point detection analysis showed that the first significant change corresponded to the start of the promotional campaign. Regression analysis showed a significant immediate effect of the intervention, with a mean increase in daily numbers of users of 1562% (95% CI 456%-4870%) for the app and 620

  3. Developing INFOMAR's Seabed Mapping Data to Support a Sustainable Marine Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M. T.; Guinan, J.

    2016-02-01

    As Ireland's national seabed mapping programme, INFOMAR1 (INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Ireland's MARine resource) enters its eleventh year it continues to provide pivotal seabed mapping data products, e.g. databases, charts and physical habitat maps to support Ireland's Integrated Marine Plan. The programme, jointly coordinated by the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute, has gained a world class reputation for developing seabed mapping technologies, infrastructure and expertise. In the government's current Integrated Marine Plan, the programme's critical role in marine spatial planning enabling infrastructural development, research and education has been cited2. INFOMAR's free data policy supports a thriving maritime economy by promoting easy access to seabed mapping datasets that underpin; maritime safety, security and surveillance, governance, business development, research and technology innovation and infrastructure. The first hydrographic surveys of the national marine mapping programme mapped the extent of Ireland's deepest offshore area, whilst in recent years the focus has been to map the coastal and shallow areas. Targeted coastal areas include 26 bays and 3 priority areas for which specialised equipment, techniques and vessels are required. This talk will discuss how the INFOMAR programme has evolved to address the scientific and technological challenges of seabed mapping across a range of water depths; particularly the challenges associated with addressing inshore data gaps. It will describe how the data converts to bathymetric and geological maps detailing seabed characteristics and habitats. We will expand on how maps are: incorporated into collaborative marine projects such as EMODnet, commercialised to identify marine resources and used as marine decision support tools that drive policy and promote protection of the vastly under discovered marine area.

  4. The need for spatially explicit quantification of benefits in invasive-species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Adams, Vanessa M; Hermoso, Virgilio

    2018-04-01

    Worldwide, invasive species are a leading driver of environmental change across terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments and cost billions of dollars annually in ecological damages and economic losses. Resources limit invasive-species control, and planning processes are needed to identify cost-effective solutions. Thus, studies are increasingly considering spatially variable natural and socioeconomic assets (e.g., species persistence, recreational fishing) when planning the allocation of actions for invasive-species management. There is a need to improve understanding of how such assets are considered in invasive-species management. We reviewed over 1600 studies focused on management of invasive species, including flora and fauna. Eighty-four of these studies were included in our final analysis because they focused on the prioritization of actions for invasive species management. Forty-five percent (n = 38) of these studies were based on spatial optimization methods, and 35% (n = 13) accounted for spatially variable assets. Across all 84 optimization studies considered, 27% (n = 23) explicitly accounted for spatially variable assets. Based on our findings, we further explored the potential costs and benefits to invasive species management when spatially variable assets are explicitly considered or not. To include spatially variable assets in decision-making processes that guide invasive-species management there is a need to quantify environmental responses to invasive species and to enhance understanding of potential impacts of invasive species on different natural or socioeconomic assets. We suggest these gaps could be filled by systematic reviews, quantifying invasive species impacts on native species at different periods, and broadening sources and enhancing sharing of knowledge. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Marine renewable energy policy in China and recommendations for improving implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Wang, Ji; Liu, Yuxin; Chen, Libo

    2018-02-01

    Renewable energy is the effective solution for the harmonious coexistence of human and environment as well as for the sustainable development. Marine renewable energy as one of the renewable energies, potentially offer fewer environmental risks and thus community acceptance than other renewable energy developments. Government support is the key and initial power for developing marine renewable energy. To promote the development and utilization of marine renewable energy, the Chinese government has established the special funding plan for marine renewable energy, and released “the 13th Five-years Plan (2016-2020) for marine renewable energy”. This paper describes the mechanisms established by the marine renewable Energy policy in China, and provides a comparative analysis of the Chinese marine renewable energy policy framework. We provides some policy recommendations for future development of marine renewable energy in China.

  6. First record of a Caribbean green turtle (Chelonia mydas) grazing on invasive seagrass (Halophila stipulacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Bussel, T.; Debrot, A.O.; Christianen, M.

    2014-01-01

    From Bonaire, we here provide the first documented case of the green turtle feeding on the invasive seagrass, Halophila stipulacea, in the Caribbean. The seagrass is rapidly invading existing seagrass meadows and altering key foraging habitat of this endangered marine reptile throughout the eastern

  7. Investigating mechanisms of alkalinization for reducing primary breast tumor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Ian F; Nesbit, Lance A

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  8. Elevated nitrogen allows the weak invasive plant Galinsoga quadriradiata to become more vigorous with respect to inter-specific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yang, Ying-Bo; Zhu, Zhi-Hong

    2018-02-16

    Elevated nitrogen associated with global change is believed to promote the invasion of many vigorous exotic plants. However, it is unclear how a weak exotic plant will respond to elevated nitrogen in the future. In this study, the competitive outcome of a weak invasive plant (Galinsoga quadriradiata) and two non-invasive plants was detected. The plants were subjected to 3 types of culture (mixed, monoculture or one-plant), 2 levels of nitrogen (ambient or elevated at a rate of 2 g m -2 yr -1 ) and 2 levels of light (65% shade or full sunlight). The results showed that elevated nitrogen significantly promoted the growth of both the weak invader and the non-invasive plants in one-plant pots; however, growth promotion was not observed for the non-invasive species in the mixed culture pots. The presence of G. quadriradiata significantly inhibited the growth of the non-invasive plants, and a decreased negative species interaction was detected as a result of elevated nitrogen. Our results suggest that competitive interactions between G. quadriradiata and the non-invasive plants were altered by elevated nitrogen. It provides exceptional evidence that an initially weak invasive plant can become an aggressive invader through elevated nitrogen deposition.

  9. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Green

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  10. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie J; Akins, John L; Maljković, Aleksandra; Côté, Isabelle M

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them.

  11. Biological Invasion Influences the Outcome of Plant-Soil Feedback in the Invasive Plant Species from the Brazilian Semi-arid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena; da Silva Sandim, Aline

    2017-05-30

    Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata). Our field sampling revealed that AMF diversity and frequency of the Order Diversisporales were positively correlated with the root zone of the native plants, whereas AMF dominance and frequency of the Order Glomerales were positively correlated with the root zone of invasive plants. We grew the invasive plants in soil inoculated with AMF species from the root zone of invasive (I changed ) and native (I unaltered ) plant species. We also performed a third treatment with sterilized soil inoculum (control). We examined the effects of these three AMF inoculums on plant dry biomass, root colonization, plant phosphorous concentration, and plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas. We found that I unaltered and I changed promoted the growth of all invasive plants and led to a higher plant dry biomass, mycorrhizal colonization, and P uptake than control, but I changed showed better results on these variables than I unaltered . For plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas and fungal inoculum effect on plant P concentration, we found positive feedback between changed-AMF community (I changed ) and three of the studied invasive plants: C. madagascariensis, P. aculeata, and S. virgata.

  12. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    -1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells remarkably reduces cellular motility, invasion and transformation, as well as tumorigenesis and lung metastases in nude mice. In addition, the repression of Bmi-1 reverses the expression of EMT markers and inhibits the Akt/GSK3β/Snail pathway. Conclusions This study demonstrates that Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer and predicts poor survival. PMID:21276221

  13. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2018-04-01

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  15. PBX3 promotes migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells via activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai-Bo; Gu, Jin; Ji, Deng-Bo; Li, Zhao-Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Qian

    2014-12-28

    To investigate the role of pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX)3 in migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We detected PBX3 expression in five cell lines and surgical specimens from 111 patients with CRC using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We forced expression of PBX3 in low metastatic HT-29 and SW480 cells and knocked down expression of PBX3 in highly metastatic LOVO and HCT-8 cells. Wound healing and Boyden chamber assays were used to detect cell migration and invasion after altered expression of PBX3. Western blot was performed to detect the change of signaling molecule ERK1/2 following PBX3 overexpression. High level of PBX3 expression was correlated with the invasive potential of CRC cells, and significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P = 0.02), distant metastasis (P = 0.04), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.03) and poor overall survival of patients (P migration and invasion, while inhibited PBX3 expression in highly metastatic cells suppressed migration and invasion. Furthermore, upregulation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was found to be one of the targeted molecules responsible for PBX3-induced CRC cell migration and invasion. PBX3 induces invasion and metastasis of CRC cells partially through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

  16. An eHealth Project on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Comprehensive Evaluation of a Promotional Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Carozzo, Stefano; Signori, Alessio; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara

    2016-12-02

    The recently launched Pneumo Rischio eHealth project, which consists of an app, a website, and social networking activity, is aimed at increasing public awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The launch of this project was prompted by the inadequate awareness of IPD among both laypeople and health care workers, the heavy socioeconomic burden of IPD, and the far from optimal vaccination coverage in Italy, despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The objectives of our study were to analyze trends in Pneumo Rischio usage before and after a promotional campaign, to characterize its end users, and to assess its user-rated quality. At 7 months after launching Pneumo Rischio, we established a 4-month marketing campaign to promote the project. This intervention used various approaches and channels, including both traditional and digital marketing strategies. To highlight usage trends, we used different techniques of time series analysis and modeling, including a modified Mann-Kendall test, change-point detection, and segmented negative binomial regression of interrupted time series. Users were characterized in terms of demographics and IPD risk categories. Customer-rated quality was evaluated by means of a standardized tool in a sample of app users. Over 1 year, the app was accessed by 9295 users and the website was accessed by 143,993 users, while the project's Facebook page had 1216 fans. The promotional intervention was highly effective in increasing the daily number of users. In particular, the Mann-Kendall trend test revealed a significant (P ≤.01) increasing trend in both app and website users, while change-point detection analysis showed that the first significant change corresponded to the start of the promotional campaign. Regression analysis showed a significant immediate effect of the intervention, with a mean increase in daily numbers of users of 1562% (95% CI 456%-4870%) for the app and 620% (95% CI 176%-1777%) for the website

  17. Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  18. Role of bacteria in marine barite precipitation : A case study using Mediterranean seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Crespo, N.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; González-Muñoz, M. T.; Bedmar, E. J.; De Lange, G. J.; Jroundi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Marine bacteria isolated from natural seawater were used to test their capacity to promote barite precipitation under laboratory conditions. Seawater samples were collected in the western and eastern Mediterranean at 250. m and 200. m depths, respectively, since marine barite formation is thought to

  19. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cremer

    Full Text Available It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects.

  20. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  1. Anticancer drugs from marine flora: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithranga Boopathy, N; Kathiresan, K

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  2. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sithranga Boopathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  3. Public Perception of Invasive Plant Species: Assessing the Impact of Workshop Activities to Promote Young Students' Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck Reis, Catarina; Marchante, Helia; Freitas, Helena; Marchante, Elizabete

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the main threats to biodiversity worldwide. Even though they are identified and recognized as such by the Portuguese law, the majority of the population is not yet aware of this problem. Aiming to increase awareness about biological invasions among young students, a workshop on Invasive Plant Species was organized at…

  4. Marine Protected Areas: Spanish context and the case of “Os Miñarzos”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Burgos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the fisheries status in the world suggests that the state of the main marine resources is worrying, and that the fishery sector has been under unsustainable conditions. Over the last decades, the Marine Protected Areas have been established as global planning tools to compensate for the effects of overfishing, and ensure thesustainability of biological productivity and human uses. However, many of them are limited to the simple name, without detailed knowledge of the ecosystems that host, neither to include effectively local communities in their implementation and management, key requirements to manage these areas in a holistic and integral way.This paper addresses the marine protected areas as tools of governance based in the fisheries co-management that can promote the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, as well as the promotion of human welfare. For that, we describe the history of the "Os Miñarzos” Marine Reserve of Fishing Interest (Galicia / Spain,covering its six years of life. It is hoped that this paper will help to disseminate this initiative promoted by the local fisheries, and that it can contribute to the discussion on the role of marine protected areas in protecting the long-term ecological integrity and sustainable use of natural ecosystems. 

  5. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R; Ebling, Alina M; Landing, William M; Joyner, Jessica L; Kemp, Keri M; Griffin, Dale W; Lipp, Erin K

    2016-05-24

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrio after natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust-Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  6. The Air Liquid-interface, a Skin Microenvironment, Promotes Growth of Melanoma Cells, but not Their Apoptosis and Invasion, through Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Yee, Chong; Aoki, Shigehisa; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Matsunobu, Aki; Yamasaki, Fumio; Misago, Noriyuki; Piao, Meihua; Tetsuji, Uemura; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime; Toda, Shuji

    2010-01-01

    The air-liquid interface (ALI) is a common microenvironment of the skin, but it is unknown whether the ALI affects melanoma cell behaviors. Using a collagen gel invasion assay, immunohistochemistry, and Western blots, here we show that melanoma cell proliferation in cultures with an ALI is higher than melanoma cell proliferation in submerged cultures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake, an indicator of cell proliferation, of melanoma cells at the ALI was about 3 times that of submerged cells, while ALI and submerged melanoma cells had similar levels of single-stranded DNA (a marker of apoptosis). The ALI enhanced the expression of Raf-1, MEK-1 and pERK-1/2 components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, in cells more than the submerged condition did. The increases in BrdU uptake and pERK-1/2 expression promoted by ALI was abolished by the MEK inhibitor, PD-98059. ALI-treated and submerged melanoma cells did not infiltrate into the collagen gel, and they showed no significant difference in the expression of the invasion- and motility-related molecules, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9, laminin 5, and filamin A. Our data indicate that the ALI, a skin microenvironment, accelerates the growth, but not the apoptosis or invasion, of melanoma cells through MAPK activation

  7. Investigating the potential use of environmental DNA (eDNA for genetic monitoring of marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Foote

    Full Text Available The exploitation of non-invasive samples has been widely used in genetic monitoring of terrestrial species. In aquatic ecosystems, non-invasive samples such as feces, shed hair or skin, are less accessible. However, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been shown to be an effective tool for genetic monitoring of species presence in freshwater ecosystems. Detecting species in the marine environment using eDNA potentially offers a greater challenge due to the greater dilution, amount of mixing and salinity compared with most freshwater ecosystems. To determine the potential use of eDNA for genetic monitoring we used specific primers that amplify short mitochondrial DNA sequences to detect the presence of a marine mammal, the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in a controlled environment and in natural marine locations. The reliability of the genetic detections was investigated by comparing with detections of harbor porpoise echolocation clicks by static acoustic monitoring devices. While we were able to consistently genetically detect the target species under controlled conditions, the results from natural locations were less consistent and detection by eDNA was less successful than acoustic detections. However, at one site we detected long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, a species rarely sighted in the Baltic. Therefore, with optimization aimed towards processing larger volumes of seawater this method has the potential to compliment current visual and acoustic methods of species detection of marine mammals.

  8. RCP-driven α5β1 recycling suppresses Rac and promotes RhoA activity via the RacGAP1-IQGAP1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemet, Guillaume; Green, David M; Bridgewater, Rebecca E; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Humphries, Martin J; Norman, Jim C; Caswell, Patrick T

    2013-09-16

    Inhibition of αvβ3 or expression of mutant p53 promotes invasion into fibronectin (FN)-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) by enhancing Rab-coupling protein (RCP)-dependent recycling of α5β1 integrin. RCP and α5β1 cooperatively recruit receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR1, to regulate their trafficking and downstream signaling via protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, which, in turn, promotes invasive migration. In this paper, we identify a novel PKB/Akt substrate, RacGAP1, which is phosphorylated as a consequence of RCP-dependent α5β1 trafficking. Phosphorylation of RacGAP1 promotes its recruitment to IQGAP1 at the tips of invasive pseudopods, and RacGAP1 then locally suppresses the activity of the cytoskeletal regulator Rac and promotes the activity of RhoA in this subcellular region. This Rac to RhoA switch promotes the extension of pseudopodial processes and invasive migration into FN-containing matrices, in a RhoA-dependent manner. Thus, the localized endocytic trafficking of α5β1 within the tips of invasive pseudopods elicits signals that promote the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, protrusion, and invasion into FN-rich ECM.

  9. PTK6 promotes cancer migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells dependent on ERK signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ono

    Full Text Available Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 (PTK6 is a non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that may be involved in some cancers. However, the biological role and expression status of PTK6 in pancreatic cancer is unknown. Therefore in this study, we evaluated the functional role of PTK6 on pancreatic cancer invasion. Five pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed PTK6 at varying levels. PTK6 expression was also observed in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PTK6 suppression by siRNA significantly reduced both cellular migration and invasion (0.59/0.49 fold for BxPC3, 0.61/0.62 for Panc1, 0.42/0.39 for MIAPaCa2, respectively, p<0.05 for each. In contrast, forced overexpression of PTK6 by transfection of a PTK6 expression vector in Panc1 and MIAPaCa2 cells increased cellular migration and invasion (1.57/1.67 fold for Panc1, 1.44/1.57 for MIAPaCa2, respectively, p<0.05. Silencing PTK6 reduced ERK1/2 activation, but not AKT or STAT3 activation, while PTK6 overexpression increased ERK1/2 activation. U0126, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2, completely abolished the effect of PTK6 overexpression on cellular migration and invasion. These results suggest that PTK6 regulates cellular migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer via ERK signaling. PTK6 may be a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.

  10. The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by sponging miR-204 and releasing SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhouhua; Xu, Xuwen; Zhou, Ledu; Fu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Shuhui; Zhou, Jiebin; Tan, Deming; Liu, Shuiping

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the significance of long non-coding RNA in cancer development. Several recent studies suggest the oncogenic activity of long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which MALAT1 modulates hepatocellular carcinoma biological behaviors. We found that microRNA-204 was significantly downregulated in sh-MALAT1 HepG2 cell and 15 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Through bioinformatic screening, luciferase reporter assay, RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull-down assay, we identified microRNA-204 as a potential interacting partner for MALAT1. Functionally, wound-healing and transwell assays revealed that microRNA-204 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Notably, sirtuin 1 was recognized as a direct downstream target of microRNA-204 in HepG2 cells. Moreover, si-SIRT1 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration process. These data elucidated, by sponging and competitive binding to microRNA-204, MALAT1 releases the suppression on sirtuin 1, which in turn promotes hepatocellular carcinoma migration and invasion. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which MALAT1 stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma progression and justifies targeting metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Utilization of invasive tamarisk by salt marsh consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, Christine R; Levin, Lisa A; Talley, Drew; Crooks, Jeffrey A

    2008-11-01

    Plant invasions of coastal wetlands are rapidly changing the structure and function of these systems globally. Alteration of litter dynamics represents one of the fundamental impacts of an invasive plant on salt marsh ecosystems. Tamarisk species (Tamarix spp.), which extensively invade terrestrial and riparian habitats, have been demonstrated to enter food webs in these ecosystems. However, the trophic impacts of the relatively new invasion of tamarisk into marine ecosystem have not been assessed. We evaluated the trophic consequences of invasion by tamarisk for detrital food chains in the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve salt marsh using litter dynamics techniques and stable isotope enrichment experiments. The observations of a short residence time for tamarisk combined with relatively low C:N values indicate that tamarisk is a relatively available and labile food source. With an isotopic (15N) enrichment of tamarisk, we demonstrated that numerous macroinvertebrate taxonomic and trophic groups, both within and on the sediment, utilized 15N derived from labeled tamarisk detritus. Infaunal invertebrate species that took up no or limited 15N from labeled tamarisk (A. californica, enchytraeid oligochaetes, coleoptera larvae) occurred in lower abundance in the tamarisk-invaded environment. In contrast, species that utilized significant 15N from the labeled tamarisk, such as psychodid insects, an exotic amphipod, and an oniscid isopod, either did not change or occurred in higher abundance. Our research supports the hypothesis that invasive species can alter the trophic structure of an environment through addition of detritus and can also potentially impact higher trophic levels by shifting dominance within the invertebrate community to species not widely consumed.

  12. Understanding invasion history and predicting invasive niches using genetic sequencing technology in Australia: case studies from Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Razia S; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Clements, David R; Weston, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have greatly facilitated the rapid and complete assessment of plant population genetics. Here, we apply our current understanding of the genetics and ecophysiology of plant invasions to recent work on Australian plant invaders from the Cucurbitaceae and Boraginaceae. The Cucurbitaceae study showed that both prickly paddy melon ( Cucumis myriocarpus ) and camel melon ( Citrullus lanatus ) were represented by only a single genotype in Australia, implying that each was probably introduced as a single introduction event. In contrast, a third invasive melon, Citrullus colocynthis , possessed a moderate level of genetic diversity in Australia and was potentially introduced to the continent at least twice. The Boraginaceae study demonstrated the value of comparing two similar congeneric species; one, Echium plantagineum , is highly invasive and genetically diverse, whereas the other, Echium vulgare , exhibits less genetic diversity and occupies a more limited ecological niche. Sequence analysis provided precise identification of invasive plant species, as well as information on genetic diversity and phylogeographic history. Improved sequencing technologies will continue to allow greater resolution of genetic relationships among invasive plant populations, thereby potentially improving our ability to predict the impact of these relationships upon future spread and better manage invaders

  13. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  14. Epigenetic silencing of ADAMTS18 promotes cell migration and invasion of breast cancer through AKT and NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongying; Xiao, Qian; Fan, Yu; Xiang, Tingxiu; Li, Chen; Li, Chunhong; Li, Shuman; Hui, Tianli; Zhang, Lu; Li, Hongzhong; Li, Lili; Ren, Guosheng

    2017-06-01

    ADAMTS18 dysregulation plays an important role in many disease processes including cancer. We previously found ADAMTS18 as frequently methylated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) for multiple carcinomas, however, its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms in breast carcinogenesis remain unknown. Here, we found that ADAMTS18 was silenced or downregulated in breast cancer cell lines. ADAMTS18 was reduced in primary breast tumor tissues as compared with their adjacent noncancer tissues. ADAMTS18 promoter methylation was detected in 70.8% of tumor tissues by methylation-specific PCR, but none of the normal tissues. Demethylation treatment restored ADAMTS18 expression in silenced breast cell lines. Ectopic expression of ADAMTS18 in breast tumor cells resulted in inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Nude mouse model further confirmed that ADAMTS18 suppressed breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Further mechanistic studies showed that ADAMTS18 suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), further inhibited migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. ADAMT18 deregulated AKT and NF-κB signaling, through inhibiting phosphorylation levels of AKT and p65. Thus, ADAMTS18 as an antimetastatic tumor suppressor antagonizes AKT and NF-κB signaling in breast tumorigenesis. Its methylation could be a potential tumor biomarker for breast cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Down-regulation of TCF21 by hypermethylation induces cell proliferation, migration and invasion in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Youyi [Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital Central South University (China); Duan, Huaxin [Department of Oncology, Hunan Provincial People' s Hospital (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University (China); Duan, Chaojun [Cental Lab of Xiangya Hospital Central South University (China); Zhou, Rongrong; He, Yuxiang; Tu, Qingsong [Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital Central South University (China); Shen, Liangfang, E-mail: 3153559525@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital Central South University (China)

    2016-01-15

    Epigenetic alteration induced loss function of the transcription factor 21 (TCF21) has been associated with different types of human cancers. However, the epigenetic regulation and molecular functions of TCF21 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In this study, TCF21 expression levels and methylation status of its promoter region in CRC cell lines (n = 5) and CRC tissues (n = 151) as well as normal colorectal mucosa (n = 30) were assessed by RTq-PCR and methylation analysis (methylation specific PCR, MSP and bisulfite sequencing PCR, BSP), respectively. The cellular functions of TCF21 on CRC cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration were investigated in vitro. Our data revealed that TCF21 was frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in both tested CRC cell lines and primary CRC, and correlation analysis between methylation status and clinicopathologic parameters found that TCF21 methylation was significantly correlated with lymph node invasion (P = 0.013), while no significant correlation was found in other parameters. In addition, demethylation treatment resulted in re-expression of TCF21 in CRC cell lines, and cellular function experiments revealed that restoration of TCF21 inhibited CRC cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion and migration, suggesting that TCF21 may function as a tumor suppressor gene, which is downregulated through promoter hypermethylation in CRC development. - Highlights: • TCF21 was frequently silenced by promoter DNA methylation in CRC cells. • TCF21 was frequently methylated in primary CRC and significantly correlated with metastasis. • Restoration of TCF21 promotes cell apoptosis of CRC cells. • Restoration of TCF21 inhibits cell invasion and migration of CRC cells.

  16. Down-regulation of TCF21 by hypermethylation induces cell proliferation, migration and invasion in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Youyi; Duan, Huaxin; Duan, Chaojun; Zhou, Rongrong; He, Yuxiang; Tu, Qingsong; Shen, Liangfang

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic alteration induced loss function of the transcription factor 21 (TCF21) has been associated with different types of human cancers. However, the epigenetic regulation and molecular functions of TCF21 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. In this study, TCF21 expression levels and methylation status of its promoter region in CRC cell lines (n = 5) and CRC tissues (n = 151) as well as normal colorectal mucosa (n = 30) were assessed by RTq-PCR and methylation analysis (methylation specific PCR, MSP and bisulfite sequencing PCR, BSP), respectively. The cellular functions of TCF21 on CRC cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration were investigated in vitro. Our data revealed that TCF21 was frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in both tested CRC cell lines and primary CRC, and correlation analysis between methylation status and clinicopathologic parameters found that TCF21 methylation was significantly correlated with lymph node invasion (P = 0.013), while no significant correlation was found in other parameters. In addition, demethylation treatment resulted in re-expression of TCF21 in CRC cell lines, and cellular function experiments revealed that restoration of TCF21 inhibited CRC cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion and migration, suggesting that TCF21 may function as a tumor suppressor gene, which is downregulated through promoter hypermethylation in CRC development. - Highlights: • TCF21 was frequently silenced by promoter DNA methylation in CRC cells. • TCF21 was frequently methylated in primary CRC and significantly correlated with metastasis. • Restoration of TCF21 promotes cell apoptosis of CRC cells. • Restoration of TCF21 inhibits cell invasion and migration of CRC cells.

  17. Spatial analysis of the invasion of lionfish in the western Atlantic and Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    Pterois volitans and Pterois miles, two sub-species of lionfish, have become the first non-native, invasive marine fish established along the United States Atlantic coast and Caribbean. The route and timing of the invasion is poorly understood, however historical sightings and captures have been robustly documented since their introduction. Herein we analyze these records based on spatial location, dates of arrival, and prevailing physical factors at the capture sights. Using a cellular automata model, we examine the relationship between depth, salinity, temperature, and current, finding the latter as the most influential parameter for transport of lionfish to new areas. The model output is a synthetic validated reproduction of the lionfish invasion, upon which predictive simulations in other locations can be based. This predictive model is simple, highly adaptable, relies entirely on publicly available data, and is applicable to other species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Research on International Development Path of China’s Marine Biopharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mei Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the backdrop of the Maritime Silk Road Initiative, the study on the international development of China’s marine biopharmaceutical industry based on factor allocation is of great practical significance for industrial sustainability and building the industry into a leading international player in the global market. In this paper, we first identify the leading factors that influence the development of the marine biopharmaceutical industry, namely, resources, technologies, talents, investments and policies. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure model of these factors was established and analyzed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The importance ranking of these constraints was identified, as follows: technologies > talents > resources > policies > investments. Then, based on the theory of comparative advantage and game theory, we analyzed the necessity of China’s marine biopharmaceutical industry going global, that is, international cooperation may lay a solid foundation for the win-win outcome of this industry in countries along the Maritime Silk Road. According to the status quo of China’s marine biopharmaceutical industry, based on these findings, an international factor–allocation cooperation path was designed, and the path chart of the international development of the marine biopharmaceutical industry was drawn. Finally, methods for the development of China’s marine biopharmaceutical industry were proposed, which covers efforts to protect marine resources, promote R&D for core technologies, establish a strong talent pool, encourage more investments, provide policy support and promote worldwide cooperation. It is the first report to investigate the path of the sustainable exploitation of the marine biopharmaceutical industry from the perspective of factor allocation amidst the backdrop of the Maritime Silk Road Initiative.

  19. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS and related databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Costello

    Full Text Available The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies, 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive, of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved

  20. Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Poore, Gary C. B.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T. Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  1. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Araujo G. Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%, in Medicine and Nursing (46%, and were surveys (72% with healthcare team members (67% as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c to develop a written institutional policy; d to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes.

  2. Coherent assessments of Europe’s marine fishes show regional divergence and megafauna loss

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDES PAUL; RALPH GINA; NIETO ANA; GARCIA CRIADO MARIANA; VASILAKOPOULOS PARASKEVAS; MARAVELIAS CHRISTOS; COOK ROBIN; POLLOM RILEY; KOVACIC MARCELO; POLLARD DAVID; FARRELL EDWARD; FLORIN ANN-BRITT; POLIDORO BETH; LAWSON JULIA; LORANCE PASCAL

    2017-01-01

    Europe has a long tradition of exploiting marine fishes and is promoting marine economic activity through its Blue Growth strategy. This increase in anthropogenic pressure, along with climate change, threatens the biodiversity of fishes and food security. Here, we examine the conservation status of 1,020 species of European marine fishes and identify factors that contribute to their extinction risk. Large fish species (greater than 1.5 m total length) are most at risk; half of these are threa...

  3. RCP-driven α5β1 recycling suppresses Rac and promotes RhoA activity via the RacGAP1–IQGAP1 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemet, Guillaume; Green, David M.; Bridgewater, Rebecca E.; von Kriegsheim, Alexander; Humphries, Martin J.; Norman, Jim C.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of αvβ3 or expression of mutant p53 promotes invasion into fibronectin (FN)-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) by enhancing Rab-coupling protein (RCP)–dependent recycling of α5β1 integrin. RCP and α5β1 cooperatively recruit receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR1, to regulate their trafficking and downstream signaling via protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt, which, in turn, promotes invasive migration. In this paper, we identify a novel PKB/Akt substrate, RacGAP1, which is phosphorylated as a consequence of RCP-dependent α5β1 trafficking. Phosphorylation of RacGAP1 promotes its recruitment to IQGAP1 at the tips of invasive pseudopods, and RacGAP1 then locally suppresses the activity of the cytoskeletal regulator Rac and promotes the activity of RhoA in this subcellular region. This Rac to RhoA switch promotes the extension of pseudopodial processes and invasive migration into FN-containing matrices, in a RhoA-dependent manner. Thus, the localized endocytic trafficking of α5β1 within the tips of invasive pseudopods elicits signals that promote the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, protrusion, and invasion into FN-rich ECM. PMID:24019536

  4. A critical review of records of alien marine species from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SCIBERRAS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated list of alien marine species recorded from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters, compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ literature and from authenticated unpublished reports to the authors, is presented. The listed species are classified in one of four categories as regards establishment status: established, casual, invasive and questionable. Doubtful records are listed as ‘?’. A total of 48 species, including nine dubious ones, are included in the list. Of the accepted records, 64% are established, of which 15.4% are invasive, 18% are casual and 18% are questionable. The most represented groups are molluscs (14 species, fish (13 species and macrophytes (10 species. Six species are classified as invasive in Maltese waters: Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii and Sphoeroides pachygaster; impacts of some of these species on local ecosystems are discussed. Since the early 1900s, there has been an increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands. Transportation via shipping and in connection with aquaculture, as well as the range expansion of Lessepsian immigrants, appear to be the most common vectors for entry, accounting for 20%, 11% and 32% respectively of the alien species included in this review. The general warming trend of Mediterranean waters and increasing marine traffic may be facilitating the spread of warm-water Atlantic and Indo-Pacific species to the central Mediterranean, including the Maltese Islands.

  5. Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metal loproteinase 9 (MMP-9 Activity by a c-fos/Estrogen Receptor Fusion Protein is Mediated by the Proximal AP-1 Site of the MMP-9 Promoter and Correlates with Reduced Tumor Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Crowe

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell invasion of basement membranes is one of the hallmarks of malignant transformation. Tumor cells secrete proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs which degrade extracellular matrix molecules. Increased expression of MMP-9 has been associated with acquisition of invasive phenotype in many tumors. However, multiple mechanisms for regulation of MMP-9 gene expression by tumor cell lines have been proposed. A number of transcription factor binding sites have been characterized in the upstream regulatory region of the MMP-9 gene, including those for AP-1. To determine how a specific AP-1 family member, c-fos, regulates MMP-9 promoter activity through these sites, we used an expression vector containing the c-fos coding region fused to the estrogen receptor (ER ligand binding domain. This construct is activated upon binding estradiol. Stable expression of this construct in ER negative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC lines produced an estradiol dependent decrease in the number of cells that migrated through a reconstituted basement membrane. This decreased invasiveness was accompanied by estradiol dependent downregulation of MMP-9 activity as determined by gelatin zymography. Estradiol also produced transcriptional downregulation of an MMP-9 promoter construct in cells transiently transfected with the c-fosER expression vector. This downregulation was mediated by the AP-1 site at —79 by in the MMP-9 promoter. We concluded that the proximal AP-1 site mediated the transcriptional downregulation of the MMP-9 promoter by a conditionally activated c-fos fusion protein.

  6. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  7. Exploring the invasion of rangelands by Acacia mearnsii (black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing A. mearnsii canopy could promote grass production while encouraging carbon sequestration. Given the high AGB and clearing costs, it may be prudent to adopt the 'novel ecosystems' approach in managing infested landscapes. Keywords: grassland, invasive plants, landscape ecology, rangeland condition ...

  8. Effects of Mechanical Properties on Tumor Invasion: Insights from a Cellular Model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, YZ

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the regulating mechanism of tumor invasion is of crucial importance for both fundamental cancer research and clinical applications. Previous in vivo experiments have shown that invasive cancer cells dissociate from the primary tumor and invade into the stroma, forming an irregular invasive morphology. Although cell movements involved in tumor invasion are ultimately driven by mechanical forces of cell-cell interactions and tumor-host interactions, how these mechanical properties affect tumor invasion is still poorly understood. In this study, we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the effects of mechanical properties on tumor invasion. We study the effects of cell-cell adhesions as well as the degree of degradation and stiffness of extracellular matrix (ECM). Our simulation results show that cell-cell adhesion relationship must be satisfied for tumor invasion. Increased adhesion to ECM and decreased adhesion among tumor cells result in invasive tumor behaviors. When this invasive behavior occurs, ECM plays an important role for both tumor morphology and the shape of invasive cancer cells. Increased stiffness and stronger degree of degradation of ECM promote tumor invasion, generating more aggressive tumor invasive morphologies. It can also generate irregular shape of invasive cancer cells, protruding towards ECM. The capability of our model suggests it a useful tool to study tumor invasion and might be used to propose optimal treatment in clinical applications.

  9. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  10. Development of a test platform for anti-fouling coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Meskens, R.; Willemen, R.; Potters, G.; De Baere, K.; Lenaerts, S.

    2017-01-01

    Marine fouling, or the growth of marine organisms on fully or partly submerged structures, is an unwanted phenomenon in the marine industry. Bio fouling will increase the hydrodynamic drag of ships, causing an increased fuel consumption, promote the corrosion of the metallic structures and trigger undesired transport of invasive species (IMO and the environment 2009, 2009).The impact is economic as well as environmental. More fuel consumption is synonym for more CO2 and other detrimental emis...

  11. Anti-fouling protection on a ship's hull: evaluation of recent developments and formulation of innovative alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Meskens, R.

    2017-01-01

    Marine fouling, or the growth of marine organisms on fully or partly submerged structures, is an unwanted phenomenon in the marine industry. Bio fouling will increase the hydrodynamic drag of ships, causing an increased fuel consumption, promote the corrosion of the metallic structures and trigger undesired transport of invasive species (IMO and the environment 2009, 2009).The impact is economic as well as environmental. More fuel consumption is synonym for more CO2 and other detrimental emis...

  12. Final Report of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracino-Brown, Jocelyn [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Courtney [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Gilman, Patrick [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Wind Program hosted a two-day workshop on July 24-25, 2012 with scientists and regulators engaged in marine ecological survey, modeling, and database efforts pertaining to the waters of the Mid-Atlantic region. The workshop was planned by Federal agency, academic, and private partners to promote collaboration between ongoing offshore ecological survey efforts, and to promote the collaborative development of complementary predictive models and compatible databases. The meeting primarily focused on efforts to establish and predict marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle abundance, density, and distributions extending from the shoreline to the edge of the Exclusive Economic Zone between Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

  13. The Origin of Invasive Microorganisms Matters for Science, Policy, and Management: The Case of Didymosphenia geminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brad W; Bothwell, Max L

    2014-06-01

    The value of distinguishing native from nonnative invasive species has recently been questioned. However, this dichotomy is important for understanding whether a species' successful dominance is caused by introductions, changing environmental conditions that facilitate an existing population, or both processes. We highlight the importance of knowing the origin of hard-to-detect invasive microorganisms for scientific research, management, and policy using a case study of recent algal blooms of the stalk-producing diatom Didymosphenia geminata. Nuisance blooms have been reported in rivers worldwide and have been hastily attributed to introductions. However, evidence indicates that blooms are probably not caused by introductions but, rather, by environmental conditions that promote excessive stalk production by this historically rare species. Effective responses to invasive microorganisms depend on knowing whether their proliferation is caused by being nonnative or is the result of changing environmental conditions that promote invasive characteristics of native species.

  14. Monitoring the magnitude of marine vessel infestation by non-indigenous ascidians in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewing, Mey-Tal; Shenkar, Noa

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata) are dominant nuisance organisms. The current study investigated the role of marine vessels in their dispersal and introduction. An examination of 45 dry-docked marine vessels, comprising recreational, commercial, and military craft, in five Israeli shipyards along the Mediterranean coast, revealed non-indigenous ascidians (NIA) on every second vessel investigated. Military vessels featured the highest ascidian abundance and richness, potentially related to their maintenance routine. Niche areas on the vessels such as sea chests and the propeller exhibited the highest occurrence of ascidians. Overall, these findings provide strong evidence that marine vessels play an acute role in NIA introduction and dispersal, with military vessels and niche areas on all the vessels being more susceptible to serving as vectors. A discovery of a new introduced species during the surveys suggests that the monitoring of marine vessels can serve as an effective tool for the early detection of NIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MiR-32 promotes gastric carcinoma tumorigenesis by targeting Kruppel-like factor 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chao [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Yu, Jianchun, E-mail: yu_jchpumch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Liu, Yuqin [Cell Culture Center, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005 (China); Kang, Weiming; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Li [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2015-11-27

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent malignant cancer worldwide and is highly lethal because of its fast growth. Currently, the clinical therapy options for GC remain limited. MiR-32 has been reported as an oncogenic microRNA in many cancers, but its role in GC is unclear. Here, we found that miR-32 was overexpressed in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissue, and miR-32 was higher in GC patients' plasma compared with healthy individuals. Furthermore, we have identified miR-32 to be oncogenic, by promoting gastric cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also identified Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) as a direct target of miR-32. Knockdown of KLF4 promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells. We conclude that miR-32 promotes GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting KLF4, suggesting that the miR-32-KLF4 pathway may be useful in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. - Highlights: • miR-32 was overexpression in GC tissues than adjacent normal tissue. • miR-32 was higher in GC patients' plasma compared with healthy people. • miR-32 promotes GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting KLF4.

  16. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global

  17. DNA Barcoding of Marine Metazoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Steinke, Dirk; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2011-01-01

    More than 230,000 known species representing 31 metazoan phyla populate the world's oceans. Perhaps another 1,000,000 or more species remain to be discovered. There is reason for concern that species extinctions may outpace discovery, especially in diverse and endangered marine habitats such as coral reefs. DNA barcodes (i.e., short DNA sequences for species recognition and discrimination) are useful tools to accelerate species-level analysis of marine biodiversity and to facilitate conservation efforts. This review focuses on the usual barcode region for metazoans: a ˜648 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Barcodes have also been used for population genetic and phylogeographic analysis, identification of prey in gut contents, detection of invasive species, forensics, and seafood safety. More controversially, barcodes have been used to delimit species boundaries, reveal cryptic species, and discover new species. Emerging frontiers are the use of barcodes for rapid and increasingly automated biodiversity assessment by high-throughput sequencing, including environmental barcoding and the use of barcodes to detect species for which formal identification or scientific naming may never be possible.

  18. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  19. A comparison of eight country plans for the Invasive Indo-Pacific Lionfish in the Wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne E. Graham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change and marine invasive species have posed a major threat to significant ecological, aesthetic, economic and amenity value to the countries and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region. Today, the Caribbean Sea is plagued with the invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles. As the range and abundance of the lionfish throughout the Caribbean has grown, recognition of the grave threat it poses to the native marine ecosystems has prompted the development of lionfish management plans across the region. The efforts of eight countries in the region to manage lionfish are evaluated using the US Environmental Protection Agency Aquatic Invasive Species framework and the inclusion of climate change and/or changing conditions. The countries and overseas territories evaluated were Anguilla, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Grenada, St. Eustatius, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the US Virgin Islands. Although specific strategies differed amongst the islands depending upon needs, culture, and individual circumstances, most of the plans included aspects of education and outreach, control and monitoring protocols, and research and information management. Areas that were found to be notably weak to nonexistent included leadership, prevention, early detection and rapid response and restoration; This comparative analysis provides opportunities for knowledge sharing and intra- and inter-country cooperation, facilitating the transfer and development of interventions that contribute to the conservation of significant island biodiversity.

  20. Coexistence via coevolution driven by reduced allelochemical effects and increased tolerance to competition between invasive and native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangfang; Lankau, Richard; Peng, Shaolin

    2018-04-01

    Coevolution can promote long-term coexistence of two competing species if selection acts to reduce the fitness inequality between competitors and/or strengthen negative frequency dependence within each population. However, clear coevolution between plant competitors has been rarely documented. Plant invasions offer opportunities to capture the process of coevolution. Here we investigated how the developing relationship between an invasive forb, Alliaria petiolata, and a native competitor, Pilea pumila, may affect their long-term coexistence, by testing the competitive effects of populations of varying lengths of co-occurrence on each other across a chronosequence of invasion history. Alliaria petiolata and P. pumila tended to develop greater tolerance to competition over invasion history. Their coexistence was promoted more by increases in stabilizing relative to equalizing processes. These changes likely stem in part from reductions in allelopathic traits in the invader and evolution of tolerance in the native. These results suggested that some native species can evolve tolerance against the competitive effects of strong invaders, which likely promoted their persistence in invaded communities. However, the potential for coevolutionary rescue of competing populations is likely to vary across native species, and evolutionary processes should not be expected to compensate for the ecological consequences of exotic invasions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Genomic Approaches in Marine Biodiversity and Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Huete-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have now established the new standard in medical and biotechnological research. The introduction of next-generation sequencing, NGS,has resulted in the generation of thousands of genomes from all domains of life, including the genomes of complex uncultured microbial communities revealed through metagenomics. Although the application of genomics to marine biodiversity remains poorly developed overall, some noteworthy progress has been made in recent years. The genomes of various model marine organisms have been published and a few more are underway. In addition, the recent large-scale analysis of marine microbes, along with transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to the study of teleost fishes, mollusks and crustaceans, to mention a few, has provided a better understanding of phenotypic variability and functional genomics. The past few years have also seen advances in applications relevant to marine aquaculture and fisheries. In this review we introduce several examples of recent discoveries and progress made towards engendering genomic resources aimed at enhancing our understanding of marine biodiversity and promoting the development of aquaculture. Finally, we discuss the need for auspicious science policies to address challenges confronting smaller nations in the appropriate oversight of this growing domain as they strive to guarantee food security and conservation of their natural resources.

  2. Osteopontin Promotes Cell Migration and Invasion, and Inhibits Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer by activating the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-hong Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteopontin (OPN is highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC and is associated with disease progression in vivo. High levels of OPN have been demonstrated to predict low survival rates in CRC. Autophagy is a process of self-digestion, which is thought to play a significant role in carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms of OPN's effects on CRC cell autophagy have not been elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms of OPN's effects on CRC autophagy. Methods: HCT116 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration and invasion ability were identified by cell counting k¡t-8 assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell chamber invasion assay, respectively. The ratios of proteins LC3-II/LC3-I, P62, and Atg7 were analyzed by Western-blot. Expressions of Beclin-1, Atg4b, Bnip3, and Vps34, both in transcriptional and translational levels, were analyzed and compared by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunofluorescence and co-focusing experiments were used to investigate the formation of autophagosomes. Results: The results showed that OPN can promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as inhibit cell apoptosis. It was also demonstrated that OPN could inhibit cell autophagy. Further experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect of OPN on autophagy could be reversed by blocking the p38 MAPK pathway in HCT116 cells. Conclusion: OPN is involved in HCT116 cell progression and is capable of inhibiting cell autophagy possibly by activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, implying that OPN could be a potential novel molecular therapeutic biomarker in patients with CRC.

  3. Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species.

  4. MAML1 and TWIST1 co-overexpression promote invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan Khales, Sima; Ebrahimi, Ehsan; Jahanzad, Eisa; Ardalan Khales, Sahar; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi

    2018-01-15

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the seventh most common cancer worldwide with considerable morbidity and mortality. Invasion and metastasis of HNSCC is a complex process involving multiple molecules and signaling pathways. Twist Family BHLH Transcription Factor 1 (TWIST1) and Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1) are essential in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition through direct regulation of implicated molecules in cellular adhesion, migration and invasion. Our aim in this study was to assess the clinical significance of MAML1 and TWIST1 expression in HNSCC, and elucidate the probable correlation between these genes to exhibit their possible associations with progression and metastasis of the disease. The gene expression profile of MAML1 and TWIST1 was assessed in fresh tumoral compared to distant tumor-free tissues of 55 HNSCC patients using quantitative real-time Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Significant overexpression of MAML1 and TWIST1 mRNA was observed in 49.1% and 38.2% (P ˂ 0.05) of tumor specimens, respectively. Overexpression of MAML1 was associated with vascular invasion (P = 0.048). Concomitant overexpression of MAML1 and TWIST1 was significantly correlated to each other (P = 0.004). Co-overexpression of the genes was significantly correlated to the various clinicopathological indices of poor prognosis including depth of tumor invasion (P < 0.01), lymphatic invasion and grade of tumor cell differentiation (P < 0.05). Significant correlation between MAML1 and TWIST1 in HNSCC was revealed. This study was the first report elucidating MAML1 clinical relevance in HNSCC. These new findings suggest an oncogenic role for concomitant expression of MAML1 and TWIST1 genes in HNSCC invasion and metastasis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. NFIB Mediates BRN2 Driven Melanoma Cell Migration and Invasion Through Regulation of EZH2 and MITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell E. Fane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While invasion and metastasis of tumour cells are the principle factor responsible for cancer related deaths, the mechanisms governing the process remain poorly defined. Moreover, phenotypic divergence of sub-populations of tumour cells is known to underpin alternative behaviors linked to tumour progression such as proliferation, survival and invasion. In the context of melanoma, heterogeneity between two transcription factors, BRN2 and MITF, has been associated with phenotypic switching between predominantly invasive and proliferative behaviors respectively. Epigenetic changes, in response to external cues, have been proposed to underpin this process, however the mechanism by which the phenotypic switch occurs is unclear. Here we report the identification of the NFIB transcription factor as a novel downstream effector of BRN2 function in melanoma cells linked to the migratory and invasive characteristics of these cells. Furthermore, the function of NFIB appears to drive an invasive phenotype through an epigenetic mechanism achieved via the upregulation of the polycomb group protein EZH2. A notable target of NFIB mediated up-regulation of EZH2 is decreased MITF expression, which further promotes a less proliferative, more invasive phenotype. Together our data reveal that NFIB has the ability to promote dynamic changes in the chromatin state of melanoma cells to facilitate migration, invasion and metastasis.

  6. Tumour–stromal interactions in acid-mediated invasion: A mathematical model

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Natasha K.

    2010-12-01

    It is well established that the tumour microenvironment can both promote and suppress tumour growth and invasion, however, most mathematical models of invasion view the normal tissue as inhibiting tumour progression via immune modulation or spatial constraint. In particular, the production of acid by tumour cells and the subsequent creation of a low extracellular pH environment has been explored in several \\'acid-mediated tumour invasion\\' models where the acidic environment facilitates normal cell death and permits tumour invasion. In this paper, we extend the acid-invasion model developed by Gatenby and Gawlinski (1996) to include both the competitive and cooperative interactions between tumour and normal cells, by incorporating the influence of extracellular matrix and protease production at the tumour-stroma interface. Our model predicts an optimal level of tumour acidity which produces both cell death and matrix degradation. Additionally, very aggressive tumours prevent protease production and matrix degradation by excessive normal cell destruction, leading to an acellular (but matrix filled) gap between the tumour and normal tissue, a feature seen in encapsulated tumours. These results suggest, counterintuitively, that increasing tumour acidity may, in some cases, prevent tumour invasion.

  7. Molecular and Microenvironmental Determinants of Glioma Stem-Like Cell Survival and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Roos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults with a 5-year survival rate of 5% despite intensive research efforts. The poor prognosis is due, in part, to aggressive invasion into the surrounding brain parenchyma. Invasion is a complex process mediated by cell-intrinsic pathways, extrinsic microenvironmental cues, and biophysical cues from the peritumoral stromal matrix. Recent data have attributed GBM invasion to the glioma stem-like cell (GSC subpopulation. GSCs are slowly dividing, highly invasive, therapy resistant, and are considered to give rise to tumor recurrence. GSCs are localized in a heterogeneous cellular niche, and cross talk between stromal cells and GSCs cultivates a fertile environment that promotes GSC invasion. Pro-migratory soluble factors from endothelial cells, astrocytes, macrophages, microglia, and non-stem-like tumor cells can stimulate peritumoral invasion of GSCs. Therefore, therapeutic efforts designed to target the invasive GSCs may enhance patient survival. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of extrinsic pathways and major stromal and immune players facilitating GSC maintenance and survival.

  8. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  9. Regulation of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min; Yao, Jun; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen, Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Violette, Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Bissell, Mina J.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2008-05-07

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  10. Regulation of In Situ to Invasive Breast CarcinomaTransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Min; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen,Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Bissell, Mina; Violette,Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-03-13

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  11. PRL-3 promotes the motility, invasion, and metastasis of LoVo colon cancer cells through PRL-3-integrin β1-ERK1/2 and-MMP2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3 plays a causative role in tumor metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In our previous study, we observed that PRL-3 could decrease tyrosine phosphorylation of integrin β1 and enhance activation of ERK1/2 in HEK293 cells. Herein we aim to explore the association of PRL-3 with integrin β1 signaling and its functional implications in motility, invasion, and metastasis of colon cancer cell LoVo. Methods Transwell chamber assay and nude mouse model were used to study motility and invasion, and metastsis of LoVo colon cancer cells, respectively. Knockdown of integrin β1 by siRNA or lentivirus were detected with Western blot and RT-PCR. The effect of PRL-3 on integrin β1, ERK1/2, and MMPs that mediate motility, invasion, and metastasis were measured by Western blot, immunofluorencence, co-immunoprecipitation and zymographic assays. Results We demonstrated that PRL-3 associated with integrin β1 and its expression was positively correlated with ERK1/2 phosphorylation in colon cancer tissues. Depletion of integrin β1 with siRNA, not only abrogated the activation of ERK1/2 stimulated by PRL-3, but also abolished PRL-3-induced motility and invasion of LoVo cells in vitro. Similarly, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation with U0126 or MMP activity with GM6001 also impaired PRL-3-induced invasion. In addition, PRL-3 promoted gelatinolytic activity of MMP2, and this stimulation correlated with decreased TIMP2 expression. Moreover, PRL-3-stimulated lung metastasis of LoVo cells in a nude mouse model was inhibited when integrin β1 expression was interfered with shRNA. Conclusion Our results suggest that PRL-3's roles in motility, invasion, and metastasis in colon cancer are critically controlled by the integrin β1-ERK1/2-MMP2 signaling.

  12. Isorhapontigenin (ISO) Inhibits Invasive Bladder Cancer Formation In Vivo and Human Bladder Cancer Invasion In Vitro by Targeting STAT1/FOXO1 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guosong; Wu, Amy D; Huang, Chao; Gu, Jiayan; Zhang, Liping; Huang, Haishan; Liao, Xin; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Zeng, Xingruo; Jin, Honglei; Huang, Haojie; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-07-01

    Although our most recent studies have identified Isorhapontigenin (ISO), a novel derivative of stilbene that isolated from a Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum, for its inhibition of human bladder cancer growth, nothing is known whether ISO possesses an inhibitory effect on bladder cancer invasion. Thus, we addressed this important question in current study and discovered that ISO treatment could inhibit mouse-invasive bladder cancer development following bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) exposure in vivo We also found that ISO suppressed human bladder cancer cell invasion accompanied by upregulation of the forkhead box class O 1 (FOXO1) mRNA transcription in vitro Accordingly, FOXO1 was profoundly downregulated in human bladder cancer tissues and was negatively correlated with bladder cancer invasion. Forced expression of FOXO1 specifically suppressed high-grade human bladder cancer cell invasion, whereas knockdown of FOXO1 promoted noninvasive bladder cancer cells becoming invasive bladder cancer cells. Moreover, knockout of FOXO1 significantly increased bladder cancer cell invasion and abolished the ISO inhibition of invasion in human bladder cancer cells. Further studies showed that the inhibition of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation at Tyr701 was crucial for ISO upregulation of FOXO1 transcription. Furthermore, this study revealed that metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was a FOXO1 downstream effector, which was also supported by data obtained from mouse model of ISO inhibition BBN-induced mouse-invasive bladder cancer formation. These findings not only provide a novel insight into the understanding of mechanism of bladder cancer's propensity to invasion, but also identify a new role and mechanisms underlying the natural compound ISO that specifically suppresses such bladder cancer invasion through targeting the STAT1-FOXO1-MMP-2 axis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 567-80. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American

  13. IGF-1-induced MMP-11 expression promotes the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells through the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chao; Wang, Wenchang; Wang, Cunchuan

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-11 (MMP-11) expression in gastric cancer (GC) and the underlying mechanisms in SGC-7901 cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of IGF-1 and MMP-11 was significantly upregulated in GC tissues compared with normal gastric tissue. Furthermore, IGF-1 significantly and dose-dependently promoted MMP-11. Western blotting revealed that the addition of IGF-1 to SGC-7901 cells led to an evident enhancement in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), IGF-1R and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) phosphorylation at 20 and 40 min. A decrease in the extent of the elevated expression of MMP-11 and the enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3, JAK1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) induced by IGF-1 in SGC-7901 cells were observed following treatment with NT157 (an IGF-1R inhibitor). Furthermore, piceatannol (a JAK1 inhibitor) or small interfering RNA against STAT3 reduced the extent of the increased expression of MMP-11 induced by IGF-1 in SGC-7901 cells. Piceatannol treatment induced the dose-dependent decline in the enhancement of STAT3 phosphorylation induced by IGF-1, indicating that the JAK1/STAT3 pathway may be implicated in the elevated expression of MMP-11 induced by IGF-1 in SGC-7901 cells. Finally, IGF-1 treatment significantly promoted the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 cells, which was inhibited following NT157, piceatannol or si-STAT3 treatment. The present study therefore demonstrated that IGF-1-induced MMP-11 may have facilitated the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 cells via the JAK1/STAT3 pathway.

  14. Climate velocity and the future global redistribution of marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molinos, Jorge; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Schoeman, David S.; Brown, Christopher J.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; Pandolfi, John M.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Burrows, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Anticipating the effect of climate change on biodiversity, in particular on changes in community composition, is crucial for adaptive ecosystem management but remains a critical knowledge gap. Here, we use climate velocity trajectories, together with information on thermal tolerances and habitat preferences, to project changes in global patterns of marine species richness and community composition under IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Our simple, intuitive approach emphasizes climate connectivity, and enables us to model over 12 times as many species as previous studies. We find that range expansions prevail over contractions for both RCPs up to 2100, producing a net local increase in richness globally, and temporal changes in composition, driven by the redistribution rather than the loss of diversity. Conversely, widespread invasions homogenize present-day communities across multiple regions. High extirpation rates are expected regionally (for example, Indo-Pacific), particularly under RCP8.5, leading to strong decreases in richness and the anticipated formation of no-analogue communities where invasions are common. The spatial congruence of these patterns with contemporary human impacts highlights potential areas of future conservation concern. These results strongly suggest that the millennial stability of current global marine diversity patterns, against which conservation plans are assessed, will change rapidly over the course of the century in response to ocean warming.

  15. Methyl jasmonate abolishes the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liduan; Li, Dan; Xiang, Xuan; Tong, Ling; Qi, Meng; Pu, Jiarui; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that methyl jasmonate (MJ), a plant stress hormone, exhibits anti-cancer activity on human cancer cells. The aim of this study is to determine whether sub-cytotoxic MJ can abolish the migration, invasion and angiogenesis gastric cancer cells. Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45 were treated with diverse concentrations of MJ. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis capabilities of cancer cells were measured by MTT colorimetry, EdU incorporation, scratch assay, matrigel invasion assay, and tube formation assay. Gene expression was detected by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Binding of transcription factor on gene promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Sub-cytotoxic (0.05 to 0.2 mM) MJ attenuated the migration, invasion and angiogenesis, but not the cell viability or proliferation, of gastric cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) and its downstream gene vascular endothelial growth factor. Restoration of MMP-14 expression rescued the SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-inhibited migration, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition, sub-cytotoxic MJ decreased the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, while restoration of Sp1 expression rescued the cancer cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-mediated defects in MMP-14 expression, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Sub-cytotoxic MJ attenuates the MMP-14 expression via decreasing the Sp1 expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, thus inhibiting the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells

  16. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonglong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  17. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  18. Estrogen receptor α enhances the transcriptional activity of ETS-1 and promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of neuroblastoma cell in a ligand dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Peng; Feng, Fan; Dong, Guofu; Yu, Chunyong; Feng, Sizhe; Song, Erlin; Shi, Guobing; Liang, Yong; Liang, Guobiao

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that estrogen receptor α (ERα) participates in the pathogenic progress of breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In neuroblastoma cells and related cancer clinical specimens, moreover, the ectopic expression of ERα has been identified. However, the detailed function of ERα in the proliferation of neuroblastoma cell is yet unclear. The transcriptional activity of ETS-1 (E26 transformation specific sequence 1) was measured by luciferase analysis. Western blot assays and Real-time RT-PCR were used to examine the expression of ERα, ETS-1 and its targeted genes. The protein-protein interaction between ERα and ETS-1 was determined by co-IP and GST-Pull down assays. The accumulation of ETS-1 in nuclear was detected by western blot assays, and the recruitment of ETS-1 to its targeted gene’s promoter was tested by ChIP assays. Moreover, SH-SY5Y cells’ proliferation, anchor-independent growth, migration and invasion were quantified using the MTT, soft agar or Trans-well assay, respectively. The transcriptional activity of ETS-1 was significantly increased following estrogen treatment, and this effect was related to ligand-mediated activation of ERα. The interaction between the ERα and ETS-1 was identified, and enhancement of ERα activation would up-regulate the ETS-1 transcription factor activity via modulating its cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment of ETS-1 to its target gene’s promoter. Furthermore, treatment of estrogen increased proliferation, migration and invasion of neuroblastoma cells, whereas the antagonist of ERα reduced those effects. In this study, we provided evidences that activation of ERα promoted neuroblastoma cells proliferation and up-regulated the transcriptional activity of ETS-1. By investigating the role of ERα in the ETS-1 activity regulation, we demonstrated that ERα may be a novel ETS-1 co-activator and thus a potential therapeutic target in human

  19. GSE1 negative regulation by miR-489-5p promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Peng; Tian, Jingzhong; Zhao, Deyin; Zhang, Hongyan; Cui, Jian; Ding, Keshuo; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Gse1 coiled-coil protein (GSE1), also known as KIAA0182, is a proline rich protein. However, the function of GSE1 is largely unknown. In this study, we reported that GSE1 is overexpression in breast cancer and silencing of GSE1 significantly suppressed breast cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, GSE1 was identified as a direct target of miR-489-5p, which is significantly reduced in breast cancer tissues. In addition, forced expression of miR-489-5p suppressed breast cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, depletion of GSE1 by siRNAs significantly abrogated the enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells consequent to miR-489-5p depletion. Taken together, these findings suggest that GSE1 may function as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and it can be regulated by miR-489-5p. - Highlights: • GSE1 is overexpressed in breast cancer and increased GSE1 expression predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. • Knockdown of GSE1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • GSE1 is a direct target of miR-489-5p. • Forced expression of miR-489-5p inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  20. Regulation of mariner transposition: the peculiar case of Mos1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Jaillet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mariner elements represent the most successful family of autonomous DNA transposons, being present in various plant and animal genomes, including humans. The introduction and co-evolution of mariners within host genomes imply a strict regulation of the transposon activity. Biochemical data accumulated during the past decade have led to a convergent picture of the transposition cycle of mariner elements, suggesting that mariner transposition does not rely on host-specific factors. This model does not account for differences of transposition efficiency in human cells between mariners. We thus wondered whether apparent similarities in transposition cycle could hide differences in the intrinsic parameters that control mariner transposition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that Mos1 transposase concentrations in excess to the Mos1 ends prevent the paired-end complex assembly. However, we observe that Mos1 transposition is not impaired by transposase high concentration, dismissing the idea that transposase over production plays an obligatory role in the down-regulation of mariner transposition. Our main finding is that the paired-end complex is formed in a cooperative way, regardless of the transposase concentration. We also show that an element framed by two identical ITRs (Inverted Terminal Repeats is more efficient in driving transposition than an element framed by two different ITRs (i.e. the natural Mos1 copy, the latter being more sensitive to transposase concentration variations. Finally, we show that the current Mos1 ITRs correspond to the ancestral ones. CONCLUSIONS: We provide new insights on intrinsic properties supporting the self-regulation of the Mos1 element. These properties (transposase specific activity, aggregation, ITR sequences, transposase concentration/transposon copy number ratio... could have played a role in the dynamics of host-genomes invasion by Mos1, accounting (at least in part for the current low copy number of

  1. 1,25D3 differentially suppresses bladder cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of miR-101-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Luo, Wei; Bunch, Brittany L; Pratt, Rachel N; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of bladder cancer death. 1,25D 3 , the active metabolite of vitamin D, has shown anti-metastasis activity in several cancer model systems. However, the role of 1,25D 3 in migration and invasion in bladder cancer is unknown. To investigate whether 1,25D 3 affects migration and invasion, four human bladder cell lines with different reported invasiveness were selected: low-invasive T24 and 253J cells and highly invasive 253J-BV and TCCSUP cells. All of the four bladder cancer cells express endogenous and inducible vitamin D receptor (VDR) as examined by immunoblot analysis. 1,25D 3 had no effect on the proliferation of bladder cancer cells as assessed by MTT assay. In contrast, 1,25D 3 suppressed migration and invasion in the more invasive 253J-BV and TCCSUP cells, but not in the low-invasive 253J and T24 cells using "wound" healing, chemotactic migration and Matrigel-based invasion assays. 1,25D 3 promoted the expression of miR-101-3p and miR-126-3p in 253J-BV cells as examined by qRT-PCR. miR-101-3p inhibitor partially abrogated and pre-miR-101-3p further suppressed the inhibition of 1,25D 3 on migration and invasion in 253J-BV cells. Further, 1,25D 3 enhanced VDR recruitment to the promoter region of miR-101-3p using ChIP-qPCR assay. 1,25D 3 enhanced the promoter activity of miR-101-3p as evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, 1,25D 3 suppresses bladder cancer cell migration and invasion in two invasive/migration competent lines but not in two less invasive/motile lines, which is partially through the induction of miR-101-3p expression at the transcriptional level.

  2. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species invasions

  3. Doublethink and scale mismatch polarize policies for an invasive tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Twidwell, Dirac

    2018-01-01

    Mismatches between invasive species management policies and ecological knowledge can lead to profound societal consequences. For this reason, natural resource agencies have adopted the scientifically-based density-impact invasive species curve to guide invasive species management. We use the density-impact model to evaluate how well management policies for a native invader (Juniperus virginiana) match scientific guidelines. Juniperus virginiana invasion is causing a sub-continental regime shift from grasslands to woodlands in central North America, and its impacts span collapses in endemic diversity, heightened wildfire risk, and crashes in grazing land profitability. We (1) use land cover data to identify the stage of Juniperus virginiana invasion for three ecoregions within Nebraska, USA, (2) determine the range of invasion stages at individual land parcel extents within each ecoregion based on the density-impact model, and (3) determine policy alignment and mismatches relative to the density-impact model in order to assess their potential to meet sustainability targets and avoid societal impacts as Juniperus virginiana abundance increases. We found that nearly all policies evidenced doublethink and policy-ecology mismatches, for instance, promoting spread of Juniperus virginiana regardless of invasion stage while simultaneously managing it as a native invader in the same ecoregion. Like other invasive species, theory and literature for this native invader indicate that the consequences of invasion are unlikely to be prevented if policies fail to prioritize management at incipient invasion stages. Theory suggests a more realistic approach would be to align policy with the stage of invasion at local and ecoregion management scales. There is a need for scientists, policy makers, and ecosystem managers to move past ideologies governing native versus non-native invader classification and toward a framework that accounts for the uniqueness of native species

  4. Myoferlin depletion in breast cancer cells promotes mesenchymal to epithelial shape change and stalls invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Li

    Full Text Available Myoferlin (MYOF is a mammalian ferlin protein with homology to ancestral Fer-1, a nematode protein that regulates spermatic membrane fusion, which underlies the amoeboid-like movements of its sperm. Studies in muscle and endothelial cells have reported on the role of myoferlin in membrane repair, endocytosis, myoblast fusion, and the proper expression of various plasma membrane receptors. In this study, using an in vitro human breast cancer cell model, we demonstrate that myoferlin is abundantly expressed in invasive breast tumor cells. Depletion of MYOF using lentiviral-driven shRNA expression revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells reverted to an epithelial morphology, suggesting at least some features of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. These observations were confirmed by the down-regulation of some mesenchymal cell markers (e.g., fibronectin and vimentin and coordinate up-regulation of the E-cadherin epithelial marker. Cell invasion assays using Boyden chambers showed that loss of MYOF led to a significant diminution in invasion through Matrigel or type I collagen, while cell migration was unaffected. PCR array and screening of serum-free culture supernatants from shRNA(MYOF transduced MDA-MB-231 cells indicated a significant reduction in the steady-state levels of several matrix metalloproteinases. These data when considered in toto suggest a novel role of MYOF in breast tumor cell invasion and a potential reversion to an epithelial phenotype upon loss of MYOF.

  5. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary Cilium-Regulated EG-VEGF Signaling Facilitates Trophoblast Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Tsai, Hui-Ling; Syu, Jhih-Siang; Chen, Ting-Yu; Su, Mei-Tsz

    2017-06-01

    Trophoblast invasion is an important event in embryo implantation and placental development. During these processes, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is the key regulator mediating the crosstalk at the feto-maternal interface. The primary cilium is a cellular antenna receiving environmental signals and is crucial for proper development. However, little is known regarding the role of the primary cilium in early human pregnancy. Here, we demonstrate that EG-VEGF regulates trophoblast cell invasion via primary cilia. We found that EG-VEGF activated ERK1/2 signaling and subsequent upregulation of MMP2 and MMP9, thereby facilitating cell invasion in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 alleviated the expression of MMPs and trophoblast cell invasion after EG-VEGF treatment. In addition, primary cilia were observed in all the trophoblast cell lines tested and, more importantly, in human first-trimester placental tissue. The receptor of EG-VEGF, PROKR1, was detected in primary cilia. Depletion of IFT88, the intraflagellar transporter required for ciliogenesis, inhibited primary cilium growth, thereby ameliorating ERK1/2 activation, MMP upregulation, and trophoblast cell invasion promoted by EG-VEGF. These findings demonstrate a novel function of primary cilia in controlling EG-VEGF-regulated trophoblast invasion and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1467-1477, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleunen, Mark; Essl, Franz; Pergl, Jan; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; González-Moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J; Hulme, Philip E; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Máguas, Cristina; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Parepa, Madalin; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia; Verbrugge, Laura; Weber, Ewald; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Klonner, Günther; Talluto, Matthew V; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina

    2018-03-05

    The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged. Since then, cultivated alien species also started to appear in the wild more frequently than non-cultivated aliens globally, particularly during the 19th century. Horticulture still plays a prominent role in current plant introduction, and the monetary value of live-plant imports in different parts of the world is steadily increasing. Historically, botanical gardens - an important component of horticulture - played a major role in displaying, cultivating and distributing new plant discoveries. While the role of botanical gardens in the horticultural supply chain has declined, they are still a significant link, with one-third of institutions involved in retail-plant sales and horticultural research. However, botanical gardens have also become more dependent on commercial nurseries as plant sources, particularly in North America. Plants selected for ornamental purposes are not a random selection of the global flora, and some of the plant characteristics promoted through horticulture, such as fast growth, also promote invasion. Efforts to breed non-invasive plant cultivars are still rare. Socio-economical, technological, and environmental changes will lead to novel patterns of plant introductions and invasion opportunities for the species that are already cultivated. We describe the role that horticulture could play in mediating these changes. We identify current research challenges, and call for more

  8. SIPA1 promotes invasion and migration in human oral squamous cell carcinoma by ITGB1 and MMP7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Toshikazu; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Iyoda, Manabu; Kasama, Hiroki; Saito, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Shin; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA1) is known to be a GTPase activating protein. Overexpressed SIPA1 is related to metastatic progression in breast and prostate cancers; however, the relevance of SIPA1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine SIPA1 expression and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. SIPA1 mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of SIPA1 were up-regulated significantly in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SIPA1 expression was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. We next assessed the cellular functions associated with tumoral metastasis using SIPA1 knockdown (shSIPA1) cells and analyzed the downstream molecules of SIPA1, i.e., bromodomain containing protein 4(BRD4), integrin beta1 (ITGB1), and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). The shSIPA1 cells showed decreased invasiveness and migratory activities, however cellular adhesion ability was maintained at a high level. In addition, ITGB1 expression was greater in shSIPA1 cells, whereas MMP7 expression was lower than in control cells. This research is the first to establish that SIPA1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating the ITGB1 and MMP7. Therefore, SIPA1 might be a novel therapeutic target for patients with lymph node metastasis of OSCC. - Highlights: • SIPA1 expression was up-regulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). • SIPA1-positive OSCCs were correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. • SIPA1 controlled BRD4 and influenced transcription of ITGB1and MMP7. • SIPA1 induced cellular invasion and migration and decreased cellular adhesion. • SIPA1 might be a potential biomarker of cancer metastasis for OSCC.

  9. SIPA1 promotes invasion and migration in human oral squamous cell carcinoma by ITGB1 and MMP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Toshikazu [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Yamatoji, Masanobu [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Iyoda, Manabu; Kasama, Hiroki; Saito, Tomoaki [Division of Oral Surgery, Chiba Rosai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Takeuchi, Shin [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi [Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA1) is known to be a GTPase activating protein. Overexpressed SIPA1 is related to metastatic progression in breast and prostate cancers; however, the relevance of SIPA1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine SIPA1 expression and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. SIPA1 mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of SIPA1 were up-regulated significantly in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SIPA1 expression was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. We next assessed the cellular functions associated with tumoral metastasis using SIPA1 knockdown (shSIPA1) cells and analyzed the downstream molecules of SIPA1, i.e., bromodomain containing protein 4(BRD4), integrin beta1 (ITGB1), and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). The shSIPA1 cells showed decreased invasiveness and migratory activities, however cellular adhesion ability was maintained at a high level. In addition, ITGB1 expression was greater in shSIPA1 cells, whereas MMP7 expression was lower than in control cells. This research is the first to establish that SIPA1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating the ITGB1 and MMP7. Therefore, SIPA1 might be a novel therapeutic target for patients with lymph node metastasis of OSCC. - Highlights: • SIPA1 expression was up-regulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). • SIPA1-positive OSCCs were correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. • SIPA1 controlled BRD4 and influenced transcription of ITGB1and MMP7. • SIPA1 induced cellular invasion and migration and decreased cellular adhesion. • SIPA1 might be a potential biomarker of cancer metastasis for OSCC.

  10. Src Induces Podoplanin Expression to Promote Cell Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongquan; Chen, Chen-Shan; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Goldberg, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Nontransformed cells can force tumor cells to assume a normal morphology and phenotype by the process of contact normalization. Transformed cells must escape this process to become invasive and malignant. However, mechanisms underlying contact normalization have not been elucidated. Here, we have identified genes that are affected by contact normalization of Src-transformed cells. Tumor cells must migrate to become invasive and malignant. Src must phosphorylate the adaptor protein Cas (Crk-associated substrate) to promote tumor cell motility. We report here that Src utilizes Cas to induce podoplanin (Pdpn) expression to promote tumor cell migration. Pdpn is a membrane-bound extracellular glycoprotein that associates with endogenous ligands to promote tumor cell migration leading to cancer invasion and metastasis. In fact, Pdpn expression accounted for a major part of the increased migration seen in Src-transformed cells. Moreover, nontransformed cells suppressed Pdpn expression in adjacent Src-transformed cells. Of >39,000 genes, Pdpn was one of only 23 genes found to be induced by transforming Src activity and suppressed by contact normalization of Src-transformed cells. In addition, we found 16 genes suppressed by Src and induced by contact normalization. These genes encode growth factor receptors, adaptor proteins, and products that have not yet been annotated and may play important roles in tumor cell growth and migration. PMID:20123990

  11. Invasive Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana threatens native mussel reproduction by inducing cross‐resistance of host fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donrovich, S. W.; Douda, K.; Plechingerová, V.; Rylková, K.; Horký, P.; Slavík, O.; Liu, H.-Z.; Reichard, Martin; Lopes-Lima, M.; Sousa, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2017), s. 1325-1333 ISSN 1052-7613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : adaptive immunity * Anodonta anatina * competition * freshwater * glochidia * host–parasite relationships * invasive alien species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2016

  12. Alien Marine Species in the Mediterranean - the 100 ‘Worst Invasives’ and their Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. STREFTARIS

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of marine alien species have been described as invasive or locally invasive in the Mediterranean because of their proliferation, and/or their geographical spread and/or impact on native populations. Based on that information and on the documented impact they have on the biodiversity and socioeconomics of the basin, a preliminary list of the 100 ‘worst’ Invasive Alien Species (IAS in the Mediterranean has been produced and presented in this work along with details on their impact. Emphasis is given to their impact on socioeconomics (fi sheries/aquaculture, health & sanitation, infrastructure & building, documented for 43 species. Such selection of the ‘worst’ IAS was diffi cult and controversial and is expected to attract much attention and scientifi c criticism since not only can the documentation of the impact of IAS be controversial, but also their inventory can be biased towards the effort and resources devoted to the study of the impact of certain species/taxonomic groups. Thus, while marine plants (phytobenthos and phytoplankton are fairly well studied, less attention has been paid to the impact of vertebrates and even less to invertebrates. Nevertheless, the list highlights the need for continued research on the issue (monitoring aliens and their impact for an integrated ecosystem based management approach over the entire area. The preliminary list can provide the basis for selecting indicator species within the Mediterranean and thus be the common ground to build cooperation about IAS within countries in the region.

  13. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  14. Myricetin suppresses invasion and promotes cell death in human placental choriocarcinoma cells through induction of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changwon; Lim, Whasun; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-07-28

    Myricetin is a bioactive compound found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, and its anti-cancer effects are well known. In this study, we confirmed that myricetin reduced proliferation of two choriocarcinoma cell lines (JAR and JEG-3) and also promoted apoptosis and regulated cell cycle progression in a dose-dependent manner in JAR and JEG-3 cells. In addition, we found that invasive and pro-angiogenic properties of malignant JAR and JEG-3 trophoblast cells were attenuated by myricetin treatment via MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In addition, we found that ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials were enhanced in JAR and JEG-3 cells treated with myricetin. Moreover, myricetin augmented cytosolic Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum associated with modulation of ER stress in JAR and JEG-3 cells. Our results also revealed that myricetin had synergistic antiproliferative effects with current chemotherapeutics, etoposide and cisplatin, on choriocarcinoma cells. Collectively, results of the present study provide strong evidence for the potential of myricetin to be an effective therapeutic for the prevention of human placental choriocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lauxen, Isabel; Sant’Ana Filho, Manoel; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad) or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad), plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization. PMID:26978651

  16. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos

    Full Text Available Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad, plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization.

  17. A marine biogeochemical perspective on black shale deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D. Z.; Calvert, S. E.

    2009-06-01

    Deposition of marine black shales has commonly been interpreted as having involved a high level of marine phytoplankton production that promoted high settling rates of organic matter through the water column and high burial fluxes on the seafloor or anoxic (sulfidic) water-column conditions that led to high levels of preservation of deposited organic matter, or a combination of the two processes. Here we review the hydrography and the budgets of trace metals and phytoplankton nutrients in two modern marine basins that have permanently anoxic bottom waters. This information is then used to hindcast the hydrography and biogeochemical conditions of deposition of a black shale of Late Jurassic age (the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Yorkshire, England) from its trace metal and organic carbon content. Comparison of the modern and Jurassic sediment compositions reveals that the rate of photic zone primary productivity in the Kimmeridge Sea, based on the accumulation rate of the marine fraction of Ni, was as high as 840 g organic carbon m - 2 yr -1. This high level was possibly tied to the maximum rise of sea level during the Late Jurassic that flooded this and other continents sufficiently to allow major open-ocean boundary currents to penetrate into epeiric seas. Sites of intense upwelling of nutrient-enriched seawater would have been transferred from the continental margins, their present location, onto the continents. This global flooding event was likely responsible for deposition of organic matter-enriched sediments in other marine basins of this age, several of which today host major petroleum source rocks. Bottom-water redox conditions in the Kimmeridge Sea, deduced from the V:Mo ratio in the marine fraction of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, varied from oxic to anoxic, but were predominantly suboxic, or denitrifying. A high settling flux of organic matter, a result of the high primary productivity, supported a high rate of bacterial respiration that led to the

  18. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  19. Enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants exhibit growth advantages in high nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X A; Peng, Y; Li, J J; Peng, P H

    2018-03-12

    Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers do not affect metamorphosis but alter the proteome of the invasive slipper limpet Crepidula onyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Joy; Po, Beverly H K; Chiu, Jill M Y; Wu, Rudolf S S; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-08-15

    Man-made polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used as flame retardants in various consumer products may be harmful to marine organisms. Larvae of some marine invertebrates, especially invasive species, can develop resistance to PBDEs through altered protein expression patterns or proteome plasticity. This is the first report of a proteomics approach to study BDE-47 induced molecular changes in the invasive limpet Crepidula onyx. Larvae of C. onyx were cultured for 5 days (hatching to metamorphosis) in the presence of BDE-47 (1 μg L(-1)). Using a 2-DE proteomics approach with triple quadrupole and high-resolution TOF-MS, we showed that BDE-47 altered the proteome structure but not the growth or metamorphosis of C. onyx larvae. We found eight significant differentially expressed proteins in response to BDE-47, deemed the protein expression signature, consisting of cytoskeletal, stress tolerance, metabolism and energy production related proteins. Our data suggest C. onyx larvae have adequate proteome plasticity to tolerate BDE-47 toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long noncoding RNA NEAT1 promotes cell proliferation and invasion by regulating hnRNP A2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang YY

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyi Mang, Li Li, Jianghua Ran, Shengning Zhang, Jing Liu, Laibang Li, Yiming Chen, Jian Liu, Yang Gao, Gang Ren Department of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, The Calmette Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, The First Hospital of Kunming, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Growing evidence demonstrates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are involved in the progression of various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The role of nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1, an essential lncRNA for the formation of nuclear body paraspeckles, has not been fully explored in HCC. We aimed to determine the expression, roles and functional mechanisms of NEAT1 in the proliferation and invasion of HCC. Based on real-time polymerase chain reaction data, we suggest that NEAT1 is upregulated in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous liver tissues. The knockdown of NEAT1 altered global gene expression patterns and reduced HCC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays confirmed that U2AF65 binds to NEAT1. Furthermore, the study indicated that NEAT1 regulated hnRNP A2 expression and that this regulation may be associated with the NEAT1–U2AF65 protein complex. Thus, the NEAT1-hnRNP A2 regulation mechanism promotes HCC pathogenesis and may provide a potential target for the prognosis and treatment of HCC. Keywords: long noncoding RNA, NEAT1, RNA-binding protein, HCC

  2. Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Murray R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past five or six decades, contamination and pollution of the world’s enclosed seas, coastal waters and the wider open oceans by plastics and other synthetic, non-biodegradable materials (generally known as ‘marine debris’) has been an ever-increasing phenomenon. The sources of these polluting materials are both land- and marine-based, their origins may be local or distant, and the environmental consequences are many and varied. The more widely recognized problems are typically associ...

  3. New marine science organization formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Warren S.

    A new international organization, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) will be established to promote and coordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Berlin Sea. This was decided in Ottawa on December 12, 1990, when a draft convention was approved by representatives of Canada, China, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. PICES will focus on research on the ocean environment and its interactions with land and atmosphere, its role and response to global weather and climate change, its flora, fauna and ecosystems, its uses and resources, and impacts upon it from human activities. Such studies relate not only to the effects of fishing and environmental change on fish stocks but also to such issues as the impacts of oil spills and other forms of pollution and the eventual consequences of climate change for uses of the ocean and its resources.

  4. Elevated phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) promotes cytoskeleton reorganization, cell migration and invasion in endometrial stromal cells from endometrioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hong; Ma, Junyan; Ruan, Fei; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Peng, Bo; Wu, Ruijin; Lin, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Is phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) associated with increased motility of endometriotic cells from endometrioma? Elevated PRL-3 promotes cytoskeleton reorganization, cell migration and invasion of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from endometrioma. Overexpression of PRL-3 is associated with cancer cell migration, invasion and metastatic phenotype. Primary human ESCs were isolated from eutopic endometrium of women without endometriosis (EuCo, n = 10), with histologically proven endometrioma (EuEM, n = 19) and from the cyst wall of ovarian endometriosis (OvEM, n = 26). The expression of PRL-3 in ESCs derived from EuCo, EuEM and OvEM at different phases of menstrual cycle were compared. The protein and mRNA levels of PRL-3 were examined by western blot and RT-qPCR, respectively. ESCs from OvEM were transfected with/without short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Additionally, a plasmid-mediated delivery system was used to achieve PRL-3 overexpression in ESCs from EuEM. The cellular distribution of F-actin and α-tubulin were examined by immunocytochemistry. Cell motility was evaluated by a transwell migration/invasion assay. The protein and mRNA levels of PRL-3 are significantly elevated in ESCs from OvEM compared with EuCo and EuEM. The expression of PRL-3 was not altered between proliferative phase and secretory phase in ESCs from all groups. Knockdown of PRL-3 significantly modified the distribution of F-actin and α-tubulin cytoskeleton, inhibited cell migration and invasion. Endogenous inhibition of PRL-3 attenuated the expression of Ras homolog gene family members A and C (RhoA, RhoC), Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, but not MMP2 in ESCs from OvEM. Additionally, overexpression of PRL-3 in ESCs from EuEM up-regulates cell migration and invasion, and increases the expression of RhoA, RhoC, ROCK1 and MMP9. Lack of in vivo animal studies is the major limitation of our

  5. The effects of an invasive alien plant (Chromolaena odorata on large African mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihle Dumalisile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alien plants have invaded most ecosystem types (terrestrial, fresh water and marine and are responsible for the loss of irreplaceable natural services on which humankind relies. They alter food quantity, quality and accessibility, and may result in declines in native species richness, which may ultimately result in extinction. For an effective management of invasive alien plants, it is important to understand the effects that such plants have on all levels of biodiversity. However, the effects that invasive alien plants, such as the Triffid weed (Chromolaena odorata, have on mammalian biodiversity, especially large mammalian species, are not well-known, although they play major ecological roles in areas such as nutrient cycling. Also, little is known about the recovery of the ecosystem following alien plant removal. This study investigated the effects of C. odorata invasion on large mammalian herbivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park and whether clearing of this plant helped in rehabilitating the habitat. We used track counts to estimate and compare species richness, diversity and abundance indices for large mammalian species between areas with differing C. odorata invasion durations (ca 2 years, ca 10 years, ca 20 years, areas with differing clearing times (cl < 2 years, cl 3–5 years and an area without any history of C. odorata invasion as a control. The results from this study show that large mammalian species utilised the uninvaded and the cleared areas more than the invaded areas. Species richness, abundance and diversity decreased with increasing invasion duration and cleared areas showed an increasing species richness and abundance. We conclude that this invasive alien plant modifies habitats and their removal does aid in the restoration of the ecosystem.

  6. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  7. Native predators do not influence invasion success of pacific lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackerott, Serena; Valdivia, Abel; Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M; Cox, Courtney E; Akins, Lad; Layman, Craig A; Precht, William F; Bruno, John F

    2013-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the process by which new colonists are excluded from a community by predation from and/or competition with resident species, can prevent or limit species invasions. We examined whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of red lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), piscivores from the Indo-Pacific. Specifically, we surveyed the abundance (density and biomass) of lionfish and native predatory fishes that could interact with lionfish (either through predation or competition) on 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type, and wind/wave exposure at each site. We found no relationship between the density or biomass of lionfish and that of native predators. However, lionfish densities were significantly lower on windward sites, potentially because of habitat preferences, and in marine protected areas, most likely because of ongoing removal efforts by reserve managers. Our results suggest that interactions with native predators do not influence the colonization or post-establishment population density of invasive lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

  8. The importance of the human footprint in shaping the global distribution of terrestrial, freshwater and marine invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Gallardo

    Full Text Available Human activities such as transport, trade and tourism are likely to influence the spatial distribution of non-native species and yet, Species Distribution Models (SDMs that aim to predict the future broad scale distribution of invaders often rely on environmental (e.g. climatic information only. This study investigates if and to what extent do human activities that directly or indirectly influence nature (hereafter the human footprint affect the global distribution of invasive species in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. We selected 72 species including terrestrial plants, terrestrial animals, freshwater and marine invasive species of concern in a focus area located in NW Europe (encompassing Great Britain, France, The Netherlands and Belgium. Species Distribution Models were calibrated with the global occurrence of species and a set of high-resolution (9×9 km environmental (e.g. topography, climate, geology layers and human footprint proxies (e.g. the human influence index, population density, road proximity. Our analyses suggest that the global occurrence of a wide range of invaders is primarily limited by climate. Temperature tolerance was the most important factor and explained on average 42% of species distribution. Nevertheless, factors related to the human footprint explained a substantial amount (23% on average of species distributions. When global models were projected into the focus area, spatial predictions integrating the human footprint featured the highest cumulative risk scores close to transport networks (proxy for invasion pathways and in habitats with a high human influence index (proxy for propagule pressure. We conclude that human related information-currently available in the form of easily accessible maps and databases-should be routinely implemented into predictive frameworks to inform upon policies to prevent and manage invasions. Otherwise we might be seriously underestimating the species and areas under

  9. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  10. The future of marine renewable energies. Summary of the Ifremer Futures study on marine renewable energies to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Paillard, M.

    2008-01-01

    The challenge posed by climate change and the predicted scarcity of fossil fuels is so great that energy questions are increasingly in the headlines. There has, in this context, been an increasing promotion of renewable energies, as is attested by France and the EU's stated objective of producing 20% of consumed energy from renewable sources by 2020. Among the different renewable energies, the ocean represents an immense reserve (tidal and tidal-stream energy, wave and wind power, marine biomass etc.) and a genuine asset for those countries like France which have the good fortune to have many seaboards (both at home and overseas). In order to gauge the potential of marine renewable energies, Ifremer began an enormous foresight exercise in March 2007 examining scenarios to the year 2030 in partnership with the main actors in the maritime world and with methodological support from Futuribles. Denis Lacroix and Michel Paillard, who were members of the steering committee of that study, present the broad outlines of this foresight exercise and the possible prospects for marine renewable energies. After reviewing the various forms of marine energy, they set out the methods followed and the range of possible scenarios selected, together with the potential of the different technologies associated with marine renewable energies. They then show the extent to which these energies could contribute to the French energy supply to 2030, before developing a ''normative'' scenario that can serve as a strategic axis for French energy policy so far as marine renewable energies are concerned (on the basis of a contribution of around 3% to the French energy mix in 2020). (author)

  11. Methylation screening of the TGFBI promoter in human lung and prostate cancer by methylation-specific PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Jinesh N; Shao, Genze; Hei, Tom K; Zhao, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    Hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter has been shown to correlate with decreased expression of this gene in human tumor cell lines. In this study, we optimized a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) method and investigated the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in human lung and prostate cancer specimens. Methylation-specific primers were designed based on the methylation profiles of the TGFBI promoter in human tumor cell lines, and MSP conditions were optimized for accurate and efficient amplification. Genomic DNA was isolated from lung tumors and prostatectomy tissues of prostate cancer patients, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed by MSP. Among 50 lung cancer samples, 44.0% (22/50) harbored methylated CpG sites in the TGFBI promoter. An analysis correlating gene methylation status with clinicopathological cancer features revealed that dense methylation of the TGFBI promoter was associated with a metastatic phenotype, with 42.9% (6/14) of metastatic lung cancer samples demonstrating dense methylation vs. only 5.6% (2/36) of primary lung cancer samples (p < 0.05). Similar to these lung cancer results, 82.0% (41/50) of prostate cancer samples harbored methylated CpG sites in the TGFBI promoter, and dense methylation of the promoter was present in 38.9% (7/18) of prostate cancer samples with the feature of locoregional invasiveness vs. only 19.4% (6/31) of prostate cancer samples without locoregional invasiveness (p < 0.05). Furthermore, promoter hypermethylation correlated with highly reduced expression of the TGFBI gene in human lung and prostate tumor cell lines. We successfully optimized a MSP method for the precise and efficient screening of TGFBI promoter methylation status. Dense methylation of the TGFBI promoter correlated with the extent of TGFBI gene silencing in tumor cell lines and was related to invasiveness of prostate tumors and metastatic status of lung cancer tumors. Thus, TGFBI promoter methylation can be used as a potential

  12. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, Brandon Road Lock and Dam Invasive Species Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Decision makers must include control-measure monitoring and emergency “interventions” to insure safety. The Coast Guard operational commanders...system” incorporates a travelling car on a rail above the barge-loading wharf to prevent loading personnel, cargo surveyors, or others from falling...to the Gulf of Mexico . As “Loopers”, they will have already transited the CSSC electric barriers. Preliminary Marine Safety Risk Assessment, BRLD

  13. Transcription factor HBP1 is a direct anti-cancer target of transcription factor FOXO1 in invasive oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Yi; Huang, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Roth, Mendel M; Chou, I-Tai; Lien, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Fen; Huang, Chun-Yin

    2017-02-28

    Either FOXO1 or HBP1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the PI3K/Akt pathway and associated with tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between FOXO1 and HBP1 in oral cancer remains unclear. Analysis of 30 oral tumor specimens revealed that mean mRNA levels of both FOXO1 and HBP1 in non-invasive and invasive oral tumors were found to be significantly lower than that of the control tissues, and the status of low FOXO1 and HBP1 (oral tumors. To investigate if HBP1 is a direct transcription target of FOXO1, we searched potential FOXO1 binding sites in the HBP1 promoter using the MAPPER Search Engine, and two putative FOXO1 binding sites located in the HBP1 promoter -132 to -125 bp and -343 to -336 bp were predicted. These binding sites were then confirmed by both reporter gene assays and the in cellulo ChIP assay. In addition, Akt activity manipulated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Akt mutants was shown to negatively affect FOXO1-mediated HBP1 promoter activation and gene expression. Last, the biological significance of the FOXO1-HBP1 axis in oral cancer malignancy was evaluated in cell growth, colony formation, and invasiveness. The results indicated that HBP1 knockdown potently promoted malignant phenotypes of oral cancer and the suppressive effect of FOXO1 on cell growth, colony formation, and invasion was alleviated upon HBP1 knockdown in invasive oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for HBP1 as a direct downstream target of FOXO1 in oral cancer malignancy.

  14. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Yamashita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV. We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95% and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%. Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 1 and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy-phenol (compound 2, which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs.

  15. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  16. Bcl-w Enhances Mesenchymal Changes and Invasiveness of Glioblastoma Cells by Inducing Nuclear Accumulation of β-Catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Sang; Woo, Eun Young; Kwon, Junhye; Park, Myung-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seon; Han, Young-Hoon; Bae, In Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Bcl-w a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is expressed in a variety of cancer types, including gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, as well as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and lethal brain tumor type. Previously, we demonstrated that Bcl-w is upregulated in gastric cancer cells, particularly those displaying infiltrative morphology. These reports propose that Bcl-w is strongly associated with aggressive characteristic, such as invasive or mesenchymal phenotype of GBM. However, there is no information from studies of the role of Bcl-w in GBM. In the current study, we showed that Bcl-w is upregulated in human glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV) tissues, compared with normal and glioma (WHO grade III) tissues. Bcl-w promotes the mesenchymal traits of glioblastoma cells by inducing vimentin expression via activation of transcription factors, β-catenin, Twist1 and Snail in glioblastoma U251 cells. Moreover, Bcl-w induces invasiveness by promoting MMP-2 and FAK activation via the PI3K-p-Akt-p-GSK3β-β-catenin pathway. We further confirmed that Bcl-w has the capacity to induce invasiveness in several human cancer cell lines. In particular, Bcl-w-stimulated β-catenin is translocated into the nucleus as a transcription factor and promotes the expression of target genes, such as mesenchymal markers or MMPs, thereby increasing mesenchymal traits and invasiveness. Our findings collectively indicate that Bcl-w functions as a positive regulator of invasiveness by inducing mesenchymal changes and that trigger their aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. PMID:23826359

  17. Imaging Prostate Cancer Invasion with Multi-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods: The Metabolic Boyden Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilatus

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological milieu within solid tumors can influence invasion and metastasis. To determine the impact of the physiological environment and cellular metabolism on cancer cell invasion, it is necessary to measure invasion during well-controlled modulation of the physiological environment. Recently, we demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to monitor cancer cell invasion into a Matrigel layer [Artemov D, Pilatus U, Chou S, Mori N, Nelson JB, and Bhujwalla ZM. (1999. Dynamics of prostate cancer cell invasion studied in vitro by NMR microscopy. Mag Res Med 42, 277–282.]. Here we have developed an invasion assay (“Metabolic Boyden Chamber” that combines this capability with the properties of our isolated cell perfusion system. Long-term experiments can be performed to determine invasion as well as cellular metabolism under controlled environmental conditions. To characterize the assay, we performed experiments with prostate cancer cell lines preselected for different invasive characteristics. The results showed invasion into, and degradation of the Matrigel layer, by the highly invasive/metastatic line (MatLyLu, whereas no significant changes were observed for the less invasive/metastatic cell line (DU-145. With this assay, invasion and metabolism was measured dynamically, together with oxygen tensions within the cellular environment and within the Matrigel layer. Such a system can be used to identify physiological and metabolic characteristics that promote invasion, and evaluate therapeutic interventions to inhibit invasion.

  18. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  19. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  20. Genetics, novel weapons and rhizospheric microcosmal signaling in the invasion of Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bais, Harsh P

    2008-01-01

    Chemical communication and perception strategies between plants are highly sophisticated but are only partly understood. Among the different interactions, the suppressive interaction of a class of chemicals released by one plant through root exudates against the neighbouring plants (allelopathy) have been implicated in the invasiveness of many exotic weedy species. Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the dominant colonizers of the North American wetland marshes and exhibits invasive behavior by virtually replacing the entire native vegetation in its niche. Recently, by adopting a systematic bioassay driven approach we elucidated the role of root derived allelopathy as one of the important mechanisms by which P. australis exerts its invasive behavior. Additionally, our recent preliminary data indicates the involvement of rhizobacterial signaling in the invasive success of P. australis. A better understanding of biochemical weaponry used by P. australis will aid scientists and technologists in addressing the impact of root secretions in invasiveness of weedy species and thus promote a more informed environmental stewardship.

  1. Defining scenarios of future vectors of change in marine life and associated economic sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bosello, Francesco; Butenschön, Momme; Elliott, Mike; Peck, Myron A.; Pinnegar, John K.

    2018-02-01

    Addressing the multitude of challenges in marine policy requires an integrated approach that considers the multitude of drivers, pressures, and interests, from several disciplinary angles. Scenarios are needed to harmonise the analyses of different components of the marine system, and to deal with the uncertainty and complexity of the societal and biogeophysical dynamics in the system. This study considers a set of socio-economic scenarios to (1) explore possible futures in relation to marine invasive species, outbreak forming species, and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity; and (2) harmonise the projection modelling performed within associated studies. The exercise demonstrates that developing interdisciplinary scenarios as developed in this study is particularly complicated due to (1) the wide variety in endogeneity or exogeneity of variables in the different analyses involved; (2) the dual role of policy decisions as variables in a scenario or decisions to be evaluated and compared to other decisions; and (3) the substantial difference in time scale between societal and physical drivers.

  2. GM-CSF enhances tumor invasion by elevated MMP-2, -9, and -26 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutschalk, Claudia M; Yanamandra, Archana K; Linde, Nina; Meides, Alice; Depner, Sofia; Mueller, Margareta M

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes tumor progression in different tumor models in an autocrine and paracrine manner. However, at the same time GM-CSF is used in cancer therapies to ameliorate neutropenia. We have previously shown in GM-CSF and G-CSF expressing or negative skin or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that GM-CSF expression is associated with a highly angiogenic and invasive tumor phenotype. To determine the functional contribution of GM-CSF to tumor invasion, we stably transfected a GM-CSF negative colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 with GM-CSF or treated the same cell line with exogenous GM-CSF. While GM-CSF overexpression and treatment reduced tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, respectively, it contributed to tumor progression. Together with an enhanced migratory capacity in vitro, we observed a striking increase in tumor cell invasion into the surrounding tissue concomitant with the induction of an activated tumor stroma in GM-CSF overexpressing or GM-CSF treated tumors. In a complex 3D in vitro model, enhanced GM-CSF expression was associated with a discontinued basement membrane deposition that might be mediated by the increased expression and activation of MMP-2, -9, and -26. Treatment with GM-CSF blocking antibodies reversed this effect. The increased presence and activity of these tumor cell derived proteases was confirmed in vivo. Here, expression of MMP-26 protein was predominantly located in pre- and early-invasive areas suggesting MMP-26 expression as an early event in promoting GM-CSF dependent tumor invasion

  3. Climate change and body size shift in Mediterranean bivalve assemblages: unexpected role of biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Rafał; Albano, Paolo G; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-08-16

    Body size is a synthetic functional trait determining many key ecosystem properties. Reduction in average body size has been suggested as one of the universal responses to global warming in aquatic ecosystems. Climate change, however, coincides with human-enhanced dispersal of alien species and can facilitate their establishment. We address effects of species introductions on the size structure of recipient communities using data on Red Sea bivalves entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. We show that the invasion leads to increase in median body size of the Mediterranean assemblage. Alien species are significantly larger than native Mediterranean bivalves, even though they represent a random subset of the Red Sea species with respect to body size. The observed patterns result primarily from the differences in the taxonomic composition and body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools. In contrast to the expectations based on the general temperature-size relationships in marine ectotherms, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea indirectly leads to an increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in bivalve assemblages by accelerating the entry and spread of tropical aliens. These results underscore complex interactions between changing climate and species invasions in driving functional shifts in marine ecosystems. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Plant invasions in mountains: Global lessons for better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.L.; Khuroo, A.A.; Loope, L.L.; Parks, C.G.; Pauchard, A.; Reshi, Z.A.; Rushworth, I.; Kueffer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and predictions are uncertain. In this essay, we use management case studies from 7 mountain regions to identify common lessons for effective preventive action. The degree of plant invasion in mountains was variable in the 7 regions as was the response to invasion, which ranged from lack of awareness by land managers of the potential impact in Chile and Kashmir to well-organized programs of prevention and containment in the United States (Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest), including prevention at low altitude. In Australia, awareness of the threat grew only after disruptive invasions. In South Africa, the economic benefits of removing alien plants are well recognized and funded in the form of employment programs. In the European Alps, there is little need for active management because no invasive species pose an immediate threat. From these case studies, we identify lessons for management of plant invasions in mountain ecosystems: (i) prevention is especially important in mountains because of their rugged terrain, where invasions can quickly become unmanageable; (ii) networks at local to global levels can assist with awareness raising and better prioritization of management actions; (iii) the economic importance of management should be identified and articulated; (iv) public acceptance of management programs will make them more effective; and (v) climate change needs to be considered. We suggest that comparisons of local case studies, such as those we have presented, have a pivotal place in the proactive solution of global change issues. ?? International Mountain Society.

  5. Regional consequences of a biotic interchange: insights from the Lessepsian invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Rafal; Albano, Paolo G.; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    between habitats and body-size classes in the invasion levels have been observed in some marine biotic interchanges documented in the fossil record. Further quantitative studies of past invasion events are necessary to test generality of these patterns.

  6. HUWE1 Ubiquitylates and Degrades the RAC Activator TIAM1 Promoting Cell-Cell Adhesion Disassembly, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 ubiquitylation site prevents TIAM1 degradation, antagonizing scattering, and invasion. Moreover, simultaneous depletion of TIAM1 restores migration and invasion in HUWE1-depleted cells. Significantly, we show that HUWE1 stimulates human lung cancer cell invasion through regulating TIAM1 stability. Finally, we demonstrate that HUWE1 and TIAM1 protein levels are inversely correlated in human lung carcinomas. Thus, we elucidate a critical role for HUWE1 in regulating epithelial cell-cell adhesion and provide additional evidence that ubiquitylation contributes to spatiotemporal control of RAC.

  7. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Arthurs, MD; Kathy Wunderle, MD; Maylee Hsu, MD; Suil Kim, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus. Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  8. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Benjamin; Wunderle, Kathy; Hsu, Maylee; Kim, Suil

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus . Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  9. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariton, J T; Geller, J B

    1993-07-02

    Ocean-going ships carry, as ballast, seawater that is taken on in port and released at subsequent ports of call. Plankton samples from Japanese ballast water released in Oregon contained 367 taxa. Most taxa with a planktonic phase in their life cycle were found in ballast water, as were all major marine habitat and trophic groups. Transport of entire coastal planktonic assemblages across oceanic barriers to similar habitats renders bays, estuaries, and inland waters among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Presence of taxonomically difficult or inconspicuous taxa in these samples suggests that ballast water invasions are already pervasive.

  10. Reduced host cell invasiveness and oxidative stress tolerance in double and triple csp gene family deletion mutants of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepfe, Chantal; Raimann, Eveline; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2010-07-01

    The cold shock protein (Csp) family comprises small, highly conserved proteins that bind nucleic acids to modulate various bacterial gene expressions. In addition to cold adaptation functions, this group of proteins is thought to facilitate various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Three proteins making up the Listeria monocytogenes Csp family (CspA, CspB, and CspD) promote both cold and osmotic stress adaptation functions in this bacterium. The contribution of these three Csps in the host cell invasion processes of L. monocytogenes was investigated based on human Caco-2 and murine macrophage in vitro cell infection models. The DeltacspB, DeltacspD, DeltacspAB, DeltacspAD, DeltacspBD, and DeltacspABD strains were all significantly impaired in Caco-2 cell invasion compared with the wild-type strain, whereas in the murine macrophage infection assay only, the double (DeltacspBD) and triple (DeltacspABD) csp mutants were also significantly impaired in cell invasion compared with the wild-type strain. The DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD mutants displayed the most severely impaired invasion phenotypes. The invasion ability of these two mutant strains was also further analyzed using cold-stress-exposed organisms. In both cell infection models a significant reduction in invasiveness was observed after cold stress exposure of Listeria organisms. The negative impact of cold stress on subsequent cell invasion ability was, however, more severe in cold-sensitive csp mutants (DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD) compared with the wild type. The impaired macrophage invasion and intracellular growth of DeltacspBD and DeltacspABD also led us to examine oxidative stress resistance capacity in these two mutant strains. Both strains also displayed higher oxidative stress sensitivity relative to the wild-type strain. Our data indicate that besides cold and osmotic stress adaptation roles, Csp family proteins also promote efficient host cell invasion and

  11. Microfouling communities from pelagic and benthic marine plastic debris sampled across Mediterranean coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Masó

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study used scanning electron microscopy to characterize the organisms colonizing marine plastic debris collected from pelagic and benthic habitats across Mediterranean coastal waters of Greece, Italy and Spain. A total of 42 fragments of plastic were collected during the COMSOM experimental cruise, 16 from the seafloor and 26 from surface waters. The results showed that diatoms were the most abundant organisms on both pelagic and benthic plastics. The diatom Ceratoneis closterium, frequently observed on surface plastics (73%, is a harmful microalgae associated with mucilage events in the Mediterranean. The abundance of marine plastic in coastal and oceanic waters may provide new habitats that offer an easy substrate for these invasive organisms. Furthermore, the colonization of these new environments might reduce the success of life strategies, or drive the organisms out of their essential habitat by dispersion and rafting phenomena. The results of the present work highlight the need to increase our knowledge of the consequences of colonization of plastics introduced into the marine environment, and the need to raise awareness of the potential impacts of debris accumulation on biodiversity of marine ecosystems.

  12. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  13. Historical contingency and ecological determinism interact to prime speciation in sticklebacks, Gasterosteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E B; McPhail, J D

    2000-01-01

    Historical contingency and determinism are often cast as opposing paradigms under which evolutionary diversification operates. It may be, however, that both factors act together to promote evolutionary divergence, although there are few examples of such interaction in nature. We tested phylogenetic predictions of an explicit historical model of divergence (double invasions of freshwater by marine ancestors) in sympatric species of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) where determinism has been implicated as an important factor driving evolutionary novelty. Microsatellite DNA variation at six loci revealed relatively low genetic variation in freshwater populations, supporting the hypothesis that they were derived by colonization of freshwater by more diverse marine ancestors. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses suggested that pairs of sympatric species have evolved multiple times, further implicating determinism as a factor in speciation. Our data also supported predictions based on the hypothesis that the evolution of sympatric species was contingent upon 'double invasions' of postglacial lakes by ancestral marine sticklebacks. Sympatric sticklebacks, therefore, provide an example of adaptive radiation by determinism contingent upon historical conditions promoting unique ecological interactions, and illustrate how contingency and determinism may interact to generate geographical variation in species diversity PMID:11133026

  14. Geological records of marine environmental changes in the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Indexes of sediment grain size, sedimentation rates, geochemical composition, heavy minerals, benthic foraminiferal fauna, indicator species of the Kuroshio Current, paleo-SST and carbonate dissolution of core E017 conformably suggest a great marine environmental change occurring at about 10.1-9.2 cal. kaBP in the southern Okinawa Trough, which may correspond to the strengthening of the Kuroshio Warm Current and re-entering the Okinawa Trough through the sea area off northeast Taiwan. The invasion of Kuroshio current has experienced a process of gradual strengthening and then weakening, and its intensity became more fluctuation during the last 5000 years. Compared to the transition of sediment grain size, geochemical composition and heavy minerals, the foraminiferal faunas show a 900-year lag, which may indicate that the invasion of Kuroshio Current and the consequent sea surface and deep-water environmental changes is a gradual process, and fauna has an obvious lag compared to environment altering. The carbonate dissolution of the Okinawa Trough has had an apparent strengthening since 9.2 cal. kaBP, and reached a maximum in the late 3000 years, which may be caused by the deep-water environmental changes due to the invasion of Kuroshio Current.

  15. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhen; Zhou, Lin; Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian; Lyu, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [de

  16. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  17. Projecting Marine Mammal Distribution in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K. Silber

    2017-12-01

    benefit management decisions across time-scales, further promoting the resilience of marine mammal populations.

  18. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  19. PARASITOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN URINE FROM MARINE MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS MAINTAINED IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.L. Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee (Trichechus manatus is one of the most endangered marine mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as vulnerable to extinction. The main risks to the conservation of the species are from natural causes, such as the slow birth rate, human actions and infectious diseases. Among the main objectives of the National Centre for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals, the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (CMA/ICMBio is to promote scientific research and management actions for the conservation and recovery of endangered species of marine mammals, and develop and promote rehabilitation in captivity and release natural environment of the marine manatee. The passage of these individuals for captive is of utmost importance for the conservation of the species. The rehabilitation of captive cubs marine manatees and allow recovery and can return the animal to the natural environment, enables a greater knowledge of the species, referring to biological, behavioral and clinical. Studies on the parasitism of manatee in Brazil are few elucidated, more research related to the topic, it is necessary to better understand the disease and health aspects of the species. This work aims to realize the isolation of the parasite in urine samples of marine manatee kept in the rehabilitation process. All animals included in the study are from the rehabilitation center for wild animals CRAS/CMA/ICMbio , located in Itamaracá, State of Pernambuco. This deal is the first description of parasites in urine manatee in Brazil and can support management actions to be taken to ensure the health of animals in rehabilitation.

  20. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Arthurs, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus. Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  1. [Effect of LPXN Overexpression on the Proliferation, Adhesion and Invasion of THP-1 Cells and Its Mechamisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hai-Ping; Zhu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Li-Li; Wang, Qian; Yao, Hong; Wang, Qin-Rong; Wen, Li-Jun; Qiu, Hui-Ying; Shen, Qun; Chen, Su-Ning; Wu, De-Pei

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effect of LPXN overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of THP-1 cells and its possible mechanism. A THP-1 cell line with stable overexpression of LPXN was constucted by using a lentivirus method, CCK-8 was used to detect the proliferation of cells, adhesion test was used to evaluate adhesion ablity of cells to Fn. Transwell assay was used to detect the change of invasion capability. Western blot was used to detect expression of LPXN, ERK, pERK and integrin α4, α5, β1, the Gelatin zymography was applied to detect activity of MMP2/MMP9 secreted by the THP-1 cells. Successful establishment of THP-1 cells with LPXN overexpression (THP-1 LPXN) was confirmed with Western blot. THP-1 LPXN cells were shown to proliferate faster than the control THP-1 vector cells. Adhesion to Fn and expression of ERK, integrin α4, α5 and β1 in the THP-1 LPXN cells were higher than that in the control cells. Invasion across matrigel and enhanced activity of MMP2 could be detected both in the THP-1 LPXN cells as compared with the control cells. Ectopically ovexpression of LPXN may promote proliferation of THP-1 cells through up-regulation of ERK; promote adhesion of THP-1 cells through up-regulating the integrin α4/β1 as well as integrin α5/β1 complex; promote invasion of THP-1 cells through activating MMP2.

  2. Native predators do not influence invasion success of pacific lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Hackerott

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance, the process by which new colonists are excluded from a community by predation from and/or competition with resident species, can prevent or limit species invasions. We examined whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of red lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles, piscivores from the Indo-Pacific. Specifically, we surveyed the abundance (density and biomass of lionfish and native predatory fishes that could interact with lionfish (either through predation or competition on 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type, and wind/wave exposure at each site. We found no relationship between the density or biomass of lionfish and that of native predators. However, lionfish densities were significantly lower on windward sites, potentially because of habitat preferences, and in marine protected areas, most likely because of ongoing removal efforts by reserve managers. Our results suggest that interactions with native predators do not influence the colonization or post-establishment population density of invasive lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

  3. High expression of PTBP1 promote invasion of colorectal cancer by alternative splicing of cortactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Na; Liu, Dan; Yin, Bin; Ju, Wen-Yi; Qiu, Hui-Zhong; Xiao, Yi; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Peng, Xiao-Zhong; Lu, Chong-Mei

    2017-05-30

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) involving in almost all steps of mRNA regulation including alternative splicing metabolism during tumorigenesis due to its RNA-binding activity. Initially, we found that high expressed PTBP1 and poor prognosis was interrelated in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with stages II and III CRC, which widely different in prognosis and treatment, by immunohistochemistry. PTBP1 was also upregulated in colon cancer cell lines. In our study, knockdown of PTBP1 by siRNA transfection decreased cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. Denovirus shRNA knockdown of PTBP1 inhibited colorectal cancer growth in vivo. Furthermore, PTBP1 regulates alternative splicing of many target genes involving in tumorgenesis in colon cancer cells. We confirmed that the splicing of cortactin exon 11 which was only contained in cortactin isoform-a, as a PTBP1 target. Knockdown of PTBP1 decreased the expression of cortactin isoform-a by exclusion of exon 11. Also the mRNA levels of PTBP1 and cortactin isoform-a were cooperatively expressed in colorectal cancer tissues. Knocking down cortactin isoform-a significantly decreased cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer cells. Overexpression of cortactin isoform-a could rescue PTBP1-knockdown effect of cell motility. In summary the study revealed that PTBP1 facilitates colorectal cancer migration and invasion activities by inclusion of cortactin exon 11.

  4. Plate tectonic regulation of global marine animal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffos, Andrew; Finnegan, Seth; Peters, Shanan E.

    2017-05-01

    Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles. The observed positive correlation between global biodiversity and continental fragmentation is not readily attributable to commonly cited vagaries of the fossil record, including changing quantities of marine rock or time-variable sampling effort. Because many different environmental and biotic factors may covary with changes in the geographic arrangement of continental crust, it is difficult to identify a specific causal mechanism. However, cross-correlation indicates that the state of continental fragmentation at a given time is positively correlated with the state of global biodiversity for tens of millions of years afterward. There is also evidence to suggest that continental fragmentation promotes increasing marine richness, but that coalescence alone has only a small negative or stabilizing effect. Together, these results suggest that continental fragmentation, particularly during the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea, has exerted a first-order control on the long-term trajectory of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity.

  5. Exposure factors for marine eutrophication impacts assessment based on a mechanistic biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    marine ecosystem (LME), five climate zones, and site-generic. The XFs obtained range from 0.45 (Central Arctic Ocean) to 15.9kgO2kgN-1 (Baltic Sea). While LME resolution is recommended, aggregated PE or XF per climate zone can be adopted, but not global aggregation due to high variability. The XF......Emissions of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources enrich marine waters and promote planktonic growth. This newly synthesised organic carbon is eventually exported to benthic waters where aerobic respiration by heterotrophic bacteria results in the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO......). This pathway is typical of marine eutrophication. A model is proposed to mechanistically estimate the response of coastal marine ecosystems to N inputs. It addresses the biological processes of nutrient-limited primary production (PP), metazoan consumption, and bacterial degradation, in four distinct sinking...

  6. Reproductive isolation and the expansion of an invasive hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Michael J.; Walters, David M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Freeman, Byron J.; Porter, Brady A.

    2010-01-01

    Biological invasions involving hybridization proceed according to prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms. Yet few comparisons of reproductive isolation have been carried out to understand how different mechanisms prevent or promote invasions involving hybridization. Here we present a study of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation between non-native red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) and native blacktail shiner (C. venusta stigmatura) from the Coosa River basin (USA) to better understand the formation and expansion of invasive hybrid swarms. We conducted spawning trials to measure mating preferences and raised broods from crosses to assay hybrid viability through early juvenile development. Females of both species were more responsive to conspecific mates, although blacktail shiner females responded more often to heterospecific mates than did red shiner females. Fecundity of red shiner females was also higher than blacktail shiner females. Heterospecific crosses resulted in lower fertilization and egg hatching rates, but we found no other evidence of inviability. Rather, we found comparatively low larval mortality of F1 hybrids, which is suggestive of heterosis. These findings support prior inferences of assortative mating from genetic descriptions of hybridization, and that the invasion in the Coosa River is likely proceeding due to interspecific competition and intrinsic hybrid viability.

  7. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  8. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  9. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  10. Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts are the providers of pro-invasive matrix metalloproteinase 13 in primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecomte, Julie; Masset, Anne; Blacher, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    producing cells were exclusively α-SMA(+) cells and derived from GFP(+) BM cells. To investigate their impact on tumor invasion, we isolated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the BM of wild-type and MMP13-deficient mice. Wild-type MSC promoted cancer cell invasion in a spheroid assay, whereas MSCs obtained......)-derived cells to generate different fibroblast subsets that putatively produce the matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and affect cancer cell invasion. A murine model of skin carcinoma was applied to mice, irradiated, and engrafted with BM isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. We...

  11. Has the rapidly expanding invasive dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica in Yaquina estuary, Oregon impacted the distribution of native eelgrass Zostera marina – a critical intertidal habitat? - CERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native eelgrass, Zostera marina, occupies a significant portion of marine-dominated intertidal and near-subtidal sectors of many coastal estuaries. In recent decades an invasive congener, Z. japonica, has become established in many Pacific Northwest estuaries. We measured the h...

  12. Effects of trophic skewing of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a diverse marine community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Reynolds

    Full Text Available Widespread overharvesting of top consumers of the world's ecosystems has "skewed" food webs, in terms of biomass and species richness, towards a generally greater domination at lower trophic levels. This skewing is exacerbated in locations where exotic species are predominantly low-trophic level consumers such as benthic macrophytes, detritivores, and filter feeders. However, in some systems where numerous exotic predators have been added, sometimes purposefully as in many freshwater systems, food webs are skewed in the opposite direction toward consumer dominance. Little is known about how such modifications to food web topology, e.g., changes in the ratio of predator to prey species richness, affect ecosystem functioning. We experimentally measured the effects of trophic skew on production in an estuarine food web by manipulating ratios of species richness across three trophic levels in experimental mesocosms. After 24 days, increasing macroalgal richness promoted both plant biomass and grazer abundance, although the positive effect on plant biomass disappeared in the presence of grazers. The strongest trophic cascade on the experimentally stocked macroalgae emerged in communities with a greater ratio of prey to predator richness (bottom-rich food webs, while stronger cascades on the accumulation of naturally colonizing algae (primarily microalgae with some early successional macroalgae that recruited and grew in the mesocosms generally emerged in communities with greater predator to prey richness (the more top-rich food webs. These results suggest that trophic skewing of species richness and overall changes in food web topology can influence marine community structure and food web dynamics in complex ways, emphasizing the need for multitrophic approaches to understand the consequences of marine extinctions and invasions.

  13. MiR-9 is overexpressed in spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and promotes a metastatic phenotype including invasion and migration in osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Joelle M; Roberts, Ryan D; Iwenofu, O Hans; Bear, Misty D; Zhang, Xiaoli; Couto, Jason I; Modiano, Jaime F; Kisseberth, William C; London, Cheryl A

    2016-10-10

    alterations in numerous genes, including upregulation of GSN, an actin filament-severing protein involved in cytoskeletal remodeling. Lastly, stable downregulation of miR-9 in OS cell lines reduced GSN expression with a concomitant decrease in cell invasion and migration; concordantly, cells transduced with GSN shRNA demonstrated decreased invasive properties. Our findings demonstrate that miR-9 promotes a metastatic phenotype in normal canine osteoblasts and malignant OS cell lines, and that this is mediated in part by enhanced GSN expression. As such, miR-9 represents a novel target for therapeutic intervention in OS.

  14. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 regulates IGF-I-induced cell motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Genua

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR plays an essential role in transformation by promoting cell growth and protecting cancer cells from apoptosis. We have recently demonstrated that the IGF-IR is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer tissues and promotes motility and invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells. These effects require IGF-I-induced Akt- and MAPK-dependent activation of paxillin. The latter co-localizes with focal adhesion kinases (FAK at dynamic focal adhesions and is critical for promoting motility of urothelial cancer cells. FAK and its homolog Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 modulate paxillin activation; however, their role in regulating IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility in bladder cancer has not been established. In this study we demonstrate that FAK was not required for IGF-IR-dependent signaling and motility of invasive urothelial carcinoma cells. On the contrary, Pyk2, which was strongly activated by IGF-I, was critical for IGF-IR-dependent motility and invasion and regulated IGF-I-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways. Using immunofluorescence and AQUA analysis we further discovered that Pyk2 was overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues as compared to normal tissue controls. Significantly, in urothelial carcinoma tissues there was increased Pyk2 localization in the nuclei as compared to normal tissue controls. These results provide the first evidence of a specific Pyk2 activity in regulating IGF-IR-dependent motility and invasion of bladder cancer cells suggesting that Pyk2 and the IGF-IR may play a critical role in the invasive phenotype in urothelial neoplasia. In addition, Pyk2 and the IGF-IR may serve as novel biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic significance in bladder cancer.

  15. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  16. Driving south: a multi-gene phylogeny of the brown algal family Fucaceae reveals relationships and recent drivers of a marine radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cánovas Fernando G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the processes driving speciation in marine ecosystems remained a challenge until recently, due to the unclear nature of dispersal boundaries. However, recent evidence for marine adaptive radiations and ecological speciation, as well as previously undetected patterns of cryptic speciation is overturning this view. Here, we use multi-gene phylogenetics to infer the family-level evolutionary history of Fucaceae (intertidal brown algae of the northern Pacific and Atlantic in order to investigate recent and unique patterns of radiative speciation in the genus Fucus in the Atlantic, in contrast with the mainly monospecific extant genera. Results We developed a set of markers from 13 protein coding genes based on polymorphic cDNA from EST libraries, which provided novel resolution allowing estimation of ancestral character states and a detailed reconstruction of the recent radiative history. Phylogenetic reconstructions yielded similar topologies and revealed four independent trans-Arctic colonization events by Fucaceae lineages, two of which also involved transitions from hermaphroditism to dioecy associated with Atlantic invasions. More recently, reversion of dioecious ancestral lineages towards hermaphroditism has occurred in the genus Fucus, particularly coinciding with colonization of more extreme habitats. Novel lineages in the genus Fucus were also revealed in association with southern habitats. These most recent speciation events occurred during the Pleistocene glaciations and coincided with a shift towards selfing mating systems, generally southward shifts in distribution, and invasion of novel habitats. Conclusions Diversification of the family occurred in the Late-Mid Miocene, with at least four independent trans-Artic lineage crossings coincident with two reproductive mode transitions. The genus Fucus arose in the Pliocene but radiated within a relatively short time frame about 2.5 million years ago

  17. The GLOFOULING Partnerships project and the anti-fouling systems: challenges for Marine Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Ramírez Cabrales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, the regulation of international maritime transport is a priority to face the challenges on the Protection of the Marine Environment. However, some states present difficulties in complying with international or normative agreements adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO. In particular, we revised the Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species and their linkage with the Glofouling Associations project, including the adverse effects of the use of antifouling systems and the biocides that may contain. As preliminary results, we identified the challenges that this global project entails for States, shipbuilders, ship maintenance and cleaning companies, universities, port authorities, repair facilities, dry docks and ship recycling, manufacturers and suppliers of anti-fouling paints and other stakeholders. We concluded that the challenges for the international maritime community are linked to the ability of States and stakeholders to enhance scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology to mitigate marine biological contamination of ships.

  18. Hurricanes accelerated the Florida-Bahamas lionfish invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how perturbations to the Florida Current caused by hurricanes are relevant to the spread of invasive lionfish from Florida to the Bahamas. Without such perturbations, this current represents a potential barrier to the transport of planktonic lionfish eggs and larvae across the Straits of Florida. We further show that once lionfish became established in the Bahamas, hurricanes significantly hastened their spread through the island chain. We gain these insights through: (1) an analysis of the direction and velocity of simulated ocean currents during the passage of hurricanes through the Florida Straits and (2) the development of a biophysical model that incorporates the tolerances of lionfish to ocean climate, their reproductive strategy, and duration that the larvae remain viable in the water column. On the basis of this work, we identify 23 occasions between the years 1992 and 2006 in which lionfish were provided the opportunity to breach the Florida Current. We also find that hurricanes during this period increased the rate of spread of lionfish through the Bahamas by more than 45% and magnified its population by at least 15%. Beyond invasive lionfish, we suggest that extreme weather events such as hurricanes likely help to homogenize the gene pool for all Caribbean marine species susceptible to transport. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise. PMID:20689852

  20. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Delton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  1. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  2. Ballast water management that adapts to climate changes and reduces harmful bio-invasions in marine eco-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2015-01-01

    food-webs and eco-systems. Economic impacts include reductions in fisheries production and algae blooms harmful for fish farms, tourism and human health. Due to the rising temperatures of the Oceans, organisms that prefer a warm climate may take roots in marine ecosystems that were previously too cold...... in marine ecosystem of changed factors in the shipping sector, for instance change of number, size, and design of vessels as well as treatment technologies of ballast water. New areas for shipping due to climate changes are also included. Our study would contribute to improve decision support tools, usable...... for them. In addition, future changes of temperature, storm patterns and sea-currents may also change shipping routes and ballast water management practices. Based on methods like stock taking, trend tracking and scenario modeling the paper aims to evaluate possible ecological and economic impacts...

  3. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shang-Jyh [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Su, Jen-Liang [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Kuan [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Bien, Mauo-Ying [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shun-Fa [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Ming-Hsien, E-mail: mhchien1976@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ► Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ► Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-κB binding activity. ► Osthole

  4. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Lortie, C. J.; Lambert, A. M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant ...

  5. ELNAIS meets EASIN: distribution of marine alien species in Greece using EASIN mapping services and ELNAIS spatial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN was created with the aim to provide easy access to accurate information on alien species in Europe. EASIN allows the retrieval of spatial information from existing online data providers in order to produce integrated georeferenced distribution maps of alien species in Europe. In November 2012, a new data provider, the Ellenic Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ELNAIS, joined EASIN; this has significantly increased the available georeferenced information on marine/estuarine alien species in Greek waters. Here, we use maps created by EASIN to show differences in patterns of distribution in Greece for the most abundant Phyla of marine alien species - Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata and Annelida. We also show that the two main pathways of introduction of marine alien species (Lessepsian migration and Shipping are related to different patterns of species spatial distribution in Greece. Overall, the tools provided by EASIN can greatly aid scientists and policy makers in obtaining high quality information on marine alien species in Greece, especially after the association with ELNAIS.

  6. Turbidity alters pre-mating social interactions between native and invasive stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J.; Ward, Jessica L.; Walters, David M.; Blum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation can result in the loss of aquatic biodiversity if impairment promotes hybridisation between non-native and native species. Although aquatic biological invasions involving hybridisation have been attributed to elevated water turbidity, the extent to which impaired clarity influences reproductive isolation among non-native and native species is poorly understood.

  7. Insight into the product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Xuequn; Hou, Huaxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-04-01

    The product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine environment was investigated in detail through outdoor exposure by using diverse surface analysis techniques combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning kelvin probe measurements. The results showed that the product film was mainly composed of nanophasic goethite in the inner layer and maghemite, akaganeite, and hematite in the outer layer. Moreover, the resistance to atmospheric corrosion gradually increased from the outermost product film to the innermost film. Ni was significantly enriched in the inner layer in the form of the spinel phase NiFe2O4, which transformed lepidocrocite to fine-grained goethite, withstood the invasion of chloridion, and improved the corrosion potential of the product film in a tropical marine atmosphere.

  8. Melatonin inhibits proliferation and invasion via repression of miRNA-155 in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junyi; Lu, Zhongsheng; Ji, Chenghong; Chen, Yuchao; Liu, Yuzhao; Lei, Zhe; Wang, Longqiang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Li, Xiangdong

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin, an indolamine mostly synthesized in the pineal gland, exerts the anti-cancer effect by various mechanisms in glioma cells. Our previous study showed that miR-155 promoted glioma cell proliferation and invasion. However, the question of whether melatonin may inhibit glioma by regulating miRNAs has not yet been addressed. In this study, we found that melatonin (100μM, 1μM and 1nM) significantly inhibited the expression of miR-155 in human glioma cell lines U87, U373 and U251. Especially, the lowest expression of miR-155 was detected in 1μM melatonin-treated glioma cells. Melatonin (1μM) inhibits cell proliferation of U87 by promoting cell apoptosis. Nevertheless, melatonin had no effect on cell cycle distribution of U87 cells. Moreover, U87 cells treated with 1μM melatonin presented significantly lower migration and invasion ability when compared with control cells. Importantly, melatonin inhibited c-MYB expression, and c-MYB knockdown reduced miR-155 expression and migration and invasion in U87 cells. Taken together, for the first time, our findings show that melatonin inhibits miR-155 expression and thereby represses glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and suggest that melatonin may downregulate the expression of miR-155 via repression of c-MYB. This will provide a theoretical basis for revealing the anti-glioma mechanisms of melatonin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Events Calendar: Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit: Smithsonian Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine environments Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box History Modeling Ecosystems Virtual Tour Facebook Instagram Twitter SMS Home › Smithsonian Marine

  10. Assessment of goods and services, vulnerability, and conservation status of European seabed biotopes: a stepping stone towards ecosystem-based marine spatial management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALOMIDI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of ecosystem-based marine spatial management is to maintain marine ecosystems in a healthy, productive and resilient condition; hence, they can sustainably provide the needed goods and services for human welfare. However, the increasing pressures upon the marine realm threaten marine ecosystems, especially seabed biotopes, and thus a well-planned approach of managing use of marine space is essential to achieve sustainability. The relative value of seabed biotopes, evaluated on the basis of goods and services, is an important starting point for the spatial management of marine areas. Herein, 56 types of European seabed biotopes and their related goods, services, sensitivity issues, and conservation status were compiled, the latter referring to management and protection tools which currently apply for these biotopes at European or international level. Fishing activities, especially by benthic trawls, and marine pollution are the main threats to European seabed biotopes. Increased seawater turbidity, dredged sediment disposal, coastal constructions, biological invasions, mining, extraction of raw materials, shipping-related activities, tourism, hydrocarbon exploration, and even some practices of scientific research, also exert substantial pressure. Although some first steps have been taken to protect the European sea beds through international agreements and European and national legislation, a finer scale of classification and assessment of marine biotopes is considered crucial in shaping sound priorities and management guidelines towards the effective conservation and sustainability of European marine resources.

  11. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  12. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Altered CXCR3 isoform expression regulates prostate cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma cells must circumvent the normally suppressive signals to disseminate. While often considered 'stop' signals for adherent cells, CXCR3-binding chemokines have recently been correlated positively with cancer progression though the molecular basis remains unclear. Results Here, we examined the expression and function of two CXCR3 variants in human prostate cancer biopsies and cell lines. Globally, both CXCR3 mRNA and protein were elevated in localized and metastatic human cancer biopsies compared to normal. Additionally, CXCR3A mRNA level was upregulated while CXCR3B mRNA was downregulated in these prostate cancer specimens. In contrast to normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1, CXCR3A was up to half the receptor in the invasive and metastatic DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, but not in the localized LNCaP cells. Instead of inhibiting cell migration as in RWPE-1 cells, the CXCR3 ligands CXCL4/PF4 and CXCL10/IP10 promoted cell motility and invasiveness in both DU-145 and PC-3 cells via PLCβ3 and μ-calpain activation. CXCR3-mediated diminution of cell motility in RWPE-1 cells is likely a result of cAMP upregulation and m-calpain inhibition via CXCR3B signal transduction. Interestingly, overexpression of CXCR3B in DU-145 cells decreased cell movement and invasion. Conclusion These data suggest that the aberrant expression of CXCR3A and down-regulation of CXCR3B may switch a progression "stop" to a "go" signal to promote prostate tumor metastasis via stimulating cell migration and invasion.

  14. Genomic loss of tumor suppressor miRNA-204 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by activating AKT/mTOR/Rac1 signaling and actin reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Saadi Imam

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that chromosomal regions containing microRNAs are functionally important in cancers. Here, we show that genomic loci encoding miR-204 are frequently lost in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancers, pediatric renal tumors, and breast cancers. MiR-204 shows drastically reduced expression in several cancers and acts as a potent tumor suppressor, inhibiting tumor metastasis in vivo when systemically delivered. We demonstrated that miR-204 exerts its function by targeting genes involved in tumorigenesis including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin family member which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Analysis of primary tumors shows that increased expression of BDNF or its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB parallel a markedly reduced expression of miR-204. Our results reveal that loss of miR-204 results in BDNF overexpression and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and actin reorganization through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway leading to cancer cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that microdeletion of genomic loci containing miR-204 is directly linked with the deregulation of key oncogenic pathways that provide crucial stimulus for tumor growth and metastasis. Our findings provide a strong rationale for manipulating miR-204 levels therapeutically to suppress tumor metastasis.

  15. Protease-activated receptor 2 agonist increases cell proliferation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, LIQUN; DUAN, ZEXING; LIU, CAIJU; ZHENG, YANMIN; ZHOU, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in the human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, and to evaluate its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. The expression of PAR-2 protein and mRNA in SW1990 cells was determined by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. MTT and cell invasion and migration assays, as well as semi-quantitative PCR and zymography analysis, were additionally performed. PAR-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in the cells treated with trypsin or the PAR-2 activating peptide Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val (SLIGKV) (P0.05). Trypsin and SLIGKV significantly promoted SW1990 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, trypsin and SLIGKV significantly increased the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and gelatinolytic activity (P<0.01) of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. In conclusion, PAR-2 is expressed in SW1990 cells. PAR-2 activation may promote the invasion and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells by increasing MMP-2 expression. PMID:25452809

  16. Pinus contorta invasions increase wildfire fuel loads and may create a positive feedback with fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberley T; Maxwell, Bruce D; McWethy, David B; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñez, Martín A; Whitlock, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory. We found that fuel loads and soil heating during simulated fire increase with increasing P. contorta invasion age or density at all sites. However, P. contorta density did not always increase post-fire. In the largest fire, P. contorta density only increased significantly post-fire where the pre-fire P. contorta density was above an invasion threshold. Below this threshold, P. contorta did not dominate after fire and plant communities responded to fire in a similar manner as uninvaded communities. The positive feedback observed at high densities is caused by the accumulation of fuel that in turn results in greater soil heating during fires and high P. contorta density post-fire. Therefore, a positive feedback may form between P. contorta invasions and fire, but only above an invasion density threshold. These results suggest that management of pine invasions before they reach the invasion density threshold is important for reducing fire risk and preventing a transition to an alternate ecosystem state dominated by pines and novel understory plant communities. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta–Mediated Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongchun; Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie; Xu Yuqiao; Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong; Su Xiaoming; Mei Shi; Guo Guozhen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-β)–mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-β in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-β signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with γ-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-β were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-β signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-β plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  18. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  19. Radio frequency energy for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, R Stephen

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the non-invasive and minimally invasive options for skin tightening, focusing on peer-reviewed articles and presentations and those technologies with the most proven or promising RF non-excisional skin-tightening results for excisional surgeons. RF has been the mainstay of non-invasive skin tightening and has emerged as the "cutting edge" technology in the minimally invasive skin-tightening field. Because these RF skin-tightening technologies are capital equipment purchases with a significant cost associated, this article also discusses some business issues and models that have proven to work in the plastic surgeon's office for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin-tightening technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Global patterns of extinction risk in marine and non-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J; Mindel, Beth L

    2015-02-16

    Despite increasing concern over the effects of human activities on marine ecosystems, extinction in the sea remains scarce: 19-24 out of a total of >850 recorded extinctions implies a 9-fold lower marine extinction rate compared to non-marine systems. The extent of threats faced by marine systems, and their resilience to them, receive considerable attention, but the detectability of marine extinctions is less well understood. Before its extinction or threat status is recorded, a species must be both taxonomically described and then formally assessed; lower rates of either process for marine species could thus impact patterns of extinction risk, especially as species missing from taxonomic inventories may often be more vulnerable than described species. We combine data on taxonomic description with conservation assessments from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to test these possibilities across almost all marine and non-marine eukaryotes. We find that the 9-fold lower rate of recorded extinctions and 4-fold lower rate of ongoing extinction risk across marine species can be explained in part by differences in the proportion of species assessed by the IUCN (3% cf. 4% of non-marine species). Furthermore, once taxonomic knowledge and conservation assessments pass a threshold level, differences in extinction risk between marine and non-marine groups largely disappear. Indeed, across the best-studied taxonomic groups, there is no difference between marine and non-marine systems, with on average between 20% and 25% of species being threatened with extinction, regardless of realm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High Glucose Promotes Tumor Invasion and Increases Metastasis-Associated Protein Expression in Human Lung Epithelial Cells by Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 via Reactive Oxygen Species or the TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Kang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing evidence indicates that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is up-regulated in malignancies and subsequently alters tumor aggressiveness and various cancer-related factors, such as high glucose (HG levels. HO-1 expression can be induced when glucose concentrations are above 25 mM; however, the role of HO-1 in lung cancer patients with diabetes remains unknown. Therefore, in this study we investigated the promotion of tumor cell invasion and the expression of metastasis-associated proteins by inducing the up-regulation of HO-1 expression by HG treatment in A549 human lung epithelial cells. Methods: The expression of HO-1and metastasis-associated protein expression was explored by western blot analysis. HO-1 enzymatic activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and TGF-β1 production were examined by ELISA. Invasiveness was analyzed using a Transwell chamber. Results: HG treatment of A549 cells induced an increase in HO-1 expression, which was mediated by the HG-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Following the increase in HO-1 expression, the enzymatic activity of HO-1 also increased in HG-treated cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt inhibitors attenuated the HG-induced increase in HO-1 expression. HG treatment of A549 cells enhanced the invasion potential of these cells, as shown with a Transwell assay, and increased metastasis-associated protein expression. However, HO-1 siRNA transfection significantly decreased these capabilities. Conclusion: this study is the first to demonstrate that HG treatment of A549 human lung epithelial cells promotes tumor cell invasion and increases metastasis-associated protein expression by up-regulating HO-1 expression via ROS or the TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Marine Fuel Characteristics for Marine Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae oil is a renewable, environmentally friendly and clean alternative fuel that reduces pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in marine applications. This study investigates the influence of biodiesel blend on the characteristics of residual and distillate marine fuels. Adequate correlation equations are applied to calculate the fuel properties of the blended marine fuels with biodiesel. Residual marine fuel RMA has inferior fuel characteristics compared with distillate marine fuel DMA and biodiesel. The flash point of marine fuel RMA could be increased by 20% if blended with 20 vol% biodiesel. The sulfur content of residual marine fuel could meet the requirement of the 2008 MARPOL Annex VI Amendment by blending it with 23.0 vol% biodiesel. In addition, the kinematic viscosity of residual marine fuel could be reduced by 12.9% and the carbon residue by 23.6% if 20 vol% and 25 vol% biodiesel are used, respectively. Residual marine fuel blended with 20 vol% biodiesel decreases its lower heating value by 1.9%. Moreover, the fuel properties of residual marine fuel are found to improve more significantly with biodiesel blending than those of distillate marine fuel.

  3. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  4. Initiation of GalNAc-type O-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum promotes cancer cell invasiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, David J; Tham, Keit Min; Chia, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Invasiveness underlies cancer aggressiveness and is a hallmark of malignancy. Most malignant tumors have elevated levels of Tn, an O-GalNAc glycan. Mechanisms underlying Tn up-regulation and its effects remain unclear. Here we show that Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum relocation of polypeptide N-a...

  5. MiR-9 is overexpressed in spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and promotes a metastatic phenotype including invasion and migration in osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, Joelle M.; Roberts, Ryan D.; Iwenofu, O. Hans; Bear, Misty D.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Couto, Jason I.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Kisseberth, William C.; London, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    alterations in numerous genes, including upregulation of GSN, an actin filament-severing protein involved in cytoskeletal remodeling. Lastly, stable downregulation of miR-9 in OS cell lines reduced GSN expression with a concomitant decrease in cell invasion and migration; concordantly, cells transduced with GSN shRNA demonstrated decreased invasive properties. Our findings demonstrate that miR-9 promotes a metastatic phenotype in normal canine osteoblasts and malignant OS cell lines, and that this is mediated in part by enhanced GSN expression. As such, miR-9 represents a novel target for therapeutic intervention in OS. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2837-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. An Analysis of Female Representation and Marines Performance in Aviation and Logistics Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    between gender and PMOS requirements. We found that women are less likely than men to earn a 6 or better FAR on the ASTB, which is required for...three decades, but women tend to leave the Marine Corps at higher rates than men . We also find, however, that female officers are selected for...promotion at the same rates as male officers and that enlisted women are promoted faster than enlisted men . Our findings suggest that women who entered

  7. The MAR databases: development and implementation of databases specific for marine metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, Terje; Raknes, Inge A; Fu, Juan; Agafonov, Alexander; Balasundaram, Sudhagar V; Tartari, Giacomo; Robertsen, Espen; Willassen, Nils P

    2018-01-04

    We introduce the marine databases; MarRef, MarDB and MarCat (https://mmp.sfb.uit.no/databases/), which are publicly available resources that promote marine research and innovation. These data resources, which have been implemented in the Marine Metagenomics Portal (MMP) (https://mmp.sfb.uit.no/), are collections of richly annotated and manually curated contextual (metadata) and sequence databases representing three tiers of accuracy. While MarRef is a database for completely sequenced marine prokaryotic genomes, which represent a marine prokaryote reference genome database, MarDB includes all incomplete sequenced prokaryotic genomes regardless level of completeness. The last database, MarCat, represents a gene (protein) catalog of uncultivable (and cultivable) marine genes and proteins derived from marine metagenomics samples. The first versions of MarRef and MarDB contain 612 and 3726 records, respectively. Each record is built up of 106 metadata fields including attributes for sampling, sequencing, assembly and annotation in addition to the organism and taxonomic information. Currently, MarCat contains 1227 records with 55 metadata fields. Ontologies and controlled vocabularies are used in the contextual databases to enhance consistency. The user-friendly web interface lets the visitors browse, filter and search in the contextual databases and perform BLAST searches against the corresponding sequence databases. All contextual and sequence databases are freely accessible and downloadable from https://s1.sfb.uit.no/public/mar/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

    </