Ramirez DDS, MSc, PhD, Karol
Objective social isolation and perceived social isolation are psychosocial stressors that may impair the normal functioning of the neuroimmune system. Chronic activation of the neuro-immuno-endocrine communication and the consequent loss of homeostasis may lead to the appearance of pathologies and associated mood disorders. For example, alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system dynamics may account for the observed predisposition to inflammatory di...
Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak
In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...
Shoji, Hirotaka; Mizoguchi, Kazushige
Aging is generally associated with cognitive dysfunction and alterations in emotional response. Moreover, in social situations, aging decreases social interaction with unfamiliar individuals, suggesting the decline of social cognition/motivation and a high level of anxiety. Although it is known that isolation housing has various effects on subsequent behavior, including social interaction depending on the age at isolation, the effects of isolation on aged subjects have not been examined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aging and different periods of isolation housing on social interaction in male F344/N rats. Young (3-4months old) and aged (24-25months old) rats were either group-housed or socially isolated for 2 or 4weeks. The rats were tested with age-matched and group-housed unfamiliar males in a social interaction test, and social (e.g. approach/following and sniffing) and non-social behaviors (e.g. self-grooming and ambulation) were recorded. The results indicated that group-housed aged rats showed less approach/following, sniffing, and ambulation than group-housed young rats. Moreover, in young rats, isolation housing gradually increased approach/following and sniffing depending on the isolation period. In contrast, in aged rats, more prolonged isolation (4weeks) attenuated the 2-week isolation-induced increase of sniffing behavior and had no effect on approach/following. The present study suggests that aging decreases social investigation and induces high emotional response to a novel social environment, and that the behaviors can be differentially affected by social isolation depending on the age at isolation and the period of isolation.
Rison, Richard A; Ko, David Y
Propofol is a widely used rapidly acting sedating or hypnotic agent in the intensive care setting. It is generally considered safe in both pediatric and adult patients and has been used frequently in cases of refractory status epilepticus. The formulation of propofol is highly lipophilic to facilitate central nervous system penetration and has a high fat content, and prolonged infusions have been known to cause both extrahepatic complications and hepatomegaly secondary to fatty liver. Whereas extrahepatic manifestations of prolonged propofol infusions have been well reported in non-neurologic intensive care patients, cases of pathologically confirmed fatty liver in patients with status epilepticus are relatively few. Furthermore, these cases of hepatomegaly and fatty liver have been also in the context of concomitant extrahepatic side effects. We report on a pediatric patient with refractory status epilepticus treated with a prolonged propofol infusion who developed isolated pathologically confirmed fatty liver without the usually reported extrahepatic manifestations.
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163931.html Can Social Media Sites Leave You Socially Isolated? More time using ... people who spend a lot of time on social media -- websites designed to bring people together -- seem to ...
Prokhvatilov, A Iu
The differences in using a "social isolation" concept in the psychological literature are presented. The term of "relative social isolation" is clarified. A relationship between human adaptation to the relative social isolation environments and the development of his social qualities and social activities is presented. The "social context", dictating motivation attitudes of a man to the isolation situation, emotional experiences, self-appraisal of activity is of crucial importance for evaluating the real environments of relative social isolations. Social activity of a personality is studied as the relations of a man with the conditions of his activity. The results of studying the dynamics of the psychic state of a man during individual and group isolation are compared. It is concluded that social activity of man and his functional state are interrelated. The particular manifestations and direction of the changes in the social activity of the subject depend on the duration of isolation and are determined first of all by social significance and meaningful and balanced work for a person as well as by the amount and frequency of direct and mediated social contacts under specific conditions of relative social isolation.
Octavia, Sophie; Wang, Qinning; Tanaka, Mark M; Sintchenko, Vitali; Lan, Ruiting
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important foodborne human pathogen that often causes self-limiting but severe gastroenteritis. Prolonged excretion of S. Typhimurium after the infection can lead to secondary transmissions. However, little is known about within-host genomic variation in bacteria associated with asymptomatic shedding. Genomes of 35 longitudinal isolates of S. Typhimurium recovered from 11 patients (children and adults) with culture-confirmed gastroenteritis were sequenced. There were three or four isolates obtained from each patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in these isolates, which were recovered between 1 and 279 days after the initial diagnosis. Limited genomic variation (5 SNPs or fewer) was associated with short- and long-term carriage of S. Typhimurium. None of the isolates was shown to be due to reinfection. SNPs occurred randomly, and the majority of the SNPs were nonsynonymous. Two nonsense mutations were observed. A nonsense mutation in flhC rendered the isolate nonmotile, whereas the significance of a nonsense mutation in yihV is unknown. The estimated mutation rate is 1.49 × 10(-6) substitution per site per year. S. Typhimurium isolates excreted in stools following acute gastroenteritis in children and adults demonstrated limited genomic variability over time, regardless of the duration of carriage. These findings have important implications for the detection of possible transmission events suspected by public health genomic surveillance of S. Typhimurium infections.
Senst, Laura; Baimoukhametova, Dinara; Sterley, Toni-Lee; Bains, Jaideep Singh
Many species use social networks to buffer the effects of stress. The mere absence of a social network, however, may also be stressful. We examined neuroendocrine, PVN CRH neurons and report that social isolation alters the intrinsic properties of these cells in sexually dimorphic fashion. Specifically, isolating preadolescent female mice from littermates for neurons. These changes were not evident in age-matched males. By contrast, subjecting either males (isolated or grouped) or group housed females to acute physical stress (swim), increased FSL. The increase in FSL following either social isolation or acute physical stress was blocked by the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone and mimicked by exogenous corticosterone. The increase in FSL results in a decrease in the excitability of CRH neurons. Our observations demonstrate that social isolation, but not acute physical stress has sex-specific effects on PVN CRH neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18726.001 PMID:27725087
Yan Yin; Li-Hua He; Jian-Zhong Zhang
Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori), a gastric pathogen, is a major cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is an important risk factor for the development of gastric malignancies. Culture of the bacterium from gastric biopsy is essential for the determination of drug resistance of H pylori. However, the isolation rates of H pylori from infected individuals vary from 23.5% to 97% due to a number of factors such as biopsy preparation, cultural environment, medium and the method adopted. In the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period of up to 19 d allowed successful isolation of H pylori from a patient who received triple therapy that failed to eradicate the bacterium.
Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.
To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…
Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Carter, Knute D.
To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health…
Vohs, J L; Lysaker, P H; Francis, M M; Hamm, J; Buck, K D; Olesek, K; Outcalt, J; Dimaggio, G; Leonhardt, B; Liffick, E; Mehdiyoun, N; Breier, A
While it has been documented that persons with prolonged schizophrenia have deficits in metacognition and social cognition, it is less clear whether these difficulties are already present during a first episode. To explore this issue we assessed and compared metacognition using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A) and social cognition using the Eyes, Hinting and Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Tests (BLERT) in participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=26), participants with a prolonged psychosis (n=72), and a psychiatric control group consisting of persons with a substance use disorder and no history of psychosis (n=14). Analyses revealed that both psychosis cohorts scored lower than controls on the MAS-A total and all subscales except metacognitive mastery. Compared to the FEP group, the persons with prolonged psychosis demonstrated greater metacognitive capacities only in those MAS-A domains reflective of the ability to understand the mental state of others and to see that others may have motivations and desires separate from their own. Other domains of metacognition did not differ between psychosis groups. The Eyes, Hinting and BLERT scores of the two psychosis groups did not differ but were poorer than those produced by the control group. Exploratory correlations in the FEP group showed a pattern similar to that previously observed in prolonged psychosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that while certain domains of metacognition could improve with prolonged psychosis, difficulties with global metacognition and social cognition may be stable features of the disorder and perhaps unique to psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barea, M; Cesana, G
One of the greatest problems of European societies is the financial sustainability of social protection systems in Europe. Together with Japan, Europe has the highest levels of ageing population in the world. This concern explains the reiterated insistence of the European Commission and the OECD regarding the reforms that governments should undertake. In this paper, reference is made to two of these reforms: prolonging of working life and a greater participation of women in the labour market.
Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility.
Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahisa; Fukumori, Daisuke; Shibata, Maki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Todo, Satoru; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Taketomi, Akinobu
Hydrogen gas reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver and other organs. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We investigated whether hydrogen gas ameliorated hepatic I/R injury after cold preservation. Rat liver was subjected to 48-h cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution. The graft was reperfused with oxygenated buffer with or without hydrogen at 37° for 90 min on an isolated perfusion apparatus, comprising the H2 (+) and H2 (-) groups, respectively. In the control group (CT), grafts were reperfused immediately without preservation. Graft function, injury, and circulatory status were assessed throughout the perfusion. Tissue samples at the end of perfusion were collected to determine histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the H2 (-) group, IRI was indicated by a higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, portal resistance, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cell rate, apoptotic index, and endothelial endothelin-1 expression, together with reduced bile production, oxygen consumption, and GSH/GSSG ratio (vs. CT). In the H2 (+) group, these harmful changes were significantly suppressed [vs. H2 (-)]. Hydrogen gas reduced hepatic reperfusion injury after prolonged cold preservation via the maintenance of portal flow, by protecting mitochondrial function during the early phase of reperfusion, and via the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades thereafter. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Simone M Cinini
Full Text Available Social relationships are crucial for the development and maintenance of normal behavior in non-human primates. Animals that are raised in isolation develop abnormal patterns of behavior that persist even when they are later reunited with their parents. In rodents, social isolation is a stressful event and is associated with a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis but considerably less is known about the effects of social isolation in non-human primates during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. To investigate how social isolation affects young marmosets, these were isolated from other members of the colony for one or three weeks and evaluated for alterations in their behavior and hippocampal cell proliferation. We found that anxiety-related behaviors like scent-marking and locomotor activity increased after social isolation when compared to baseline levels. In agreement, grooming - an indicative of attenuation of tension - was reduced among isolated marmosets. These results were consistent with increased cortisol levels after one and three weeks of isolation. After social isolation (one or three weeks, reduced proliferation of neural cells in the subgranular zone of dentate granule cell layer was identified and a smaller proportion of BrdU-positive cells underwent neuronal fate (doublecortin labeling. Our data is consistent with the notion that social deprivation during the transition from adolescence to adulthood leads to stress and produces anxiety-like behaviors that in turn might affect neurogenesis and contribute to the deleterious consequences of prolonged stressful conditions.
Lukas, Michael; Neumann, Inga D
Recent studies demonstrated potent behavioral effects of centrally applied neuropeptide S (NPS) in mice and rats. These include increased arousal and wakefulness, facilitation of fear extinction and object memory consolidation and anxiolysis. Here, we compared the effects of NPS on both social and non-social memory, in male rats, and on social preference/social anxiety versus non-social anxiety after either intracerebroventricular (icv) or nasal application. Intranasal application of neuropeptides has been successfully employed to alter behavioral parameters in humans and rodents, but studies concerning nasal application of NPS are lacking so far. First, we confirmed the facilitatory effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on object discrimination after an inter-exposure interval (IEI) of 240 min. These effects were context-dependent, as icv NPS (1 nmol) did not prolong social memory in a social discrimination paradigm. Second, we confirmed the anxiolytic effect of icv NPS (1 nmol) on the elevated plus-maze, whereas neither icv NPS (1 nmol) nor NPS receptor antagonist (10 nmol) altered social preference/social avoidance behavior. Third, nasal NPS (4-40 nmol applied topically on the rhinarium) facilitated object discrimination in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the anxiolytic effect of NPS on the elevated plus-maze could be confirmed after nasal administration (40 nmol). In contrast, identical doses of subcutaneously injected NPS failed to produce corresponding behavioral effects in both tests. Our findings provide evidence for memory-enhancing and anxiolytic effects of icv NPS in a non-social context. We could further show that these effects are context-specific, as social memory and social preference behavior remained unchanged after icv NPS. The effects of icv NPS were replicated by nasal application of the neuropeptide. Thus, nasal application of NPS seems to be a useful method in rodents for screening for behavioral or physiological effects before more specific and time
Full Text Available This ethnographic study explores a user’s prolonged engagement within virtual gaming communities. Likening prolonged engagement with addiction, this research provides an alternative perspective into virtual addiction focusing on three interrelated themes: 1 anonymity, 2 endless narrative, and 3 socialization. By employing narrative interviews and virtual observations, the researchers examine two different cultural, racial and age groups’ user experience within console and computer-based multiplayer environments. More specifically, they explore how the three factors (i.e., anonymity; endless narrative; socialization relate to the prolonged and extended use within these virtual communities and highlight the multifaceted uses of traditional chat services, social media, and the convergence of media existing within these chat communities.
Liu, Jia; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Gacias, Mar; Frawley, Rebecca; Sikder, Tamjeed; Naik, Payal; Casaccia, Patrizia
Altered myelin structure and oligodendrocyte function have been shown to correlate with cognitive and motor dysfunction and deficits in social behavior. We and others have previously demonstrated that social isolation in mice induced behavioral, transcriptional, and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation could be beneficial in reversing such changes remains unexplored. To test this hypothesis, we orally administered clemastine, an antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro, for 2 weeks in adult mice following social isolation. Clemastine successfully reversed social avoidance behavior in mice undergoing prolonged social isolation. Impaired myelination was rescued by oral clemastine treatment, and was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation and epigenetic changes. Clemastine induced higher levels of repressive histone methylation (H3K9me3), a marker for heterochromatin, in oligodendrocytes, but not neurons, of the PFC. This was consistent with the capability of clemastine in elevating H3K9 histone methyltransferases activity in cultured primary mouse oligodendrocytes, an effect that could be antagonized by cotreatment with muscarine. Our data suggest that promoting adult myelination is a potential strategy for reversing depressive-like social behavior. Significance statement: Oligodendrocyte development and myelination are highly dynamic processes influenced by experience and neuronal activity. However, whether enhancing myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation is beneficial to treat depressive-like behavior has been unexplored. Mice undergoing prolonged social isolation display impaired myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Clemastine, a Food and Drug Administration-approved antimuscarinic compound that has been shown to enhance myelination under
DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest
Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.
van der Plas, Ellen; Koscik, Timothy R; Conrad, Amy L; Moser, David J; Nopoulos, Peg
Social isolation is common among individuals with isolated cleft lip and palate (ICLP), but the available data on why this may be are mixed. We present a novel theory relating to reduced social motivation in ICLP, called the social abulia hypothesis. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that reduced social motivation would lead to reduced responsiveness to negative social feedback, in terms of both explicit responses and noncontrolled, psychophysiological responses. Twenty males with ICLP and 20 normal comparison males between 13 and 25 years old participated in the study. Social motivation was examined by measuring participants' response to negative social feedback (social exclusion). Additionally, psychophysiological reactivity to positive and negative social stimuli was measured. In order to rule out other potential contributors to social isolation, we tested basic social perception, emotion recognition, and social anxiety. In line with the social abulia hypothesis, we show that negative social feedback had less of an effect on males with ICLP than on healthy male peers, which was evident in explicit responses and noncontrolled, psychophysiological responses to negative social feedback. Our results could not be attributed to problems in social perception, a lack of understanding facial expressions, or increased social anxiety, as groups did not differ on these constructs. This study suggests that current views on social isolation in ICLP may need to be reconsidered to include the possibility that isolation in this population may be the direct result of reduced social motivation.
Entin, Elliot E.; Kerrigan, Caroline; Serfaty, Daniel; Young, Philip
The goals of this project were to identify and investigate aspects of team and individual decision-making and risk-taking behaviors hypothesized to be most affected by prolonged isolation. A key premise driving our research approach is that effects of stressors that impact individual and team cognitive processes in an isolated, confined, and hazardous environment will be projected onto the performance of a simulation task. To elicit and investigate these team behaviors we developed a search and rescue task concept as a scenario domain that would be relevant for isolated crews. We modified the Distributed Dynamic Decision-making (DDD) simulator, a platform that has been extensively used for empirical research in team processes and taskwork performance, to portray the features of a search and rescue scenario and present the task components incorporated into that scenario. The resulting software is called DD-Search and Rescue (Version 1.0). To support the use of the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator in isolated experiment settings, we wrote a player's manual for teaching team members to operate the simulator and play the scenario. We then developed a research design and experiment plan that would allow quantitative measures of individual and team decision making skills using the DDD-Search and Rescue simulator as the experiment platform. A description of these activities and the associated materials that were produced under this contract are contained in this report.
Full Text Available Immune challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS causes short-term behavioral changes indicative of depression. The present study sought to explore whether LPS is able to induce long-term changes in depression-related behavior and whether such an effect depends on mouse strain and social context. LPS (0.83 mg/kg or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally to female CD1 and C57BL/6 mice that were housed singly or in groups of 4. Depression-like behavior was assessed with the forced swim test (FST 1 and 28 days post-treatment. Group-housed CD1 mice exhibited depression-like behavior 1 day post-LPS, an effect that leveled off during the subsequent 28 days, while the behavior of singly housed CD1 mice was little affected. In contrast, singly housed C57BL/6 mice responded to LPS with an increase in depression-like behavior that was maintained for 4 weeks post-treatment and confirmed by the sucrose preference test. Group-housed C57BL/6 mice likewise displayed an increased depression-like behavior 4 weeks post-treatment. The behavioral changes induced by LPS in C57BL/6 mice were associated with a particularly pronounced rise of interleukin-6 in blood plasma within 1 day post-treatment and with changes in the dynamics of the corticosterone response to the FST. The current data demonstrate that immune challenge with LPS is able to induce prolonged depression-like behavior, an effect that depends on genetic background (strain. The discovery of an experimental model of long-term depression-like behavior after acute immune challenge is of relevance to the analysis of the epigenetic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of immune system-related affective disorders.
Lee, Eun-Ju; Cho, Eugene
A survey (N = 316) examined how other-directed Facebook use driven by fear of social isolation affects users' perception of social support they possess. As predicted, those higher on fear of isolation were more likely to (a) closely monitor others' activities for self-evaluation (i.e., social comparison) and (b) regulate their self-presentation to garner social approval (i.e., other-directed self-presentation), but less likely to (c) express their true inner feelings and thoughts (i.e., inner-directed self-presentation) on Facebook. Social comparison, in turn, lowered perceived social support among heavy Facebook users, whereas inner-directed self-presentation heightened it. Other-directed self-presentation had no significant effect on perceived social support. Results indicate that the desire to avoid social isolation may paradoxically diminish perceived social support by promoting social comparison, while suppressing the expression of true self on Facebook.
Matthews, Gillian A; Nieh, Edward H; Vander Weele, Caitlin M; Halbert, Sarah A; Pradhan, Roma V; Yosafat, Ariella S; Glober, Gordon F; Izadmehr, Ehsan M; Thomas, Rain E; Lacy, Gabrielle D; Wildes, Craig P; Ungless, Mark A; Tye, Kay M
The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PAPERCLIP.
Seid, Marc A.; Junge, Erich
Social interactions play a key role in the healthy development of social animals and are most pronounced in species with complex social networks. When developing offspring do not receive proper social interaction, they show developmental impairments. This effect is well documented in mammalian species but controversial in social insects. It has been hypothesized that the enlargement of the mushroom bodies, responsible for learning and memory, observed in social insects is needed for maintaining the large social networks and/or task allocation. This study examines the impact of social isolation on the development of mushroom bodies of the ant Camponotus floridanus. Ants raised in isolation were shown to exhibit impairment in the growth of the mushroom bodies as well as behavioral differences when compared to ants raised in social groups. These results indicate that social interaction is necessary for the proper development of C. floridanus mushroom bodies.
Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang
Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Gusmão, Isabela D; Monteiro, Brisa M M; Cornélio, Guilherme O S; Fonseca, Cristina S; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S
Prolonged permanence of animals under social isolation (SI) arouses a variety of psychological symptoms like aggression, stress, anxiety and depression. However, short-term SI is commonly used to evaluate social memory. Interestingly, the social memory cannot be accessed with delays higher than 30min in SI mice. Our hypothesis is that SI with intermediate duration, like one week (1w), impairs the long-term storage of new social information (S-LTM), without affecting anxiety or other types of memories, because the SI compromises the olfactory function of the animal. Our results demonstrated that SI impaired S-LTM, without affecting other kinds of memory or anxiety. In addition, the SI increased the latency in the buried-food finding task, but did not affect the habituation or the discrimination of odors. Next, we postulated that if continuous input to the olfactory system is fundamental for the maintenance of the olfactory function and social memory persistence, isolated mice under odor-enriched environment (OEE) should behave like group-housed (GH) animals. In fact, the OEE prevented the S-LTM deficit imposed by the SI. However, OEE did not restore the SI mice olfaction to the GH mice level. Our results suggest that SI modulates olfaction and social memory persistence, probably, by independent mechanisms. We also showed for the first time that OEE rescued S-LTM in SI mice through a mechanism not necessarily involved with olfaction.
Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Kaltman, Stacey
Research has identified numerous mechanisms through which perceived social isolation and lack of social support negatively impact health. Little research attention has been dedicated to factors that influence the development of social networks, which have the potential to decrease perceptions of social isolation and provide social support. There is mixed evidence concerning the availability of supportive social networks for Latinos in the US. This study explores trauma-exposed Latina immigrants' experiences of social isolation in the US and its perceived causes. Twenty-eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview about traumatic experiences. Informal help seeking and the availability of friendships in the US were also queried. Frequent comparisons between experiences in their home countries and in the US shaped the emerging themes of social isolation and lack of social support. Women reported feeling lonely, isolated, closed-in, and less free in the US due to family separation and various obstacles to developing and maintaining relationships. Socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial barriers were offered as explanations for their limited social networks in the US. Understanding experiences of social isolation as well as barriers to forging social networks can help inform the development of social support interventions that can contribute to improved health among Latinos.
Negative correlations were found between social isolation and all the other variables ... Jeremy (1987:22) concurs and states that the stress and trauma of being alone ..... possible, sport activities should be designed in such a way that learners.
Kaneda, M; Oyama, Y; Ikemoto, Y; Akaike, N
The effects of scorpion toxin on the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) of CA1 pyramidal neurons isolated from rat hippocampus were studied under the single-electrode voltage-clamp condition using a 'concentration-clamp' technique. The toxin increased the peak amplitude of INa and prolonged its inactivation phase in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Inactivation phase of INa proceeded with two exponential components in the absence (control) and presence of the toxin. In the toxin-treated neurons, both the time constant of slow component and its fractional contribution to the total current increased dose-dependently while the fractional contribution of the fast one decreased in a dose-dependent fashion without changing its time constant. Actions of scorpion toxin on the sodium channels of hippocampal pyramidal neurons were essentially similar to those of peripheral preparations. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sodium channels of mammalian brain neurons have structures and functions similar to peripheral channels.
Full Text Available Introduction: Prolonged exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF influences digestive system specially its motility. The present study was performed in order to study the effects of exposure to low frequency EMF on the adrenergic system of large intestine. Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adult male rats were divided into three groups: First group (experimental included 10 male rats that were exposed to 1000µT and 50Hz for 140 days in the on solenoid. Second group (shahed included 10 rats that were kept at same condition as the first group except that the solenoid was off. Third group (control included 10 rats that were kept in a normal condition. Mechanical activity of the isolated strips of colon that were inserted to organ bath contained Kerebs solution(CaCl2 2/5, KCL 4/7, KH2Po41/2, MgSo4 1/2, NaHCO3 25, NaCl 118, glucose11, PH=7.4 (37°C and they were linked to power lab force transducer to record cumulative doses of Phenylephrin. The data was analyzed using t- test at p<0.05 as a significant level. Results: The results showed no significant difference regarding long- term exposure to low frequency Electromagnetic field on adrenergic receptor α 1 adrenergic receptor sensitivities.
Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders
Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia.......Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia....
Christopher Chabila Mapoma
Full Text Available This research paper examined social isolation and aging in Zambia by examining possible predictors. The paper produces evidence on risk factors likely to engender social isolation among the elderly population of Zambia. Snowball sampling was undertaken to select 690 adults aged 60 and over in communities as well as those living in homes for the aged. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from respondents. Results show that old people in Zambia experience forms of social isolation which exhibit themselves (but not limited to through such factors as loss of appetite, stress, moody, hopeless, useless, unhappy, and lonely. On balance, however, the direction of association and the number of statistically significant findings suggest that associations between variables examined and risk factors associated with social isolation amongst older people in this analysis could explain the overall situation occuring currently in Zambia and probably other developing countries. In view of this, this study recommends that further work is needed to identify and explain details of factors of social isolation using techniques such as focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with key informants. Such approaches may even help to explain why, for example, sex seems not to be significant in determining indicators of social isolation.
Krupina, N A; Khlebnikova, N N; Orlova, I N
Prolonged social isolation in early ontogeny leads to various changes in behavior and cognitive dysfunction in adult rats; however, data on the disorders are contradictory. In the present work, we studied the effects of early social isolation in Wistar rats by indices of psychomotor activity, aggression, anxiety, depression-like behavior, sensorimotor reactivity and short-term habituation of acoustic startle reflex. On the 24th postnatal day, rats were weaned from the dams and housed in individual cages for nine consecutive weeks. Animal behavior was evaluated at the age of one, two and three months. Immediately after weaning from the dam rats in the experimental group did not differ from the control on any of the indices. After four weeks of social isolation, rats showed an increased aggression in the social contact test. In rats isolated for an 8-weeks period, the increase in active non-aggressive contacts with a slight increase in motor activity in the elevated plus maze (E PM) accompanied increased aggression. At any terms of examination, isolated rats did not differ from the control in the anxiety in EPM, in the anxiety-phobic score, which is evaluated in a battery of tests, and in the duration of immobility which characterizes depression in the forced swimming test. Rats isolated for an 8-weeks period increased daily liquid intake by increasing the consumption of sucrose. After nine weeks of isolation, basal startle amplitude and prepulse inhibition that is, the characteristics of sensorimotor gating did not differ from the control, but there was a lack of short-term habituation of the acoustic startle reflex. Based on the data obtained, Wistar rats subjected to prolonged social isolation can be seen as a model of increased aggression with signs of cognitive deficits by indices of non-associative learning in the acoustic startle reflex.
This study investigated the relationships among smartphone app use, social capital, and social isolation. It focused on two different smartphone apps--communication and social networking site (SNS) apps--and their effects on bonding and bridging social capital. Generational differences in smartphone use were also considered. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that individuals' use of communication apps was helpful for increasing social capital and that this effect of using communication apps was stronger among those of the millennial generation than among older users. Moreover, bonding and bridging social capital was found to reduce individuals' social isolation significantly. These results imply the notable role of smartphone apps in reducing social isolation and improving the personal lives of individuals.
Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.
This article describes the results of a study undertaken to identify perceptions of possible social isolation among individuals who become quadriplegic as young adults. Two focus group sessions were held with 4 male participants in each group. All the young men were between the ages of 19 years and 35 years, and all had been disabled for more than 3 years. The results showed that the participants felt challenged by the environment and their resources but did not experience the feelings associated with social isolation as defined by Goffman (1963). The participants, however, identified important socially isolating stressors based on the human needs described by Maslow (1970) as existing in a hierarchy. The results of the study suggest that people with disabilities need interpersonal techniques that enable them to feel a sense of security and control of their time; rehabilitation nurses are ideally suited to assist clients in developing such techniques.
Halperin, J R; Dunham, D W; Ye, S
We socially isolated adult, male Siamese fighting fish for 0 to 7 weeks but avoided sensory deprivation, and then measured aggressive display as the fish responded to a series of novel models. Isolates displayed much more strongly than non-isolates to the last model of the series, and display intensity became monotonically stronger with longer social isolation. By contrast, display to the first model seen after isolation was weaker the longer the social isolation. A second experiment compared responses of fish after three weeks during which controls displayed to a conspecific for two minutes every two days, while isolates saw a complex visual stimulus which did not release display. Again, isolates had depressed display readiness, but higher display rates once they were primed. This result supports the hypothesis that social isolation has two effects on aggressive display in Betta, causing decreasing readiness to display, but leading to greater display rates once fish are 'primed'. We discuss two models which predict these phenomena, and show that one of them suggests a new understanding of the function of motivational increases when aggression is 'dammed up'. Methodological issues relevant for examining the rodent behavior literature in the light of the new model are discussed.
Full Text Available Regional studies globally has a strong focus on understanding the causes of variation in the economic performance and well-being of regions and this emphasis acknowledges that the strength of the local or regional economy plays a determinant role in shaping quality of life. Regional research has been less active in considering spatial variation in other factors that are critical to individual and societal well-being. For example, the regional studies community has been absent from the debate on the social determinants of health and how these influences vary spatially. This paper considers the results of a cross-sectional survey of Australians aged 65 years and over that focused on social connections and well-being. It examines regional variations in the incidence of social isolation within the older population. It finds that while the incidence of self-reported social isolation amongst older persons is broadly consistent with earlier studies, it demonstrates a spatial patterning that is unexpected. The paper considers community-building activities in addressing the impacts of social isolation, including the role of urban design, and suggests that there is a need to supplement the national overview presented there through more detailed studies focused on individual localities.
Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Wörtwein, Gitta; Steiniger-Brach, Björn
Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated if isolated rats display both a pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficit and hyperactivity. Furthermore, the sensitivity of SI hyperactivity to antipsychotic was evaluated. Rats were socially isolated or group-housed for 12 weeks starting on postnatal day 25. In one batch of animals, the PPI and hyperactivity response were repeatedly compared. Furthermore, we investigated the robustness of the SI-induced hyperactivity by testing close to 50 batches of socially isolated or group-housed rats and tested the sensitivity of the assay to first- and second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone, as well as the group II selective metabotrobic glutamate receptor agonist (LY404039). Socially isolated rats showed a minor PPI deficit and a robust increase in hyperactivity compared with controls. Furthermore, SI-induced hyperactivity was selectively reversed by all antipsychotics, as well as the potential new antipsychotic, LY404039. SI-induced hyperactivity was more pronounced and robust, as compared with SI-induced PPI deficits. Furthermore, SI-induced hyperactivity might be predictive for antipsychotic efficacy, as current treatment was effective in the model. Finally, using LY404039, a compound in development against schizophrenia, we have shown that the hyperactivity assay is sensitive to potential novel mechanisms of action. Thus, SI-induced hyperactivity might be a robust and novel in vivo screening assay of antipsychotic efficacy.
Raz, Sivan; Berger, Barry D
Environmental and situational factors are important determinants of recreational drug use in humans. We aimed to develop a reliable animal model for studying the effects of environmental variables on drug-seeking behavior using the 'social isolation/social restriction' paradigm. Adult Wistar rats housed in short-term isolation (21 days) consumed significantly more morphine solution (0.5 mg/ml) than rats living in pairs, both in one-bottle and in two-bottle tests. No differences were found in their water consumption. This effect was observed in both males and females and the results were also replicated after reversal of housing conditions. We also found that as little as 60-min of daily social-physical interaction with another rat was sufficient to completely abolish the increase in morphine consumption in socially restricted animals. We discuss some possible interpretations for these effects. These results indicate that environmental and situational factors influence drug intake in laboratory rats as they do in humans, and thus may be of interest in studying drug-seeking behavior in humans.
Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C
It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira
Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.
Oliveira, V C; Ferreira, M L; Morsø, Lars
of the Danish version of the STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT), investigated whether social isolation predicts the clinical outcomes of disability, anxiety, depression and pain catastrophizing in people with LBP. Patients with LBP of any duration (N = 204) from Middelfart, Denmark, were included. Social...... isolation was measured at baseline using the friendship scale (score ranges from 0 to 24, with lower values meaning higher perceived social isolation), and outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Regression models investigated whether social isolation at baseline predicted the outcomes...... at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Some level of social isolation was reported by 39.2% of the participants (n = 80) with 5.9% (n = 12) being very socially isolated. One-point difference on social isolation predicted one point on a 100-point disability scale (adjusted unstandardized coefficient: -0.91; 95...
Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A
Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation and socially reared rats. Male Lister hooded rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of four (socially reared) for 6 weeks and then were tested for social interaction. Both isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the social interaction test either without drug treatment or following saline or diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing). The results demonstrate that under high light in an unfamiliar arena, the isolation compared to the socially reared rats showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher level of social interaction, manifested as increases in aggressive and avoidance behaviours, and that this interaction occur for a greater length of time during the test period (10 min). However, when the light level was decreased or when the arena was familiar, active social interaction of isolation reared rats decreased but increased in the socially reared rats. In both conditions the isolation reared rats displayed more aggressive behaviours, in particular biting and boxing the partners which did not occur with the socially reared rats. Pretreatment of diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg., i.p.) caused a dose-related reduction in aggressive behaviours in rats reared under both conditions but increased passive interactions in the socially reared rats. In contrast diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) reduced active interaction in the isolation reared rats but had no effect on passive interaction. These results indicate that isolation rearing increases aggressive behaviours and alters the effects of diazepam.
Van den Berg, C L; Kitchen, I; Gerrits, M A; Spruijt, B M; Van Ree, J M
The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on general activity, social activity and endogenous opioid release during a social interaction test were investigated in the adult rat. Rats were either isolated or socially housed during weeks 4 and 5 of age and treated daily during this isolation period subcutaneously with either saline or morphine. Directly after a social interaction test at 10 weeks of age, rats were injected with [3H]-diprenorphine and subsequently prepared for in vivo autoradiography. The autoradiographic technique was used to visualise neuroanatomical changes in opioid receptor occupancy, probably reflecting changes in opioid peptide release, as a result of social activity. Juvenile isolation increased general activity during the social interaction test, an effect which was accompanied by a reduction of opioid receptor occupancy in many brain areas, suggesting an increased opioid peptide release as a consequence of socially-induced general activity. Morphine treatment in isolated rats caused an increase in adult social activity and enhanced opioid peptide release in some cortical regions and the ventral tegmental area as compared to saline treated rats. Both social activity and opioid receptor occupancy were unaffected by morphine treatment in non-isolated rats. The present study underscores the role of opioid systems in adult social behaviors as a consequence of juvenile isolation. The results suggest a relationship between social activity and opioid peptide release during social contact. Increased social activity seems to be accompanied by elevated opioid peptide release in distinct brain areas after morphine treatment during juvenile isolation.
Heinze, Jürgen; Walter, Bartosz
Animal societies provide perfect conditions for the spread of infections and are therefore expected to employ mechanisms that reduce the probability of transmitting pathogens to group members [1-4]. Death in nature rarely results from old age but commonly results from diseases. Leaving one's group to die in seclusion might be an efficient way of minimizing the risk of infecting kin. Anecdotal observations of moribund individuals deserting from their groups exist for several species, including humans (e.g., ), but have rarely been substantiated by quantitative analysis. Furthermore, to confirm that dying in solitude has evolved because of its altruistic benefits requires refuting the alternative explanation of pathogen manipulation of host behavior. Here we show that workers of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus dying from fungal infection, uninfected workers whose life expectancy was reduced by exposure to 95% CO(2)[6, 7], and workers dying spontaneously in observation colonies exhibited the same suite of behavior of isolating themselves from their nestmates days or hours before death. Actively leaving the nest and breaking off all social interactions thus occurred regardless of whether individuals were infected or not. Social withdrawal might be a commonly overlooked altruistic trait serving the inclusive fitness interests of dying individuals in social animals.
Tulogdi, Aron; Tóth, Máté; Barsvári, Beáta; Biró, László; Mikics, Eva; Haller, József
As previously shown, rats isolated from weaning develop abnormal social and aggressive behavior characterized by biting attacks targeting vulnerable body parts of opponents, reduced attack signaling, and increased defensive behavior despite increased attack counts. Here we studied whether this form of violent aggression could be reversed by resocialization in adulthood. During the first weak of resocialization, isolation-reared rats showed multiple social deficits including increased defensiveness and decreased huddling during sleep. Deficits were markedly attenuated in the second and third weeks. Despite improved social functioning in groups, isolated rats readily showed abnormal features of aggression in a resident-intruder test performed after the 3-week-long resocialization. Thus, post-weaning social isolation-induced deficits in prosocial behavior were eliminated by resocialization during adulthood, but abnormal aggression was resilient to this treatment. Findings are compared to those obtained in humans who suffered early social maltreatment, and who also show social deficits and dysfunctional aggression in adulthood.
Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Vitaro, Frank
This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11-14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed.
James, Alison V; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; George, Sunita; Lysaker, Paul H
Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder. Three forms of self-appraisal were used: self-esteem, hope and self-efficacy. Metacognition was assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, and social functioning with the Quality of Life Scale. Measures of psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were also gathered for use as potential covariates. A single index of self-appraisal was generated from subjecting the assessments of self-appraisal to a principal components analysis. Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for severity of psychopathology, metacognition moderated the effect of the self-appraisal factor score upon social functioning. A median split of metacognition and the self-appraisal index yielded four groups. ANCOVA analyses revealed that participants with higher levels of metacognition and more positive self-appraisal had greater capacities for social relatedness than all other participants, regardless of levels of positive and negative symptoms. Correlational analyses revealed that metacognition but not self-appraisal was related to the frequencies of social contact independent of the effects of psychopathology. Assessments of social cognition and neurocognition were not significantly linked with social dysfunction. Greater social functioning is made possible by a combination of both more positive self-appraisals and greater metacognitive capacity. Individuals with
Endo, Kaori; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Yamasaki, Syudo; Usami, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yuji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Richards, Marcus; Hatch, Stephani; Nishida, Atsushi
Social isolation is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and self-harm (SH) among adolescents. However, the association between preference for solitude (PfS), SI, and SH is unknown. The prevalence of adolescents who have both of PfS and social isolation and the risks for SI and SH among them are also unknown. Information on PfS, social isolation, SI, and SH was collected in a large-scale school-based survey on adolescents, using a self-report questionnaire. Associations between PfS, SI, and SH were examined by logistic regression analysis. The interactions between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH were also investigated. The odds of SI and SH were examined for groups defined by presence of PfS and social isolation. Responses from 17,437 students (89.3% of relevant classes) were available. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and social isolation, PfS was associated with increased odds of SI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1) and SH (OR = 1.9). There was no interaction between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the odds for SI (OR = 8.6) and SH (OR = 3.8) were highest among adolescents with both PfS and social isolation (8.4% of all respondents). PfS was associated with increased odds of SI and SH in adolescents. No interaction effect between PfS and social isolation on SI and SH was found, but adolescents with PfS and social isolation had the highest risk for SI and SH. Parents and professionals should pay attention to suicide risk in adolescents with PfS. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena
Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.
Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Wertz, Jasmin; Ambler, Antony; Kelly, Muireann; Diver, Ashleen; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise
Objective We tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry. Method We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 children born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. We measured social isolation using mothers’ and teachers’ reports at ages 5 and 12 years. We assessed mental health symptoms via mothers’ and teachers’ ratings at age 5 and self-report measures at age 12. We collected mother-reported information about the family environment when children were 5 years old. We conducted regression analyses to test concurrent and longitudinal associations between early family factors, social isolation, and mental health difficulties. Results At both primary and secondary school, children who were socially isolated experienced greater mental health difficulties. Children with behavioral problems or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 5 years had an elevated risk of becoming more socially isolated at age 12. However, children who were isolated at age 5 did not have greater mental health symptoms at age 12, over and above pre-existing difficulties. Conclusion Although social isolation and mental health problems co-occur in childhood, early isolation does not predict worse mental health problems later on. However, children who exhibit problematic behaviors may struggle to cope with the social challenges that accompany their progression through the early school years. PMID:25721188
Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Gonzalez, Amaryllis Del Carmen
Background/Context: The United States is becoming increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, and increasingly racially isolated across race-ethnic boundaries. Researchers have argued that both diversity and racial isolation serve to undermine the social cohesion needed to bind American citizens to one another and to society at large. Focus of…
Eastwood, A. F.; May, C.; Hill, T.; McLachlan, N. M.; Churilov, L.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder typified by impaired social communication and restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Mice serve as an ideal candidate organism for studying the neural mechanisms that subserve these symptoms. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3) mouse, expressing a R451C mutation discovered in two Swedish brothers with ASD, exhibits impaired social interactions and heightened aggressive behavior towards male mice. Social interactions with female mice have not been characterized and in the present study were assessed in male NL3R451C and WT mice. Mice were housed in social and isolation conditions to test for isolation-induced increases in social interaction. Tests were repeated to investigate potential differences in interaction in naïve and experienced mice. We identified heightened interest in mating and atypical aggressive behavior in NL3R451C mice. NL3R451C mice exhibited normal social interaction with WT females, indicating that abnormal aggressive behavior towards females is not due to altered motivation to engage. Social isolation rearing heightened interest in social behavior in all mice. Isolation housing selectively modulated the response to female pheromones in NL3R451C mice. This study is the first to show altered mating behavior in the NL3R451C mouse and has provided new insights into the aggressive phenotype in this model. PMID:28255463
E. L. Burrows
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder typified by impaired social communication and restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Mice serve as an ideal candidate organism for studying the neural mechanisms that subserve these symptoms. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3 mouse, expressing a R451C mutation discovered in two Swedish brothers with ASD, exhibits impaired social interactions and heightened aggressive behavior towards male mice. Social interactions with female mice have not been characterized and in the present study were assessed in male NL3R451C and WT mice. Mice were housed in social and isolation conditions to test for isolation-induced increases in social interaction. Tests were repeated to investigate potential differences in interaction in naïve and experienced mice. We identified heightened interest in mating and atypical aggressive behavior in NL3R451C mice. NL3R451C mice exhibited normal social interaction with WT females, indicating that abnormal aggressive behavior towards females is not due to altered motivation to engage. Social isolation rearing heightened interest in social behavior in all mice. Isolation housing selectively modulated the response to female pheromones in NL3R451C mice. This study is the first to show altered mating behavior in the NL3R451C mouse and has provided new insights into the aggressive phenotype in this model.
The effectiveness of a therapeutic motor development program in increasing the social adjustment and peer acceptance of seven socially isolated fifth grade children was investigated using a single subject experimental design. The program was based on the games analysis model which allows movement games to be designed for individual motoric,…
Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…
Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner
This qualitative study described the lived experience of dancing as it related to depression and social isolation in 16 disadvantaged adults who completed a 12-week dance intervention. It is the first qualitative study to explore the experience of dance as an adjunct therapy, depression, and social isolation. A descriptive phenomenological framework consisted of two focus groups using semi-structured interviews. A Giorgian approach guided thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) dance for myself and health, (2) social acceptance, (3) connection with others: a group, and (4) not wanting to stop: unexpected benefits from dancing. As the participants continued to dance, they developed a sense of belonging and group identity, which may have maintained group involvement and contributed to reducing depression and social isolation. Thus, dancing is a complementary therapy that should be considered when working with adults with depression and social isolation.
Lieberwirth, Claudia; Liu, Yan; Jia, Xixi; Wang, Zuoxin
Disruptions in the social environment, such as social isolation, are distressing and can induce various behavioral and neural changes in the distressed animal. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that long-term social isolation affects brain plasticity and alters behavior in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult female prairie voles were injected with a cell division marker, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and then same-sex pair-housed (control) or single-housed (isolation) for 6 weeks. Social isolation reduced cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation and altered cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, social isolation reduced cell proliferation in the medial preoptic area and cell survival in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These data suggest that long-term social isolation affects distinct stages of adult neurogenesis in specific limbic brain regions. In Experiment 2, isolated females displayed higher levels of anxiety-like behaviors in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests and higher levels of depression-like behavior in the forced swim test than controls. Further, isolated females showed a higher level of affiliative behavior than controls, but the two groups did not differ in social recognition memory. Together, our data suggest that social isolation not only impairs cell proliferation, survival, and neuronal differentiation in limbic brain areas, but also alters anxiety-like, depression-like, and affiliative behaviors in adult female prairie voles. These data warrant further investigation of a possible link between altered neurogenesis within the limbic system and behavioral changes.
Fabricius, Katrine; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Helboe, Lone;
an investigation of prefrontal cortical dopamine dynamics using in vivo microdialysis. Social isolation for 12 weeks after weaning caused increased locomotor activity in response to novelty and amphetamine challenge. In vivo microdialysis experiments revealed that while social isolation did not change basal...... dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, it did cause a significant reduction of basal dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, social isolation lead to a significantly larger dopamine response to an amphetamine challenge, in both the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex compared...
Chan, Jackie N-M; Lee, Jada C-D; Lee, Sylvia S P; Hui, Katy K Y; Chan, Alan H L; Fung, Timothy K-H; Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda I; Lau, Benson W-M; Ngai, Shirley P-C
Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression. Furthermore, social isolation is regarded as a stressor to social animals including experimental rodents. Hence, this study aims to examine if social isolation would induce further emotional or anxiety-like behavior disturbance and suppress neurogenesis in an experimental model that was repeatedly treated with CORT. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to determine the effects of different housing conditions, either social isolated or group housing, in vehicle-treated control and CORT-treated animals. Forced swimming test (FST), open field test (OFT) and social interaction test (SIT) were used to assess depression-like, anxiety-like and social behaviors respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify the number of proliferative cells and immature neurons in the hippocampus, while dendritic maturation of immature neurons was analyzed by Sholl analysis. Social isolation reduced latency to immobility in FST. Furthermore, social isolation could significantly reduce the ratio of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cells of the neurogenesis assay under CORT-treated condition. The current findings suggested that the behavioral and neurological effect of social isolation is dependent on the condition of hypercortisolemia. Furthermore, social isolation may
Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important issues in the social and psychological sciences is social isolation. Different scientists have talked about social isolation in different ways. For example, Locher et al have defined it as physical and social avoidance among people (Locher et al. 2005: 748. Seeman believes social hermitage happens when people avoid customs and values completely (Seeman, 1983: 517. Chon believes it is a kind of cultural strangeness (Chon, 1955: 117. Yurik believes it is unsocial connection among people (Yurik, in Chalabi, 2004: 4. For Burhalt, it is a lack of connection (Burhalt et al. 2003: 73. For Hawthorne, it is feeling of loneliness, lack of social support, few social connections, and homesickness (Hawthorne, 2006: 521. Christina et al divide it in two separate concepts: first, it means separation of people from social groups, second, separation of people from primary social groups such as family, friends, and neighbors (Christina et al. 2009: 175. Chalabi believes it means lack of individual connections among groups and society. According to Tönnies, when social and individual connections become weak, the society move from gemeinschaft to gesellschaft, and individualism increase as a result. Although social development may be good for societies, it may lead to disappearance of old and personal connections, and to inconveniency of social life (Roberts, 2006: 162. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not changes in social networks and connections have led to changes in frequent connections, social changes, homesickness changes, and changes in different support groups in the village of Dallaho? We wanted to know if women of Dallaho feel more social isolation as a result of these changes. Materials and Methods This study is a survey to find out what is the role of social fear in social isolation of women in Dallaho. There seems to be no study available about village dwellers, as most previous scholars
Lei, Ming; Luo, Lu; Ma, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xi-Hong; Li, Liang
Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and dysfunctions in conditioned learning, reversal learning and memory. Moreover, social isolation causes changes of neurotransmitters, such as the increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala and other brain regions in the limbic system, the decrease of dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex, the decrease of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus, and changes of glutamine in the prefrontal cortex. Finally, social isolation affects cell apoptosis in different brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Both the changes in neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis may contribute to the behavioral dysfunctions in social isolated rats. Since schizophrenic patients have similar abnormalities in behaviors and neurotransmitters, isolation rearing can be used as a useful animal model of schizophrenia.
de Sousa, Paulo; Spray, Amy; Sellwood, William; Bentall, Richard P
Recent work has focused on the role of the environment in psychosis with emerging evidence that specific psychotic experiences are associated with specific types of adversity. One risk factor that has been often associated with psychosis is social isolation, with studies identifying isolation as an important feature of prodromal psychosis and others reporting that social networks of psychotic patients are smaller and less dense than those of healthy individuals. In the present study, we tested a prediction that social isolation would be specifically associated with formal thought disorder. 80 patients diagnosed with psychosis-spectrum disorder and 30 healthy participants were assessed for formal thought disorder with speech samples acquired during an interview that promoted personal disclosure and an interview targeting everyday topics. Social isolation was significantly associated with formal thought disorder in the neutral interview and in the salient interview, even when controlling for comorbid hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness. Hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness were not associated with social isolation when formal thought disorder was controlled for. Formal thought disorder is robustly and specifically associated with social isolation. Social cognitive mechanisms and processes are discussed which may explain this relationship as well as implications for clinical practice and future research.
Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate
Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation
Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew
Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…
Forsbrey, April D.; Frabutt, James M.; Smith, Heather L.
The authors used qualitative research methodology to examine the lives of caregivers of court-involved youths. Caregiver social isolation, including overall lack of support, lack of school support, and isolation from self, emerged as a salient theme across 7 domains. Implications for counselors are discussed, and brief descriptions of several…
Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira
People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…
Walkner, Tammy J; Weare, Andrea M; Tully, Melissa
Social isolation is a problem facing many older women. Isolation can contribute to poor health as adults age without social support. Increased and tailored communication offers service organizations more opportunities to provide social support to these adults. This research examines perceptions of aging to explore communication behaviors, barriers, and opportunities for improved communication and service provision for aging women. Using data from focus groups and interviews, this study finds that participants from community organizations rely on word of mouth and traditional media to communicate with their aging constituents, despite opportunities to use digital communication and to develop communication plans for this population.
O'Keefe, Lena M; Doran, Sarah J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Conti, Lisa H; Venna, Venugopal R; McCullough, Louise D
Social isolation prior to stroke leads to poorer outcomes after an ischemic injury in both animal and human studies. However, the impact of social isolation following stroke, which may be more clinically relevant as a target for therapeutic intervention, has yet to be examined. In this study, we investigated both the sub-acute (2 weeks) and chronic (7 weeks) effects of social isolation on post-stroke functional and histological outcome. Worsened histological damage from ischemic injury and an increase in depressive-like behavior was observed in isolated mice as compared to pair-housed mice. Mice isolated immediately after stroke showed a decrease in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These changes, both histological and behavioral, suggest an overall negative effect of social isolation on stroke outcome, potentially contributing to post-stroke depression and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have perceived isolation post-stroke to hopefully prevent this exacerbation of histological damage and subsequent depression.
Sheng Wei; Huiyun Zhang; Jie Gao; Ling Xue; Peng Sun; Yubin Chao; Gang Xue; Mingqi Qiao
Stress studies frequently utilize physical stressors to establish animal models of stress.In the majority of cases,these models are not consistent with human circumstances.The present study simulated a social isolation plus resident intruder stress model in the rat.The rats were subjected to daily social isolation and resident intruder stress for 2 weeks.Behaviors were then tested.Rats subjected to social stress exhibited different aggressive behavior styles;some rats had greater scores on composite aggression behaviors,as well as locomotor and exploratory activity,but lower scores on latency than others.The high-aggressive group exhibited predominantly anger-out,while the low-aggressive group exhibited anger-in.Results suggest that social isolation plus resident intruder may serve as an appropriate model for anger-in and anger-out emotion modeling in the rat.
MacLeod, Ann; Skinner, Mark W; Wilkinson, Fay; Reid, Heather
Employing a participatory arts-based research approach, we examined an innovative program from rural Ontario, Canada, designed to address social isolation among older people. Older socially isolated adults were matched to trained volunteers, where in dyads, the eight pairs created expressive art in their home setting over the course of 10 home visits. With thematic and narrative inquiry, we analysed the experiences and perceptions of the program leader, older participants, and older volunteers via their artistic creations, weekly logs, evaluations, and field notes. The findings reveal a successful intervention that positively influenced the well-being of older adult participants and older volunteers, especially in regards to relationships, personal development, and creating meaning as well as extending the intervention's impact beyond the program's duration. We also discuss opportunities for similar programs to inform policy and enable positive community-based health and social service responses to rural social isolation.
Full Text Available Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus. Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26 and pair-housed (n = 19 captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (p<0.001, and socially isolated parrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001 - even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress.
Nakamura, Akira; Itasaka, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Michio; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Takaori, Kyoichi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Uemoto, Shinji [Kyoto University, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yamaguchi (Japan)
To evaluate the treatment outcomes of radiotherapy and prognostic factors for recurrent pancreatic cancer. The study comprised 30 patients who developed a locoregional recurrence of primarily resected pancreatic cancer and received radiotherapy between 2000 and 2013 with a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 39-60 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy included gemcitabine for 18 patients and S-1 for seven patients. The treatment outcomes and prognostic factors were retrospectively analyzed. The median follow-up after radiotherapy was 14.6 months. The 1-year overall survival, local control, and progression-free survival rates were 69 %, 67 %, and 32 %, respectively. The median overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 15.9 and 6.9 months, respectively. Tumor marker reduction and ≥ 50 % reduction were observed in 18 and two patients, respectively. Of the seven patients who exhibited pain symptoms, four and two patients were partly and completely relieved, respectively. Late grade 3 ileus and gastroduodenal bleeding were observed in one patient each. Among the clinicopathological factors evaluated, only a disease-free interval of greater than 18.9 months exhibited a significant association with improved overall survival (p = 0.017). Radiotherapy for isolated locally recurrent pancreatic cancer resulted in encouraging local control, overall survival, and palliative effects with mild toxicity, particularly in patients with a prolonged disease-free interval. This treatment strategy should be prospectively evaluated. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung strahlentherapeutischer Behandlungsergebnisse und prognostischer Faktoren bei rezidivierendem Pankreaskrebs. In dieser Studie wurden 30 Patienten aufgenommen, bei denen es nach primaer reseziertem Pankreaskrebs zu lokoregionaeren Rezidiven kam und die zwischen 2000 und 2013 strahlentherapeutisch mit einer mittleren Dosis von 54 Gy (Bereich 39-60 Gy) behandelt wurden. Im Rahmen der gleichzeitig durchgefuehrten Chemotherapie wurde
Marryat, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Minnis, Helen; Wilson, Phil
The impact of peer relationships has been extensively reported during adolescence, when peer influence is generally considered to be at its greatest. Research on social isolation during childhood has found associations with school achievement, future relationships and adult mental health. Much of the evidence is derived from either parent or child-rated assessment of peer relationships, each of which have their limitations. We report findings from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), completed by staff in preschool establishments for over 10,000 children in their preschool year (aged 4-5), linked with routine demographic data. Correlations between scores and demographics were explored. Regression models examined the independent relationships between three social isolation variables, taken from the SDQ Peer Relationship Problems, Pro-social Behaviour and Emotional Symptoms subscales, controlling for demographics. There were substantial overlaps between problem scores. Regression models found all social isolation variables to be significantly correlated with social and emotional functioning. Different types of social isolation appeared to relate to different psychological domains, with unpopularity having a stronger relationship with poor pro-social skills, whereas being solitary was more strongly linked to poorer emotional functioning. Social isolation does have a significant association with reported child social and emotional difficulties, independent of demographic characteristics. The analysis highlights the complexity of measuring social isolation in young children. Different types of social isolation were found to have relationships with specific areas of social and emotional functioning.
Pyter, Leah M; Yang, Linglan; da Rocha, José M; Engeland, Christopher G
Various stressors impair wound healing in humans and rodents. For example, social isolation delays wound closure in rodents, but the healing mechanisms that underlie this delay have yet to be identified. Here, the effects of three weeks of social isolation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses and healing factors involved in the inflammatory and proliferative phases of wound healing were assessed in adult female hairless mice. Social isolation reduced basal circulating corticosterone concentrations and increased body and thymus weights compared with group-housed controls. Isolation impaired dermal wound closure by up to 30% and reduced initial total wound bacterial load relative to controls. Inflammatory gene expression in the wounds was not affected by the observed differences in wound bacterial load. However, isolation reduced wound gene expression of keratinocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are involved in keratinocyte proliferation/migration and angiogenesis during the proliferative phase of healing. These data indicate that social isolation induces healing impairments that may be attributed to reductions in growth factors necessary for proper skin cell proliferation and blood vessel growth during healing. This healing impairment occurred in the absence of both high wound bacterial load and elevated circulating glucocorticoids, which have previously been hypothesized to be required for stress-impaired healing in mice.
Volden, Paul A; Wonder, Erin L; Skor, Maxwell N; Carmean, Christopher M; Patel, Feenalie N; Ye, Honggang; Kocherginsky, Masha; McClintock, Martha K; Brady, Matthew J; Conzen, Suzanne D
Chronic social isolation is linked to increased mammary tumor growth in rodent models of breast cancer. In the C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen FVB/N (TAg) mouse model of "triple-negative" breast cancer, the heightened stress response elicited by social isolation has been associated with increased expression of metabolic genes in the mammary gland before invasive tumors develop (i.e., during the in situ carcinoma stage). To further understand the mechanisms underlying how accelerated mammary tumor growth is associated with social isolation, we separated the mammary gland adipose tissue from adjacent ductal epithelial cells and analyzed individual cell types for changes in metabolic gene expression. Specifically, increased expression of the key metabolic genes Acaca, Hk2, and Acly was found in the adipocyte, rather than the epithelial fraction. Surprisingly, metabolic gene expression was not significantly increased in visceral adipose depots of socially isolated female mice. As expected, increased metabolic gene expression in the mammary adipocytes of socially isolated mice coincided with increased glucose metabolism, lipid synthesis, and leptin secretion from this adipose depot. Furthermore, application of media that had been cultured with isolated mouse mammary adipose tissue (conditioned media) resulted in increased proliferation of mammary cancer cells relative to group-housed-conditioned media. These results suggest that exposure to a chronic stressor (social isolation) results in specific metabolic reprogramming in mammary gland adipocytes that in turn contributes to increased proliferation of adjacent preinvasive malignant epithelial cells. Metabolites and/or tumor growth-promoting proteins secreted from adipose tissue could identify biomarkers and/or targets for preventive intervention in breast cancer.
Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth
Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)
Hasan, Michelle; Clark, Eddie M
Individuals lacking fulfilling interpersonal interactions may experience feelings of loneliness. Consequently, these individuals may over-rely on their romantic partners to fulfill the need to belong. This study examined the effects of loneliness and social isolation on dependency on a romantic partner in a sample of college students (N = 104). Participants who were in a romantic relationship completed measures of loneliness, social isolation, and romantic dependency near the beginning of the semester (Time 1) and approximately 6 weeks later toward the end of the semester (Time 2). Toward the beginning of the semester, there were no significant predictors of dependency. Toward the end of the semester, individuals who reported higher social isolation reported higher levels of dependency. Time 1 dependency also predicted Time 2 dependency. Future methodological directions and suggestions regarding the examination of perceptions of loneliness and relationship expectations are discussed.
Newall, Nancy E G; Menec, Verena H
The Seniors Centre Without Walls (SCWOW) program provides free social and educational programming for older adults via telephone. The target population for SCWOW is socially isolated older adults, a hard to reach population. The aim of this process evaluation was to examine whether SCWOW was reaching its target population and to gather participant feedback about program implementation and the perceived satisfaction and impact of the program. Telephone interviews were conducted with 26 participants (92% females; aged 57-85 years). Forty-two percent of the sample was socially isolated and more than half reported being lonely. Participants reported having no difficulty using the telephone system. On average, participants were very satisfied with the program and reported that SCWOW had several positive effects (e.g., connecting to the larger community, affecting mental well-being). Importantly, no barriers to participation were identified. The study suggests that telephone-based programs can successfully reach socially isolated older adults. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present a case on John, an 82 year old man with Alzheimer's disease, who resides in a dementia specific unit of a nursing home. People with dementia who require institutional care are often at risk of social isolation, due to the regressive nature of the disease, and the potential of developing behavioural disturbances. This case story demonstrates how group music therapy can be individually tailored to meet the needs of people with dementia who are socially isolated as a result of behavioural challenges, including aggressive and agitating behaviours, and therefore improve the quality of the person's life.
Gené-Badia, Joan; Ruiz-Sánchez, Marina; Obiols-Masó, Núria; Oliveras Puig, Laura; Lagarda Jiménez, Elena
Loneliness and social isolation are emerging health conditions in the elderly population, in particular widows, high frequency users of health services and those with chronic problems and depression. Loneliness is the subjective feeling of having less affection and closeness than that desired in the intimate or relational field. Social isolation is an objective situation of having minimal contact with other people. Its contribution to increased morbidity and mortality is comparable to other well known risk factors that we deal with daily as Primary Care teams. Strategies to identify these problems in our patients and to perform scientific evidence based studies at individual and community level in cooperation with other community resources and interventions are discussed. The Primary Care team must promote the autonomy of these patients, facilitating their sociability, and act on their social maladaptive thoughts that hinder their social integration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Rats are highly social animals and social play during adolescence has an important role for social development, hence post-weaning social isolation is widely used to study the adverse effects of juvenile social deprivation and to induce behavioral phenotypes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia. Communication is an important component of the rat’s social behavior repertoire, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USV serving as situation-dependent affective signals. High-frequency 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations and induce approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls; however, post-weaning isolation effects on the behavioral changes displayed by the receiver in response to USV have yet to be studied. We therefore investigated the impact of post-weaning isolation on socio-affective information processing as assessed by means of our established 50-kHz USV radial maze playback paradigm. We showed that post-weaning social isolation specifically affected the behavioral response to playback of pro-social 50-kHz but not alarm 22-kHz USV. While group-housed rats showed the expected preference, i.e. approach, towards 50-kHz USV, the response was even stronger in short-term isolated rats (i.e. 1 day, possibly due to a higher level of social motivation. In contrast, no approach was observed in long-term isolated rats (i.e. 4 weeks. Importantly, deficits in approach were reversed by peer-mediated re-socialization and could not be observed after post-adolescent social isolation, indicating a critical period for social development during adolescence. Together, these results highlight the importance of social experience for affiliative behavior, suggesting a critical involvement of play behavior on socio-affective information processing in rats.
Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016...
Toth, Mate; Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Soros, Petra; Mikics, Eva; Haller, Jozsef
Post-weaning social isolation in rats is believed to model symptoms of early social neglect-induced externalizing problems including aggression-related problems. We showed earlier that rats reared in social isolation were hyper-aroused during aggressive contacts, delivered substantially more attacks that were poorly signaled and were preferentially aimed at vulnerable body parts of opponents (head, throat and belly). Here we studied the neural background of this type of aggression by assessing the expression of the activation marker c-Fos in 22 brain areas of male Wistar rats submitted to resident-intruder conflicts. Post-weaning social isolation readily produced the behavioral alterations noticed earlier. Social isolation significantly increased the activation of brain areas that are known to directly or indirectly control inter-male aggression. Particularly, the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and basolateral amygdala, hypothalamic attack area, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus showed increased activations. This contrasts our earlier findings obtained in rats with experimentally induced hypoarousal, where abnormal attack patterns were associated with over-activated central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray that are believed to control predatory attacks. We have observed no similar activation patterns in rats socially isolated from weaning. In summary, these findings suggest that despite some phenotypic similarities, the neuronal background of hypo and hyperarousal-associated abnormal forms of aggression are markedly different. While the neuronal activation patterns induced by normal rivalry and hypoarousal-driven aggression are qualitative different, hyperarousal-associated aggression appears to be an exaggerated form of rivalry aggression.
Older people are more vulnerable to loneliness and social isolation, and are more at risk of a range of health and social issues which can be directly linked to loneliness. However, there are often complex problems which are unique to the older age group which can have a profound effect on the provision and budgets of both health and social care. Various schemes have been put in place across the country to try to reduce the effects of loneliness and there is some evidence to support the mentoring and befriending models, although more research would provide clarity regarding their effectiveness.
This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social prof
This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social prof
Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.
An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=
... social distancing, quarantine, or isolation. People may feel: Anxiety, worry, or fear related to: Your own health status The health ... reports 24/7 since this tends to increase anxiety and worry. Remember ... OWN ADVOCATE Speaking out about your needs is particularly important if ...
Toth, Mate; Mikics, Eva; Tulogdi, Aron; Aliczki, Mano; Haller, Jozsef
We showed earlier that social isolation from weaning (a paradigm frequently used to model social neglect in children) induces abnormal forms of attack in rats, and assumed that these are associated with hyperarousal. To investigate this hypothesis, we deprived rats of social contacts from weaning and studied their behavior, glucocorticoid and autonomic stress responses in the resident-intruder paradigm at the age of 82 days. Social isolation resulted in abnormal attack patterns characterized by attacks on vulnerable targets, deficient social communication and increased defensive behaviors (defensive upright, flight, freezing). During aggressive encounters, socially deprived rats rapidly switched from one behavior to another, i.e. showed an increased number of behavioral transitions as compared to controls. We tentatively term this behavioral feature "behavioral fragmentation" and considered it a form of behavioral arousal. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone regularly assessed by radioimmunoassay between 27 and 78 days of age were not affected. In contrast, aggression-induced glucocorticoid responses were approximately doubled by socially isolation. Diurnal oscillations in heart rate assessed by in vivo biotelemetry were not affected by social isolation. In contrast, the aggression-induced increase in heart rate was higher in socially isolated than in socially housed rats. Thus, post-weaning social isolation induced abnormal forms of aggression that developed on the background of increased behavioral, endocrine and autonomic arousal. We suggest that this paradigm may be used to model aggression-related psychopathologies associated with hyperarousal, particularly those that are triggered by adverse rearing conditions.
This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults.
Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Aydinonat, Denise; Penn, Dustin J; Smith, Steve; Moodley, Yoshan; Hoelzl, Franz; Knauer, Felix; Schwarzenberger, Franz
Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26) and pair-housed (n = 19) captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (pparrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001) - even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress.
Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.
Chen, Yi-Ru Regina; Schulz, Peter J
The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly's psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly. Relevant electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SSCI, Communication Studies: a SAGE Full-Text Collection, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) were systematically searched using a unified strategy to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the effectiveness of ICT-mediated social isolation interventions for elderly people published in English between 2002 and 2015. Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general. ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention. The results for self-esteem and control over one's life
Kent, Peter; Hawthorne, Graeme; Kjær, Per
Low back pain (LBP) is common and social isolation is both a risk factor for poor recovery from LBP and a consequence of LBP. The Friendship Scale is a brief measure of social isolation that has been validated for use in the general population and in people with LBP. The aim of this study was to ...
Van den Berg, C L; Van Ree, J M; Spruijt, B M; Kitchen, I
The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment during the isolation period on (social) behaviour and mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in adulthood were investigated by using a social interaction test and in vitro autoradiography in rats. Juvenile isolation reduced social exploration in adults. Morphine treatment counteracted this reduction in isolated rats, but decreased social exploration in nonisolated rats. Self-grooming and nonsocial exploration were enhanced after juvenile isolation. Morphine treatment had no effect on self-grooming, but suppressed nonsocial exploration in isolated rats. With respect to the opioid receptors, juvenile isolation resulted in regiospecific increases in mu-binding sites with a 58% increase in the basolateral amygdala and a 33% increase in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Morphine treatment in isolated rats reversed this upregulation in both areas. The number of delta-binding sites did not differ between the experimental groups. A general upregulation of kappa-binding sites was observed after juvenile isolation, predominantly in the cortical regions, the hippocampus and the substantia nigra. Morphine treatment did not affect the upregulation of kappa-receptors. The results show that juvenile isolation during the play period causes long-term effects on social and nonsocial behaviours and on the number of mu- and kappa- but not delta-opioid receptors in distinct brain areas. The number of mu-receptors in the basolateral amygdala appears to be negatively correlated with the amount of social exploration in adult rats.
Buyuk, Fatih; Sahin, Mitat; Cooper, Callum; Celebi, Ozgur; Saglam, Aliye Gulmez; Baillie, Les; Celik, Elif; Akca, Dogan; Otlu, Salih
The stability of the plasmid-mediated virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, a tripartite toxin located on pXO1 and an antiphagocytic capsule encoded by genes located on pXO2, following long-term storage was investigated. A collection of 159 isolates of B. anthracis were collected from the Kars region of Turkey between 2000 and 2013 and stored at -20°C in Brucella broth supplemented with 20% glycerine. A total of 142 isolates were recovered of which one failed to express a capsule upon primary culture. A further 35 isolates yielded a mixture of mucoid and non-mucoid colonies; the majority of which had lost the pXO2 plasmid as determined by PCR analysis. Results would suggest that pXO2 is more unstable than pXO1 and that this instability increases with the length of storage. It is possible that the pXO2-deficient isolates of B. anthracis described here could be developed into a vaccine to treat at risk animals in the Kars region as many animal vaccines are based upon pXO2 deficiency.
Chang, Hsin-An; Liu, Yia-Ping; Tung, Che-Se; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Huang, San-Yuan
The present study examined the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on sensorimotor gating function in a developmentally rodent model of schizophrenic-spectrum disorders. Startle magnitude, prepulse inhibition (PPI) and startle habituation in an acoustic startle test were measured after 72-h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) in 14-week-old rats that were reared in one of the following conditions: control social interaction, 2-week isolation, and continuous isolation, since weaning. The results showed that REMSD significantly inhibited rats' PPI in socially controlled rats, and rats in two isolation groups appeared less sensitive to REMSD. After REMSD, startle habituation was significantly reduced in continuous-isolated rats but not in 2-week-isolated rats. These data indicate that REM sleep is essential for PPI; REMSD inhibits startle habituation in rats with continuous social isolation. In addition, social interaction, in early life or for the whole life, functions differently to the sensorimotor gating.
Hui Liu; Zhun Wang
AIM: To investigate the effects of isolation stress on mouse with liver cancer and possible associated mechanisms.METHODS: Transplantable murine hepatoma22 (H22) model was used to evaluate the effects of social isolation stress on murine liver cancer. Mice were immunized with sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and intraperitoneally inoculated with H22 cell, then divided into two groups, one reared individually as group (Ⅰ) and the other reared in groups as group (G). Titer of antibody to SRBC and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in serum was monitored. The survival time of mouse with liver cancer was observed.RESULTS: The titer of antibody to SRBC in group (G) was 1:24.5 and that in group (Ⅰ) was 1:11.2. There was a significant difference between these two groups (t = 2.60,P = 0.02). A significant difference in IL-2 concentration was observed between group (G) (39.6 ng/L) and group (Ⅰ) (47.1 ng/L, t= 2.14, P = 0.046). The survival time in group (G) (16.5 d) was markedly longer than that in group (Ⅰ) (13.2 d, t = 3.46, P = 0.002).CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that survival time of the mouse bearing H22 tumor is affected by the social isolation stress and the associated mechanism may be the immunological changes under the social isolation stress.
Watts, Krista N
MDR-TB and admission to isolation can induce a situation in which individuals are normless, unable to achieve the social goals that they have learned to pursue. Described as anomie, this situation can induce deviant behaviour. Addressing the psychosocial ethics of MDR-TB and isolation, this paper responds to the call for consideration of resource allocation and liberty.
Perry, Adam N; Carter, C Sue; Cushing, Bruce S
Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes.
Shaghaghi, Hoora; Kadlecek, Stephen; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Pourfathi, Mehrdad; Hamedani, Hooman; Clapp, Justin; Profka, Harrilla; Rizi, Rahim
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has recently shown promise as a means of more accurately gauging the health of lung grafts and improving graft performance post-transplant. However, reperfusion of ischemic lung promotes the depletion of high-energy compounds and a progressive loss of normal mitochondrial function, and it remains unclear how and to what extent the EVLP approach contributes to this metabolic decline. Although ascorbate has been used to mitigate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury, the nature of its effects during EVLP are also not clear. To address these uncertainties, this study monitored the energy status of lungs during EVLP and after the administration of ascorbate using (31)P and hyperpolarized (13)C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Our experiments demonstrated that the oxidative phosphorylation capacity and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux of lungs decline during ex vivo perfusion. The addition of ascorbate to the perfusate prolonged lung viability by 80% and increased the hyperpolarized (13)C bicarbonate signal by a factor of 2.7. The effect of ascorbate is apparently due not to its antioxidant quality but rather to its ability to energize cellular respiration given that it increased the lung's energy charge significantly, whereas other antioxidants (glutathione and α-lipoic acid) did not alter energy metabolism. During ascorbate administration, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I with rotenone depressed energy charge and shifted the metabolic state of the lung toward glycolysis; reenergizing the electron transport chain with TMPD (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine) recovered metabolic activity. This indicates that ascorbate slows the decline of the ex vivo perfused lung's mitochondrial activity through an independent interaction with the electron transport chain complexes.
The purpose of this report is to present a case on John, an 82 year old man with Alzheimer's disease, who resides in a dementia specific unit of a nursing home. People with dementia who require institutional care are often at risk of social isolation, due to the regressive nature of the disease, and the potential of developing behavioural disturbances. This case story demonstrates how group music therapy can be individually tailored to meet the needs of people with dementia who are socially i...
Salii-Prenichi, L; Milchev, N; Markova, D; Apiosjan, Zh
Prolonged pregnancy, associated with low amniotic fluid is a reason for the increase of fetal mortality and morbidity. There is no a define test at prolonged pregnancy which can determine which pregnancy are at a risk for adverse outcome and complications. Dopplerometry as a noninvasive method for examination of blood circulation, and especially a. cerebri media and a. umbilicalis can be used for the prediction of the outcome of prolonged pregnancy.
Full Text Available Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via social isolation and/or depression. Structural equation modelling of associations between hearing loss, cognitive performance, social isolation, depression and hearing aid use was carried out with a subsample of the UK Biobank data set (n = 164,770 of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years who completed a hearing test. Age, sex, general health and socioeconomic status were controlled for as potential confounders. Hearing aid use was associated with better cognition, independently of social isolation and depression. This finding was consistent with the hypothesis that hearing aids may improve cognitive performance, although if hearing aids do have a positive effect on cognition it is not likely to be via reduction of the adverse effects of hearing loss on social isolation or depression. We suggest that any positive effects of hearing aid use on cognition may be via improvement in audibility or associated increases in self-efficacy. Alternatively, positive associations between hearing aid use and cognition may be accounted for by more cognitively able people seeking and using hearing aids. Further research is required to determine the direction of association, if there is any direct causal relationship between hearing aid use and better cognition, and whether hearing aid use results in reduction in rates of cognitive decline measured longitudinally.
Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Baker, Patricia Sawyer; Bodner, Eric V.; Allman, Richard M.
This study examines the relationships that exist between social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in older black and white women and men. The paper reports on 1000 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal observational study of mobility among older black and white participants in the USA. Black women were at greatest nutritional risk; and black women and men were the groups mos...
Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J
The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period.
Fried, Dennis Adrian; Passannante, Marian; Helmer, Drew; Holland, Bart K; Halperin, William E
Authors comparatively analyzed health and social isolation between U.S. military veterans denied Veterans Affairs (VA) disability compensation and veterans awarded VA disability compensation. The 2001 National Survey of Veterans was used to create a sample of 4,522 veterans denied or awarded VA disability compensation. Using the Andersen health services utilization model as a conceptual framework, multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess relationships between VA disability compensation award status, three separate domains of health, and correlates of social isolation. Results indicate that denied applicants were more likely than those awarded to have poor overall health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23, 1.70), and limitations in activities of daily living (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21). Denied applicants' physical functioning (40.3) and mental functioning (41.2) composite summary scores were not clinically different from those of awarded applicants (39.0 and 40.1, respectively), indicating that both were comparably impaired. Veterans denied VA disability compensation had poor health and functional impairments. They also experienced poverty and isolation, suggesting that they may be in need of additional supportive services. Connecting veterans to community resources could be a vital service to provide to all veterans applying for disability compensation. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.
Koshoridze, N; Kuchukashvili, Z; Menabde, K; Lekiashvili, Sh; Koshoridze, M
Stress represents one of the main problems of modern humanity. This study was done for understanding more clearly alterations in creatine content of the brain under psycho-emotional stress induced by long-term social isolation. It was shown that under 30 days social isolation creatine amount in the brain was arisen, while decreasing concentrations of synthesizing enzymes (AGAT, GAMT) and creatine transporter protein (CrT). Another important point was that such changes were accompanied by down-regulation of creatine kinase (CK), therefore the enzyme's concentration was lowered. In addition, it was observed that content of phosphocreatine (PCr) and ATP were also reduced, thus indicating down-regulation of energy metabolism of brain that is really a crucial point for its normal functioning. To sum up the results it can be underlined that long-term social isolation has negative influence on energy metabolism of brain; and as a result reduce ATP content, while increase of free creatine concentration, supposedly maintaining maximal balance for ATP amount, but here must be also noted that up-regulated oxidative pathways might have impact on blood brain barrier, resulting on its permeability.
Emily R Hawken
Full Text Available Primary polydipsia, excessive drinking without known medical cause, is especially associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. We used animal models of schizophrenia-like symptoms to examine the effects on schedule-induced polydipsia: post-weaning social isolation rearing, subchronic MK-801 treatment (an NMDA-receptor antagonist or the two combined. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats reared in groups or in isolation beginning at postnatal day 21 were further divided to receive subchronic MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg twice daily or saline for 7 days beginning on postnatal day 62. Following a 4-day withdrawal period, all groups were trained on a schedule-induced polydipsia paradigm. Under food-restriction, animals reared in isolation and receiving food pellets at 1-min intervals developed significantly more drinking behavior than those reared with others. The addition of subchronic MK-801 treatment did not significantly augment the amount of water consumed. These findings suggest a predisposition to polydipsia is a schizophrenia-like behavioral effect of post-weaning social isolation.
Rilke, O; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J
Alterations induced by social isolation (1 day to 18 weeks) in low- and high-active mice (LAM and HAM) were studied in respect to locomotor activity, [3H]-spiperone binding in the striatum, striatal, and cortical dopamine metabolism, and presynaptic dopaminergic sensitivity to apomorphine (0.75 mg/kg; i.p.). Isolated HAM and LAM showed increased locomotor activity compared to group-housed mice after long-term isolation (6-18 weeks). Considering the studied dopaminergic parameters, it has been found that social isolation did not affect striatal D2 receptors, striatal and cortical dopamine metabolism, and apomorphine-mediated reduction of dopaminergic metabolism. The change of housing conditions was generally associated with an increase of cortical dopamine metabolism after 1 week. Activity type specific differences in group-housed LAM and HAM were found in the basal striatal dopamine metabolism and in the sensitivity of the nigrostriatal system to autoreceptor activation. The reduced striatal dopamine metabolism and the higher presynaptic sensitivity of HAM may be related to their high active running wheel behavior.
Tanaś, Łukasz; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Iwan, Anna
Adverse early experience is generally regarded as a risk factor for both externalizing and internalizing behavioral disorders in humans. It can be modeled in rats by a post-weaning social isolation procedure. Effects of social isolation might possibly be ameliorated by environmental enrichment. In the current study, 24 male Wistar rats were divided post-weaning into four rearing conditions: control, environmental enrichment (EE), social isolation (SI) and a combination of the two experimental conditions; (EE+SI). Two observations of the effects of rearing conditions on the rate of social and object interactions were conducted during the juvenile and post-pubertal stages of development. The SI condition led to a marked increase of social interactions during the juvenile phase, but did not affect object interactions. The EE condition increased the level of social interactions during both the juvenile and post-pubertal measurements. The effects of early rearing conditions on adult exploratory behavior were less clear, with a significant difference between the groups obtained in one of three behavioral tests. Results suggest a general robustness in the development of adult exploratory behavior and anxiety when rats were exposed to early social isolation and provided brief opportunities for social play during the juvenile period. Further studies, aimed at distinguishing play-related protective factors serving against long-term adverse effects of juvenile social isolation, are suggested.
Naert, Arne; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; D'Hooge, Rudi
When rodents are reared in isolation from young age onwards, they manifest a number of behavioural alterations in adulthood. Since some of these alterations resemble symptoms of psychiatric disorders, the post-weaning social isolation (ISO) manipulation is often applied to create rodent models of these disorders. In rats, ISO effects have been thoroughly characterised, but in mice they are less well documented. Therefore, we further evaluated behaviour of adult ISO mice with a test battery that focussed on abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. We found that ISO mice were hyperactive during the dark phase. Also, ISO mice showed alterations in magnitude, habituation and prepulse-inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex, increased anxiety, increased social preference and changes in extinction of fear responses. We did not observe increased sensitivity to locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. It is concluded that ISO of mice might serve as a useful model to test further hypotheses regarding pathogenesis occurring at specific developmental timeframes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
This article reports on the evolution of network structure as it relates to formal and informal social roles in well-bounded, isolated groups. Research was conducted at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Data were collected on crewmembers' networks of social interaction over each of three winter-over periods, when the station is completely isolated. In addition, data were collected on the informal roles played by crewmembers (e.g., instrumental leadership, expressive leadership). The study found that globally coherent networks in winter-over groups were associated with group consensus on the presence of critically important informal social roles (e.g., expressive leadership) where global coherence is the extent to which a network forms a single group composed of a unitary core and periphery as opposed to being factionalized into two or more subgroups. Conversely, the evolution of multiple subgroups was associated with the absence of consensus on critical informal social roles, above all the critically important role of instrumental leader.
Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Boster, James S.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
This article reports on the evolution of network structure as it relates to formal and informal social roles in well-bounded, isolated groups. Research was conducted at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Data were collected on crewmembers' networks of social interaction over each of three winter-over periods, when the station is completely isolated. In addition, data were collected on the informal roles played by crewmembers (e.g., instrumental leadership, expressive leadership). The study found that globally coherent networks in winter-over groups were associated with group consensus on the presence of critically important informal social roles (e.g., expressive leadership) where global coherence is the extent to which a network forms a single group composed of a unitary core and periphery as opposed to being factionalized into two or more subgroups. Conversely, the evolution of multiple subgroups was associated with the absence of consensus on critical informal social roles, above all the critically important role of instrumental leader.
Phencyclidine (PCP) induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats; comparisons with clinical observations have suggested that these behaviours may mimic certain aspects of the positive and the negative symptoms, respectively, of an acute schizophrenic episode. Novel antipsychotics are effective in treating the positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and have also shown some promise in treating the negative symptoms. In the present study the effects of the novel antipsychotics remoxipride (2.5-20 mg/kg), risperidone (0.02-0.63 mg/kg), sertindole (0.01-2.5 mg/kg), olanzapine (0.16-2.5 mg/kg) and quetiapine (0.16-10 mg/kg) on PCP-induced behaviours were determined. The drugs were administered daily for 3 or 21 days in combination with vehicle or 2.0 mg/kg of PCP for the last 3 days of the administration regime, and the rats were tested using the social interaction test. The antipsychotic drugs all reliably reduced the level of PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and had distinct effects on PCP-induced social isolation. Comparison with clinical findings suggests that the PCP-induced behaviours respond to treatment with antipsychotic drugs in a manner that correlates well with clinical observations, and that this animal model of schizophrenia may be useful for evaluating novel drug candidates. However, the study also showed that additional experiments are required to determine the specificity by which antipsychotic drugs alleviate PCP-induced behaviours because most of the drugs also affected considerably the behaviour of the control animals.
Chow, Philip I; Fua, Karl; Huang, Yu; Bonelli, Wesley; Xiong, Haoyi; Teachman, Bethany A
Background Research in psychology demonstrates a strong link between state affect (moment-to-moment experiences of positive or negative emotionality) and trait affect (eg, relatively enduring depression and social anxiety symptoms), and a tendency to withdraw (eg, spending time at home). However, existing work is based almost exclusively on static, self-reported descriptions of emotions and behavior that limit generalizability. Despite adoption of increasingly sophisticated research designs and technology (eg, mobile sensing using a global positioning system [GPS]), little research has integrated these seemingly disparate forms of data to improve understanding of how emotional experiences in everyday life are associated with time spent at home, and whether this is influenced by depression or social anxiety symptoms. Objective We hypothesized that more time spent at home would be associated with more negative and less positive affect. Methods We recruited 72 undergraduate participants from a southeast university in the United States. We assessed depression and social anxiety symptoms using self-report instruments at baseline. An app (Sensus) installed on participants’ personal mobile phones repeatedly collected in situ self-reported state affect and GPS location data for up to 2 weeks. Time spent at home was a proxy for social isolation. Results We tested separate models examining the relations between state affect and time spent at home, with levels of depression and social anxiety as moderators. Models differed only in the temporal links examined. One model focused on associations between changes in affect and time spent at home within short, 4-hour time windows. The other 3 models focused on associations between mean-level affect within a day and time spent at home (1) the same day, (2) the following day, and (3) the previous day. Overall, we obtained many of the expected main effects (although there were some null effects), in which higher social anxiety was
Holwerda, Tjalling Jan; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Stek, Max L.; Jonker, Cees; Schoevers, Robert A.
Background Known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include medical conditions, genetic vulnerability, depression, demographic factors and mild cognitive impairment. The role of feelings of loneliness and social isolation in dementia is less well understood, and prospective stu
Kohlmeier, P; Holländer, K; Meunier, J
A major cost of group-living is its inherent risk of pathogen infection. To limit this risk, many group-living animals have developed the capability to prophylactically boost their immune system in the presence of group members and/or to mount collective defences against pathogens. These two phenomena, called density-dependent prophylaxis and social immunity, respectively, are often used to explain why, in group-living species, individuals survive better in groups than in isolation. However, this survival difference may also reflect an alternative and often overlooked process: a cost of social isolation on individuals' capability to fight against infections. Here, we disentangled the effects of density-dependent prophylaxis, social immunity and stress of social isolation on the survival after pathogen exposure in group-living adults of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. By manipulating the presence of group members both before and after pathogen exposure, we demonstrated that the cost of being isolated after infection, but not the benefits of social immunity or density-dependent prophylaxis, explained the survival of females. Specifically, females kept constantly in groups or constantly isolated had higher survival rates than females that were first in groups and then isolated after infection. Our results also showed that this cost of social isolation was absent in males and that social isolation did not reduce the survival of noninfected individuals. Overall, this study gives a new perspective on the role of pathogens in social evolution, as it suggests that an apparently nonadaptive, personal immune process may promote the maintenance of group-living under pathogenic environments.
Francès, H; Graulet, A; Debray, M; Coudereau, J P; Guéris, J; Bourre, J M
This study examined the influence of social isolation on behavioural sensitization to the locomotor effect of morphine and the link between this behaviour and plasma corticosterone concentrations. Four weeks isolation induced an increase in the locomotor effect of morphine. In social and isolated mice, repeated administrations (6) of morphine (one injection every 3 or 4 days) followed by 3 h in an actimeter induced behavioural sensitization to the locomotor effect of morphine. No interaction was observed between social isolation and behavioural sensitization to morphine. Resocializing previously isolated mice for 3 weeks reduced the morphine-induced locomotor effect without altering the behavioural sensitization. Corticosterone plasma levels were more increased (416%) in mice isolated 5 weeks than in mice isolated for 2 weeks (243%) and they return to the control levels following 3 weeks of resocialization. Since there was no interaction between the increase in morphine locomotor effect induced by social isolation and the morphine-induced behavioural sensitization, it is suggested that each of these two events acts independently. Whether or not a common mechanism (plasma corticosterone levels?) partly underlies both effects, the result resembles a simple additive effect.
Cattan, M; Kime, N; Bagnall, AM
There is increasing policy recognition that the alleviation of social isolation and loneliness in older people should be prioritised. Recently, technology, such as telephone networks and the Internet, has received attention in supporting isolated and lonely older people. Despite lack of evidence, telephone befriending has been considered an effective low-level method to decrease loneliness among older people. This study evaluated the impact of a national befriending scheme for isolated and/or...
Full Text Available We tested the effect of social isolation on the aggressiveness of an Amazonian fish: Astronotus ocellatus. Ten juvenile fishes were transferred from a group aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm containing 15 individuals (without distinguishing sex to an isolation aquarium (50 x 40 x 40 cm. Aggressiveness was tested by means of attacks on and displays toward the mirror image. The behavior was video-recorded for 10 min at a time on 4 occasions: at 30 min, 1 day, 5 days and 15 days after isolation. The aggressive drive was analyzed in three ways: latency to display agonistic behavior, frequency of attacks and specific attacks toward the mirror image. The latency to attack decreased during isolation, but the frequency of mouth fighting (a high aggressive attack tended to increase, indicating an augmented aggressive drive. Our findings are congruent with the behavior of the juvenile cichlid, Haplochromis burtoni but differ from the behavior observed in another cichlid, Pterophylum scalare. Increased aggressiveness in A. ocellatus may be mediated by means of the primer effect, the effect of prior residence or processes involving recognition of a conspecific.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social isolation affects a significant proportion of older people and is associated with poor health outcomes. The current evidence base regarding the effectiveness of interventions targeting social isolation is poor, and the potential utility of mentoring for this purpose has not previously been rigorously evaluated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a community-based mentoring service for improving mental health, social engagement and physical health for socially isolated older people. Methods This prospective controlled trial compared a sample of mentoring service clients (intervention group with a matched control group recruited through general practice. One hundred and ninety five participants from each group were matched on mental wellbeing and social activity scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at six month follow-up. The primary outcome was the Short Form Health Survey v2 (SF-12 mental health component score (MCS. Secondary outcomes included the SF-12 physical health component score (PCS, EuroQol EQ-5D, Geriatric Depression Score (GDS-10, social activity, social support and morbidities. Results We found no evidence that mentoring was beneficial across a wide range of participant outcomes measuring health status, social activity and depression. No statistically significant between-group differences were observed at follow-up in the primary outcome (p = 0.48 and in most secondary outcomes. Identifying suitable matched pairs of intervention and control group participants proved challenging. Conclusions The results of this trial provide no substantial evidence supporting the use of community mentoring as an effective means of alleviating social isolation in older people. Further evidence is needed on the effectiveness of community-based interventions targeting social isolation. When using non-randomised designs, there are considerable challenges in the recruitment of suitable
Kaalund, Sanne Simone; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian
of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical...... cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following...
Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren
Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.
Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P
Laboratory rodents can adopt the pain or fear of nearby conspecifics. This phenotype conceptually lies within the domain of empathy, a bio-psycho-social process through which individuals come to share each other's emotion. Using a model of cue-conditioned fear, we show here that the expression of vicarious fear varies with respect to whether mice are raised socially or in solitude during adolescence. The impact of the adolescent housing environment was selective: (a) vicarious fear was more influenced than directly acquired fear, (b) "long-term" (24-h postconditioning) vicarious fear memories were stronger than "short-term" (15-min postconditioning) memories in socially reared mice whereas the opposite was true for isolate mice, and (c) females were more fearful than males. Housing differences during adolescence did not alter the general mobility of mice or their vocal response to receiving the unconditioned stimulus. Previous work with this mouse model underscored a genetic influence on vicarious fear learning, and the present study complements these findings by elucidating an interaction between the adolescent social environment and vicarious experience. Collectively, these findings are relevant to developing models of empathy amenable to mechanistic exploitation in the laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record
Financiële spanning en informeel sociaal isolement: De rol van macro-economische omstandigheden en sociale zekerheidsuitgaven in 32 Europese landen in het decennium na de eeuwwisseling/Financial strain and informal social isolation: The role of macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure in 32 European countries in the decade after the turn of the century
Mark Visser; Maurice Gesthuizen; Peer Scheepers
This study examines to what extent financial strain, that is, difficulties to cope on one's income, is related to informal social isolation, that is, lacking social contacts with friend, relatives and colleagues...
Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming
Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories.
Ament, Judith M; Cumming, Graeme S
Protected areas are considered vital for the conservation of biodiversity. Given their central role in many conservation strategies, it is important to know whether they adequately protect biodiversity within their boundaries; whether they are becoming more isolated from other natural areas over time; and whether they play a role in facilitating or reducing land-cover change in their surroundings. We used matching methods and national and local analyses of land-cover change to evaluate the combined effectiveness (i.e., avoided natural-cover loss), isolation (i.e., changes in adjacent areas), and spillover effects (i.e., impacts on adjacent areas) of 19 national parks in South Africa from 2000 to 2009. All parks had either similar or lower rates of natural-cover loss than matched control samples. On a national level, mean net loss of natural cover and mean net gain of cultivation cover decreased with distance from park boundary, but there was considerable variation in trends around individual parks, providing evidence for both increased isolation and buffering of protected areas. Fourteen parks had significant positive spillover and reduced natural-cover loss in their surroundings, whereas five parks experienced elevated levels of natural-cover loss. Conclusions about social-ecological spillover effects from protected areas depended heavily on the measures of land-cover change used and the scale at which the results were aggregated. Our findings emphasize the need for high-resolution data when assessing spatially explicit phenomena such as land-cover change and challenge the usefulness of large-scale (coarse grain, broad extent) studies for understanding social-ecological dynamics around protected areas.
Muhammad Rehan Masoom
Full Text Available The lower-class segment of the population of the developing nations often fails to form meaningful social relations and remain disengaged from essential social institutions. The research examines those people who live in refugee-camp and sullied slum of Dhaka city and inspect how much they are socially isolated. Certain characteristics, taken as indicators to test the level of social isolation, indicate that a large segment of camp and slum dwellers are feeling isolated. However, the evidence shows no differences in the predicted direction with respect to the objective demographic variables; nonetheless, a pattern of perceived social isolation was found from the survey data.
de Bont, P.A.J.M.; van den Berg, D.P.G.; van der Vleugel, B.M.; de Roos, C.; de Jongh, A.; van der Gaag, M.; van Minnen, A.M.
Background. In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown Method. In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for
Bont, P.A.J.M. de; Berg, D.P.G. van den; Vleugel, B.M. van der; Roos, C.J.A.M. de; Jongh, A. de; Gaag, M. van der; Minnen, A. van
Background: In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown Method: In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for
de Bont, P.A.J.M.; van den Berg, D.P.G.; van der Vleugel, B.M.; de Roos, C.; de Jongh, A.; van der Gaag, M.; van Minnen, A.M.
Background. In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown Method. In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for
Bont, P.A.J.M. de; Berg, D.P.G. van den; Vleugel, B.M. van der; Roos, C.J.A.M. de; Jongh, A. de; Gaag, M. van der; Minnen, A. van
Background: In patients with psychotic disorders, the effects of psychological post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment on symptoms of psychosis, depression and social functioning are largely unknown Method: In a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) 155 outpatients in treatment for
Kumari, Anita; Singh, Padmanabh; Baghel, Meghraj Singh; Thakur, M K
Adverse early life experience is prominent risk factors for numerous psychiatric illnesses, including mood and anxiety disorders. It imposes serious long-term costs on the individual as well as health and social systems. Hence, developing therapies that prevent the long-term consequences of early life stress is of utmost importance, and necessitates a better understanding of the mechanisms by which early life stress triggers long-lasting alterations in gene expression and behavior. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rodents models the behavioral consequences of adverse early life experiences in humans and it is reported to cause anxiety like behavior which is more common in case of females. Therefore, in the present study, we have studied the impact of social isolation of young female mice for 8weeks on the anxiety like behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism. Elevated plus maze and open field test revealed that social isolation caused anxiety like behavior. BDNF, a well-known molecule implicated in the anxiety like behavior, was up-regulated both at the message and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. CREB-1 and CBP, which play a crucial role in BDNF transcription, were up-regulated at mRNA level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. HDAC-2, which negatively regulates BDNF expression, was down-regulated at mRNA and protein level in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Furthermore, BDNF acts in concert with Limk-1, miRNA-132 and miRNA-134 for the regulation of structural and morphological plasticity. Social isolation resulted in up-regulation of Limk-1 mRNA and miRNA-132 expression in the cerebral cortex. MiRNA-134, which inhibits the translation of Limk-1, was decreased in cerebral cortex by social isolation. Taken together, our study suggests that social isolation mediated anxiety like behavior is associated with up-regulation of BDNF expression and concomitant increase in the expression of CBP, CREB-1, Limk-1 and miRNA-132, and decrease
Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.
Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mice with a deficiency in the HDL receptor SR-BI and low expression of a modified apolipoprotein E gene (SR-BI KO/ApoeR61(h/h called 'HypoE' when fed an atherogenic, 'Paigen' diet develop occlusive, atherosclerotic coronary arterial disease (CHD, myocardial infarctions (MI, and heart dysfunction and die prematurely (50% mortality ~40 days after initiation of this diet. Because few murine models share with HypoE mice these cardinal, human-like, features of CHD, HypoE mice represent a novel, small animal, diet-inducible and genetically tractable model for CHD. To better describe the properties of this model, we have explored the effects of varying the composition and timing of administration of atherogenic diets, as well as social isolation vs. group housing, on these animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HypoE mice were maintained on a standard lab chow diet (control until two months of age. Subsequently they received one of three atherogenic diets (Paigen, Paigen without cholate, Western or control diet for varying times and were housed in groups or singly, and we determined the plasma cholesterol levels, extent of cardiomegaly and/or survival. The rate of disease progression could be reduced by lowering the severity of the atherogenic diet and accelerated by social isolation. Disease could be induced by Paigen diets either containing or free of cholate. We also established conditions under which CHD could be initiated by an atherogenic diet and then subsequently, by replacing this diet with standard lab chow, hypercholesterolemia could be reduced and progression to early death prevented. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HypoE mice provide a powerful, surgery-free, diet-'titratable' small animal model that can be used to study the onset of recovery from occlusive, atherosclerotic CHD and heart failure due to MI. HypoE mice can be used for the analysis of the effects of environment (diet, social isolation on a variety of features of
Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; ...
Crétel-Durand, Elodie; Nouguerède, Emilie; Le Caer, Hervé; Rousseau, Frédérique; Retornaz, Frédérique; Guillem, Olivier; Couderc, Anne-Laure; Greillier, Laurent; Norguet, Emmanuelle; Cécile, Maud; Boulahssass, Rabia; Le Caer, Francoise; Tournier, Sandrine; Butaud, Chantal; Guillet, Pierre; Nahon, Sophie; Poudens, Laure; Kirscher, Sylvie; Loubière, Sandrine; Diaz, Nadine; Dhorne, Jean; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine
Cancer incidence and social isolation increase along with advanced age, and social isolation potentiates the relative risk of death by cancer. Once spotted, social isolation can be averted with the intervention of a multidisciplinary team. Techniques of automation and remote assistance have already demonstrated their positive impact on falls prevention and quality of life (QoL), though little is known about their impact on socially isolated elderly patients supported for cancer. The primary objective of the PREDOMOS study is to evaluate the impact of establishing a Program of Social intervention associated with techniques of Domotic and Remote assistance (PS-DR) on the improvement of QoL of elderly isolated patients, treated for locally advanced or metastatic cancer. The secondary objectives include treatment failure, tolerance, survival, and autonomy. This trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label, two-parallel group study. The setting is 10 French oncogeriatric centers. Inclusion criteria are patients aged at least 70 years with a social isolation risk and a histological diagnosis of cancer, locally advanced or metastatic disease. The groups are (1) the control group, receiving usual care; (2) the experimental group, receiving usual care associating with monthly social assistance, domotic, and remote assistance. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Evaluation times involve inclusion (randomization) and follow-up (12 months). The primary endpoint is QoL at 3 months (via European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30); secondary endpoints are social isolation, time to treatment failure, toxicity, dose response-intensity, survival, autonomy, and QoL at 6 months. For the sample size, 320 individuals are required to obtain 90% power to detect a 10-point difference (standard deviation 25) in QoL score between the two groups (20% loss to follow-up patients expected). The randomized
Yokota, Satoshi; Oshio, Shigeru; Moriya, Nozomu; Takeda, Ken
Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15) or clean air (control group: n = 15) for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident-intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were higher in socially isolated DE-exposed mice. Serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus were also lower in the socially isolated DE-exposed mice than in control mice. Thus, even at low doses, prenatal exposure to DE increased aggression and serum testosterone levels, and caused neurochemical changes in male socially isolated mice. These results may have serious implications for pregnant women
Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social isolation-induced territorial aggression. Pregnant mice were exposed to low concentrations of diesel exhaust (DE; mass concentration of 90 μg/m3: DE group: n = 15 or clean air (control group: n = 15 for 8 h/day during gestation. Basal locomotion of male offspring was measured at 10 weeks of age. Thereafter, male offspring were individually housed for 2 weeks and subsequently assessed for aggression using the resident-intruder test at 12 weeks of age, and blood and brain tissue were collected from the male offspring on the following day for measuring serum testosterone levels and neurochemical analysis. There were no significant differences in locomotion between control and DE-exposed mice. However, DE-exposed mice showed significantly greater social isolation-induced territorial aggressive behavior than control mice. Additionally, socially-isolated DE-exposed mice expressed significantly higher concentrations of serum testosterone levels than control mice. Neurochemical analysis revealed that dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens were higher in socially isolated DE-exposed mice. Serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hypothalamus were also lower in the socially isolated DE-exposed mice than in control mice. Thus, even at low doses, prenatal exposure to DE increased aggression and serum testosterone levels, and caused neurochemical changes in male socially isolated mice. These results may have serious implications
Fleisch Marcus, Andrea; Illescas, Alex H; Hohl, Bernadette C; Llanos, Adana A M
Social isolation is an important determinant of all-cause mortality, with evidence suggesting an association with cancer-specific mortality as well. In this study, we examined the associations between social isolation and neighborhood poverty (independently and jointly) on cancer mortality in a population-based sample of US adults. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994), NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2011) and 1990 Census, we estimated the relationship between social isolation and high neighborhood poverty and time-to-cancer death using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the associations of each factor independently and explored the multiplicative and additive interaction effects on cancer mortality risk and also analyzed these associations by sex. Among 16 044 US adults with 17-23 years of follow-up, there were 1133 cancer deaths. Social isolation (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54) and high neighborhood poverty (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60) were associated with increased risk of cancer mortality adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; in sex-specific estimates this increase in risk was evident among females only (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86). These associations were attenuated upon further adjustment for socioeconomic status. There was no evidence of joint effects of social isolation and high neighborhood poverty on cancer mortality overall or in the sex-stratified models. These findings suggest that social isolation and higher neighborhood poverty are independently associated with increased risk of cancer mortality, although there is no evidence to support our a priori hypothesis of a joint effect.
Several scales are described for measuring aspects of eccentricity and social isolation; in particular, for assessing schizoid and schizotypal personality and for rating abnormal non-verbal expression. The latter is shown to be reliable, and the former to have a measure of validity. There was an association between schizoid personality traits and abnormalities of speech and non-verbal expression. However, abnormal non-verbal expression, but not schizoid personality traits or DSM-III schizotypal personality disorder, was particularly likely to occur in those subjects who had evidence of neurological deficit, and childhood symptoms indicative of developmental disorder. Abnormal non-verbal expression, but not personality disorder, was also associated with other characteristic features of Asperger's syndrome, such as unusual, 'special' interests. It is suggested that Asperger's syndrome is a distinct syndrome from either schizoid or schizotypal personality disorder, but may be a risk factor for the development of schizoid personality disorder.
Dankoski, Elyse C; Agster, Kara L; Fox, Megan E; Moy, Sheryl S; Wightman, R Mark
Hypofunction of the serotonergic system is often associated with major depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed to treat these disorders, and require 3-6 weeks of chronic treatment before improvements in the symptoms are observed. SSRIs inhibit serotonin's transporter, and in doing so, increase extracellular serotonin concentrations. Thus, efficacy of SSRIs likely depends upon the brain's adaptive response to sustained increases in serotonin levels. Individual responsiveness to SSRI treatment may depend on a variety of factors that influence these changes, including ongoing stress. Social isolation is a passive, naturalistic form of chronic mild stress that can model depression in rodents. In this study, we examined how 20-day treatment with the SSRI citalopram (CIT) alters marble-burying (MB), open field behavior, and serotonin signaling in single- vs pair-housed animals. We used in vivo voltammetry to measure electrically evoked serotonin, comparing release rate, net overflow, and clearance. Pair-housed mice were significantly more responsive to CIT treatment, exhibiting reduced MB and facilitation of serotonin release that positively correlated with the frequency of electrical stimulation. These effects of CIT treatment were attenuated in single-housed mice. Notably, although CIT treatment enhanced serotonin release in pair-housed mice, it did not significantly alter uptake rate. In summary, we report that chronic SSRI treatment facilitates serotonin release in a frequency-dependent manner, and this effect is blocked by social isolation. These findings suggest that the efficacy of SSRIs in treating depression and OCD may depend on ongoing stressors during treatment.
Buck, Kelly D; McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Benjamin E; Minor, Kyle S; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H
This study has sought to explore whether there are at least two subtypes of anhedonia in schizophrenia: one closely linked with depression and another that occurs in the absence of depression which is related to a general paucity of internal experience. Participants were 163 adults with schizophrenia who completed assessments of depression, anhedonia, executive functioning, positive and negative symptoms, social cognition and metacognition. A cluster analysis based on participants' depression and anhedonia symptom scores produced three groups: High Depression/High Anhedonia (n=52), Low Depression/Low Anhedonia (n=52), and Low Depression/High Anhedonia (n=59). An ANCOVA and post hoc comparisons controlling for positive and negative symptoms found that the Low Depression/High Anhedonia group had poorer metacognition and social cognition than other groups. These findings point to the possibility of a subtype of anhedonia in schizophrenia, one occurring in the relative lesser levels of depression, and tied to deficits in the ability to think about oneself and others.
Rilke, O; Freier, D; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J
Alterations induced by social isolation (1 day to 18 weeks) in low- and high-active mice (LAM and HAM) were studied in respect to serotonin metabolism, [3H]-8-OH-DPAT binding of presynaptic (midbrain), postsynaptic (hippocampus) 5-HT1A receptors and [3H]-ketanserin binding of cortical 5-HT2A receptors. Individual housing of mice was associated with reduction of serotonin metabolism, depending on isolation time and brain structure. Whereas a transient decrease in the striatum and cortex was detected between 1 week and 6 weeks, reduction of cerebellar and hippocampal serotonin metabolism was found later (12-18 weeks). Serotonergic systems of HAM were found to be more reactive to environmental disturbances, and their serotonin metabolism was more affected by social isolation. Isolation-induced upregulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptors was measured only in HAM. Densities of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus did differ either in grouped or isolated mice. However, there were significant differences in hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor affinity, especially between 1 day and 3 weeks. Transient downregulation of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the midbrain was found in isolated mice between 3 and 6 weeks. These results are discussed in terms of interactions between serotonergic alterations and isolation-induced aggression.
Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe, and promote understanding of women’s experiences of prolonged labour. The thesis compromises four studies. Methods: Paper I describes a case-referent study that recruited women (n = 255) giving singleton live birth to their first child by spontaneous labour after more than 37 completed weeks’ pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire that investigated childbirth experiences, previous family relationships, and childhood e...
Agerholm, Frank Juul
Næringsstoffet har i dette nummer sat fokus på ”velvære i vinterkulden”, ”indendørsaktiviteter” og ”fedtafgift”. I klummen vises det, at disse tre fokusområder, der for en umiddelbar betragtning måske nok synes noget uensartede, falder sammen i ét tema: Isolation!......Næringsstoffet har i dette nummer sat fokus på ”velvære i vinterkulden”, ”indendørsaktiviteter” og ”fedtafgift”. I klummen vises det, at disse tre fokusområder, der for en umiddelbar betragtning måske nok synes noget uensartede, falder sammen i ét tema: Isolation!...
The structure of the teaching profession leaves teachers professionally and personally isolated from other adults. This article will discuss the results of an ethnography focused on the rare informal social interaction that occurs among teachers in a United States' school, with a particular focus on the lunch hour. Specifically, this article…
Maekawa, Toshio; Kim, Seungjoon; Nakai, Daisuke; Makino, Chieko; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Ogura, Hiroo; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Chatton, Bruno; Ishii, Shunsuke
Many symptoms induced by isolation rearing of rodents may be relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. However, identities of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to chronic social isolation stress remain elusive. The transcription factor ATF-7 is structurally related to ATF-2, which is activated by various stresses, including inflammatory cytokines. Here, we report that Atf-7-deficient mice exhibit abnormal behaviours and increased 5-HT receptor 5B (Htr5b) mRNA levels in the dorsal raphe nuclei. ATF-7 silences the transcription of Htr5B by directly binding to its 5'-regulatory region, and mediates histone H3-K9 trimethylation via interaction with the ESET histone methyltransferase. Isolation-reared wild-type (WT) mice exhibit abnormal behaviours that resemble those of Atf-7-deficient mice. Upon social isolation stress, ATF-7 in the dorsal raphe nucleus is phosphorylated via p38 and is released from the Htr5b promoter, leading to the upregulation of Htr5b. Thus, ATF-7 may have a critical role in gene expression induced by social isolation stress.
van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E
Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs perform
Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter
Perkeybile, Allison M; Bales, Karen L
Parent-offspring interactions early in life can permanently shape the developmental path of those offspring. Manipulation of maternal care has long been used to alter the early-life environment of infants and impacts their later social behavior, aggression, and physiology. More recently, naturally occurring variation in maternal licking and grooming behavior has been shown to result in differences in social behavior and stress physiology in adult offspring. We have developed a model of natural variation in biparental care in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and have demonstrated an association between the amount of early care received and later social behavior. In this study, we investigate the relationship between early life care and later aggression and neuroendocrine responses following chronic social isolation. Male and female offspring were reared by their high-contact (HC) or low-contact (LC) parents, then housed for 4 weeks post-weaning in social isolation. After 4 weeks, half of these offspring underwent an intrasexual aggression test. Brains and plasma were collected to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone (CORT). Male offspring of LC parents engaged in more aggressive behavior in the intrasexual aggression test compared to HC males. Female offspring of HC parents had higher plasma CORT levels after chronic social isolation and increases in the number and density of AVP-immunopositive cells in the supraoptic nucleus following an intrasexual aggression test. These findings show that the impact of early life biparental care on behavior and HPA activity following a social stressor is both sex-dependent and early experience-specific.
Kaalund, Sanne S; Riise, Jesper; Broberg, Brian V; Fabricius, Katrine; Karlsen, Anna S; Secher, Thomas; Plath, Niels; Pakkenberg, Bente
Decreased parvalbumin expression is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and has been associated with abnormal cognitive processing and decreased network specificity. It is not known whether this decrease is due to reduced expression of the parvalbumin protein or degeneration of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV(+) interneurons). In this study, we examined PV(+) expression in two rat models of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: the environmental social isolation (SI) and pharmacological neonatal phencyclidine (neoPCP) models. Using a stereological method, the optical fractionator, we counted neurons, PV(+) interneurons, and glial cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC). In addition, we quantified the mRNA level of parvalbumin in the mPFC. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of PV(+) interneurons (p = 0.021) and glial cells (p = 0.024) in the mPFC of neonatal phencyclidine rats, but not in SI rats. We observed no alterations in the total number of neurons, hippocampal PV(+) interneurons, parvalbumin mRNA expression or volume of the mPFC or HPC in the two models. Thus, as the total number of neurons remains unchanged following phencyclidine (PCP) treatment, we suggest that the decreased number of counted PV(+) interneurons represents a reduced parvalbumin protein expression below immunohistochemical detection limit rather than a true cell loss. Furthermore, these results indicate that the effect of neonatal PCP treatment is not limited to neuronal populations.
Negi, Nalini Junko
Day labor is comprised of predominately male and recent Latino immigrants, mainly from Mexico and Central America who work in an unregulated and informal market. Three-quarters of the day labor force is undocumented and live under the federal poverty threshold as work is seasonal and highly contingent on the weather and the local economy. However, in spite of their exposure to significant health risks, little is known about the impact of Latino day laborers' (LDLs) work and life conditions on their mental health. This mixed methods study extends the literature by using the minority stress theoretical model to examine the relationship between discrimination and social isolation as well as participant identified protective factors such as religiosity and sending remittances with psychological distress. A quantitative survey with 150 LDLs was conducted and was followed by a qualitative member checking focus group to extend upon the quantitative results as well as the minority stress model with the lived experiences of these immigrant workers. Results reveal implications for prevention efforts with this hard-to-reach and marginalized population.
Marriott, Amber L; Tasker, R Andrew; Ryan, Catherine L; Doucette, Tracy A
Deficits in perceptual, informational, and attentional processing are consistently identified as a core feature in schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neonatal injections of low doses of the AMPA/kainate agonist domoic acid (DOM) have previously been shown to alter various aspects of perceptual and attentional processing in adult rats. The current study investigated the effects of combined neonatal DOM treatment with isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition behaviour and relevant neurochemical measures, to assess the usefulness of these paradigms in modeling neurodevelopmental disorders. Daily subcutaneous injections of DOM (20 μg/kg) or saline were administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days (PND) 8-14. After weaning, rats were either housed alone or in groups of 4. Both the magnitude and latency of prepulse inhibition were determined in adulthood (approximately 4.5 months of age) and post-mortem brain tissue was assayed using Western blot. Social isolation alone significantly lowered PPI magnitude in male (but not female) rats while DOM treatment appeared to make animals refractory to this effect. Combining social isolation and DOM treatment caused an additive decrease in PPI startle latency. No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of D1, D2, TH, GAD65 or GAD67 protein in either the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus, although some tendencies toward differences were noted. We conclude that both neonatal low-dose DOM and social isolation affect prepulse inhibition in rats but that each paradigm exerts these effects through different neuronal signalling systems.
Yamada, Chihiro; Saegusa, Yayoi; Nahata, Miwa; Sadakane, Chiharu; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi
Psychological stress due to social isolation is known to cause abnormal feeding behaviors, but the influences of gender and aging on subchronic stress-induced changes in feeding behaviors are unknown. Thus, we examined the changes in body weight, food intake, and orexigenic ghrelin-related factors during 2 weeks of isolation stress in young and aged mice. Food intake increased significantly in young mice in the isolation group compared with the group-housed control throughout the experimental period. This isolation-induced increase in food intake was not observed in aged mice. In young mice, there were no significant differences in body weight between the isolated group and group-housed control up to 2 weeks. However, aged male mice exhibited significant weight loss at 2 weeks and a similar tendency was observed in aged female mice. Young male mice, but not female mice, had significantly increased (2.2-fold) plasma acylated ghrelin levels after 1 week of isolation compared with the group-housed control. A significant but lower increase (1.3-fold) was also observed in aged male mice. Hypothalamic preproghrelin gene expression decreased significantly with isolation in young male mice, whereas it increased significantly in female mice. The expression levels of NPY and AGRP in the hypothalamus, which are transmitted by elevated peripheral ghrelin signals, increased significantly in isolated young male mice, whereas the AGRP expression levels decreased significantly in young female mice. Isolation caused no significant differences in the expression levels of these genes in aged mice. In isolation, young female mice exhibited markedly increased dark- and light-phase locomotor activities compared with male mice, whereas male and female aged mice exhibited no obvious increases in activity immediately after the dark phase started. We conclude that the gender-specific homeostatic regulatory mechanisms required to maintain body weight operated during subchronic psychological
Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W
We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation.
Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika
The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.
Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John
The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phencyclidine (PCP) can induce a model psychosis in humans that resembles an acute schizophrenic psychosis. In animal models of schizophrenia, PCP induces locomotor hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviour and social isolation, and the purpose of the present study was to describe the ability of dopamine agonists and antagonists to mimic or interact with these PCP-induced behaviours in rats. The compounds were administered daily for 3 days in combination with vehicle or 2.0 mg/kg PCP and the rats were tested in the social interaction test on the last day of drug administration. The study showed that D1-agonists with relative differences in efficacy at the DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase had limited effects on the PCP-induced behaviours, whereas the D1-antagonist SCH 23391 could alleviate the PCP-induce social isolation following daily treatment for 3 days. However, following long-term treatment for 21 days, the rats develop tolerance to this effect. These data thus suggested that the D1-receptor system only had a modulatory effect on PCP. In contrast, the D2-receptor family may be more directly involved, because the D2/D3/D4-agonist quinpirole could mimic and potentiate the PCP-induced deficits in social behaviour, and the D2/D3-antagonist (-)sulpiride could alleviate the PCP-induced stereotyped behaviour and social isolation. However, a D4-antagonist did not affect the behaviour of vehicle- and PCP-treated rats, suggesting that this system plays a less direct role in the behavioural effects of PCP. In general, however, the effects of SCH 23391, quinpirole and (-)sulpiride on the PCP-induced behaviours were mirrored in the vehicle-treated control groups and it is therefore possible that non-specific effects may have been important.
Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Steiniger-Brach, Björn
than controls. However, this was not seen in female rats. Isolated males had a significant smaller hippocampus, dentate gyrus and CA2/3 where isolated females had a significant smaller CA1 compared to controls. Thus, our results indicate that long-term isolation of male rats leads to neuroanatomical...
Loi, Samantha M; Hodson, Samuel; Huppert, David; Swan, Jodie; Mazur, Angela; Lautenschlager, Nicola T
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an educational training course on using the internet and touchscreen technology (TT) would decrease social isolation and improve self-esteem in residents living in a low-level residential facility. Twelve sessions over six weeks with two facilitators were provided to five participants with a variety of psychiatric disorders. Measures were completed before and after the 12 sessions. There were no statistically significant improvements or worsening in social isolation (mean score 6.2, SD 3.35) or self-esteem (mean score 18.2, SD 3.56) post the training sessions for the residents. Qualitative feedback suggested that the residents enjoyed this experience and learnt new skills. Further study is recommended using larger samples and alternative outcomes measures.
Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni
Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood
Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni
Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood
Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet
Holtz, Carol Sue; Sowell, Richard; Velasquez, Gabriela
HIV infection among Mexican women continues to increase. The purpose of the authors in this study was to explore the psychosocial issues of HIV-infected Mexican women's lives, and to support a request from the Mexican federal government for data to support the need for funding for the psychological care of these women. A Spanish-speaking researcher conducted private, in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 21 women receiving health services at the HIV/AIDS clinic, COESIDA, near Oaxaca City, Mexico. Data were collected during the time period of January 17 through 21st, 2011. The authors ascertained socio-demographic characteristics for all study participants. They transcribed audio-taped interviews verbatim, translated them into English, and analyzed transcribed interviews using content analysis, identifying consistent themes across the interviews. They also conducted language and cultural verification of the translation, and a third person, a master's prepared native Mexican woman, conducted content analysis. Ages of participants ranged from 20 to 48 years, with most having a third grade education. Most women lived at least two hours from the clinic. Themes emerging from the interview transcript analysis included: (1) resiliency; (2) fear; (3) social isolation; (4) anger/rage; and (5) availability of resources and support. Despite facing a variety of adverse factors, the Oaxacan women with HIV/AIDS who were interviewed demonstrated a sense of resiliency and hope for the future. Yet, a critical need remains for mental health support services to be provided to women to assist them in managing the psychological consequences of their HIV/AIDS diagnosis.
Han, Xiao; Li, Nanxin; Xue, Xiaofang; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen
Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peri-adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition (LI) and dopamine D2 receptor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of young adult rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (ISO; isolated housing, 21-34 days of age) and social housing (SOC) groups. LI was tested at postnatal day 56. After behavioral testing, the number of dopamine D2 receptor-expressing cells was determined using immunohistochemistry. Adolescent social isolation impaired LI and increased the number of cells expressing the D2 receptor in the mPFC and NAc. The results suggest that adolescent social isolation produces profound effects on cognitive and dopaminergic function in adult rats, and could be used as an animal model of various neurodevelopmental disorders.
Full Text Available Ethanol (EtOH–induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP in the rat hippocampus is prevented by the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, suggesting that this effect of EtOH is dependent on the increased local release of neurosteroids such as 3α,5α-THP that promote GABA–mediated transmission. Given that social isolation (SI in rodents is associated with altered plasma and brain levels of such neurosteroids as well as with an enhanced neurosteroidogenic action of EtOH, we examined whether the inhibitory effect of EtOH on LTP at CA3-CA1 hippocampal excitatory synapses is altered in C57BL/6J mice subjected to SI for 6 weeks in comparison with group-housed (GH animals. Extracellular recording of fEPSPs as well as patch-clamp analysis were performed in hippocampal slices prepared from both SI and GH mice. Consistent with previous observations, recording of fEPSPs revealed that the extent of LTP induced in the CA1 region of SI mice was significantly reduced compared with that in GH animals. EtOH (40 mM inhibited LTP in slices from SI mice but not in those from GH mice, and this effect of EtOH was abolished by co-application of 1 µM finasteride. Current-clamp analysis of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed a decrease in action potential frequency and an increase in the intensity of injected current required to evoke the first action potential in SI mice compared with GH mice, indicative of a decrease in neuronal excitability associated with SI. Together, our data suggest that SI results in reduced levels of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the increased sensitivity to the neurosteroidogenic effect of EtOH associated with SI likely accounts for the greater inhibitory effect of EtOH on LTP in SI mice. The increase in EtOH sensitivity induced by SI may be important for the changes in the effects of EtOH on anxiety and on learning and memory associated with the prolonged stress attributable to social
Kiss, Peter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Farkas, Jozsef; Gabriel, Robert; Reglodi, Dora
Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. Numerous studies have proven that enriched environment can reduce the lesion induced by toxic and traumatic injuries. Impoverished environment, on the other hand, can have deleterious effects on the outcome of neuronal injuries. We have previously shown that enriched conditions have protective effects in retinal injury in newborn rats. It is well-known that the efficacy of neuroprotective strategies can depend on age and gender. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ischemia. We used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce retinal hypoperfusion in adult Wistar rats of both genders. Groups were housed in standard, enriched or impoverished conditions. Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of survival. In the present study, we show that (1) enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2) impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3) that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. In summary, our present study shows that the effects of both positive and negative environmental stimuli are gender-dependent in ischemic retinal lesions. PMID:23921682
Sonei, Nazanin; Amiri, Shayan; Jafarian, Iman; Anoush, Mahdieh; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Bergen, Hugo; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal
Objectives Depression is tightly associated with cardiovascular comorbidity and accounts for high financial and social burden worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of depression and cardiovascular disorders; its contribution to depression-cardiovascular comorbidity has not yet been investigated. Methods Adolescent rats were subjected to 4 weeks of isolation (social isolation stress or SIS) or social conditions (control), and then they were divided into treatment (fluoxetine, 7.5 mg/kg/day for 21 days) and non-treatment groups. After different housing conditions and treatment, animals were evaluated by behavioural tests (n = 6-8) and mitochondrial assessments (n = 3) of brain and cardiac tissues. Results We found that juvenile SIS induced behavioural abnormalities and mitochondrial dysfunction in adulthood. We showed that juvenile SIS was associated with impaired respiratory chain complex, which leads to reactive oxygen species formation, oxidative damage and ATP abatement in both brain and heart. Administration of FLX (7.5 mg/kg/day) during the isolation period attenuated the effects of SIS on the brain mitochondria and behavioural abnormalities, but had little or no effect on SIS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac tissue. Conclusions This suggests that juvenile SIS predisposes the co-occurrence of depression and cardiovascular disease through mitochondrial dysfunction and that therapeutic effect of fluoxetine is partly mediated by its effect on mitochondrial function.
Boris Yuryevich Berzin
Full Text Available The article deals with the spatial socio-demographic isolation as a factor of the current system of settlement in Russia’s regions. In theory, the phenomena of loneliness and social isolation have their demographic, socio-economic and psychological roots. Conceptually, they are expressed in the theories of nuclearization of family structure of society and the family’s loss of its core functions, deprivation of a person (of friends and relatives, in the paradigm of the second demographic transition. In fact, the trend towards the abandonment of birth, growth of cohabitations and divorces, premature mortality as the cause of widowhood are complemented by the institutional factors strengthening the foundations of a singular way of life, including various forms of isolation of an individual from the social environment in a post-industrial society. The main reasons of the socio-demographic isolation are following: the tendency of increasing a number of private households represented by lonely people, both elderly and young; as well as the prevalence of the institute of widowhood (mortality risks influencing the marriage and the family; the impact of flows of labour, academic, self-preservation, consumer migration (both returned and irretrievable types on the reproduction of the population. Psychologically, the demographic isolation of certain local communities contributes to the feelings of loneliness as a regulator of the communication intensity and interaction between individuals. In the socioeconomic aspects, the isolation of local communities is associated with the factor of remote location of families from the centers of communication and real markets, with the development of new Russian and global logistics systems, with are deprivation of traditional sources of household income as a specific form of survival in the vast expanses of life of the Russian society.
Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.
Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…
Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo
Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.
Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Smith, Rebekah; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wiens, Brenda; Cottler, Linda B
Upon immigration to the rural areas in the US, Latino families may experience cultural, geographic, linguistic and social isolation, which can detrimentally affect their wellbeing by acting as chronic stressors. Using a community engagement approach, this is a pilot mixed-method study with an embedded design using concurrent qualitative and quantitative data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate family and social environments in terms of protective factors and modifiable risks associated with mental well-being in Latino immigrants living in rural areas of Florida. Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads were interviewed by using in-depth ethnographic semistructured interviews and subsequent quantitative assessments, including a demographic questionnaire and three structured instruments: the Family Environment Scale Real Form, the SF-12v2™ Health Survey and the short version (eight items) of PROMIS Health Organization Social Isolation. This mixed-method pilot study highlighted how family, rural, and social environments can protect or impair wellbeing in rural Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads.
LeGrand, Sara; Muessig, Kathryn E; Pike, Emily C; Baltierra, Nina; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B
The rate of HIV infections among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. YBMSM are particularly vulnerable to social isolation and a lack of social support due to experiences with racism and homophobia, which may have implications for sexual risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of social isolation and sense of community among YBMSM, the need for and receptivity to social networking features designed to reduce social isolation and build community within an Internet- and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for YBMSM and to identify strategies to develop these features. Focus groups were conducted with 22 YBMSM aged 20-30 years at three sites in North Carolina. Data from the focus groups were thematically analyzed using NVivo. Feelings of social isolation and lack of a sense of community were strongly endorsed by participants with homophobia, lack of opportunities for social engagement, and a focus on sex rather than friendship in interpersonal relationships with other YBMSM cited as contributing factors. Participants were receptive to a social networking intervention designed to reduce social isolation and build community. Recommendations offered by participants to increase acceptability and usability of such features included: availability of information about healthy relationships, the ability to connect with other YBMSM and health care providers, and ensuring the site had ongoing facilitation by the study team as well as monitoring for inappropriate content. The development of a social networking feature of an HIV prevention intervention may present an opportunity to reduce social isolation, build community, and reduce risky sexual behaviors among YBMSM. The findings from this study are being used to inform the development of a social networking feature for an existing Internet- and mobile phone-based primary and secondary HIV prevention intervention for
Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Steiniger-Brach, Björn;
have evaluated the neuroanatomical changes in this animal model in comparison to changes seen in schizophrenia. In this study, we applied stereological volume estimates to evaluate the total brain, the ventricular system, and the pyramidal and granular cell layers of the hippocampus in male and female...... Lister Hooded rats isolated from postnatal day 25 for 15 weeks. We observed the expected gender differences in total brain volume with males having larger brains than females. Further, we found that isolated males had significantly smaller brains than group-housed controls and larger lateral ventricles...... than controls. However, this was not seen in female rats. Isolated males had a significant smaller hippocampus, dentate gyrus and CA2/3 where isolated females had a significant smaller CA1 compared to controls. Thus, our results indicate that long-term isolation of male rats leads to neuroanatomical...
Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo
Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit.
Hawthorne, G.; de Morton, N.; Kent, P.
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is common, and social isolation is both a risk factor for poor recovery and a consequence. However, no studies seem to have validated social isolation measures in LBP populations. Aims: This study assessed the validity of the Friendship Scale (FS), a brief measure...... of social isolation. Methods: LBP participants were 100 consecutive consenting adult patients attending physiotherapy outpatient clinics, matched (1: 2) by age and gender with a general population sample (GPS; n = 200). FS validation was through factor analysis, internal consistency, sensitivity by known...... groups, and Rasch analysis. Results: There were significant differences between LPB and GPS on 5 of the 6 FS items. Social isolation on the FS was reported by 26% of the LBP cohort compared with 9% of the GPS. All FS items loaded on the principal component > 0.60, suggesting uni-dimensionality. Internal...
Kent, Peter; Mirkhil, Saeida; Keating, Jenny
(i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions.......(i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions....
Choi, Susanne Y. P.; Cheung, Y. W.; Cheung, Adam K. L.
This research examined the impact of network participation, social support, and social control on the violence victimization of female marriage migrants by a spouse. Data were from a household survey of 492 cross-border and 379 local married couples in Hong Kong in 2007. The findings indicated that female marriage migrants were more vulnerable to…
Paludo, Camila R; Ruzzini, Antonio C; Silva-Junior, Eduardo A; Pishchany, Gleb; Currie, Cameron R; Nascimento, Fábio S; Kolter, Roberto G; Clardy, Jon; Pupo, Mônica T
We announce the complete genome sequence ofBacillussp. strain SDLI1, isolated from larval gut of the stingless beeScaptotrigona depilis The 4.13-Mb circular chromosome harbors biosynthetic gene clusters for the production of antimicrobial compounds.
F. Josef evan der Staay
Full Text Available Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive Holeboard (HB task (Experiment 1 and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT (Experiment 2, a decision making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of nineteen female pigs with a birthweight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16 and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 minutes after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period, and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance
van der Staay, F Josef; Schoonderwoerd, Annelieke J; Stadhouders, Bo; Nordquist, Rebecca E
Pigs in modern farming practice may be exposed to a number of stressors, including social stressors such as mixing or isolation. This may potentially affect both cognitive abilities and stress physiology of the animals. We tested the hypothesis that overnight social isolation in pigs impairs performance in a cognitive holeboard (HB) task (Experiment 1) and the Pig Gambling Task (PGT) (Experiment 2), a decision-making task inspired by the Iowa Gambling Task. In addition, we tested the effect of overnight social isolation on salivary cortisol levels. A within-subjects approach was used in which performance in the two behavioral tasks and cortisol levels were first determined during normal social housing, followed by performance and cortisol levels after experiencing stress induced by overnight social isolation. A total of 19 female pigs with a birth weight closest to their respective litter average was selected from 10 different litters and placed in two pens after weaning. Following habituation, pigs were trained in the HB task, starting at 10 weeks of age. Then, the pigs were isolated overnight, five individuals per night, at 15, 16, and 17 weeks of age. Between these three isolations, social housing and training in the HB continued. Starting 6 weeks after the end of the HB experiment, at approximately 23 weeks of age, the pigs were trained in the PGT. The effects of overnight social isolation on performance in this task were assessed once, when the pigs were 25 weeks old. Salivary cortisol was measured from samples collected 15 min after the start of isolation and at the end of the isolation period and compared to baseline values collected before the start of social isolation. Our results did not confirm the hypothesis that isolation impaired HB performance and decision-making in the PGT. Unexpectedly, overnight social isolation decreased cortisol levels below baseline values, an effect that was not associated with changes in performance of the
Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A
It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima
Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that
Allison E. Aiello
Conclusions/significance: We identified a feasible study design for testing the impact of isolation from social networks in a university setting. These data provide an unparalleled opportunity to address questions about isolation and infection transmission, as well as insights into social networks and behaviors among college-aged students. Several important lessons were learned over the course of this project, including feasible isolation durations, the need for extensive organizational efforts, as well as the need for specialized programmers and server space for managing survey and smartphone data.
Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L
Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress.
Teacher isolation and burn-out are problems which contribute to high rates of teacher attrition and require school districts to hire new teachers each year and start anew with professional development. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate whether peer coaching and mentoring programs had an effect on this problem by…
Full Text Available Approximately one million international students were enrolled at U.S. universities in the academic year 2015–2016, and the number has been steadily rising since. Although these students aim to increase intercultural communication skills, international knowledge, and critical thinking skills, some international students experience difficulty participating in class discussion. Several studies have revealed a range of obstacles to full participation in in-class discussions, including language, cultural differences, academic differences, and social isolation. Among these barriers, some studies have identified emotional factors that significantly affect learning. This study was an in-depth exploration of the adverse emotional factors that impede discussion participation. Using a qualitative approach, twenty-three international students at one university were interviewed, and their responses analyzed. Students reported that fear, embarrassment, social isolation, judgment and discrimination were barriers to participation. These findings are discussed in the context of a framework for reducing negative emotional states, employing self-efficacy theory. This framework was applied to the interview results and the author’s observation of international students’ behavior in dormitories and university offices. These findings suggest a possible intervention approach for educators to help international students express themselves in the classroom.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC, but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008 and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions
Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van
Frequencies of social interactions were higher in pairs of short-term individually housed male Wistar rats as compared to group-housed animals. This was most pronounced when an individually housed rat and a group-housed conspecific were tested together in the morning under red light conditions. Then
which prevent pheromonal communication within our animal colony. Fortunately, the mouse’s response to pheromonal isolation is opposite that of rats...central nervous system of mice and the peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans . To examine gene expression differences, RNA was extracted from a subset of...hexokinase 2 (Hk2). The human orthologues of mouse Acly and Acaca were previously shown to be upregulated in aggressive, metastatic breast cancer cell
Ozaki, Akihiko; Leppold, Claire; Sawano, Toyoaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Tsukada, Manabu; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Ohira, Hiromichi
Little is known about the effects of social isolation in the elderly on their process of gaining health information and seeking health care. In March 2011, Fukushima, Japan experienced an earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster, also known as Japan's triple disaster. In June 2016, an 80-year-old Japanese man, who lived alone after divorce at the age of 42, presented to our hospital with bloody stools and dizziness. Although his bloody stools initially occurred in May 2015, a year earlier, he did not pursue the possibility of malignancy. He was diagnosed as having stage IIIA rectal cancer. Detailed history taking revealed that he experienced social isolation after the disaster, due to the evacuation of his friends, losing his regular opportunities for socialization. He additionally reported that the current diagnosis of rectal cancer made him feel he had lost his health in addition to his social relationships. Although radical surgery was attempted, it failed to resect the lesion completely, and thereafter his disease gradually progressed. As support from family or friends was not available, he was not able to receive palliative radiation therapy or home-based care in his end-of-life period. He died at a long-term care facility in February 2017. This case suggests that intense social isolation after the Fukushima disaster was a likely contributor to the patient delay, poor treatment course, and poor outcome of an elderly patient with rectal cancer. Direct communication with family and friends may play an indispensable role in increasing health awareness and promoting health-seeking behaviors, and in the midst of social isolation, elderly patients with cancer may lose these opportunities and experience increased risk of patient delay. Although health care providers may be able to alleviate isolation-induced delay by promoting cancer knowledge and awareness widely among local residents, policy-led interventions at the community level may be essential to reducing
Phencyclidine (PCP) can induce a model psychosis in humans that mimics the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In the social interaction test PCP induces stereotyped behaviour and social isolation in rats, and these behaviours can be inhibited by antipsychotic drugs. In order to further evaluate the predictive validity of this model of schizophrenia the anxiolytic diazepam (0.02-17.5 micromol/kg; 0.005-5.0 mg/kg), the antidepressant citalopram (0.62-19.8 micromol/kg; 0.3-4.0 mg/kg), the opioid agonist methadone (0.36-5.8 micromol/kg; 0.13-2.0 mg/kg) and the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.34-22.0 micromol/kg; 0.13-8.0 mg/kg) were tested as examples of drugs without antipsychotic activity. The experiments demonstrated that these compounds did not specifically inhibit the behavioural effects of PCP. So far only antipsychotic drugs have been able to specifically inhibit the PCP-induced behaviours.
Lutgendorf, Susan K.; DeGeest, Koen; Dahmoush, Laila; Farley, Donna; Penedo, Frank; Bender, David; Goodheart, Michael; Buekers, Thomas E.; Mendez, Luis; Krueger, Gina; Clevenger, Lauren; Lubaroff, David M.; Anil K Sood; Cole, Steve W.
Noradrenergic pathways have been implicated in growth and progression of ovarian cancer. Intratumoral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to increase with stress in an animal cancer model, but little is known regarding how tumor NE varies with disease stage and with biobehavioral factors in ovarian cancer patients. This study examined relationships between pre-surgical measures of social support, depressed mood, perceived stress, anxiety, tumor histology and tumor catecholamine (NE and epineph...
Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W; Ackerson, Leland K
Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08) and former smokers (OR = 2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR = 4.59) and former smokers (OR = 1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR = 1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR = 1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR = 1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers.
Montserrat Puig Llobet
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los instrumentos de valoración que pueden ser de utilidad en la profesión enfermera para detectar la soledad y el aislamiento social en los ancianos de riesgo. Metodología: Se ha realizado una revisión de los instrumentos multidisciplinares que valoran la soledad y el aislamiento social, a partir de bases de datos y búsqueda manual de diagnósticos y escalas que determinen la soledad y el aislamiento social en la Taxonomía NANDA y la Taxonomía Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC. Resultados: De los once instrumentos analizados, siete de ellos estiman la soledad tanto de forma subjetiva como objetiva. Sin embargo, existen diferencias en la forma de valoración. Conclusión: Las escalas de valoración social y de soledad son un elemento útil en la detección de ancianos con riesgo de percibir y sufrir la soledad. Los resultados corroboran que los profesionales de enfermería tienen herramientas adecuadas en la detección de los factores de riesgo de la soledad y del aislamiento social.Objectives: Identify the valuation instruments that can be useful in the nursing profession to detect loneliness and social isolation in the elderly at risk. Methodology: The review of multidisciplinary instruments that value the loneliness and social isolation from databases and search manual diagnostic and scales to determine the loneliness and social isolation in the NANDA Taxonomy and Taxonomy Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC. Results: Of the eleven instruments analyzed, seven of them feel the loneliness of both subjective and objective manner. However, differences exist in the form of valuation. Conclusions: The scales of social value and loneliness are a useful element in the detection of elderly at risk of perceiving and suffer loneliness. The results confirm that nursing professionals have adequate instruments to detect the risk factors of loneliness and social isolation.
Full Text Available An important diagnostic criterion for social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD are difficulties in adjusting behavior to suit different social contexts. While the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR inbred strain of mice is one of the most commonly used mouse models for ASD, little is known about whether BTBR mice display deficits in detecting changes in social context and their ability to adjust to them. Here, it was tested therefore whether the emission of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV in BTBR mouse pups is affected by the social odor context, in comparison to the standard control strain with high sociability, C57BL/6J (B6. It is known that the presence of odors from mothers and littermates leads to a calming of the isolated mouse pup, and hence to a reduction in isolation-induced USV emission. In accordance with their behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all diagnostic core symptoms of ASD, it was predicted that BTBR mouse pups would not display a calming response when tested under soiled bedding conditions with home cage bedding material containing maternal odors, and that similar isolation-induced USV emission rates would be seen in BTBR mice tested under clean and soiled bedding conditions. Unexpectedly, however, the present findings show that BTBR mouse pups display such a calming response and emit fewer isolation-induced USV when tested under soiled as compared to clean bedding conditions, similar to B6 mouse pups. Yet, in contrast to B6 mouse pups, which emitted isolation-induced USV with shorter call durations and lower levels of frequency modulation under soiled bedding conditions, social odor context had no effect on acoustic call features in BTBR mouse pups. This indicates that the BTBR mouse model for ASD does not display deficits in detecting changes in social context, but has a limited ability and/or reduced motivation to adjust to them.
Full Text Available Chronic stress is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The sympathoneural system plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function both in health and disease. In the present study, the changes in gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT and protein levels in the right and left heart auricles of naive control and long-term (12 weeks socially isolated rats were investigated by Taqman RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The response of these animals to additional immobilization stress (2 h was also examined. Long-term social isolation produced a decrease in TH mRNA level in left auricles (about 70% compared to the corresponding control. Expression of the DBH gene was markedly decreased both in the right (about 62% and left (about 81% auricles compared to the corresponding control, group-maintained rats, whereas PNMT mRNA levels remained unchanged. Exposure of group-housed rats to acute immobilization for 2 h led to a significant increase of mRNA levels of TH (about 267%, DBH (about 37% and PNMT (about 60% only in the right auricles. Additional 2-h immobilization of individually housed rats did not affect gene expression of these enzymes in either the right or left auricle. Protein levels of TH, DBH and PNMT in left and right heart auricles were unchanged either in both individually housed and immobilized rats. The unchanged mRNA levels of the enzymes examined after short-term immobilization suggest that the catecholaminergic system of the heart auricles of animals previously exposed to chronic psychosocial stress was adapted to maintain appropriate cardiovascular homeostasis.
Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of exertio
Roelofs, G.H.M.; Hijligenberg, van den N.W.
The well known prolongation technique of Wahlquist and Estabrook (1975) for nonlinear evolution equations is generalized for supersymmetric equations and applied to the supersymmetric extension of the KdV equation of Manin-Radul. Using the theory of Kac-Moody Lie superalgebras, the explicit form of
Biggs, M Antonia; Combellick, Sarah; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D
Latina teen birth rates, particularly those of immigrant Latinas, surpass those of any major racial/ ethnic group. Little is known about how immigration experiences influence early childbearing. Fourteen pregnant Latina immigrant teens were interviewed regarding their feelings about pregnancy and birth control, educational and vocational expectations, and their partners' influences. Common themes included feelings of isolation, barriers to education and future opportunities, and a heavy reliance on partners as a stable source of emotional and financial support, all of which appeared to influence teens' desire for pregnancy. Findings suggest the need to help immigrant youth overcome barriers to education and work and to offer them culturally and linguistically appropriate clinical care including birth control information and services, preconception and prenatal care, and assistance navigating the system.
Urbanization has been the dominant demographic trend in the entire world, during the last half century. Rural to urban migration, international migration, and the re-classification or expansion of existing city boundaries have been among the major reasons for increasing urban population. The essentially fast growth of cities in the last decades urgently calls for a profound insight into the common principles stirring the structure of urban developments all over the world. We have discussed the graph representations of urban spatial structures and suggested a computationally simple technique that can be used in order to spot the relatively isolated locations and neighborhoods, to detect urban sprawl, and to illuminate the hidden community structures in complex urban textures. The approach may be implemented for the detailed expertise of any urban pattern and the associated transport networks that may include many transportation modes.
Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward; Hain, Kate L; Van Vleet, Meredith
Social support theory typically explains perceived support's link to mental health as reflecting the role of specific supportive actions (i.e., enacted support).Yet enacted support typically is not linked to mental health and perceived support as predicted by theory. The links are examined among enacted support, affect, and perceived support when links reflected (a) aspects of support and affect that generalized across relationship partners and time (i.e., trait influences) and (b) aspects that reflected specific relationship partners (i.e., social influences). Multivariate generalizability analyses indicated that enacted support was linked to low negative affect as predicted by theory only when correlations reflected social influences. When correlations reflected trait influences, enacted support was linked to high negative affect. Furthermore, perceived and enacted support were strongly linked when correlations reflected social influences but not trait influences. Thus, findings for enacted support fit social support theory better when social influences were isolated from trait influences.
Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi
A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures. PMID:27746451
Visser, Mark; Gesthuizen, M.J.W; Scheepers, P.L.H
This study examines to what extent financial strain, that is, difficulties to cope on one's income, is related to informal social isolation, that is, lacking social contacts with friend, relatives and colleagues...
Full Text Available The general themes of Fuzuli’s love poetry are bitterness of heart and sadness, trouble and sorrow, loneliness, poverty, misfortune, such as issues. Fuzuli’s most common complaints are the expressions of destiny, fate and luck. At every opportunity, Fuzuli says that he is innocent, luckless, miserable and poor. His pessimistic, pessimistic mood is evident due to the society in which he lived. Fuzuli was born and raised and lived in the land where the event of Kerbela, then a permanent places of conflict. At 16. century in and around Baghdad, the Suni-Shiite enmity and hatred among the population have increased well. Fuzuli lived in it so deep psychological conflict that has left traces of his pessimism and feelings of loneliness always felt in all his works. Fuzuli is Shiite. He has presented Qasidas to the Shah and governor. Therefore, it is understood that Fuzuli has not been taken much affinity by the Sunni and the Sunni government of the people. At the time of Ottoman rule, the approach of Kanuni and his managers has also resulted in the Shiite friends, and friends should be moving away from him. Thus, Fuzuli was really isolated and leaved lonely by these two religious slaughter people. The most important reason for his pessimism is loneliness.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that social isolation in male mice results in aggressive behavior. However, it is not known how social isolation-induced aggression affects anxiety and depressive-like behavior in isolated male mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an animal model of depression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57/B6 male mice were divided into 3 groups; non-stressed controls, in Group I; isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group II and aggression by physical contact in socially isolated mice subjected to the CMS protocol in Group III. In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by mice in Groups II and III was significantly lower than in Group I. Furthermore, intake of this solution in Group III mice was significantly lower than in Group II mice. In the open field test, mice in Group III, showed reduced locomotor activity and reduced entry and retention time in the central zone, compared to Groups I and II mice. Moreover, the distances moved in 1 hour by Group III mice did not differ between night and morning. In the light/black box test, Groups II and III animals spent significantly less time in the light box compared to Group I animals. In the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST, the immobility times of Group II and Group III mice were significantly longer than in Group I mice. In addition, immobility times in the FST were significantly longer in Group III than in Group II mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that social isolation-induced aggression could potentiate anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in isolated male mice subjected to CMS.
Ichihashi, Tamako; Ichikawa, Yoko; Matsushima, Toshiya
Effects of rearing conditions were examined in the development of agonistic behaviors in the male fighting fish. In group-I (highly social), fish were communally reared. In group-II (highly social and isolate), fish were individually housed and exposed to the group-I fish through transparent walls until the sexual maturity (from 6 to 12 weeks post-hatch). In group-III (social and isolate), individually housed fish were similarly exposed to other fish within the group. In group-IV (non-social and isolate), individually housed fish were further visually isolated. Agonisitc behaviors were compared among males of the groups-II, -III, and -IV in their fights against the group-I male. The group-IV males showed significantly higher rate of wins than the groups-II and -III males, without differences in the incidence of agonistic behaviors (butt-or-bite, chase, and gill-cover erect) before the termination of the mutual fights. Increased incidence of agonistic behaviors was found after the termination (particularly in the unilateral chase), suggesting that the group-IV males continued to fight even after the opponent male displayed a submission. The aggression was also enhanced in the group-II, when they were thereafter reared in a social isolation after the sexual maturation; a critical period was thus not found. The enhanced aggression was not reversed in the group-IV, when they were thereafter exposed to social stimuli; shift to the continued fights was irreversible. Possible fitness gain of the enhanced aggression was discussed in terms of the adjustability to altered biological resources.
Jennifer; Katz; Michael; Frank
Pharmacologic management for ulcerative colitis (UC) has recently been expanded to include antitumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for severe disease. Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed again TNF α was first tested in patients with Crohn’s disease. In addition to serious infections, malignancy, drug induced lupus and other autoimmune diseases, serum sickness-like reactions, neurological disease, and infusion reactions further complicate the use of Infliximab. We report a case of prolonged fever after Infliximab infusion to treat steroid refractory UC.
Family Rejection, Social Isolation, and Loneliness as Predictors of Negative Health Outcomes (Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Sexual Risk Behavior) among Thai Male-to-Female Transgender Adolescents
Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Meinhold-Bergmann, Mallika E.; Ho, Robert
This study examined the influence of family rejection, social isolation, and loneliness on negative health outcomes among Thai male-to-female transgender adolescents. The sample consisted of 260 male respondents, of whom 129 (49.6%) were self-identified as transgender and 131 (50.4%) were self-identified as cisgender (nontransgender). Initial…
Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Chen, Shun-Hua; Gean, Po-Wu
Epidemiological study reveals that socially isolated persons have increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether this risk arises from an oxidative stress is unclear. Here we show that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, is capable of preventing social isolation-induced accelerated impairment of contextual fear memory and rundown of hippocampal LTP in 3-month old APP/PS1 mice. Increased hippocampal levels of γ-secretase activity, Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 seen in the isolated APP/PS1 mice were reduced by chronic treatment of NAC. In addition, social isolation-induced increase in calpain activity and p25/p35 ratio concomitant with decrease in membrane-associated p35 and p35/Cdk5 activity was normalized by NAC. NAC pretreatment also reversed isolation-induced decrease in GluR1 Ser831 phosphorylation, surface expression of AMPARs and p35-GluR1-CaMKII interactions. These results suggest that NAC decreases γ-secretase activity resulting in the attenuation of Aβ production, calpain activity and conversion of p35 to p25 which stabilized p35-GluR1-CaMKII interactions and restored GluR1 and GluR2 surface expression. Our results indicate that NAC is effective in mouse models of AD and has translation potential for the human disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Stefanaki, Christina; Christodoulou, Christos; Karimali, Polixeni; Kontochristopoulos, George
Primary hyperhidrosis, although extensively documented in adults, typically has onset that dates back to early childhood. It is an unpleasant and socially disabling problem for the affected child, but little attention has been paid to the disease in adolescents. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) in adolescents with primary palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis and to determine its effect on quality of life and social isolation. Thirty-five individuals (17 girls, 18 boys) with moderate to severe palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with BTXA (onabotulinum). Patients were examined at baseline and 6 months after treatment. The Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) was used to evaluate disease severity and the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was used to assess quality of life. The University of California at Los Angeles loneliness scale (UCLA version 3) was used to assess personal perception of loneliness and social isolation. The median age of the participants was 14 years, and 48.6% were female. Twenty-one had palmar hyperhidrosis, and 14 had axillary hyperhidrosis. Total CDLQI and social isolation scores decreased significantly after treatment with BTXA (both p hyperhidrosis. No statistically significant difference was documented for CDLQI and UCLA scores between boys and girls. Treatment of hyperhidrosis with BTXA resulted in improvement in quality of life, social skills, and activities.
Mauricio Schüler Nin
Full Text Available The pharmacological action of SSRI antidepressants may include a normalization of the decreased brain levels of neurosteroids such as that of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone and that of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which are decreased in patients with depression and PTSD. Allopregnanolone and BDNF decrease in these patients is associated with behavioral symptom severity. Antidepressant treatment upregulates both allopregnanolone levels and the expression of BDNF in a manner that significantly correlates with improved symptomatology, which suggests that neurosteroid biosynthesis and BDNF expression may be interrelated. Preclinical studies using the socially isolated mouse as an animal model of behavioral deficits that resemble some of the symptoms observed in PTSD patients have shown that fluoxetine and derivatives improve anxiety-like behavior, fear responses, and aggressive behavior by elevating the corticolimbic levels of allopregnanolone and BDNF mRNA expression. These actions appeared to be independent and more selective from the action of these drugs on 5-HT reuptake inhibition.Hence, this review addresses the hypothesis that in PTSD or depressed patients brain allopregnanolone levels and BDNF expression upregulation may be part of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial actions of antidepressants or other selective brain steroidogenic stimulant (SBSS molecules.
Full Text Available Social isolation induced a significant increase in resting heart rate and reduction in heart rate variability. Dysfunction of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system is implicated in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. Previous evidence suggests that cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic neurons. Thus, immunohistochemical expression of catecholaminesynthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 were analyzed, as well as the effects of social isolation stress on mRNA and protein levels of this enzyme and transporter in the intrinsic cardiac nervous system of adult rats. Our results indicate that cardiac ganglion neurons express TH and VMAT2 immunoreactivity. Chronic isolated stress of rats caused a decrease in TH mRNA and VMAT2 mRNA in the neurons of intrinsic cardiac ganglia. No significant alterations in the protein levels of TH and VMAT2 were observed in these neurons. These data indicate that the neurons of intrinsic cardiac ganglia express TH as well as VMAT2 but that social isolation stress does not change their protein levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173044
Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R
Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).
Visser, Mark; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.
This study examines to what extent financial strain, that is, difficulties to cope on one's income, is related to informal social isolation, that is, lacking social contacts with friend, relatives and colleagues. We consider to what extent macro-economic conditions and social protection expenditure
are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used...... in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolation scores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did...... working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often...
Iwata, Hisaya; Yamamuro, Yutaka
Many studies have shown that postweaning social isolation (pwSI) alters various behavioral phenotypes, including hippocampusdependent tasks. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of the expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissionrelated genes in the distinct hippocampal subregions of pwSI rats. Male F344 rats (age, 4 wk) experienced either pwSI or group housing (controls). At 7 wk of age, the hippocampus of each rat was removed and laser-microdissected into the CA1 and CA3 layers of pyramidal cells and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Subsequently, the expression of glutamatergic- and GABAergic- related genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers, 18 of 24 glutamate receptor subunit genes were at least 1.5-fold increased in expression after pwSI. In particular, the expression of several N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptors (for example, Grin2a in CA1, Grik4 in CA3) was significantly increased after pwSI. In contrast, pwSI tended to decrease the expression of GABAA receptor subunit genes, and Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabra4, Gabra5, Gabrb2, Gabrg1, and Gabrg2 were all significantly decreased in expression compared with the levels in the group-housed rats. These results indicate a subregion- specific increase of glutamate receptors and reduction of GABAA receptors, suggesting that the hippocampal circuits of pwSI rats may be in more excitable states than those of group-housed rats.
Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed
The mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in occurrence of depression and efficacy of antidepressant treatments are poorly understood. We examined the effects of isolation stress (IS) and the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine on anhedonia and depression-like behavior, spine density, and synaptic proteins in male and female rats. We used a chronic social IS paradigm to test the effects of ketamine (0, 2.5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg) on behavior and levels of synaptic proteins synapsin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glutamate receptor 1 in male rats and female rats in diestrus. Medial prefrontal cortex spine density was also examined in male rats and female rats that received ketamine during either the diestrus or the proestrus phase of their estrous cycle. Male rats showed anhedonia and depression-like behavior after 8 weeks of IS, concomitant with decreases in spine density and levels of synapsin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glutamate receptor 1 in the medial prefrontal cortex; these changes were reversed by a single injection of ketamine (5 mg/kg). After 11 weeks of IS, female rats showed depression-like behavior but no signs of anhedonia. Although both doses of ketamine rescued depression-like behavior in female rats, the decline observed in synaptic proteins and spine density in IS and in diestrus female rats could not be reversed by ketamine. Spine density was higher in female rats during proestrus than in diestrus. Our findings implicate a role for synaptic proteins synapsin-1, postsynaptic density protein 95, and glutamate receptor 1 and medial prefrontal cortex spine density in the antidepressant effects of ketamine in male rats subjected to IS but not in female rats subjected to IS, suggesting dissimilar underlying mechanisms for efficacy of ketamine in the two sexes. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Differential effect of environment enrichment and social isolation on depressive-like behavior, spontaneous activity and serotonin and norepinephrine concentration in prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum.
Brenes, Juan C; Rodríguez, Odir; Fornaguera, Jaime
In order to determine the effect of postnatal environments on some behavioral and neurochemical depressive-like parameters, male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared from weaning in either social isolation, standard laboratory conditions, or environmental enrichment. Open-field activity was assessed at postnatal days 37, 65, 93 and 107 and 1 h before the last open-field test, a forced-swimming test was carried out. After behavioral tests, the monoamines concentrations were analyzed in prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Relative to control and isolation rearing, the environmental enrichment reduced open-field activity, led to antidepressive-like effects and increased serotonin concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. Social isolation, on the other hand, did not affect open-field activity, but increased depressive-like behavior and reduced the amount of norepinephrine in the ventral striatum. Those neurochemical changes induced by rearing conditions correlated with the behavioral performance in the forced-swimming test. Also, immobility behavior could be predicted by locomotor activity even from the first week of housing. Overall, specific variations in physical and social environment during early rearing lead to some behavioral and neurochemical alterations which might be relevant for understanding the role that neurodevelopmental and experiential factors could have in human depression.
Premaratna, R; Dissanayake, D; Silva, F H D S; Dassanayake, M; de Silva, H J
Although dengue management guidelines do not advice on use of antibiotics in dengue shock syndrome, unrecognised bactraemia is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality. To assess the occurance of secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever. A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days). Two sets of blood cultures were taken in such patients prior to institution of antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Development of ascites and pleural effusions were detected using ultrasonography. Fourty patients (52.5% males) with a mean age of 29.8 years (SD 13.6) were studied. The average duration of fever was 7.9 days (SD 1.8). Ten patients (25%) had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), coliforms (n=3), pseudomonas (n=1) and 4 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches at admission and higher fever, third space fluid accumulation, a significant drop in platelets and a higher CRP. A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the latter part of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia, low platelet count and elevation of CRP seem to be helpful.
Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. A prolonged QT interval has been described previously in patients with Rett syndrome. To investigate QT prolongation and the presence of cardiac tachyarrhythmias in Rett syndrome electrocardiography and 24 hour Holter monitoring were performed prospectively in a cohort of 34 girls with Rett syndrome. The corrected QT value was prolonged in nine patients. Compared with a group of healthy controls of a...
Jorge X Velasco-Hernández
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We present a model for the 2009 influenza epidemic in Mexico to describe the observed pattern of the epidemic from March through the end of August (before the onset of the expected winter epidemic in terms of the reproduction number and social isolation measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The model uses a system of ordinary differential equations. Computer simulations are performed to optimize trajectories as a function of parameters. RESULTS: We report on the theoretical consequences of social isolation using published estimates of the basic reproduction number. The comparison with actual data provides a reasonable good fit. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of the epidemic outbreak in Mexico is characterized by two peaks resulting from the application of very drastic social isolation measures and other prophylactic measures that lasted for about two weeks. Our model is capable of reproducing the observed pattern.OBJETIVO: Se presenta un modelo de la epidemia de influenza en México en 2009 para describir el patrón observado desde marzo hasta finales de agosto (antes del inicio de la epidemia invernal, en términos del número reproductivo y las medidas de aislamiento social. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El modelo es un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Se realizaron simulaciones computacionales para la optimización de trayectorias como función de los parámetros. RESULTADOS: Se exploran las consecuencias de esta última medida combinada con los valores estimados en la literatura médica del número reproductivo básico. CONCLUSIONES: El patrón de la epidemia mexicana de influenza es bimodal debido a la aplicación del aislamiento social y otras medidas profilácticas que duró aproximadamente dos semanas. Este modelo es capaz de reproducir el patrón observado.
Watson, David J G; Marsden, Charles A; Millan, Mark J; Fone, Kevin C F
Dopamine D₃ receptors are densely expressed in mesolimbic projection areas, and selective antagonists enhance cognition, consistent with their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study examines the effect of dopamine D₃ vs. D₂ receptor antagonists on the cognitive impairment and hyperactivity produced by social isolation of rat pups, in a neurodevelopmental model of certain deficits of schizophrenia. Three separate groups of male Lister hooded rats were group-housed or isolation-reared from weaning. Six weeks later rats received either vehicle or the dopamine D₃ selective antagonist, S33084 (0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg), the preferential D₃ antagonist, S33138 (0.16 and 0.63 mg/kg) or the preferential D₂ antagonist, L-741,626 (0.63 mg/kg) s.c. 30 min prior to recording; horizontal locomotor activity in a novel arena for 60 min and, the following day, novel object discrimination using a 2-h inter-trial interval. Isolation rearing induced locomotor hyperactivity in a novel arena and impaired novel object discrimination compared to that in group-housed littermates. Both S33084 and S33138 restored novel object discrimination deficits in isolation-reared rats without affecting discrimination in group-housed controls. By contrast, L-741,626 impaired novel object discrimination in group-housed rats, without affecting impairment in isolates. S33084 (0.16 mg/kg), S33138 and, less markedly, L741,626 reduced the locomotor hyperactivity in isolates without attenuating activity in group-housed controls. Selective blockade of dopamine D₃ receptors reverses the visual recognition memory deficit and hyperactivity produced by isolation rearing. These data support further investigation of the potential use of dopamine D₃ receptor antagonists to treat schizophrenia.
de Jong, Margje E; Scheiber, Isabella B R; van den Brink, Nico W; Braun, Anna; Matson, Kevin D; Komdeur, Jan; Loonen, Maarten J J E
In many areas around the Arctic remains and spoil heaps of old mines can be found, which have been abandoned after their heydays. Runoff from tailings of these abandoned mines can directly contaminate the local environment with elevated concentrations of trace metals. Few studies have investigated the possible negative effects of contaminants on Arctic terrestrial animals that use these areas. Trace metals can accumulate in animals and this accumulation has been linked to negative effects on fitness. Both, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or the immune system have been named as possible underlying causes for these observations. Free-living animals are often exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously, however, and this is often not considered in studies on the effects of contaminants on animal physiology. Here, we performed a study on Spitsbergen (Svalbard) taking both potential effects of trace metal contamination and social stress into account. We investigated experimentally effects of exposure to contaminants from a historic coal mine area on plasma corticosterone levels and on four innate immune parameters (haemolysis, haemagglutination, haptoglobin-like activity and nitric oxide) before and after social isolation in human-raised barnacle goslings (Branta leucopsis). Baseline corticosterone and immune parameters were not affected by mine-exposure. After social isolation, mine goslings tended to show decreased haemagglutination in comparison with control goslings, but we detected no difference in the other measures. Social isolation increased corticosterone and decreased haptoglobin-like activity in all goslings. Immunology and corticosterone levels of barnacle goslings thus seem unaffected, at least on the short term, by Arctic coal mining contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alfredo Falero Cirigliano
Full Text Available El artículo parte de considerar al neoliberalismo y su cristalización en América Latina como un patrón de poder regional, esto es, un formato específico de acumulación dentro de la reproducción polarizante centro-periferia. Desde este ángulo, se aborda la expansión y naturalización de prácticas sociales mercantilizadas a partir de dos ejes: el de la construcción ideológica y su relación con la política económica, y el de la subjetividad social. Finalmente, se examinan dos escenarios potenciales en la coyuntura actual: el de un neoliberalismo con "rostro humano" o, alternativamente, el de ampliación de grietas sociales hacia la conformación de otro patrón de poder.
Olesen, Annette Wind
Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1...
Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn
BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...
Gizatullina, A G
This article contains the material reflecting the results of the author's theoretical analysis of the loneliness phenomenon and an empirical study of its features in a particular social group - the prisoners. The analysis focused from the point of system-anthropological approach, actively developed by a group of Siberian scientists, considering the whole loneliness and loneliness of people who are hold at forced social isolation as a kind of integrity loss. The study accounted for age and gender differences in this population group. The research was conducted in the East Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan during 2007-2012. There was used a range of experimental psychological research methods in this study. Empirical research has shown that our hypothetical assumptions about the senses experience of loneliness in terms of system- anthropological psychology is justified. Identified indicators of the social isolation degree between prisoners in both gender groups were significantly higher in comparison with representative comparison groups. Manifestations of imbalance personal qualities male and female prisoners was confirmed the results obtained by the method of APDP, demonstrated a significant excess severity scales for pessimism , emotional lability , impulsivity, and anxiety. Most respondents in both gender groups of prisoners compared to general population showed a pronounced tendency to increased anxiety and depression , that indicates the negative effects of loneliness on the patients psychological status. This is confirmed by a statistically significant excess of the anxiety level and depression in both gender groups of prisoners.
... to participate in social functions. Social anxiety disorder affects the ability to function in work and relationships. ... Alcohol or other drug use may occur with social anxiety disorder. Loneliness and social isolation may occur.
Kear, Benjamin P.; Larsson, Dennis; Lindgren, Johan; Kundrát, Martin
Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians were globally prolific marine reptiles that dominated the Mesozoic seas for over 70 million years. Their iconic body-plan incorporated an exceedingly long neck and small skull equipped with prominent intermeshing ‘fangs’. How this bizarre dental apparatus was employed in feeding is uncertain, but fossilized gut contents indicate a diverse diet of small pelagic vertebrates, cephalopods and epifaunal benthos. Here we report the first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition. Multiple dentine thin sections were taken through isolated elasmosaurid teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. These specimens revealed an average of 950 daily incremental lines of von Ebner, and infer a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2–3 years–other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1–2 years to form their teeth. Such delayed odontogenesis might reflect differences in crown length and function within an originally uneven tooth array. Indeed, slower replacement periodicity has been found to distinguish larger caniniform teeth in macrophagous pliosaurid plesiosaurians. However, the archetypal sauropterygian dental replacement system likely also imposed constraints via segregation of the developing tooth germs within discrete bony crypts; these partly resorbed to allow maturation of the replacement teeth within the primary alveoli after displacement of the functional crowns. Prolonged dental formation has otherwise been linked to tooth robustness and adaption for vigorous food processing. Conversely, elasmosaurids possessed narrow crowns with an elongate profile that denotes structural fragility. Their apparent predilection for easily subdued prey could thus have minimized this potential for damage, and was perhaps coupled with selective feeding strategies that ecologically optimized elasmosaurids towards more delicate middle trophic level aquatic predation. PMID:28241059
Hong, Young-Pyo; Lee, Hyo-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Tae
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of 8 weeks of treadmill exercise on nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synapsin I protein expression and on the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-mono-phosphate (BrdU)-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in socially isolated rats. Additionally, we examined the effects of exercise on the number of serotonin (5-HT)- and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-positive cells in the raphe nuclei and on depressi...
Yi, B; Rykova, M; Feuerecker, M; Jäger, B; Ladinig, C; Basner, M; Hörl, M; Matzel, S; Kaufmann, I; Strewe, C; Nichiporuk, I; Vassilieva, G; Rinas, K; Baatout, S; Schelling, G; Thiel, M; Dinges, D F; Morukov, B; Choukèr, A
During interplanetary exploration, chronic stress caused by long term isolation and confinement in the spacecraft is one of the major concerns of physical and psychological health of space travelers. And for human on Earth, more and more people live in an isolated condition, which has become a common social problem in modern western society. Collective evidences have indicated prolonged chronic stress could bring big influence to human immune function, which may lead to a variety of health problems. However, to what extent long-term isolation can affect the immune system still remains largely unknow. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an extraordinary chance to study the effect of prolonged isolation. Six healthy males participated in this mission and their active neuroendocrine and immune conditions were studied with saliva and blood samples from all participants on chosen time points during the isolation period. As a typical neuroendocrine parameter, stress hormone cortisol was measured in the morning saliva samples. Immune phenotype changes were monitored through peripheral leukocyte phenotype analysis. Using an ex vivo viral infection simulation assay we assessed the immune response changes characterized by the ability to produce representative endogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results of this study revealed elevated cortisol levels, increased lymphocyte amount and heightened immune responses, suggesting that prolonged isolation acting as chronic stressors are able to trigger leukocyte phenotype changes and poorly controlled immune responses.
Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC measurements were used to characterize hippocampal edema within 5 days of a prolonged febrile seizure (PFS in a study at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings of 17 Asian patients with encephalopathy following a prolonged febrile seizure were reviewed retrospectively at Kameda Medical Center, and other centers in Japan and San Francisco, USA.
Deol, Nisha; Tolly, Renee; Manocha, Rohan; Naseer, Maliha
Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status. PMID:28154763
Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.
Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Gaskins, Melissa; Irons, Lance B.
Lesbian women engage in more hazardous drinking than heterosexual women yet we know relatively little about what explains this disparity. In the present study, race, socioeconomic status, minority stress, general psychological processes and distress were examined as pathways to hazardous drinking among young (18-35 years) Black and non-Hispanic White lesbian women. We used the psychological mediation framework adaptation of minority stress theory and the reserve capacity model as theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual model in the current study. Self-identified lesbian participants (N= 867) completed a one-time online survey that assessed race, socioeconomic status, perceived sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress (concealment, internalized homophobia, lack of connection to lesbian community), rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, drinking to cope, and hazardous drinking. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that being Black was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of rumination, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Socioeconomic status was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress, rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Understanding these pathways can aid researchers and clinicians studying and working with lesbians who are at risk for hazardous drinking. PMID:28138208
Verma, Rajkumar; Harris, Nia M.; Friedler, Brett D.; Crapser, Joshua; Patel, Anita R.; Venna, Venugopal; McCullough, Louise D.
Social isolation (SI) increases stroke-related mortality and morbidity in clinical populations. The detrimental effects of SI have been successfully modeled in the laboratory using young animals. Mechanistically, the negative effects of SI in young animals are primarily mediated by an enhanced inflammatory response to injury and a reduction in neurotrophic factors. However, the response to brain injury differs considerably in the aged. Given that SI is more prevalent in aged populations, we hypothesized that isolation, even when initiated after stroke, would delay recovery in aged mice. We found that aged isolated male mice had significantly increased infarct volume, neurological deficits, and serum IL-6 levels three days after stroke compared to pair housed (PH) mice. Using RT2 Profiler PCR Array and real-time quantitative PCR we found several important synaptic plasticity genes were differentially expressed in post-stroke SI mice. Furthermore, paired mice showed improved memory and neurobehavioral recovery four weeks after injury. Mechanistic and histological studies showed that the beneficial effects of pair housing are partially mediated by BDNF via downstream MAPK/ERK signaling and restoration of axonal basic myelin protein levels. PMID:27125783
Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H;
characteristics (SPC) of recently approved medicinal products. METHODS: Drug labels of products centrally approved in Europe between 2006 and 2012 were screened. Of drugs including the term 'QT' in the SPC, the message on QT-prolongation ('no prolongation'/'unclear drug-QT association'/'possibly QT......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...
Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.;
Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...
Malone, D T; Kearn, C S; Chongue, L; Mackie, K; Taylor, D A
Rearing rats in isolation has been shown to produce behavioral and neurochemical alterations similar to those observed in psychoses such as schizophrenia. Also, a dysregulation in both the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems has been implicated in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) protein expression, as well as D2 dopamine receptor expression in different brain regions in rats reared in different environmental conditions. Twenty-one-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were either reared in individual cages (isolated rats) or in group cages of six per cage (group-housed rats) for 8 weeks. Quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry was performed on brain slices using antibodies specific to the CB1 or D2 receptor, or the enzyme FAAH. Raising rats in isolation led to a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the caudate putamen and the amygdala, a significant increase in FAAH expression in the caudate putamen and the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and no significant change in D2 receptor expression in any region studied. These results indicate that the endocannabinoid system is altered in an animal model of aspects of psychosis. This implies that rearing rats under different housing conditions may provide new insight into the role of the endocannabinoid system in the development of psychoses.
Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of latently infected individuals may hold the key to understanding the processes that lead to reactivation and progression to clinical disease. We report here analysis of pairs of Mtb isolates from putative prolonged latent TB cases. We identified two...
Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of latently infected individuals may hold the key to understanding the processes that lead to reactivation and progression to clinical disease. We report here analysis of pairs of Mtb isolates from putative prolonged latent TB cases. We identified tw...
Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of latently infected individuals may hold the key to understanding the processes that lead to reactivation and progression to clinical disease. We report here analysis of pairs of Mtb isolates from putative prolonged latent TB cases. We identified tw...
Diesel exhaust particles are a major component of ambient particulate matter, and concern about the health effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter is growing. Previously, we found that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affected locomotor activity and motor coordination, but there are also indications that such exposure may contribute to increased aggression in offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the effects of prenatal diesel exhaust exposure on social i...
Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie
Men's Sheds are community-based organisations that typically provide a space for older men to participate in meaningful occupation such as woodwork. Men's Sheds are considered an exemplar for the promotion of men's health and well-being by health and social policy-makers. The objective of this literature review was to determine the state of the science about the potential for Men's Sheds to promote male health and well-being. Between October 2011 and February 2012, we conducted searches of databases, the grey literature and manual searches of websites and reference lists. In total, we found 5 reports and 19 articles about Men's Sheds. The majority of the literature has emanated from Australian academics and is about older men's learning in community contexts. There is a limited body of research literature about Men's Sheds; the literature consists of either descriptive surveys or small qualitative studies. The range of variables that might contribute towards best practice in Men's Sheds has not yet been adequately conceptualised, measured, tested or understood. Future research should be focussed on the health and well-being benefits of Men's Sheds; it needs to incorporate social determinants of health and well-being within the study designs to enable comparison against other health promotion research. Without this research focus, there is a danger that the potential health and well-being benefits of Men's Sheds as supportive and socially inclusive environments for health will not be incorporated into future male health policy and practice.
Weiss, Laura A; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T
The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group 'Customized Care'. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as "How do you want to live your life?". The intervention helps people to find their 'passion', i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Shortcomings of earlier intervention studies in positive
Rintaro Mikata; Osamu Yokosuka; Fumio Imazeki; Kenichi Fukai; Tatsuo Kanda; Hiromitsu Saisho
AIM: We report a case with a prolonged course of hepatitisA, with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) higher than 500 IU/Lfor more than 2 mo.METHODS: A middle-aged woman had an elevated IgG level of more than 2 000 mg/dL, positive arti-nudear antibodies (ANA) and anti-smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA), but no evidence of persistent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with prolonged acute hepatitis, although acute onset of autoimmune hepatitis could not be ruled out.RESULTS: It was assumed that she developed a course of hepatitis similar to autoimmune hepatitis triggered by HAV infection. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment was initiated and a favorable outcome was obtained. CONCLUSION: We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who showed a prolonged course of acute hepatitis A mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Treatment with UDCAproved to be effective.
Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H;
Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve......) was moderate (kappa 0.434). However, the agreement in expected clinical decisions based on the product labels was much higher (kappa 0.673). The US drug label tends to be more explicit, especially when it considers absence of QT effects....
Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Stausholm, Julie S; Viitasaari, Eliina;
pigs. The presence of a companion animal was also evaluated in pigs receiving stimuli at the pelvic limbs. Results Pigs tested inside the cage were affected by the habituation to the procedure as indicated by the increase in willingness and time spent by the animals in the test cage. This effect...... not affected by the familiarity of the animals with the experimental procedure. Conclusions and clinical relevance The current results reiterate the value of habituation in research involving animal behaviour. Further characterization of the methodology is needed to allow its application in the evaluation......Objective To investigate the effects of habituation and isolation on mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs at the pelvic limbs and at the tail. Study design Prospective randomized multifactorial study. Animals Thirty-two healthy castrated male (experiment 1), and 12 castrated male and 12 female...
Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.
Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B. (eds.)
The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab.
Lee, Hyang-Ae; Kim, Ki-Suk; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Eun-Joo
In this study, the authors investigated the electrophysiological effect of sulpiride on cardiac repolarization using conventional microelectrode recording techniques in isolated canine Purkinje fibers and a whole-cell patch clamp technique in transiently transfected cells with the hERG, KCNQ1/KCNE1, KCNJ2, and SCN5A cDNA and in rat cardiac myocytes for I(Ca). In studies of action potential duration, 10 microM, 100 microM, 300 microM, and 1 mM sulpiride prolonged action potential duration in a concentration-dependent manner. In studies of cardiac ion channels, sulpiride did not significantly affect I(Na), I(Ca), I(Ks), I(K1), except for I(Kr). Sulpiride dose-dependently decreased the hERG tail current. It is considered that the prolonged action potential duration by sulpiride was mainly the result of inhibition of the hERG channel. The data suggest that the clinical use of sulpiride is reasonable within therapeutic plasma concentrations, but all patients taking this drug should be cautiously monitored for clinical signs of long-QT syndrome and severe arrhythmia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine is used in clinical practice as a highly effective painkiller as well as the drug of choice for treatment of certain heart diseases. However, there is lack of information about its effect on protein expression in the heart. Therefore, here we aimed to identify the presumed alterations in rat myocardial protein levels after prolonged morphine treatment. Methods Morphine was administered to adult male Wistar rats in high doses (10 mg/kg per day for 10 days. Proteins from the plasma membrane- and mitochondria-enriched fractions or cytosolic proteins isolated from left ventricles were run on 2D gel electrophoresis, scanned and quantified with specific software to reveal differentially expressed proteins. Results Nine proteins were found to show markedly altered expression levels in samples from morphine-treaded rats and these proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. They belong to different cell pathways including signaling, cytoprotective, and structural elements. Conclusions The present identification of several important myocardial proteins altered by prolonged morphine treatment points to global effects of this drug on heart tissue. These findings represent an initial step toward a more complex view on the action of morphine on the heart.
Raven, P. B.
Astronauts are often required to work (exercise) at moderate to high intensities for extended periods while performing extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Although the physiologic responses associated with prolonged exercise have been documented, the mechanisms involved in blood pressure regulation under these conditions have not yet been fully elucidated. An understanding of this issue is pertinent to the ability of humans to perform work in microgravity and complies with the emphasis of NASA's Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program. Prolonged exercise at a constant workload is know to result in a progressive decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) concomitant with a decrease in stroke volume and a compensatory increase in heart rate. The continuous decrease in MAP during the exercise, which is related to the thermoregulatory redistribution of circulating blood volume to the cutaneous circulation, raises the question as to whether there is a loss of baroreflex regulation of arterial blood pressure. We propose that with prolongation of the exercise to 60 minutes, progressive increases on central command reflect a progressive upward resetting of the carotid baroreflex (CBR) such that the operating point of the CBR is shifted to a pressure below the threshold of the reflex rendering it ineffectual in correcting the downward drift in MAP. In order to test this hypothesis, experiments have been designed to uncouple the global hemodynamic response to prolonged exercise from the central command mediated response via: (1) continuous maintenance of cardiac filling volume by intravenous infusion of a dextran solution; and (2) whole body surface cooling to counteract thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodialation. As the type of work (exercise) performed by astronauts is inherently arm and upper body dependent, we will also examine the physiologic responses to prolonged leg cycling and arm ergometry exercise in the supine positions with and without level lower body negative
Razzaghi, R; Momen-Heravi, M; Erami, M; Nazeri, M
Candida species are considered a common cause of fungal blood stream infections, which are associated with considerable mortality and morbidity rates, especially in the admitted and immunocompromised patients. Despite the increase in new and available antifungal agents, the emergence of resistant strains is growing. Regarding this, the aim of the present study was to assess the fungal epide-miology of candidemia and the antifungal susceptibility patterns against five current antifungal agents among the patients with prolonged fever, who were admitted to Beheshti Educational Hospital, Kashan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 253 hospitalized patients with prolonged fever despite receiving broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Blood samples were collected aseptically, and then cultured using an automated blood culture system and conventional broth culture bottle. Candida isolates were identified at species level using morphological and physiological properties and produced color on the CHROMagar Candida. Furthermore, the antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using (CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M27-S4) broth microdilution methods. The most positive cultures were detected by the automated blood culture system. C.albicans (%50) was the most prevalent species, followed by C. glabrata (%40), and C. parapsilosis, (%10) respectively .The mortality rate was high (%60) and most patients with candidemia were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, while the highest resistance belonged to caspofungin. In this study, high resistance was reported, especially for caspofungin, which can be regarded as the emergence of caspofungin-resistant strains. Regarding this, the establishment of a surveillance and prevention program for the reduction of the emergence of resistant species is necessary.
Chan, Thomas Yan Keung
Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.
Lilla, Michèle; Stadelman-Diaw, Corinne; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie
Infants hospitalised in neonatology are inevitably exposed to pain repeatedly. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable, because they are hypersensitive to pain and demonstrate diminished behavioural responses to pain. They are therefore at risk of developing short and long-term complications if pain remains untreated. Compared to acute pain, there is limited evidence in the literature on prolonged pain in infants. However, the prevalence is reported between 20 and 40 %. This single case study aimed to identify the bio-contextual characteristics of neonates who experienced prolonged pain. This study was carried out in the neonatal unit of a tertiary referral centre in Western Switzerland. A retrospective data analysis of seven infants' profile, who experienced prolonged pain ,was performed using five different data sources. The mean gestational age of the seven infants was 32weeks. The main diagnosis included prematurity and respiratory distress syndrome. The total observations (N=55) showed that the participants had in average 21.8 (SD 6.9) painful procedures that were estimated to be of moderate to severe intensity each day. Out of the 164 recorded pain scores (2.9 pain assessment/day/infant), 14.6 % confirmed acute pain. Out of those experiencing acute pain, analgesia was given in 16.6 % of them and 79.1 % received no analgesia. This study highlighted the difficulty in managing pain in neonates who are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Pain in this population remains underevaluated and as a result undertreated.Results of this study showed that nursing documentation related to pain assessment is not systematic.Regular assessment and documentation of acute and prolonged pain are recommended. This could be achieved with clear guidelines on the Assessment Intervention Reassessment (AIR) cyclewith validated measures adapted to neonates. The adequacy of pain assessment is a pre-requisite for appropriate pain relief in neonates.
alternative to napping is prolonged wakefulness. Polyphasic sleep , with frequent naps rather than a single sleep period per 24 hours, is natural for both the...very young and for the aged. It is not practiced by most adults, perhaps because of societal demands. Possibly a polyphasic sleep schedule could be...Functioning 1.2 Scope of this Chapter 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Partial Sleep Deprivation Studies 2.2 Nap Studies: Four Nap Factors Affecting Performance
Full Text Available Background: Prolonged grief disorder is proposed for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11, though it was rejected as a diagnosis for DSM-5. Objective: This review outlines findings and defines important areas for future research viewed from a lifespan perspective. Results: The development and psychometric evaluation of measures for the new diagnosis is paramount, specifically for children and adolescents. Treatments need to be adapted for specific subgroups and research findings have to be disseminated into various professional settings.
Over the last decade, a new disease entity, prolonged ulcerative laryngitis (PUL), with unique clinical presentation and prolonged disease course, has been recognized. Until now, very few studies dealing with this disease have been reported in the literature. From 1999 to 2008, we analyzed clinical data from a series of 39 PUL patients who were treated with an observational approach without implementing specific treatments. This disease affects adults, predominantly females. The age of patients in our series ranged from 26 to 76 years with a median of 49.5 years. This disease is characterized by ulcers and signs of acute inflammation on the membranous portion of the vocal folds with a prolonged clinical course. The recovery times of patients ranged from 4 to 20 weeks with an average of 9.4 weeks. The data in this study may reflect a natural history of this disease. PUL seems to be a self-limited disease, but the etiology of this disease is unknown. Specific infections or systemic inflammatory processes involving the larynx must be ruled out before diagnosis, and conservative treatments are suggested.
Tina Kumelj; Barbara Turk
Social reality originates from social interaction in a social group. It is consolidated with social consensus. It is transcendent and relatively stable. Social reality is maintained in relatively isolated, balanced social environment. Majority of members in a social group spontaneously reacts to deviations. These are characteristics which many authors contribute to social reality. If social reality is to be understood as a collection of social-psychological phenomena, of which the important f...
An historical overview is provided regarding the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of acute prolonged convulsive seizures. It is clear that intravenous benzodiazepines remain a first step for the in-hospital treatment of prolonged seizures or status epilepticus. However, in the community, in a pre-hospital situation, intravenous administration is not possible. In recent years, it was shown that rectal, buccal, intranasal, and intramuscular administration of benzodiazepines is very effective as a first and safe treatment step. In many cases, rectal diazepam is not socially acceptable anymore, and therefore more emphasis is now put on buccal, intranasal, and intramuscular administration. At present, based on the available data, midazolam is the product of choice for the acute treatment of prolonged convulsive seizures.
Boulay, R; Soroker, V; Godzinska, E J; Hefetz, A; Lenoir, A
Social deprivation is an unusual situation for ants that normally maintain continuous contact with their nestmates. When a worker was experimentally isolated for 5 days and then reunited with a nestmate, she engaged in prolonged trophallaxis. It is suggested that trophallaxis allows her to restore a social bond with her nestmates and to re-integrate into the colony, particularly via the exchange of colony-specific hydrocarbons. Octopamine reduced trophallaxis in these workers as well as hydrocarbon transfer between nestmates, but not hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Administration of serotonin to such 5-day-isolated ants had no effect on the percentage of trophallaxis. Administration of phentolamine alone, an octopamine antagonist, had no effect, but when co-administrated with octopamine it reduced the effect of octopamine alone and restored trophallaxis to control levels. Moreover, the observed effect of octopamine was not due to a non-specific effect on locomotor activity. Therefore, we hypothesise that octopamine mediates behaviour patterns linked to social bonding, such as trophallaxis. On the basis of an analogy with the role of norepinephrine in vertebrates, we suggest that the levels of octopamine in the brain of socially deprived ants may decrease, together with a concomitant increase in their urge to perform trophallaxis and to experience social contacts. Octopamine administration may reduce this social deprivation effect, and octopamine could therefore be regarded as being partly responsible for the social cohesion between nestmates in ant colonies.
Wesley P. McTernan
Full Text Available This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]. Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect. The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.
McTernan, Wesley P; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Vandenberg, Robert J
This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.
Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge
Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R
To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....
Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation
De Singly, B; Simon, M; Bennani, J; Wittnebel, S; Zagadanski, A-M; Pacault, V; Gornet, J-M; Allez, M; Lémann, M
Acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after allogenic marrow transplantation. Several causes can predispose to pancreatitis, including Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD), a condition which is probably underestimated. In the literature, few description of pancreatic GVHD can be found. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis can be difficult if pancreatic involvement occurs without other typical manifestations of GVHD. We report the case of a woman, 54 years old, suffering from prolonged, painful pancreatitis two months after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leucemia. Pancreatic GVHD diagnosis was performed after five weeks on duodenal biopsies despite the absence of diarrheoa. The patient dramatically improved within few days on corticosteroids.
Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen
INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...
Chen, M.; Alexander, M.
A determination was made of the kinds and numbers of bacteria surviving when two soils were maintained in the laboratory under dry conditions for more than half a year. Certain non-spore-forming bacteria were found to survive in the dry condition for long periods. A higher percentage of drought-tolerant than drought-sensitive bacteria was able to grow at low water activities. When they were grown in media with high salt concentrations, bacteria generally became more tolerant of prolonged drought and they persisted longer. The percent of cells in a bacterial population that remained viable when exposed to drought stress varied with the stage of growth.
Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen
INTRODUCTION: Long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition (PN) may be essential for survival in infants after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery. It seemed well indicated in a population-based study to estimate the need for long-term PN and to characterize the infants that received TPN with regard...... to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...
Mitchell, M. R.; Powell, T; Terrar, D. A.; Twist, V. W.
Ryanodine (1 microM) suppressed or abolished contraction in response to step depolarization in voltage-clamped cells isolated from adult rat ventricular myocardium. The step depolarizations evoked the second inward current, which is carried largely by Ca ions under these conditions, and there was little or no change in the amplitude of this current when contraction was reduced or abolished by ryanodine. The effects of ryanodine on contraction were, however, accompanied by a prolongation of th...
GUO Zhong-wen; LI Zhi-wei; YU Lei
Underwater acoustic modem technology has attained a level of maturity to support underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) which are generally formed by acoustically connected sensor nodes and a surface station providing a link to an on-shore control center. While many applications require long-term monitoring of the deployment area, the battery-powered network nodes limit the lifetime of UASNs. Therefore, designing a UASN that minimizes the power consumption while maximizing lifetime becomes a very difficult task. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the optimum number of clusters through combining an application-specific protocol architecture and underwater acoustic communication model so as to reduce the energy dissipation of UASNs. Deploying more sensor nodes which work alternately is another way to prolong the lifetime of UASNs. An algorithm is presented for selecting sensor nodes and putting them into operation in each round, ensuring the monitoring to the whole given area. The present results show that the algorithm can help prolong system lifetime remarkably when it is applied to other conventional approaches for sensor networks under the condition that the sensor node density is high.
Nadeau, Phillip; El-Damak, Dina; Glettig, Dean; Kong, Yong Lin; Mo, Stacy; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Roxhed, Niclas; Langer, Robert; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Traverso, Giovanni
Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged monitoring systems for patients. Although prior biocompatible power harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short minute-long bursts of power from the stomach, not much is known about the capacity to power electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW per mm(2) of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell has the capacity to provide power for prolonged periods of time to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices located in the gastrointestinal tract.
Chen, Chih-Ming; Ke, Se-Chin; Li, Chia-Ru; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chang, Chao-Chin
From 2007 to 2009, we collected a total of 83 bacteraemic isolates of Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility or resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs). Isolates were genotyped by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The PFGE patterns revealed two highly correlated clusters (cluster E: nine isolates; cluster G: 22 isolates) associated with this prolonged clonal spreading. Compared with cluster E isolates, cluster G isolates were significantly more likely to harbour aac(6')-Ib-cr (Pcoli cases caused by cluster E and G isolates were significantly associated with having stayed in our hospital's respiratory care ward (Pcoli ST68 associated with a stay in a long-term care facility. Using epidemiological investigations and PFGE and MLST analyses, we have identified long-term clonal spreading caused by E. coli ST68, with extra antimicrobial-resistance genes possibly acquired during the prolonged spreading period.
Kakimoto, Tsunayuki; Nakazato, Tomonori; Miura, Reiko; Kurai, Hanako; Yamashita, Daisuke; Sagara, Yuko; Ishida, Akaru
Linezolid is an effective and well-tolerated antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Some reports have shown that linezolid treatment for more than 2 weeks has been associated with reversible bone marrow suppression, especially thrombocytopenia and anemia. We encountered a case of sideroblastic anemia following prolonged linezolid therapy in a laryngeal cancer patient. He received linezolid therapy for multiple abscesses due to MRSA. Before treatment, the Hb level was 12.5 g/dl and then slowly decreased to 5.9 g/dl for 2 months during treatment. Ringed sideroblasts were detected in the bone marrow. Linezolid was discontinued and the Hb level was slowly increased. This case was considered to reflect a rare complication of linezolid therapy.
Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.
Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva
in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P brain had a small release of tryptophan (arteriovenous difference of -1.2 +/- 0.3 micromol/l), whereas a net balance was obtained during the two exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...... became elevated during the hyperthermic trial, but the net release from the brain was unchanged. During exercise, the O2/CHO was similar across trials, but, during recovery from the hyperthermic trial, the ratio decreased to 3.8 +/- 0.3 (P ...This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine...
李树玲; 颜慧; 宫泽辉
Objective To investigate rats reared in social isolation as a model of behavioral symptoms of neurodevelop-mental psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.Methods Male rat pups were housed in individual cages from post-weaning to adulthood.Locomotor activity detection, Morris water maze test and social interaction test were performed. Results Compared with controls, the social isolation-reared rats got more body mass, showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased social interaction, but significant spatial learning changes were not observed in Morris water maze test.Conclu-sion Exposing rats to social isolation can profoundly affect behavior in adulthood, which can be used to build animal mod-els of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia.%目的：考察社会隔离饲养大鼠模拟精神分裂症等神经发育性精神疾病的行为表征变化。方法自断乳起单笼饲养雄性大鼠幼仔至成年，依次进行自发活动检测、Morris水迷宫实验和社会交往实验。结果与对照比较，社会隔离饲养的大鼠表现出体质量增加、自发活动亢进以及社会交往增多等行为学改变，但在Morris水迷宫实验中没有表现出空间学习记忆的明显变化。结论大鼠幼年时的社会隔离饲养对动物成年后的行为产生深刻影响，可用来建立精神分裂症等神经发育性精神疾病的动物模型。
Irvine, Andrew R.
The purpose of this thesis was to examine the concept of isolation as it occurs within the profession of ministry. Isolation, for the purpose of this thesis, is defined social-psychologically. Within the field research isolation is considered as evidenced professionally, socially and spiritually. This study utilized as its sample base 200 hundred Church of Scotland ministers (15% of total population) which provided 159 usable responses to an extensive mail survey. The mai...
Nyssa T. Hadgraft
Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is highly prevalent in office-based workplaces; however, few studies have assessed the attributes associated with this health risk factor in the workplace setting. This study aimed to identify the correlates of office workers' objectively-assessed total and prolonged (≥30 min bouts workplace sitting time. Participants were 231 Australian office workers recruited from 14 sites of a single government employer in 2012–13. Potential socio-demographic, work-related, health-related and cognitive-social correlates were measured through a self-administered survey and anthropometric measurements. Associations with total and prolonged workplace sitting time (measured with the activPAL3 were tested using linear mixed models. Worksites varied significantly in total workplace sitting time (overall mean [SD]: 79% [10%] of work hours and prolonged workplace sitting time (42% [19%], after adjusting for socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Organisational tenure of 3–5 years (compared to tenure >5 years was associated with more time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time, while having a BMI categorised as obese (compared to a healthy BMI was associated with less time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Significant variations in sitting time were observed across different worksites of the same employer and the variation remained after adjusting for individual-level factors. Only BMI and organisational tenure were identified as correlates of total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Additional studies are needed to confirm the present findings across diverse organisations and occupations.
Plante, Isabelle; Vigneault, Patrick; Drolet, Benoît; Turgeon, Jacques
Blocking of the potassium current I(Kr) [human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG)] is generally associated with an increased risk of long QT syndrome (LQTS). The 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, rosuvastatin, is a methanesulfonamide derivative, which shows structural similarities with several I(Kr) blockers. Hence, we assessed the effects of rosuvastatin on cardiac repolarization by using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. Patch clamp experiments on hERG-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells established the potency of rosuvastatin to block hERG [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) = 195 nM]. We showed in isolated guinea pig hearts that 195 nM rosuvastatin prolonged (basic cycle length of 250 ms; p cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance gene (MDR1)] and influx [organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1] transporters involved in the disposition and cardiac distribution of the drug. Genetic polymorphisms observed for BCRP, MDR1, and OATP2B1, and IC(50) determined for hERG blocking lead us to propose that some patients may be at risk of rosuvastatin-induced LQTS.
Mandal, Sema; Wu, Henry M; MacNeil, Jessica R; Machesky, Kimberly; Garcia, Jocelyn; Plikaytis, Brian D; Quinn, Kim; King, Larry; Schmink, Susanna E; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Gaskell, James R; Messonnier, Nancy E; DiOrio, Mary; Cohn, Amanda C
College students living in residential halls are at increased risk of meningococcal disease. Unlike that for serogroups prevented by quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines, public health response to outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease is limited by lack of a US licensed vaccine. In March 2010, we investigated a prolonged outbreak of serogroup B disease associated with a university. In addition to case ascertainment, molecular typing of isolates was performed to characterize the outbreak. We conducted a matched case-control study to examine risk factors for serogroup B disease. Five controls per case, matched by college year, were randomly selected. Participants completed a risk factor questionnaire. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Between January 2008 and November 2010, we identified 13 meningococcal disease cases (7 confirmed, 4 probable, and 2 suspected) involving 10 university students and 3 university-linked persons. One student died. Ten cases were determined to be serogroup B. Isolates from 6 confirmed cases had an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and belonged to sequence type 269, clonal complex 269. Factors significantly associated with disease were Greek society membership (matched odds ratio [mOR], 15.0; P = .03), >1 kissing partner (mOR, 13.66; P = .03), and attending bars (mOR, 8.06; P = .04). The outbreak was associated with a novel serogroup B strain (CC269) and risk factors were indicative of increased social mixing. Control measures were appropriate but limited by lack of vaccine. Understanding serogroup B transmission in college and other settings will help inform use of serogroup B vaccines currently under consideration for licensure.
Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents.
Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik; Duchatelle, Veronique; Degott, Claude
Cholestatic liver diseases leading to progressive destruction of intra-hepatic bile ducts and ductopenia encompass multiple etiologies. Pathophysiology and natural history of drug-induced cholangiopathies remain unclear. We report a case of prolonged ductopenia attributed to Tenoxicam (Tilcotil o--a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of the oxicam family) ingested at therapeutic dose. A 36 year-old male patient was admitted for jaundice and Lyell syndrome starting 1 week after the ingestion of Tenoxicam. Liver biopsy showed cholestasis, non-suppurative cholangitis and polymorphous inflammatory infiltrate of the portal tracts (round cells, macrophages an eosinophils). Treatment with ursodesoxycholic acid and cholestyramine was instituted and the patient was asymptomatic 1 year after. Three years later mild biological cholestasis persisted and ductopenia was evidenced on liver biopsy. In this report we found that: (1) The toxicity of tenoxicam was probably mediated by an immunoallergic mechanism (Lyell syndrome and eosinophils on histology); (2) ductopenia was secondary to inflammatory cholangitis. Factors responsible for this chronic evolution are still unknown (genetic predisposition, vascular factors, etc.); and (3) the presence of ductopenia contrasted with the "clinical recovery" of the disease suggesting accessory bile drainage by cholangioles or partial reconstruction of the biliary tree.
Full Text Available Reducing the energy consumption of nodes in sensor networks and prolonging the network life time has been proposed as one of the most important challenges facing researchers in the field of sensor networks. Therefore, designing an energy-aware protocol to gather data from network level and transmitting it to sink is placed on the agenda at this paper. After presenting an analysis of the processes of clustering in sensory networks and investigating the effect of sending interval on the amount of energy consumption, We have shown that if the use of convex static casters be done such as all the communications within the cluster with the sending distance less than the optimal threshold, it Will help to increase the lifetime of nodes. also have shown that if we create a virtual backbone between cluster heads to transfer far cluster heads data from sink to sink , will has a significant impact on increasing the network lifetime. For this reason, a detailed discussion on how to determine the size of clusters and partitioning of the network environment to them is presented in Chapter 4.Simulation results show considerable improvement of the proposed algorithm.
Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan
Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells.
Calderón, E; Legorreta, J; Sztabinski, G; Hernández, M; Wilkins, A; Gómez, D; Dávila, A
A prospective study was made in 283 patients who attended IMAN's Children's Hospital, with fever the main symptom. A clinical and paraclinical procedure was designed for the study of each patient. 112 patients were eliminated because they did not follow the established criteria. All patients had acute infectious diseases considered trivial; 85% were 3 weeks to 2 years of age. They all had an antibacterial treatment without precise diagnosis. It was considered that on admission the patients showed a normal course in the natural history of the basic disease. The study group included 171 patients 2 months to 13 years of age; 62.5% had fever due to infection, 12.2% to collagenopathies, 7% to neoplasias 5.2% to miscellaneous causes and 12.8% were not diagnosed. The most common infectious causes for prolonged fever were tuberculosis, upper respiratory infections, amoebic liver abscess, typhoid fever and malaria. Careful questioning and clinical examination were enough to enlighten diagnosis in more than 80% of the patients.
Full Text Available Introduction: Decision for cesarean section may lead to the stress for women in delivery. Stress response requires longer recovery time in post cesarean section patients. Most of patients who experience stress before and after surgical is associated with wound healing delay. When this condition continues, the wound will have a higher risk of infection. The objective of this study was to analyze correlation between stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patients. Method: A cross sectional design was used in this study. The population were women with cesarean section, both elective or emergency, in Delivery Room I RSU Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Samples were recruited by using purposive sampling, with 28 samples who met to the inclusion criterias. The observed variables were stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patient. Stress data were collected by interview and wound healing measurement done by observation on the 3rd day post cesarean section. Result: The result showed that women with stress experience wound healing delay. The characteristic of wound healing delay was prolonged on inflammation phase, nevertheless there was presence of granulation tissue. Spearman’s rho correlation showed that correlation value r=0.675 with p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that there was strong significant correlation between stress and wound healing phase in post cesarean section patients. It is important to give this information to the patients with cesarean section in order to prevent stress and delay in wound healing phase.
Full Text Available Muscles in the gluteal region are confined by distinct fascial attachments which can potentially result in compartment syndrome. A 74-year-old chronic drinker was admitted to the medical ward after being found drunk on the street. He noticed acute painful swelling of the right side of his buttock the following morning and recalled a slip and fall prior to his blackout. The whole right half of the buttock was tense with erythematous overlying skin. Examination revealed sciatic nerve palsy and myoglobinuria. Emergency fasciotomy and debridement were performed. Intra-operative pressure measurement confirmed a grossly elevated intra-compartmental pressure. Gluteal compartment syndrome is an extremely rare condition and has only been scantily documented previously in case reports. Early diagnosis is crucial but delay recognition is common from lack of knowledge of the condition and readily results in permanent sciatic nerve injury and acute renal shutdown from myoglobinuria. Awareness of the condition, early diagnosis and prompt exploration provide the only chance of avoiding these devastating consequences. Acute swelling diffusely affecting the whole or one side of the buttock, a history of trauma and prolonged local pressure impingement associated with pain out of proportion to the clinical signs should raise a suspicion of this rare condition.
Full Text Available Introduction: The splenium of the corpus callosum has a specific structure of blood supply with a tendency towards blood-brain barrier breakdown, intramyelinic edema, and damage due to hypoxia or toxins. Signs and symptoms of reversible syndrome of the splenium of the corpus callosum typically include disorientation, confusion, impaired consciousness, and epileptic seizures. Case report: A previously healthy 32-year-old man suffered from weakness, headache, and fever. Subsequently, he developed apathy, ataxia, and inability to walk, and therefore was admitted to the hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid showed protein elevation (0.9 g/l and pleocytosis (232/1 ul. A brain MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the middle of the corpus callosum. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and subsequently, in combination with steroids. Two months later, the hyperintense lesions in the splenium and the basal ganglia had disappeared. Almost seven months since his hospitalization in the Department of Neurology, the patient has returned to his previous employment. He now does not exhibit any mental changes, an optic edema and urological problems have improved. In addition, he is now actively engaged in sports. Conclusion: We have described a case of a 32-year-old man with confusion, ataxia, and inability to stand and walk. The man developed a febrile meningeal syndrome and a hyperintense lesion of the splenium, which lasted for two months. Neurological changes, optic nerve edema, and urinary retention have resolved over the course of seven months. We think that the prolonged but transient lesion of the splenium may have been caused by encephalitis of viral origin.
Manohar, M; Hassan, A S
The present study was carried out to examine diaphragmatic O2 extraction and lactate and ammonia production during prolonged exhaustive exercise. Experiments were performed on nine healthy exercise-conditioned ponies in which catheters had been implanted in the phrenic vein previously. Blood-gas variables and lactate and ammonia concentrations were determined on simultaneously obtained arterial and phrenic-venous blood samples at rest and during 30 min of exertion at 15 mph + 7% grade (heart rate, 200 beats/min; approximately 90% of maximum). Arterial O2 tension and saturation were maintained near resting value but CO2 tension decreased markedly with exercise, and because of increased hemoglobin concentration, arterial O2 content rose. Concomitantly, phrenic venous O2 tension, saturation and content decreased markedly (23.6 +/- 1 mm Hg, 24.5 +/- 2%, 5.2 +/- 0.3 ml/dl at 3 min of exertion) and significant fluctuations did not occur as exercise duration progressed to 30 min. Diaphragmatic arteriovenous O2 content difference and O2 extraction rose from 4 +/- 0.3 to 16 +/- 0.5 ml/dl and from 30 +/- 3 to 75 +/- 1% at 3 min of exercise, and significant deviations did not occur as exercise duration progressed. Arterial lactate and ammonia levels increased during exercise, indicating their release from working limb muscles. Phrenic-venous values of lactate and ammonia did not exceed arterial values. Ponies sweated profusely and were unable to keep up with the belt speed in the last 4 to 5 min of exercise. Constancy of phrenic arteriovenous O2 content difference in exercise indicated ability to adjust perfusion in diaphragm so as to adequately meet its O2 needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Giandolini, Marlene; Vernillo, Gianluca; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Millet, Guillaume Y
Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns. However, 'pure' uphill or downhill running has several fatigue-related intrinsic features compared with the level running. Downhill running induces severe lower limb tissue damage, indirectly evidenced by massive increases in plasma creatine kinase/myoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. In addition, low-frequency fatigue (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling failure) is systematically observed after downhill running, although it has also been found in high-intensity uphill running for different reasons. Indeed, low-frequency fatigue in downhill running is attributed to mechanical stress at the interface sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubule, while the inorganic phosphate accumulation probably plays a central role in intense uphill running. Other fatigue-related specificities of graded running such as strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of downhill running on muscle function, the difference of energy cost versus heat storage or muscle activity changes in downhill, level, and uphill running are also discussed.
Mohammed Haroon Rashid
Full Text Available Long QT syndrome (LQTS is an inherited ion channelopathy resulting in abnormal ventricular repolarization and abnormal prolongation of QT interval on the ECG. Syncope, fainting, cardiac arrest, and sudden death are common manifestations of LQTS. We present a case report that describes a patient with prolonged QT interval after extrasystoles and a family history of sudden cardiac deaths.
Full Text Available Building upon the premise that the prolongation of working life presents an adequate approach to address the fast approaching challenges of population ageing, the paper presents labour market outcomes of older workers in Slovenia in order to explore the role of social system and labour market flexibility in retirement behaviour. By applying bivariate graphic analysis and series of logistic models, paper finds that decisions of older workers (aged 50 - 69 of whether to retire or to continue working up to legal retirement age is being predominately shaped by the pension system parameters. Economic activity beyond this age (or when retired on the other hand predominately correlates with flexible work arrangements and work motivation. Thus, the future policies in Slovenia aiming to prolong working careers within formal or informal sector should simultaneously do both; change pension system parameters and significantly expand the system flexibility stimulating willing and capable elderly to continue working within the formal sector.
Skarsfeldt, Mark A; Jepps, Thomas A; Bomholtz, Sofia H
displayed a more uniform expression of KCNK3 between atria and ventricle. In voltage-clamp experiments, ML365 and A293 were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of K2P3.1, but at pH 7.4, they failed to prolong atrial APD and refractory period (effective refractory period (ERP)) in isolated perfused...... rat and guinea pig hearts. At pH 7.8, which augments K2P3.1 currents, pharmacological channel inhibition produced a significant prolongation of atrial ERP (11.6 %, p = 0.004) without prolonging ventricular APD but did not display a significant antiarrhythmic effect in our guinea pig AF model (3...
Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jennum, Poul
Treatment of schizophrenia frequently includes prolonged benzodiazepine administration despite a lack of evidence of its use. It is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines because of the development of dependence. We aim to assess if melatonin can facilitate the withdrawal of prolonged ben...... benzodiazepine administration in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, we aim to investigate the association of benzodiazepine dose reduction with the following clinically important variables: sleep, psychophysiology, cognition, social function, and quality of life....
Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jennum, Poul
Treatment of schizophrenia frequently includes prolonged benzodiazepine administration despite a lack of evidence of its use. It is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines because of the development of dependence. We aim to assess if melatonin can facilitate the withdrawal of prolonged...... benzodiazepine administration in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, we aim to investigate the association of benzodiazepine dose reduction with the following clinically important variables: sleep, psychophysiology, cognition, social function, and quality of life....
Arkadopoulos, N; Lilja, H; Suh, K S; Demetriou, A A; Rozga, J
To examine whether hepatocytes transplanted in the spleen can function as an ectopic liver, we performed hepatocyte transplantation in rats that were rendered anhepatic. Total hepatectomy was performed by using a novel single-stage technique. Following hepatectomy, Group 1 rats (n = 16) were monitored until death to determine survival time without prior intervention. Group 2 anhepatic rats (n = 20) were sacrificed at various times to measure blood hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) levels. Group 3 (n = 16) rats received intrasplenic injection of isolated hepatocytes (2.5 x 10(7) cells/rat) followed by total hepatectomy after 3 days. Group 4 (n = 12) sham-transplanted rats received intrasplenic saline infusion, and after 3 days they were rendered anhepatic. Group 2, 3, and 4 rats were maintained on daily Cyclosporine A (10 mg/kg; intramuscularly). Group 1 anhepatic rats survived for 22.4 +/- 5.2 hours (standard deviation). The anhepatic state was associated with a progressive and statistically significant rise in blood HGF and TGF-beta1 levels. Rats that received hepatocyte transplantation before total hepatectomy had a significantly longer survival time than sham-transplanted anhepatic controls (34.1 +/- 8.5 vs. 15.5 +/- 4.8 hrs, P ammonia, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and TGF-beta1 levels when compared with sham-transplanted controls. In conclusion, intrasplenic transplantation of allogeneic hepatocytes prolonged survival, improved blood chemistry, and lowered blood TGF-beta1 levels in rats rendered anhepatic.
Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison
Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.
Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Kentaro; Ito, Mie; Yamagishi, Reiko; Tamura, Miku; Nakamura, Hideki; Tsuruoka, Noriko; Saito, Tomoaki; Masumiya, Haruko; Suzuki, Takeshi; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Itokawa-Matsuda, Maho; Yamashita, Toru; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo; Tanaka, Hikaru; Shigenobu, Koki
NIP-142 is a novel benzopyran compound that was shown to prolong the atrial effective refractory period and terminate experimental atrial fibrillation in the dog. In the present study, we examined the effects of NIP-142 on isolated guinea pig myocardium and on the G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel current (acetylcholine-activated potassium current; I(KACh)) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. NIP-142 (10 and 100 microM) concentration-dependently prolonged the refractory period and action potential duration in the atrium but not in the ventricle. E-4031 and 4-aminopyridine prolonged action potential duration in both left atrium and right ventricle. Prolongation by NIP-142 of the atrial action potential duration was observed at stimulation frequencies between 0.5 and 5 Hz. In contrast, the prolongation by E-4031 was not observed at higher frequencies. Tertiapin, a blocker of I(KACh), prolonged action potential duration in the atrium but not in the ventricle. NIP-142 completely reversed the carbachol-induced shortening of atrial action potential duration. NIP-142 (1 to 100 microM), as well as tertiapin (0.1 to 100 nM), concentration-dependently blocked I(KACh) expressed in Xenopus oocytes; the blockade by NIP-142 was not affected by membrane voltage. In conclusion, NIP-142 was shown to prolong atrial refractory period and action potential duration through blockade of I(KACh) which may possibly explain its previously described antiarrhythmic activity. NIP-142 has pharmacological properties that are different from classical class III antiarrhythmic agents such as atria specificity and lack of reverse frequency dependence, and thus appears promising for the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmia.
Full Text Available Though horses synthesize ascorbic acid in their liver in amounts that meet their needs under normal circumstances, prolonged stress results in low plasma concentrations due to enhanced utilization and renal excretion and can reduce immune function. It was hypothesized that plasma ascorbic acid could be maintained in weanling horses by oral supplementation following prolonged transportation. Weanlings were supplemented with no ascorbic acid (Tx 0: n = 4, 5 grams ascorbic acid twice daily for 5 days (Tx 1: n = 4 or for 10 days (Tx 2: n = 4 following >50 hours of transportation. Supplementation caused slight (P < 0.2 increases in plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Both supplemented groups had decreased (P < 0.05 plasma concentrations for 1 to 3 weeks following cessation of supplementation, possibly due to increased renal excretion or suppressed hepatic synthesis. Supplementation of ascorbic acid following prolonged stress will increase plasma concentrations, but prolonged supplementation should be avoided.
Nino, Gustavo; Hu, Aihua; Grunstein, Michael M.
Use of long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists to treat asthma incurs an increased risk of asthma morbidity with impaired bronchodilation and heightened bronchoconstriction, reflecting the adverse effects of prolonged homologous β2AR desensitization on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. Since phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) regulates ASM relaxation and contractility, we examined whether the changes in ASM function induced by prolonged homologous β2AR desensitization are attributed to altered expression and action of PDE4. Cultured human ASM cells and isolated rabbit ASM tissues exposed for 24 h to the long-acting β2AR agonist salmeterol exhibited impaired acute β2AR-mediated cAMP accumulation and relaxation, respectively, together with ASM constrictor hyperresponsiveness. These proasthmatic-like changes in ASM function were associated with upregulated PDE4 activity due to enhanced expression of the PDE4D5 isoform and were prevented by pretreating the ASM preparations with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram or with inhibitors of either PKA or ERK1/2 signaling. Extended studies using gene silencing and pharmacological approaches demonstrated that: 1) the mechanism underlying upregulated PDE4D5 expression following prolonged β2AR agonist exposure involves PKA-dependent activation of Gi protein signaling via its βγ-subunits, which elicits downstream activation of ERK1/2 and its induction of PDE4D5 transcription; and 2) the induction of PDE4 activity and consequent changes in ASM responsiveness are prevented by pretreating the β2AR agonist-exposed ASM preparations with inhibitors of Gi-βγ signaling. Collectively, these findings identify that the proasthmatic changes in ASM function resulting from prolonged homologous β2AR desensitization are attributed to upregulated PDE4 expression induced by Gi-βγ-mediated cross-talk between the PKA and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:19666775
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert
Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.
Roelofs, G.H.M.; Martini, R.
The prolongation method of Wahlquist and Estabrook is applied to the Landau–Lifshitz equation. The resulting prolongation algebra is shown to be isomorphic to a subalgebra of the tensor product of the Lie algebra so(3) with the elliptic curve v α 2−v β 2=j β−j α (α,β=1,2,3), which is essentially a s
Nasrin, S; Islam, S; Shahida, S M; Begum, R A; Haque, N
This was a hospital based prospective clinical study conducted among women having prolonged pregnancy to assess the outcome of induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy cases. One hundred and thirty nine women having uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy were studied. The study was carried out in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka from 01 July 2010 to 30 March 2011. In this study 66% of the respondents had vaginal delivery on routine induction of labour and in 34% cases induction failed. Ninety three percent (93%) of the multigravida had vaginal delivery and in primigravida their vaginal delivery rate was 47.5%. Regarding cervical condition for delivery, 75% of the respondents having favourable cervix had vaginal delivery and in case of unfavourable cervix respondents, they had 55% cases of vaginal delivery. About the foetal outcome it was evidenced from this study that the perinatal adverse outcome increases with the increasing age of gestation beyond 40 completed weeks of gestation. This study showed that the use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening and by confirming the diagnosis of prolonged pregnancy, the delivery outcome in prolonged pregnancy can be improved. The study also showed that induction of labour is not associated with any major complications and the routine induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy is beneficial for both mother and the baby.
Vitale, S G; Marilli, I; Rapisarda, A M; Iapichino, V; Stancanelli, F; Cianci, A
Prolonged pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that extends beyond 42 weeks of gestation (294 days) from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. An accurate estimation of the 'natural' incidence of prolonged pregnancy would require meticulous early pregnancy dating. The use of ultrasound to establish gestational age reduces the number of pregnancies that are classified as prolonged. Prolonged pregnancy is associated with an increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in pregnancies which appear to be otherwise low risk. Postterm births are easily preventable by intervening to deliver with the use of induction of labor. Thus, this potentially problematic condition deserves further attention and careful consideration. The focus of this article is to review and challenge some current concepts surrounding the diagnosis and management of prolonged pregnancy. We outline how to identify those women with prolonged pregnancy and which is the appropriate moment to start monitoring the fetal wellbeing. Finally we address the question of benefits and hazards of induction of labor strategies.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Generally, in dengue shock syndrome antibiotics are not advised. But unrecognised bacterial infection is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality, probably because of increased vascular permeability. OBJECTIVES To assess the incidence of secondary bacterial infection in adult patients with prolonged and severe dengue fever. METHODS A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days. Prior to institution of antibiotic therapy, two sets of blood cultures were taken from patients. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Severity of fever & associated symptoms assessed. Ultrasonography done to find out development of ascites and pleural effusions. RESULTS Sixty patients (60.0% males with a mean age of 33.5 years (SD 12.1 were studied. The average duration of fever was 6.9 days (SD 1.6. Fifteen patients (25% had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=3, coliforms (n=7, pseudomonas (n=2 and 3 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches and joints paint at admission and high grade fever, third space fluid accumulation and significant drop in platelets compared to culture-negative group. CONCLUSIONS A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture-positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the course of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia in dengue fever, low platelet count and severe symptoms at presentation may be helpful.
José Roberto Lambertucci
Full Text Available Twenty patients with prolonged septicemic salmonellosis (Group 1 and 20 with schistosomiasis mansoni (Group 2 were selected for this study. In both groups, the Widal test was done using antigens of the sample Ty 901 (S. typhi. The test was also applied in 6 group 1 patients with antigens prepared from salmonellae isolated from these patients (autoantigens. Titres over 1:200 were considered significant. Ten group 1 patients (50% were positive for antigen "H" and 5 (25% were positive for antigen "O". Three patients with negative "H" and "O" reactions became positive with high titres when using autoantigens. Two other cases maintained the same positive titres and one case showed a fourfold increase in titres when the test was done 'with antigens of the Salmonella isolated. The Widal test was positive in most patients infected with group D Salmonellae. Considering titres above 1:200, all cases were negative in Group 2. The authors conclude that the Widal test has low positivity in prolonged septicemic salmonellosis. The test may be valuable in the diagnosis of this disease when using S. paratyphi "A" and "B" antigens and a mixture of Salmonella antigens taken from other groups.
Ciodini, Jean-Pierre; Volluz, Régis
Cette recherche a pour objectif de démontrer que le MSP parvient par divers moyens à améliorer les compétences sociales des personnes. Ces moyens sont enseignés lors de la formation reçue à l'Ecole Supérieure Domaine Social Valais. Le Plan d'Etude Cadre décrit les compétences que l’étudiant doit acquérir pour prétendre au titre de MSP. Le travail à but productif et d'autres activités socialisantes permettent d'intégrer et de valoriser les personnes accueillies. Les actions menées dans le...
Lee, Laura May
.... Struggling under the pressures of economic deprivation, social isolation, abuse and exploitation, these youths experience social suffering and feel the impact of social forces on their everyday lives...
Background The Happiness Route is an innovative intervention that uses a happiness-based approach for people with an accumulation of risk factors for low well-being: socially isolated people with health impairments and a low socioeconomic status. The goal of this intervention is to improve well-being by engaging participants in intrinsically motivated activities with methods from positive psychology. We hypothesize that the primary outcome measure, emotional, social and psychological well-being of participants of the Happiness Route, will increase in comparison to the traditional and commonly-used problem-based approach. Secondary outcome measures are health-related quality of life, psychosocial functioning and health care consumption. Methods and design Participants will be socially isolated people with health problems and a low socioeconomic status. Participants will be recruited in ten Dutch communities and candidates will be signed up by intermediaries, professionals from the health and social sector. Randomly assigned, half of the participants will follow the Happiness Route and half of the participants will follow the active, problem-focused control group ‘Customized Care’. In total, 256 participants will be included. In both conditions, participants will receive counseling sessions from trained counselors. In the control group, participants will talk about their problems and the care they get and counselors help to optimize their care. In the Happiness Route, the counselor ask questions such as “How do you want to live your life?”. The intervention helps people to find their ‘passion’, i.e., a positive goal-engaged and intrinsically motivated activity. It enables them to follow their passion through by a once-only personal happiness budget (maximal €500). We use well-validated and reliable questionnaires to measure primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline, directly after the intervention and at a nine-month follow-up. Discussion
An Interactive, Mobile-Based Tool for Personal Social Network Data Collection and Visualization Among a Geographically Isolated and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population: Early-Stage Feasibility Study With Qualitative User Feedback.
Eddens, Katherine S; Fagan, Jesse M; Collins, Tom
. Respondents enjoyed the social network survey component, and visualizing social networks produced thoughtful responses from participants about leveraging or changing network content and structure for specific health-promoting purposes. Areas for improved literacy and functionality of the tool were identified. However, technical issues led to substantial (50%) data loss, limiting the success of its implementation from a researcher's perspective, and hindering practicality in the field. OpenEddi is a promising data collection tool for use in geographically isolated and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Future development will mitigate technical problems, improve usability and literacy, and test new methods of data collection. These changes will support goals for use of this tool in the delivery of network-based health communication and social support interventions to socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.
Schjerning, Jeppe; Uhrenholt, Torben R; Svenningsen, Per;
In arterioles, aldosterone counteracts the rapid dilatation ("recovery") following depolarization-induced contraction. The hypothesis was tested that this effect of aldosterone depends on COX-derived products and/or NOS inhibition. Recovery of the response to high K(+) was observed in mesenteric...... arteries of wild type and COX-2(-/-) mice but it was significantly diminished in preparations from eNOS(-/-) mice. Aldosterone pretreatment inhibited recovery from wild type and COX-2(-/-) mice. The NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) restored recovery in arteries from eNOS(-/-) mice and this was inhibited...... by aldosterone. Actinomycin-D abolished the effect of aldosterone indicating a genomic effect. The effect was blocked by indomethacin and by the COX-1 inhibitor valeryl salicylate but not by NS-398 (10(-6) mol/L) or the TP-receptor antagonist S18886 (10(-7) mol/L). The effect of aldosterone on recovery...
Lifespan prolongation is a common desire of the human race. With advances in biotechnology, the mechanism of aging has been gradually unraveled, laying the theoretical basis of nucleic acid therapy for lifespan prolongation. Regretfully, clinically applicable interventions do not exist without the efforts of converting theory into action, and it is the latter that has been far from adequately addressed at the moment. This was demonstrated by a database search on PubMed and Web of Science, from which only seven studies published between 2000 and 2010 were found to directly touch on the development of nucleic acid therapy for anti-aging and/or longevity enhancing purposes. In light of this, the objective of this article is to overview the current understanding of the intimate association between genes and longevity, and to bring the prospect of nucleic acid therapy for lifespan prolongation to light.
Chen Katherine T
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe sepsis during pregnancy or in the postpartum period is a rare clinical event. In non obstetric surviving patients, the cardiovascular changes seen in sepsis and septic shock are fully reversible five to ten days after their onset. We report a case of septic myocardial dysfunction lasting longer than ten days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of prolonged septic myocardial dysfunction in a parturient. Case presentation A 24 year old Hispanic woman with no previous medical history developed pyelonephritis and severe sepsis with prolonged myocardial dysfunction after a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. Conclusions Septic myocardial dysfunction may be prolonged in parturients requiring longer term follow up and pharmacologic treatment.
Albert, Benjamin B; Eckersley, Luke Gerard; Skinner, Jonathan Robert; Jefferies, Craig
Summary A 12-year-old girl presented with an acute confusional state and a 2-year history of weight loss, anxiety, agitation and recurrent fever. Thyroid function tests confirmed severe hyperthyroidism, and a diagnosis of thyroid storm was made (Burch and Wartofsky score=75). ECG showed a prolonged QTc interval of 506 ms. Acute treatment for thyroid storm consisted of Lugol's iodine, prednisolone, carbimazole and propranolol. She made a steady recovery and by 3 months her thyroid function had normalised; a repeat ECG showed a QTc within the normal range (430 ms). There was no relevant family history. This is a case of QTc prolongation with hyperthyroidism and normalisation with euthyroidism. It is not commonly recognised that hyperthyroidism in children may be associated with QTc prolongation. QTc measurement should be incorporated into management protocols for hyperthyroidism. PMID:24729112
Lee, G. M.; McGee, P. A.; Oldroyd, B. P.
The queens of many eusocial insect species are polyandrous. The evolution of polyandry from ancestral monoandry is intriguing because polyandry undermines the kin-selected benefits of high intracolonial relatedness that are understood to have been central to the evolution of eusociality. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that polyandry evolved from monoandry in part because genetically diverse colonies better resist infection by pathogens. However, a core assumption of the "parasite-pathogen hypothesis", that there is variation in virulence among strains of pathogens, remains largely untested in vivo. Here, we demonstrate variation in virulence among isolates of Ascosphaera apis, the causative organism of chalkbrood disease in its honey bee ( Apis mellifera) host. More importantly, we show a pathogen-host genotypic interaction for resistance and pathogenicity. Our findings therefore support the parasite-parasite hypothesis as a factor in the evolution of polyandry among eusocial insects.
Straiton, N; Sterland, J
A survey of parachute injuries sustained in 1984 at a local parachute club was made using hospital notes and a questionnaire. The overall injury rate was 0.2%. The injury rate in first time jumpers was 1.1%. The injuries often resulted in a prolonged hospital stay, time off work and residual pain and disability. Injury rates may be reduced by more prolonged and intensive training preceding the first jumps. Those people not interested in parachuting as a regular sport and who jump once only in...
Straiton, N; Sterland, J
A survey of parachute injuries sustained in 1984 at a local parachute club was made using hospital notes and a questionnaire. The overall injury rate was 0.2%. The injury rate in first time jumpers was 1.1%. The injuries often resulted in a prolonged hospital stay, time off work and residual pain and disability. Injury rates may be reduced by more prolonged and intensive training preceding the first jumps. Those people not interested in parachuting as a regular sport and who jump once only in order to raise money for charity are at risk of serious injury and perhaps should consider less dangerous alternatives.
Full Text Available Amit Lehavi, Boris Shenderey, Yeshayahu (Shai KatzDepartment of Anesthesiology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: We report a case of a patient, chronically treated with oral lithium, who presented with an extremely prolonged (42-hour duration of sensory and motor paralysis following an uneventful infraclavicular block for hand surgery that was performed under ultrasound guidance using bupivacaine and lidocaine. Due to its direct effect on nerve conduction of action potential, we propose that lithium may have had a role in the unusually prolonged duration of a peripheral nerve block.Keywords: nerve blockade, lithium, duration, anesthesia
Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.
Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.
Christensen, Toke Folke; Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Tarnow, L.
hypoglycaemia varies greatly between studies. METHODS: We studied ten adults with type 1 diabetes (age 41±15years) without cardiovascular disease or neuropathy. Single-blinded hypoglycaemia was induced by a subcutaneous insulin bolus followed by a control episode on two occasions separated by 4weeks. QT....... CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycaemia as experienced after a subcutaneous injection of insulin may cause QTc prolongation in type 1 diabetes. However, the magnitude of prolongation is less than typically reported during glucose clamp studies, possible because of the study design with focus on minimizing unwanted study...
Ho, Hung Chak; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ren, Chao; Ng, Edward
Extreme hot weather events are likely to increase under future climate change, and it is exacerbated in urban areas due to the complex urban settings. It causes excess mortality due to prolonged exposure to such extreme heat. However, there is lack of universal definition of prolonged heat or heat wave, which leads to inadequacies of associated risk preparedness. Previous studies focused on estimating temperature-mortality relationship based on temperature thresholds for assessing heat-related health risks but only several studies investigated the association between types of prolonged heat and excess mortality. However, most studies focused on one or a few isolated heat waves, which cannot demonstrate typical scenarios that population has experienced. In addition, there are limited studies on the difference between daytime and nighttime temperature, resulting in insufficiency to conclude the effect of prolonged heat. In sub-tropical high-density cities where prolonged heat is common in summer, it is important to obtain a comprehensive understanding of prolonged heat for a complete assessment of heat-related health risks. In this study, six types of prolonged heat were examined by using a time-stratified analysis. We found that more consecutive hot nights contribute to higher mortality risk while the number of consecutive hot days does not have significant association with excess mortality. For a day after five consecutive hot nights, there were 7.99% [7.64%, 8.35%], 7.74% [6.93%, 8.55%], and 8.14% [7.38%, 8.88%] increases in all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Non-consecutive hot days or nights are also found to contribute to short-term mortality risk. For a 7-day-period with at least five non-consecutive hot days and nights, there was 15.61% [14.52%, 16.70%] increase in all-cause mortality at lag 0-1, but only -2.00% [-2.83%, -1.17%] at lag 2-3. Differences in the temperature-mortality relationship caused by hot days and hot nights
Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina
Patients´ experience of source isolation - a literature review Title: Patients experience of source isolation – a literature review Authors: Nina Kragbak*, Didde Pedersen*, Kamilla Johansen* and Peter E. Jensen** *students, **lecturer, bachelor in science and Ph.D., at VIA University College......, Nursing education in Århus, Hedeager 2, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Background: Medical treatment and care of patients with infections may include source isolation of the patient, to avoid spreading of the infection. However, isolation is a potential physiological and psychological stress factor...... of the patients perspectives of being isolated to identify areas of potential interest for developing new caring strategies to minimize the negative side effects of isolation. Methods: Literature was systematically searched in CINAHL, Nursing Reference Center, Social Care Online, SveMed+, The Cochrane Library...
Lau, K. V.; Maher, K.; Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Payne, J.
The end-Permian extinction and prolonged Early Triassic recovery of marine ecosystems have been attributed in part to marine anoxia. However, the spatial and temporal extent of anoxic waters during Early Triassic time remains poorly understood. To better constrain the evolution of seawater conditions, we present a record of δ238/235U and uranium concentrations collected from the Great Bank of Guizhou, a Late Permian to Late Triassic isolated carbonate platform in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The isotopic composition and concentration of uranium are independent constraints on paleoredox conditions and can be used as indicators for the global extent of ocean anoxia. Our δ238/235U results demonstrate that two large negative excursions of up to ~-0.4‰ occurred in the Induan and in the Spathian, before stabilizing in the Middle Triassic at Late Permian values. Uranium concentrations mirror the isotopic trends, reaching sustained minima of less than 0.2 ppm that correspond to the most negative isotopic values. By placing these observational constraints on a box model of the geological uranium cycle, we calculate that up to half of the continental shelves may have been affected during the two pulses of bottom-water anoxia. The expansion, contraction, and re-expansion of extreme low-oxygen conditions could explain many unresolved aspects of the prolonged recovery of marine ecosystems. The recurrence of widespread anoxia during Spathian time may have interrupted the recovery of marine organisms that began in the more oxic waters of the Smithian. These episodes of significant and prolonged bottom-water anoxia coincide with the most negative δ13C values, suggesting that Early Triassic perturbations to the global carbon cycle were tightly coupled to changes in ocean redox chemistry.
Kim Vietz Andreassen
Full Text Available Salmon calcitonin (sCT and human calcitonin (hCT are pharmacologically distinct. However, the reason for the differences is unclear. Here we analyze the differences between sCT and hCT on the human calcitonin receptor (CT(aR with respect to activation of cAMP signaling, β-arrestin recruitment, ligand binding kinetics and internalization. The study was conducted using mammalian cell lines heterologously expressing the human CT(a receptor. CT(aR downstream signaling was investigated with dose response profiles for cAMP production and β-arrestin recruitment for sCT and hCT during short term (<2 hours and prolonged (up to 72 hours stimulation. CT(aR kinetics and internalization was investigated with radio-labeled sCT and hCT ligands on cultured cells and isolated membrane preparations from the same cell line. We found that sCT and hCT are equipotent during short-term stimulations with differences manifesting themselves only during long-term stimulation with sCT inducing a prolonged activation up to 72 hours, while hCT loses activity markedly earlier. The prolonged sCT stimulation of both cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin recruitment was attenuated, but not abrogated by acid wash, suggesting a role for sCT activated internalized receptors. We have demonstrated a novel phenomenon, namely that two distinct CT(aR downstream signaling activation patterns are activated by two related ligands, thereby highlighting qualitatively different signaling responses in vitro that could have implications for sCT use in vivo.
Andreassen, Kim Vietz; Hjuler, Sara Toftegaard; Furness, Sebastian G; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; Nosjean, Olivier; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Henriksen, Kim
Salmon calcitonin (sCT) and human calcitonin (hCT) are pharmacologically distinct. However, the reason for the differences is unclear. Here we analyze the differences between sCT and hCT on the human calcitonin receptor (CT(a)R) with respect to activation of cAMP signaling, β-arrestin recruitment, ligand binding kinetics and internalization. The study was conducted using mammalian cell lines heterologously expressing the human CT(a) receptor. CT(a)R downstream signaling was investigated with dose response profiles for cAMP production and β-arrestin recruitment for sCT and hCT during short term (<2 hours) and prolonged (up to 72 hours) stimulation. CT(a)R kinetics and internalization was investigated with radio-labeled sCT and hCT ligands on cultured cells and isolated membrane preparations from the same cell line. We found that sCT and hCT are equipotent during short-term stimulations with differences manifesting themselves only during long-term stimulation with sCT inducing a prolonged activation up to 72 hours, while hCT loses activity markedly earlier. The prolonged sCT stimulation of both cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin recruitment was attenuated, but not abrogated by acid wash, suggesting a role for sCT activated internalized receptors. We have demonstrated a novel phenomenon, namely that two distinct CT(a)R downstream signaling activation patterns are activated by two related ligands, thereby highlighting qualitatively different signaling responses in vitro that could have implications for sCT use in vivo.
Bian, Qin; Liang, Qian-Qian; Wan, Chao; Hou, Wei; Li, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Lu, Sheng; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun
Both forelimbs of rats were amputated and these rats were kept in the custom-made cages to keep prolonged and repeated upright posture. Changes of bone were observed in the lumbar vertebrae at three different time points after the surgery. To investigate the effect of prolonged and repeated upright posture on the cartilage end plate of rat lumbar vertebrae. Previous studies show calcified hypertrophy is related to mechanical stress, but there are no clear evidences to indicate whether or not long-term and repeated assumption of the upright posture could result in calcified hypertrophy in cartilage end plate of rat lumbar spine. The forelimbs of 30 rats were amputated when they were 1 month old. These rats were kept in the custom-made cages and were forced to stand upright on their hind-limbs and tails to obtain water and food. Normal rats of the same ages kept in regular cages were used as control. The rats were killed at 5, 7, and 9 months after the surgery and lumbar vertebrae samples were harvested for micro-CT, histologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Total RNA isolated from these samples were used for real-time RT-PCR of type X collagen (Col10α1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Micro-CT showed increased inner part of cartilage end plate. Histologic revealed peripheral hypertrophy of disc after the surgery. Immunostaining and real-time RT-PCR showed increased protein and mRNA expression of type X collagen, VEGF, and TGF-β1. Prolonged upright posture induces cartilage end plate calcification and hypertrophy in rat lumbar spine.
Liebke, Lisa; Bungert, Melanie; Thome, Janine; Hauschild, Sophie; Gescher, Dorothee Maria; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie
Persistent loneliness is often reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical studies investigating this aspect of BPD psychopathology are sparse. Studies from social psychology revealed that social isolation and low social functioning contribute to loneliness, that is, the subjective feeling of being alone. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the understanding of loneliness in BPD by investigating its relation to social isolation and functioning in different domains of life. Subjective experience of loneliness was measured in 80 women (40 BPD patients, 40 healthy controls) with the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Social isolation and social functioning were assessed with the Social Network Inventory and the Social Functioning Scale. In addition, we assessed global functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning. BPD patients reported stronger feelings of loneliness compared to healthy participants. In general, the level of loneliness was linked to network size, social engagement, and prosocial behavior. Diversity of social networks and functioning in the domain of interpersonal communication were associated with the level of loneliness only in BPD. A reduced variety of roles in social life together with impairments in interpersonal communication were particularly relevant for the experience of loneliness in BPD, suggesting an indirect path to target this psychopathological feature in therapeutic interventions. However, both social isolation and social functioning were not sufficient to explain the severely increased loneliness experienced by these patients, stressing the need for further investigation of determinants of loneliness in this clinical population. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ko, Chih-Yuan; Liu, Yia-Ping
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia. Therefore, we employed IR rats of both sexes to examine whether chronic quetiapine (QTP, a second-generation antipsychotic medication) treatment induces disruptions of metabolism (body weight, blood pressure, and the glycemic and lipid profiles) or cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and further, whether it reverses deficits of behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)] and the expression of monoamines (dopamine and serotonin) and related genes (Htr1a, Htr2a, Htr3a, Drd1a, and Gabbr2). IR induced higher levels of pro-CK, dysglycemia, blood pressure, locomotor activity, and impaired PPI, simultaneously destabilizing cortico-striatal monoamines and relevant genes in both sexes, while QTP demonstrated dose-dependent reversal of these changes, suggesting that QTP might reduce the pro-CKs to regulate these abnormalities. Our data implied that antipsychotics may not be the solitary factor causing metabolic problems in schizophrenia and suggested that inflammatory changes may play a vital role in the developmental pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related metabolic abnormalities.
Morville, Thomas; Rosenkilde, Mads; Munch-Andersen, Thor
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were...
Dickman, Holly; Fletke, Kyle; Redfern, Roberta E
Anencephaly is one of the most lethal congenital defects. This case report is of an anencephalic infant who lived to 28 months of life and defies current literature. She is the longest surviving anencephalic infant who did not require life-sustaining interventions. This case presents the obstacles that arose from this infant's prolonged life and recommendations based on these findings.
Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel
Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…
Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L
The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services.
Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel
Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…
Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.
Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This
Minnen, A. van; Harned, M.S.; Zöllner, L.; Mills, K.
Although prolonged exposure (PE) has received the most empirical support of any treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinicians are often hesitant to use PE due to beliefs that it is contraindicated for many patients with PTSD. This is especially true for PTSD patients with comorbid p
Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam
We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebra...
Wato, Yussuf A.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Wahungu, Geoffrey; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Langevelde, van Frank
Elephant inhabiting arid and semi-arid savannas often experience periods of drought, which, if prolonged, may cause mortality. During dry periods, elephant aggregate around water sources and deplete local forage availability. However, the relationships between adult elephant mortality and both hi
Hart, E. C.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, N. H.
Alterations in the carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of arterial pressure may explain the reduction in arterial pressure and left ventricular (LV) function after prolonged exercise. We examined the CBR control of heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), in addition to changes in LV function......, pre- to post-exercise....
Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...
Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle
Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…
A significant number of neonates are admitted to tertiary paediatric units for prolonged stays annually, despite limited availability of neonatal beds. As the three Dublin paediatric hospitals merge, this pressure will be transferred to our new National Children’s Hospital.\\r\
Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.
Wato, Yussuf A.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Wahungu, Geoffrey; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Langevelde, van Frank
Elephant inhabiting arid and semi-arid savannas often experience periods of drought, which, if prolonged, may cause mortality. During dry periods, elephant aggregate around water sources and deplete local forage availability. However, the relationships between adult elephant mortality and both
Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.
markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...
Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.
markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...
Dilani Mendis, M; Hides, Julie A; Wilson, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Alison; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Joern; Richardson, Carolyn
Prolonged bed rest and inactivity is known to cause muscular atrophy with previous research indicating that muscles involved in joint stabilisation are more susceptible. The anterior hip muscles are important for hip joint function and stability but little is known about the effects of prolonged inactivity on their function. This study investigated the effect of prolonged bed rest on the size of the anterior hip muscles and their pattern of recovery. The effect of resistive vibration exercise (RVE) as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was also investigated. 12 male participants, randomly assigned to either a control or an exercise group, underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months follow-up. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at regular intervals during bed rest and recovery phases. CSAs of iliopsoas and sartorius decreased at the hip joint (piliacus, psoas, and rectus femoris CSAs were unchanged (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups for all muscles (all p>0.1), suggesting inefficacy of the countermeasure in this sample. These findings suggest that prolonged bed rest can result in the atrophy of specific muscles across the hip joint which may affect its stability and function.
Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A
A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.
Full Text Available Background Prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU can impose long-term psychological effects on patients. One of the most significant psychological effects from prolonged hospitalization is delirium. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prolonged hospitalization of patients and subsequent delirium in the intensive care unit. Patients and Methods This conventional content analysis study was conducted in the General Intensive Care Unit of the Shariati Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from the beginning of 2013 to 2014. All prolonged hospitalized patients and their families were eligible participants. From the 34 eligible patients and 63 family members, the final numbers of actual patients and family members were 9 and 16, respectively. Several semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with patients and their families in a private room and data were gathered. Results Two main themes from two different perspectives emerged, 'patients' perspectives' (experiences during ICU hospitalization and 'family members' perspectives' (supportive-communicational experiences. The main results of this study focused on delirium, Patients' findings were described as pleasant and unpleasant, factual and delusional experiences. Conclusions Family members are valuable components in the therapeutic process of delirium. Effective use of family members in the delirium caring process can be considered to be one of the key non-medical nursing components in the therapeutic process.
Arola, M; Ziegler, T; Ruuskanen, O
We studied respiratory viruses in 22 children with acute otitis media who had failed to improve after at least 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy. The mean duration of preenrollment antimicrobial therapy was 4.8 days. For comparison we studied 66 children with newly diagnosed acute otitis media. Respiratory viruses were isolated from middle ear fluid or from the nasopharynx, or both, significantly more often in the patients unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy than in the comparison patients (68% vs 41%, p less than 0.05). Viruses were recovered from the middle ear fluid in 32% of the study patients and from 15% of the comparison group. Bacteria were isolated from the middle ear fluid of four (18%) children in the study group; one child had an isolate resistant to initial antimicrobial therapy. All four children with bacteria in the middle ear fluid had evidence of concomitant respiratory virus infection. Our results indicate that respiratory virus infection is often present in patients with acute otitis media unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapy, and may explain the prolongation of symptoms of infection. Resistant bacteria seem to be a less common cause of failure of the initial treatment.
Mortari, M R; Cunha, A O S; Carolino, R O G; Coutinho-Netto, J; Tomaz, J C; Lopes, N P; Coimbra, N C; Dos Santos, W F
In this work, a neuroactive peptide from the venom of the neotropical wasp Polybia occidentalis was isolated and its anti-nociceptive effects were characterized in well-established pain induction models. Wasp venom was analysed by reverse-phase HPLC and fractions screened for anti-nociceptive activity. The structure of the most active fraction was identified by electron-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and it was further assessed in two tests of anti-nociceptive activity in rats: the hot plate and tail flick tests. The most active fraction contained a peptide whose structure was Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Thr-Pro-Phe-Arg-OH, which corresponds to that of Thr(6)-BK, a bradykinin analogue. This peptide was given by i.c.v. injection to rats. In the tail flick test, Thr(6)-BK induced anti-nociceptive effects, approximately twice as potent as either morphine or bradykinin also given i.c.v. The anti-nociceptive activity of Thr(6)-BK peaked at 30 min after injection and persisted for 2 h, longer than bradykinin. The primary mode of action of Thr(6)-BK involved the activation of B(2) bradykinin receptors, as anti-nociceptive effects of Thr(6)-BK were antagonized by a selective B(2) receptor antagonist. Our data indicate that Thr(6)-BK acts through B(2) bradykinin receptors in the mammalian CNS, evoking antinociceptive behaviour. This activity is remarkably different from that of bradykinin, despite the structural similarities between both peptides. In addition, due to the increased metabolic stability of Thr(6)-BK, relative to that of bradykinin, this peptide could provide a novel tool in the investigation of kinin pathways involved with pain.
Yang, Li-Zhen; Zhu, Yi-Chun
We previously reported that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 by urocortin2 up-regulates both L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes and plays an important role in cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenesis. This study goal was to further test the hypothesis that urocortin2 may modulate action potentials as well as rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents. With whole cell patch-clamp techniques, action potentials and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were recorded in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. And rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were tested in hERG-HEK293 cells. Urocortin2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent prolongation of action potential duration. The EC50 values of action potential duration and action potential duration at 90% of repolarization were 14.73 and 24.3nM respectively. The prolongation of action potential duration of urocortin2 was almost completely or partly abolished by H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) pretreatment respectively. And urocortin2 caused reduction of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents in hERG-HEK293 cells. In addition, urocortin2 slowed the rate of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel activation, and rightward shifted the threshold of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents to more positive potentials. Urocortin2 prolonged action potential duration via activation of protein kinase A and Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. In hERG-HEK293 cells, urocortin2 reduced rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current density which may contribute to action potential duration prolongation.
Mansbach, William; Heller, Kenneth
Despite evidence that levels of social support can affect health, there has been little work isolating the factors which actually mediate the relationship between social support and health. In an attempt to analyze the role of nutrition as a mediating factor of health and social support among the elderly, female older adults (N=43) responded to an…
Nunes, Ana Margarida Melo; Alves, Claudia Maria Coelho; Borba de Araújo, Fernando; Ortiz, Tânia Mara Lopes; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Ribeiro, Cecília Claudia Costa
This study was conducted to investigate the association between prolonged breastfeeding and early childhood caries(ECC) with adjustment for important confounders, using hieraschical approach. This retrospective cohort study involved 260 low-income children (18-42 months). The number of decayed teeth was used as a measure of caries. Following a theoretical framework, the hierarchical model was built in a forward fashion, by adding the following levels in succession: level 1: age; level 2: social variables; level 3: health variables; level 4: behavioral variables; level 5: oral hygiene-related variables; level 6: oral hygiene quality measured by visible plaque; and level 7: contamination by mutans streptococci. Sequential forward multiple Poisson regression analysis was employed. Breast-feeding was not a risk factor for ECC after adjustment for some confounders (incidence density ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.59, P = 0.363). Prolonged breast-feeding was not a risk factor for ECC while age, high sucrose comption between main meals and the quality of oral higiene were associated with disease in children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Buravlev, V.; Sereshnikov, S. V.; Mayorov, A. A.; Vila, J. J.
At each level of the state and municipal management the information resources which provide the support of acceptance of administrative decisions, usually are performed as a number of polytypic, untied among themselves electronic data sources, such as databases, geoinformation projects, electronic archives of documents, etc. These sources are located in the various organizations, they function in various programs, and are actualized according to various rules. Creation on the basis of such isolated sources of the uniform information systems which provide an opportunity to look through and analyze any information stored in these sources in real time mode, will help to promote an increase in a degree of adequacy of accepted administrative decisions. The Distributed Data Service technology - TrisoftDDS, developed by company Trisoft, Ltd, provides the construction of horizontal territorially distributed heterogeneous information systems (TeRGIS). Technology TrisoftDDS allows the quickly creation and support, easy modification of systems, the data sources for which are already existing information complexes, without any working capacity infringements of the last ones, and provides the remote regulated multi-user access to the different types of data sources by the Internet/Intranet. Relational databases, GIS projects, files of various types (documents MS Office, images, html documents, etc.) can be used as data sources in TeRGIS. TeRGIS is created as Internet/Intranet application representing three-level client-server system. Access to the information in existing data sources is carried out by means of the distributed DDS data service, the nucleus of which is the distributed data service server - the DSServer, settling down on an intermediate level. TrisoftDDS Technology includes the following components: Client DSBrowser (Data Service Browser) - the client application connected through the Internet/intranet to the DSServer and provides both - a choice and viewing of
Kim, Woo Jae; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung
Rival exposure causes Drosophila melanogaster males to prolong mating. Longer mating duration (LMD) may enhance reproductive success, but its underlying mechanism is currently unknown. We found that LMD is context dependent and can be induced solely via visual stimuli. In addition, we found that LMD involves neural circuits that are important for visual memory, including central neurons in the ellipsoid body, but not the mushroom bodies or the fan-shaped bodies, and may rely on the rival exposure memory lasting for several hours. LMD is affected by a subset of learning and memory mutants. LMD depends on the circadian clock genes timeless and period, but not Clock or cycle, and persists in many arrhythmic conditions. Moreover, LMD critically depends on a subset of pigment dispersing factor neurons rather than the entire circadian neural circuit. Our study thus delineates parts of the molecular and cellular basis for LMD, a plastic social behavior elicited by visual cues.
Willis, Craig K. R.; Brigham, R. Mark; Geiser, Fritz
Many mammals save energy during food shortage or harsh weather using controlled reductions in body temperature and metabolism called torpor. However, torpor slows offspring growth, and reproductive individuals are thought to avoid using it because of reduced fitness resulting from delayed offspring development. We tested this hypothesis by investigating torpor during reproduction in hoary bats ( Lasiurus cinereus, Vespertilionidae) in southern Canada. We recorded deep, prolonged torpor bouts, which meet the definition for hibernation, by pregnant females. Prolonged torpor occurred during spring storms. When conditions improved females aroused and gave birth within several days. Our observations imply a fitness advantage of torpor in addition to energy conservation because reduced foetal growth rate could delay parturition until conditions are more favourable for lactation and neonatal survival.
Maercker, Andreas; Lalor, John
This review focuses on the similarities and differences between prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It highlights how a PTSD-related understanding aids the investigation and clinical management of PGD. Grief has long been understood as a natural response to bereavement, as serious psychological and physiological stress has been regarded as a potential outcome of extreme or traumatic stress. PTSD was first included in DSM-III in 1980. In the mid-1980s, the first systematic investigation began into whether there is an extreme or pathological form of mourning. Meanwhile, there is much research literature on complicated, traumatic, or prolonged grief This literature is reviewed in this article, with the following questions: Is it possible to distinguish normal from non-normal grief? Which clinical presentation does PGD have-and how does this compare with PTSD? Finally, diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic approaches and existing tools are presented.
de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Natan Luiz; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on water sorption, solubility, and roughness of a silorane-based material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Initial roughness and mass were registered for specimens (n=24...... phosphoric acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. Subsequently, specimens were dehydrated until a constant mass was obtained. Water sorption and solubility were calculated after 180 days of immersion in the different solutions. Data were...... differences in water sorption and solubility were detected amongst the investigated composites (pwater sorption (with similar values to Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT) and low solubility (with similar values to Filtek Z250) after prolonged immersion...
De Bruin, Marie L; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G M
Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice......, and subsequently focused on several specific groups of patients who could be extremely vulnerable for drug-induced arrhythmias. We performed a case-control study in which patients (cases), hospitalized for nonatrial cardiac arrhythmias from 1987 to 1998, were compared with their matched controls regarding current...... use of QTc-prolonging drugs. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Data were obtained from the PHARMO record linkage system. We identified 501 cases, 39 of whom used QTc...
Siddiqui, U A
We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.
Mermel, Leonard A
Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.
Weinfurtner, Kelley; Graves, Jennifer; Ness, Jayne; Krupp, Lauren; Milazzo, Maria; Waubant, Emmanuelle
Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disease characterized by acute episodes of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Several small, open-label studies suggest rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, prevents relapses in neuromyelitis optica; however, there is little consensus on timing or duration of treatment. Here we report four patients with severe relapsing neuromyelitis optica who were stabilized on rituximab and, after discontinuing treatment, continued to experience prolonged remission of their disease. Remission ranged from 4.5 to 10.5 years total, including 3 to 9 years off all therapies. The patients had sustained clinical responses despite normal B-lymphocyte levels and, in at least 2 patients, continued seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies. These cases suggest that rituximab may induce prolonged remission in certain neuromyelitis optica patients, and they highlight the need for further elucidation of rituximab's mechanism in neuromyelitis optica.
Brent, J; Vo, N; Kulig, K; Rumack, B H
Isoniazid overdose is known to result in the rapid onset of seizures, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged obtundation. Pyridoxine has been reported to be effective in treating isoniazid-induced seizures. We report three cases of obtundation secondary to isoniazid overdose that was immediately reversed by intravenous pyridoxine. In two of these cases, status seizures were stopped by intravenous pyridoxine administration, but the patients remained comatose for prolonged periods. The comas were immediately reversed by the administration of additional pyridoxine. In the third case, the patient's lethargy was treated by intravenous pyridoxine on presentation and was followed by immediate awakening. Pyridoxine is effective in treating not only isoniazid-induced seizures, but also the mental status changes associated with this overdose. The dose required to induce awakening may be higher than that required to control seizures.
Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare
Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.
T M Omprakash
Full Text Available A 36-year-old male from an urban middleclass family with strained relationship among family members was referred from a corporate hospital for further management of psychological problem. As he was attempting suicide repeatedly, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT was planned. After preoperative assessment and preparation, modified ECT was done with thiopentone and 0.5 mg/kg of suxamethonium. Apnea following suxamethonium was prolonged for 2 hours. Subsequent enquiry revealed that patient was treated for organophosphate poisoning and was on ventilator support for 15 days. This was concealed by the relatives. On searching patient previous records, Butyrylcholinesterase levels were very low, i.e., 350 u/l (normal reference range is 5 500 - 12 500 u/l. Prolonged suxamethonium apnea should be anticipated in patients with recent history of organophosphate poisoning; it is advisable to estimate the levels of butyrylcholinesterase and avoid suxamethonium in patients with low enzyme levels.
Ko, Sun-Young; Chung, Hee-Jung; Sung, Heong-Sup; Kim, Mi-Na
Antibiotic dependence in clinical isolates has been reported, albeit rarely, such as vancomycin-dependent enterococcus and beta-lactam-dependent Staphylococcus saprophyticus. We report herein a clinical isolate of beta-lactam-dependent Bacillus cereus. A 16-yr-old female was admitted on 8 September 2005 with neutropenic fever during chemotherapy following surgical removal of peripheral neuroectodermal tumor. She had had an indwelling chemoport since August 2004 and experienced B. cereus bacteremia three times during the recent 3-month period prior to the admission; the bacteremias were treated with cefepime-based chemotherapy. On hospital days 1 and 3, B. cereus was isolated from blood drawn through the chemoport. The isolates were resistant to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and erythromycin, and susceptible to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. The isolate of hospital day 3 grew only nearby the beta-lactam disks including penicillin and ceftriaxone on disk diffusion testing. The beta-lactam-dependent isolate required a minimum of 0.064 microg/mL of penicillin or 0.023 microgram/mL of cefotaxime for growth, which was demonstrated by E test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed a marked elongation of the dependent strain compared with the non-dependent strain. Prolonged therapy with beta-lactams in the patient with an indwelling intravenous catheter seemed to be a risk factor for the emergence of beta-lactam-dependence in B. cereus.
Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)
The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)
Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian
Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experience....... The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....
Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.
Drastichova Zdenka; Skrabalova Jitka; Neckar Jan; Kolar Frantisek; Novotny Jiri
Abstract Background Morphine is used in clinical practice as a highly effective painkiller as well as the drug of choice for treatment of certain heart diseases. However, there is lack of information about its effect on protein expression in the heart. Therefore, here we aimed to identify the presumed alterations in rat myocardial protein levels after prolonged morphine treatment. Methods Morphine was administered to adult male Wistar rats in high doses (10 mg/kg per day) for 10 days. Protein...
Torchilin, V P; Shtilman, M I; Trubetskoy, V S; Whiteman, K; Milstein, A M
Newly synthesized amphiphilic polyacrylamide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), single terminus-modified with long-chain fatty acyl groups, are able to incorporate into the liposomal membrane, and similar to poly(ethylene glycol) prolong liposome circulation in vivo and decrease liposome accumulation in the liver. Protective efficacy of modified polymers increases with the increase in the length of acyl moiety and decreases for higher molecular weight polymers. The data on amphiphilic polymer-modified liposome biodistribution are presented.
Hasan Onur Topcu
Conclusion: Number of vomiting per day and maternal serum TSH levels could help physicians to estimate the risk of prolonged hospitalization; however further investigations are needed in large population studies. Identifying the high risk patients is important both for prevention of HEG and beginning appropriate antiemetic treatment to avoid complications to reduce the economic costs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 113-118
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Social Phobia KidsHealth > For Teens > Social Phobia Print A A ... anxiety condition called social phobia. What Is Social Phobia? Social phobia (also called social anxiety ) is a ...
Parent, Vivien; Ludwig-Béal, Stéphanie; Sordet-Guépet, Hélène; Popitéan, Laura; Camus, Agnès; Da Silva, Sofia; Lubrano, Anne; Laissus, Frederick; Vaillard, Laurence; Manckoundia, Patrick
In France, the population of very old frail patients, who require appropriate high-quality care, is increasing. Given the current economic climate, the mean duration of hospitalization (MDH) needs to be optimized. This prospective study analyzed the causes of prolonged hospitalization in an acute geriatric care unit. Over 6 months, all patients admitted to the target acute geriatric care unit were included and distributed into two groups according to a threshold stay of 14 days: long MDH group (LMDHG) and short MDH group (SMDHG). These two groups were compared. 757 patients were included. The LMDHG comprised 442 with a mean age of 86.7 years, of whom 67.65% were women and the SMDHG comprised 315 with a mean age of 86.6 years, of whom 63.2% were women. The two groups were statistically similar for age, sex, living conditions at home (alone or not, help), medical history and number of drugs. Patients in the LMDHG were more dependent (p=0.005), and were more likely to be hospitalized for social reasons (p=0.024) and to have come from their homes (p=0.011) than those in the SMDHG. The reasons for the prolonged stay, more frequent in the LMDHG than the SMDHG (p<0.05), were principally: waiting for imaging examinations, medical complications, and waiting for discharge solutions, assistance from social workers and/or specialist consultations. In order to reduce the MDH in acute geriatric care unit, it is necessary to consider the particularities of the patients who are admitted, their medico-socio-psychological management, access to technical facilities/consultations and post-discharge accommodation.
Cronin, Neil J; Peltonen, Jussi; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Avela, Janne
During human walking, muscle activation strategies are approximately constant across consecutive steps over a short time, but it is unknown whether they are maintained over a longer duration. Prolonged walking may increase tendinous tissue (TT) compliance, which can influence neural activation, but the neural responses of individual muscles have not been investigated. This study investigated the hypothesis that muscle activity is up- or down-regulated in individual triceps surae muscles during prolonged walking. Thirteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill for 60 min at 4.5 km/h, while triceps surae muscle activity, maximal muscle compound action potentials, and kinematics were recorded every 5 min, and fascicle lengths were estimated at the beginning and end of the protocol using ultrasound. After 1 h of walking, soleus activity increased by 9.3 ± 0.2% (P triceps surae muscles and that changes in muscle activation are generally mirrored by changes in muscle fascicle length. These findings also support the notion of muscle-specific changes in TT compliance after prolonged walking and highlight the ability of the CNS to maintain relatively constant movement patterns in spite of neuromechanical changes in individual muscles.
Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Hong, Chien-Tai
Sporadic hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine associated with motor weakness during the aura phase. While the aura usually lasts less than 1 hour, patients with sporadic hemiplegic migraine frequently have prolonged weakness. A 60-year-old male had sporadic hemiplegic migraine after a head injury at the age of 14. He presented to our emergency department with a typical migraine attack except prolonged right limbs weakness and numbness (>1 day). Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute infarction in the left posterior medial pons. He recovered completely from motor weakness but still complained of residual numbness in his right limbs three months later. We report the first adult case of sporadic hemiplegic migraine with migrainous infarction located in the pons. Since patients with hemiplegic migraine often have prolonged aura, it is easy to be confused with a migrainous infarction. The case report highlights that migrainous infarction is a complication difficult to diagnose and treat early, especially in patients with hemiplegic migraine.
1 Oxotremorine, methyloxotremorine, pilocarpine or arecoline were given intravenously to anaesthetized cats, dogs or rats, and intraperitoneally to conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, pretreated with doses of methylatropine that completely blocked peripheral muscarinic receptors, to ascertain their effects on blood pressure and heart rate. 2 Oxotremorine but not methyloxotremorine produced a prolonged hypotension in cats and dogs but not in rats. Heart rate was not changed. Pilocarpine, although less potent, produced an identical effect, whereas the effect of arecoline was short by comparison. The hypotensive effect of these drugs was reversed by atropine. 3 In dogs, oxotremorine produced a prolonged hypotension with no change in heart rate or cardiac output. 4 A decrease in spontaneous sympathetic nerve activity accompanied the hypotension in cats. Both effects were reversed by atropine but could be reinvoked by large doses of oxotremorine. 5 The oxotremorine-induced hypotension in cats was not altered by decerebration but was abolished by high cervical spinal section. 6 The results indicate that the prolonged hypotension elicited by oxotremorine is mediated by an action at muscarinic receptors in the brain stem resulting in a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral resistance but not heart rate or cardiac output. PMID:760887
Vesterlund, Gitte K.; Høeg, Beverley L.; Johansen, Christoffer
Background: The role of psychological stress in cancer risk is continuously debated. Stress at work is the most common form of stress and previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding cancer risk. In this longitudinal study, we examined the association between prolonged job strain ac....... Since a large proportion of cancer patients perceive psychological stress as a possible cause of their cancer disease, it is of importance to communicate these findings to the public.......Background: The role of psychological stress in cancer risk is continuously debated. Stress at work is the most common form of stress and previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding cancer risk. In this longitudinal study, we examined the association between prolonged job strain...... across six years and subsequent cancer risk. Methods and materials: We used data from 6571 cancer-free women from the Danish Nurse Cohort aged 45–70 years at inclusion, and self-reported questionnaires on job strain at baseline in 1993 and again in 1999. Prolonged job strain was defined as high job...
ZHOU Tao; LIU Zhen-jiang; ZHOU Sheng-hua; SHEN Xiang-qian; LIU Qi-ming; FANG Zhen-fei; HU Xin-qun; LI Jiang; L(U) Xiao-lin
Background The methods for the treatment of postcatheterization femoral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF-s) - simple observation, ultrasound guided compression, covered stents implantation and coil embolization have poor outcome.Surgery is the standard method for treatment of femoral AVFs, but it is a traumatic operation. In this study, we report the results of the treatment of postcatheterization femoral AVFs by simple prolonged compressing bandage.Methods To treat iatrogenic femoral AVFs caused by transfemoral catheterization, prolonged binding with elastic or common bandage was applied in 16 cases. Catheterization was performed in 7 cases for radiofrequency current catheter ablation, in 4 for occlusion of congenital heart disease, in 3 for percutaneous coronary intervention, in 1 for coronary angiography and in 1 for right heart catheterization.Results All iatrogenic femoral AVFs were healed after simple binding with elastic or common bandage for 4-46 days (mean (15±10) days). During the period of binding, local skins ulceration occurred at puncture site in two cases and femoral vein thrombus was found in one patient. During 6-24 months (mean (11.8±3.6) months) followup with colour Doppler ultrasonography, no recurrent arteriovenous shunting or other complications were observed.Conclusion The results suggest that simple prolonged bandaging for postcatheterization femoral AVFs is an effective and economical procedure.
I read with great interest the recent article by Chen et a/in a recent issue of your esteemed journal.The article is highly thought provoking.One emerging therapeutic alternative for opioid induced constipation is the emergence of opioid/naloxone prolonged release combinations.For instance,naloxone when administered in a 1∶2 ratio with oxycodone reverses the inhibitory effect of oxycodone on the gastrointestinal tract.The advantage of oxycodone/naloxone prolonged release (OXN) is that while its anti-nociceptive efficacy is equivalent to that of oxycodone prolonged release (OXC),it significantly decreases the "Bowel Function Index" thereby ameliorating symptoms of opioid induced constipation to a large extent.Schutter et al in a recent study have reported a decrease in the bowel function index from 38.2 to 15.1.Similarly,L(o)wenstein et al in another recent study have reported that following a month of therapy,complete spontaneous bowel movements per week is increased from one in OXC therapy to three in OXN therapy.
Gupta, Anshu; Singh, Rajni; Khare, S K; Gupta, M N
A solvent tolerant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Presence of cyclohexane (20%) in culture media prolonged the lag phase and caused reduction in biomass. Transmission electron micrographs showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvent in case of the cells grown in cyclohexane. The Enterobacter isolate was able to grow in the range of organic solvents having log P above 3.2 and also in presence of mercury, thus showing potential for treatment of solvent rich wastes.
Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S
A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage
Detillion, Courtney E; Craft, Tara K S; Glasper, Erica R; Prendergast, Brian J; DeVries, A Courtney
It is well documented that psychological stress impairs wound healing in humans and rodents. However, most research effort into influences on wound healing has focused on factors that compromise, rather than promote, healing. In the present study, we determined if positive social interaction, which influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in social rodents, promotes wound healing. Siberian hamsters received a cutaneous wound and then were exposed to immobilization stress. Stress increased cortisol concentrations and impaired wound healing in isolated, but not socially housed, hamsters. Removal of endogenous cortisol via adrenalectomy eliminated the effects of stress on wound healing in isolated hamsters. Treatment of isolated hamsters with oxytocin (OT), a hormone released during social contact and associated with social bonding, also blocked stress-induced increases in cortisol concentrations and facilitated wound healing. In contrast, treating socially housed hamsters with an OT antagonist delayed wound healing. Taken together, these data suggest that social interactions buffer against stress and promote wound healing through a mechanism that involves OT-induced suppression of the HPA axis. The data imply that social isolation impairs wound healing, whereas OT treatment may ameliorate some effects of social isolation on health.
Gaidhu, Mandeep P; Fediuc, Sergiu; Anthony, Nicole M; So, Mandy; Mirpourian, Mani; Perry, Robert L S; Ceddia, Rolando B
This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on lipid partitioning and the potential molecular mechanisms involved in these processes in white adipose tissue (WAT). Rat epididymal adipocytes were incubated with 5'-aminoimidasole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR;0.5 mM) for 15 h. Also, epididymal adipocytes were isolated 15 h after AICAR was injected (i.p. 0.7 g/kg body weight) in rats. Adipocytes were utilized for various metabolic assays and for determination of gene expression and protein content. Time-dependent in vivo plasma NEFA concentrations were determined. AICAR treatment significantly increased AMPK activation, inhibited lipogenesis, and increased FA oxidation. This was accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) mRNA levels. Lipolysis was first suppressed, but then increased, both in vitro and in vivo, with prolonged AICAR treatment. Exposure to AICAR increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) content and FA release, despite inhibition of basal and epinephrine-stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. Here, we provide evidence that prolonged AICAR-induced AMPK activation can remodel adipocyte metabolism by upregulating pathways that favor energy dissipation versus lipid storage in WAT. Additionally, we show novel time-dependent effects of AICAR-induced AMPK activation on lipolysis, which involves antagonistic modulation of HSL and ATGL.
Andersen, N.E.; Ankerstjerne, P.; Jørgensen, B.
Omfattende vejledning, der angiver, hvordan energiforbruget i eksisterende huse kan nedbringes ved isolering, tætning og forbedring af varmeanlægget, og hvor meget det koster. Anvisningen indeholder detaljerede eksempler på efterisolering af ydervægge, tage, gulve og vinduer. Henvender sig til...
Perret, Audrey; Henry, Laurence; Coulon, Marion; Caudal, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Cousillas, Hugo; Hausberger, Martine; George, Isabelle
Social animals are always searching for conspecifics, thereby expressing a genuine "social need". This need is illustrated by the fact that social isolation can induce isolation syndromes that can be attenuated by devices such as mirrors. Social contacts appear to be so vital for social animals that they may be ready to work to obtain social stimulations. We used operant conditioning to investigate the possibility to use visual contact (through pictures of conspecifics) as a primary reinforcer. Isolated European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were offered the choice of seeing either social images (i.e. pictures of conspecifics) or non-social images (i.e. pictures of landscapes or pictures of monkeys) by triggering sensors. In contrast with most studies, our subjects were presented still pictures of conspecifics and not videos. Moreover, these pictures were used as primary reinforcers and thus were not paired with food. Our data show that starlings were ready to work and to use the apparatus (i.e. sensors) to see pictures in the absence of any other reward. Moreover, they actively and significantly preferred pictures of conspecifics to pictures of inanimate objects (landscapes) or of heterospecifics (monkeys). This suggests that 2D pictures with a social overtone can be used as primary reinforcers for isolated social birds.
Eijsvogels, T M H; Veltmeijer, M T W; Schreuder, T H A; Poelkens, F; Thijssen, D H J; Hopman, M T E
Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances. This study examined physiological responses, such as core body temperature, fluid and sodium balance, in lean (BMIobese (BMI>30) subjects during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. A total of 93 volunteers (24-80 years), stratified for BMI, participated in the Nijmegen Marches and walked 30-50 km at a self-selected pace. Heart rate and core body temperature were recorded every 5 km. Subjects reported fluid intake, while urine output was measured and sweat rate was calculated. Baseline and post-exercise plasma sodium levels were determined, and urinary specific gravity levels were assessed before and after exercise. BMI groups did not differ in training status preceding the experiment. Exercise duration (8 h 41 ± 1 h 36 min) and intensity (72 ± 9% HR(max)) were comparable across groups, whereas obese subjects tended to have a higher maximum core body temperature than lean controls (P=0.06). Obese subjects demonstrated a significantly higher fluid intake (Pobese versus lean subjects after exercise (Pexercise, whereas plasma-sodium levels increased significantly (Pobese subjects. Also, overweight and obese subjects demonstrated a significantly larger decrease in body mass after exercise than lean controls (PObese subjects demonstrate a larger deviation in markers of fluid and sodium balance than their lean counterparts during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. These findings suggest that overweight and obese subjects, especially under strenuous environmental conditions, have an increased risk to develop fluid and sodium imbalances.
V. V. Ptushkin
Full Text Available Neutropenia and associated infection, resulting in hospitalization and use of antibiotics, has a negative effect on chemotherapy. The need to reduce the dose of cytotoxic drugs during neutropenia leads to lower survival rates in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Since 1990s myelocytokines – proteins that accelerate neutrophil recovery after cytostatic chemotherapy and reduce the risk of infection – is widely used in the clinical practice. The use of these drugs can support the planned dose intensity of chemotherapy and improves the treatment efficacy. The disadvantages of these drugs include the need for their daily parenteral administration for 7–10 days. The development of long-acting forms (pegfilgrastim and lipegfilgrastim has solved this problem. Self-regulating clearance of prolonged forms allowed to use them only once on a chemotherapy course. Results of pegfilgrastim administration in 25 patients with hematological malignancies (8 patients and solid tumors (17 patients included in our analysis. Prolonged preparation showed high efficacy in secondary prophylaxis of neutropenia and infection decreasing the risk by 82 %. The single administration of pegfilgrastim allowed safe dose intensity chemotherapy with shorter intervals between courses (AC-14 in 8 patients with breast cancer. Tolerability was good; cases of hyperleukocytosis have notbeen reported. Recently in Europe and the Russian Federation a new drug from prolonged myelocytokine group – lipegfilgrastim – has been registered. The results of two controlled trials in patients with breast cancer (n = 410 receiving doxorubicin/docetaxel showed high efficacy of the drug as the pegfilgrastim with comparable tolerability.
Ebensperger, Germán; Ebensperger, Renato; Herrera, Emilio A; Riquelme, Raquel A; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Lesage, Florian; Marengo, Juan J; Tejo, Rodrigo I; Llanos, Aníbal J; Reyes, Roberto V
In this study we looked for additional evidence to support the hypothesis that fetal llama reacts to hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism. We determined fetal llama brain temperature, Na(+) and K(+) channel density and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Additionally, we looked to see whether there were signs of cell death in the brain cortex of llama fetuses submitted to prolonged hypoxaemia. Ten fetal llamas were instrumented under general anaesthesia to measure pH, arterial blood gases, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and brain and core temperatures. Measurements were made 1 h before and every hour during 24 h of hypoxaemia (n = 5), which was imposed by reducing maternal inspired oxygen fraction to reach a fetal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (P(a,O(2))) of about 12 mmHg. A normoxaemic group was the control (n = 5). After 24 h of hypoxaemia, we determined brain cortex Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, ouabain binding, and the expression of NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3, NaV1.6, TREK1, TRAAK and K(ATP) channels. The lack of brain cortex damage was assessed as poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) proteolysis. We found a mean decrease of 0.56 degrees C in brain cortex temperature during prolonged hypoxaemia, which was accompanied by a 51% decrease in brain cortex Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, and by a 44% decrease in protein content of NaV1.1, a voltage-gated Na(+) channel. These changes occurred in absence of changes in PARP protein degradation, suggesting that the cell death of the brain was not enhanced in the fetal llama during hypoxaemia. Taken together, these results provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal llama responds to prolonged hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism, partly mediated by decreases in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and expression of NaV channels.
Chan, Yap-Hang; Siu, Chung-Wah; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Li, Sheung-Wai; Lau, Kui-Kai; Lam, Tai-Hing; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat
Underlying mechanisms of PR-interval prolongation leading to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including atrial fibrillation, are unclear. This study aims to investigate the relation between PR interval and changes in vascular function. We hypothesize that there exists an intermediate pathological stage between electrocardiographic PR prolongation and adverse cardiovascular outcomes, which could be reflected by changes in surrogate measurements of vascular function. We recruited 88 healthy subjects (mean age 57.5 ± 9.8 y, 46% male) from a community-based health screening program who had no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. PR interval was determined from a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. Vascular function was noninvasively assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using high-resolution ultrasound and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) using a vascular profiling system. Only 3 subjects had a PR-interval length longer than the conventional cutoff of 200 ms. The PR-interval length was associated inversely with FMD (Pearson r = -0.30, P = 0.004) and positively with PWV (r = 0.40, P PR-interval length by each 25 ms was independently associated with reduced FMD by -1 unit (absolute %, B = -0.04 [95% confidence interval: -0.080 to -0.002, P = 0.040)] and increased PWV by +103 cm/second (B = +4.1 [95% confidence interval: 0.6-7.6, P = 0.023]). This study shows that PR-interval length, even in the conventionally normal range, is independently associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness in healthy subjects free of atherosclerotic disease. This suggests the presence of a systemic, intermediate pathologic stage of the vasculature in PR prolongation before clinically manifest cardiovascular events, and could represent a mediating mechanism. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 may...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....
Full Text Available Natural zeolites of sedimentary origin are widely used in agriculture both as individual fertilizer and a mix of mineral and organic fertilizers. Natural zeolites are crystalline nanoporous hydrated aluminosilicates. Fertilizer of prolonged activity enriched with macro- and microelements is obtained by fusing zeolite with dehydrated ammonium using nanotechnological method of modification. The structure and some physical and chemical properties of a novel nanomaterial were studied by the methods of X-ray diffraction, IR-spectroscopy, absorption and thermal analysis. It was shown that the obtained fertilizer may be used in both protected and open grounds.
Saleh, Christian; Pierquin, Geneviève; Beyenburg, Stefan
Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis.
Full Text Available Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis.
Saleh, Christian; Pierquin, Geneviève; Beyenburg, Stefan
Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and complex disease, characterized by migraine with a reversible motor aura. Hemiplegic migraine can be easily misdiagnosed at its first presentation with an atypical severe form of migraine, a stroke, multiple sclerosis, metabolic disorders, conversion disorder or an epilepsy. We present the case of a young 24-year-old male patient, who since the age of 4 years had been having multiple episodes of migraine associated with hemiparesis, paraesthesia, prolonged somnolence, aphasia and confusion. We review the literature and discuss important diagnostic findings in hemiplegic migraine to help establishing a prompt diagnosis. PMID:27790126
Tao, Zhiyong; Mao, Qian
As we all know, the increasing speed of data traffic is exceeding gradually from voice in today"s communication network. The main reason is the explosive of Internet. The controversy with IP over ATM/SDH/Optical becomes hotter and hotter, Many people in the telecommunication field are doubt: HOW LONG WOULD SDH/SONET BE PROLONGED? WHAT KIND OF SDH EQUIPMENTS COULD BE USED IN THE NETWORK? With the analysis from several aspects: services in the network, new development with SDH technology, market in transport equipment, This paper is considered that the SDH with some new features would be predominant transport technology in the recent years.
Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan
Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic
Taeger, C. D.; Präbst, K; Beier, J P; Meyer, A; Horch, R E
Summary: In free flap surgery, a clinically established concept still has to be found for the reduction of ischemia-related cell damage in the case of prolonged ischemia. Although promising results using extracorporeal free flap perfusion in the laboratory have been published in the past, until now this concept has not yet paved its way into clinical routine. This might be due to the complexity of perfusion systems and a lack of standardized tools. Here, we want to present the results of the ...
Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B
(1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.
Wein, A. M.; Potter, S.; Becker, J.; Ratliff, J. L.; Hudson-Doyle, E.
An earthquake sequence is a prolonged natural hazard event. Scientists can dynamically forecast aftershock frequency within bounds of uncertainty. We examine how this capability can be used in decision-making to reduce risk during a period of heightened seismicity. We draw from experience of the Canterbury earthquake sequence initiated by a magnitude 7.1 mainshock on September 4, 2010 near the city of Christchurch, a population of 370,000. The sequence impacted the built, economic, social and natural environments of the Canterbury region. We study the use of aftershock forecasts in decision-making across the roles of policy makers, emergency managers and responders, critical infrastructure providers, insurers, communication officers, scientists, and the public. We held focus groups and interviews involving 53 participants using a semi-structured message centered approach in May and June of 2013. Transcripts from the focus groups and interviews were thematically coded using qualitative analysis. Responses to a pre-questionnaire suggested that aftershock information for decision-making increases slightly in importance throughout the four phases of a disaster - mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. We summarize our findings from this research, including the use and barriers to the use of aftershock forecasts in decision-making across the disaster phases by roles conflicts of interest that arise in the decision-making hierarchy challenges with providing and using forecasts during a prolonged event. Finally, we reflect on implications for Operational Earthquake Forecasting and how our findings may be generalized to other prolonged hazards.
Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D
Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....
Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV preferentially infects airway epithelial cells,which might be responsible for susceptibility to asthma; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study determined the activation of lymphocytes and drift of helper T (Th subsets induced by RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs in vitro. HBECs had prolonged infection with RSV, and lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood were co-cultured with RSV-infected HBECs. Four groups were established, as follows: lymphocytes (group L; lymphocytes infected with RSV (group RL; co-culture of lymphocytes with non-infected HBECs (group HL; and co-culture of lymphocytes with infected HBECs (group HRL. After co-culture with HBECs for 24 hours, lymphocytes were collected and the following were determined in the 4 groups: cell cycle status; apoptosis rate; and concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in the supernatants. Cell cycle analysis for lymphocytes showed a significant increase in S phase cells, a decrease in G1 phase cells, and a higher apoptosis rate in group HRL compared with the other three groups. In group HRL, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-17 in supernatants were also higher than the other three groups. For further study, lymphocytes were individually treated with supernatants from non-infected and RSV-infected HBECs for 24 h. We showed that supernatants from RSV-infected HBECs induced the differentiation of Th2 and Th17 subsets, and suppressed the differentiation of Treg subsets. Our results showed that HBECs with prolonged RSV infection can induce lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and enhance the release of cytokines by lymphocytes. Moreover, subset drift might be caused by RSV-infected HBECs.
Hovi, Tapani; Paananen, Anja; Blomqvist, Soile; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Al-Hello, Haider; Smura, Teemu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nadova, Katarina; Sobotova, Zdenka; Gavrilin, Eugene; Roivainen, Merja
Vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 2 strains strongly divergent from the corresponding vaccine strain, Sabin 2, were repeatedly isolated from sewage in Slovakia over a period of 22 months in 2003-2005. Cell cultures of stool specimens from known immune deficient patients and from an identified putative source population of 500 people failed to identify the potential excretor(s) of the virus. The occurrence of VDPV in sewage stopped without any intervention. No paralytic cases were reported in Slovakia during the episode. According to a GenBank search and similarity plotting-analysis, the closest known relative of the first isolate PV2/03/SVK/E783 through all main sections of the genome was the type 2 poliovirus Sabin strain, with nucleotide identities in 5'UTR, P1, P2, P3, and 3'UTR parts of the genome of 88.6, 85.9, 87.3, 88.5, and 94.0 percent, respectively. Phenotypic properties of selected Slovakian aVDPV strains resembled those of VDPV strains isolated from immune deficient individuals with prolonged PV infection (iVDPV), including antigenic changes and moderate neurovirulence in the transgenic mouse model. One hundred and two unique VP1 coding sequences were determined from VDPV strains isolated from 34 sewage specimens. Nucleotide differences from Sabin 2 in the VP1 coding region ranged from 12.5 to 15.6 percent, and reached a maximum of 9.6 percent between the VDPV strains under study. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were synonymous but as many as 93 amino acid positions out of 301 in VP1 showed substitutions. We conclude that (1) individuals with prolonged poliovirus infection are not as rare as suggested by the studies on immune deficient patients known to the health care systems and (2) genetic divergence of VDPV strains may remain extensive during years long replication in humans.
Full Text Available Vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV type 2 strains strongly divergent from the corresponding vaccine strain, Sabin 2, were repeatedly isolated from sewage in Slovakia over a period of 22 months in 2003-2005. Cell cultures of stool specimens from known immune deficient patients and from an identified putative source population of 500 people failed to identify the potential excretor(s of the virus. The occurrence of VDPV in sewage stopped without any intervention. No paralytic cases were reported in Slovakia during the episode. According to a GenBank search and similarity plotting-analysis, the closest known relative of the first isolate PV2/03/SVK/E783 through all main sections of the genome was the type 2 poliovirus Sabin strain, with nucleotide identities in 5'UTR, P1, P2, P3, and 3'UTR parts of the genome of 88.6, 85.9, 87.3, 88.5, and 94.0 percent, respectively. Phenotypic properties of selected Slovakian aVDPV strains resembled those of VDPV strains isolated from immune deficient individuals with prolonged PV infection (iVDPV, including antigenic changes and moderate neurovirulence in the transgenic mouse model. One hundred and two unique VP1 coding sequences were determined from VDPV strains isolated from 34 sewage specimens. Nucleotide differences from Sabin 2 in the VP1 coding region ranged from 12.5 to 15.6 percent, and reached a maximum of 9.6 percent between the VDPV strains under study. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were synonymous but as many as 93 amino acid positions out of 301 in VP1 showed substitutions. We conclude that (1 individuals with prolonged poliovirus infection are not as rare as suggested by the studies on immune deficient patients known to the health care systems and (2 genetic divergence of VDPV strains may remain extensive during years long replication in humans.
it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation...... of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose......The post–World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists—and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize...
Evaluación de la cognición social y teoría de la mente en pacientes con enfermedad cerebelosa degenerativa aislada no dementes Social cognition and theory of mind assessment in non-demented patients with isolated cerebellar degeneration
Carlos G. Abel
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar la hipótesis según la cual, el cerebelo podría participar en las alteraciones de la cognición social (CS. MÉTODO: Se administraron tests neuropsicológicos generales, de función ejecutiva (FE, de CS que evaluaban la capacidad de inferir el estado mental de otras personas y la escala de Depresión de Beck a 10 pacientes adultos con enfermedad cerebelosa adquirida aislada (GEC y a 10 controles (GCO apareados por edad, sexo y educación. Se analizaron los datos mediante ANOVA y correlación. RESULTADOS: El GEC obtuvo puntajes significativamente menores (p?0,05 que el grupo GCO en tareas de FE (Test de Wisconsin y preguntas de creencia (PCr de Teoría de la Mente (ToM. El rendimiento en las preguntas de control (PCo de ToM fue similar en ambos grupos. El menor rendimiento en las PCr correlacionó significativamente con una menor habilidad conceptual, la severidad de la apatía (NPI y de la ataxia estática. Las PCo correlacionaron con medidas de atención y de recuerdo diferido libre. CONCLUSÍON: El cerebelo contribuiría en el monitoreo de la conducta mediante el control de datos multimodales motores, cognitivos y emocionales.AIM: To investigate whether the cerebellum could participate in social cognition (SC. METHOD: General neuropsychological tests, executive tests (EF, social cognition tests, which assess the ability to infer other peoples’ mental states, and the Beck Depression Inventory were given to 10 non-demented patients with isolated cerebellar degenerative disease, and to 10 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and years of education. ANOVA and correlation coefficients were employed for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Patients within the cerebellar group were significantly impaired (p?0.05 in EF test [Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT] and belief questions (BQ from Theory of Mind (ToM tests. Performance in control questions (CQ from ToM tests was similar for both groups. Lower scores in BQ correlated
El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.
Full Text Available SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal parathyroidectomy is presented.RESUMENEl hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.
Kohn, N; Wassenberg, A; Toygar, T; Kellermann, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Laoutidis, Z G; Schneider, F; Karges, W; Habel, U
Previous literature has shown that hypoglycemia influences the intensity of the BOLD signal. A similar but smaller effect may also be elicited by low normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals. This may not only confound the BOLD signal measured in fMRI, but also more generally interact with cognitive processing, and thus indirectly influence fMRI results. Here we show in a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study on 40 healthy subjects, that overnight fasting and low normal levels of glucose contrasted to an activated, elevated glucose condition have an impact on brain activation during basal visual stimulation. Additionally, functional connectivity of the visual cortex shows a strengthened association with higher-order attention-related brain areas in an elevated blood glucose condition compared to the fasting condition. In a fasting state visual brain areas show stronger coupling to the inferior temporal gyrus. Results demonstrate that prolonged overnight fasting leads to a diminished BOLD signal in higher-order occipital processing areas when compared to an elevated blood glucose condition. Additionally, functional connectivity patterns underscore the modulatory influence of fasting on visual brain networks. Patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity associated with a broad range of attentional processes are affected by maturation and aging and associated with psychiatric disease and intoxication. Thus, we conclude that prolonged fasting may decrease fMRI design sensitivity in any task involving attentional processes when fasting status or blood glucose is not controlled.
Romlin, B; Petruson, K; Nilsson, K
In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that mild systemic hypothermia influences platelet adhesion and aggregation and coagulation reactions. We wanted to test the hypothesis that mild local hypothermia in healthy volunteers with preserved core temperature increased bleeding time. A secondary aim was to evaluate if local cooling influenced whole blood coagulation measured by thrombelastograph (TEG) in the same setting. Bleeding time was measured at the left volar forearm at a baseline skin temperature of 32 degrees C and after cooling to 30 degrees C and 28 degrees C in a water bath. Skin temperature was continuously measured by contact thermistors. Measurements of coagulation by TEG were performed at baseline skin temperature before cooling and after cooling to 28 degrees C skin temperature. Tympanic membrane temperature was continuously measured. Compared with baseline, bleeding time was significantly prolonged at 30 degrees C skin temperature and further prolonged at 28 degrees C skin temperature. No significant differences were measured in any of the TEG parameters. During the procedure, tympanic membrane temperature did not change. Lowering the skin temperature from 32 degrees C to 30 degrees C and 28 degrees C with a preserved core temperature more than doubled the bleeding time. Whole blood coagulation measured by TEG was not influenced by the local cooling. In addition to core temperature, local temperature may offer information in understanding the surgical site of bleeding.
Khoo, Iam Choon; Chen, Chun-Wei; Ho, Tsung-Jui
In this paper, we show that photosensitive azo-dye doped Blue-phase liquid crystals (BPLC) formed by natural molecular self-assembly are capable of high diffraction efficiency holographic recording with memory that can be prolonged from few seconds to several minutes by uniform illumination with the reference beam. Operating in the Bragg regime, we have observed 50 times improvement in the grating diffraction efficiency and shorter recording time compared to previous investigations. The enabling mechanism is BPLC’s lattice distortion and index modulation caused by the action of light on the azo-dopant; upon photo-excitation, the azo-molecules undergo transformation from the oblong-shaped Trans-state to the bent-shaped Cis-state, imparting disorder and also cause the surrounding BPLC molecules to undergo coupled flow & reorientation leading to lattice distortion and index modulation. We also showed that the same mechanism at work here that facilitates lattice distortion can be used to frustrate free relaxation of the lattice distortion, thereby prolonging the lifetime of the written grating, provided the reference beam is kept on after recording. Due to the ease in BPLC fabrication and the availability of azo-dopants with photosensitivity throughout the entire visible spectrum, one can optimize the controlling material and optical parameters to obtain even better performance.
Natung, Tanie; Barooah, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh
Objectives This study was done to determine the effect of multiparity and prolonged lactation on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional study included 196 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years old. Age, body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, duration of menopause, parity and total duration of lactation, nutritional history were recorded. Lumbar spine (LS; L2-L4) and femur neck (FN) BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation of parity and lactation with BMD were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results Parity was inversely correlated to BMD for LS (β = −0.266, P = 0.001) and FN (β = −0.380, P = 0.000). This relation remained significant even after adjusting for age, BMI and duration of menopause. Duration of lactation was inversely correlated with BMD for LS (β = −0.271, P = 0.001) but no for FN (β = −0.124, P = 0.130). Conclusions Multiparity and prolonged lactation have negative impact on BMD especially with in a socioeconomic group whose nutritional intake is borderline. Our data support that parity and duration of lactation can be associated with future osteoporosis. PMID:28119896
Souleymanou Abbagari; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Mouna Ferdinand; Timoleon Crepin Kofane
We address the problem of integrability of a coupled dispersionless system recently introduced by Zhaqilao, Zhao and Li [Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1780] which physically describes the propagation of electromagnetic fields within an optical nonlinear medium, but also arrives in the physical description of a charged object dynamics in an external magnetic field. Following the prolongation structure analysis developed by Wahlquist and Estabrook, we derive a more general form of Lax pairs of the previous coupled dispersionless system and its concrete nonAbelian Lie algebra resorting to a hidden symmetry. Also, we construct the B(a)cklund transformation of the system using the Riccati form of the linear eigenvalue problem.%@@ We address the problem of integrability of a coupled dispersionless system recently introduced by Zhaqilao, Zhao and Li [Chin.Phys.B 18(2009) 1780] which physically describes the propagation of electromagnetic fields within an optical nonlinear medium, but also arrives in the physical description of a charged object dynamics in an external magnetic field.Following the prolongation structure analysis developed by Wahlquist and Estabrook, we derive a more general form of Lax pairs of the previous coupled dispersionless system and its concrete non-Abelian Lie algebra resorting to a hidden symmetry.Also, we construct the Backlund transformation of the system using the Riccati form of the linear eigenvalue problem.
Lepers, R; Pousson, M L; Maffiuletti, N A; Martin, A; Van Hoecke, J
The aim of this study was to examine concentric, isometric, and eccentric strength reductions in the quadriceps muscle following a prolonged running exercise. Before and after a 2 h run (28.4+/-1.4 km) peak torque (PT) of the knee extensors at angular velocities of -120, -90, -60, 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 degrees x s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer, electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles and height of a counter movement jump were recorded in twelve well-trained triathletes. Counter movement jump performances decreased by 10% and PT values were all significantly lower (p run. The torque loss was significantly (p activity (RMS) was lower in both VL and VM muscles after the 2 h run but no difference existed in RMS losses between concentric and eccentric contractions. The present results demonstrate that 1) a prolonged running exercise more greatly affects eccentric force production in the quadriceps muscle, and 2) this specificity seems to be due to an impairment of the muscular contractile mechanism rather than a modification to the neural input.
Full Text Available Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.
Martin, Caroline; Bideau, Benoit; Delamarche, Paul; Kulpa, Richard
The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.
Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD are the most common injuries that are associated with car collisions in Japan and many Western countries. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the potential risk factors for poor recovery from WAD. Therefore, we used an online survey of the Japanese population to examine the association between potential risk factors and the persistence of symptoms in individuals with WAD.An online survey was completed by 127,956 participants, including 4,164 participants who had been involved in a traffic collision. A random sample of the collision participants (n = 1,698 were provided with a secondary questionnaire. From among the 974 (57.4% respondents to the secondary questionnaire, we selected 183 cases (intractable neck pain that was treated over a period of 6 months and 333 controls (minor neck pain that was treated within 3 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential risk factors for prolonged treatment of WAD.Female sex, the severity of the collision, poor expectations of recovery, victim mentality, dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain were associated with a poor recovery from WAD.In the present study, the baseline symptoms (dizziness, numbness or pain in the arms, and lower back pain had the strongest associations with prolonged treatment for WAD, although the psychological and behavioral factors were also important. These risk factors should be considered when evaluating patients who may have the potential for poor outcomes.
Motawea, Mohamad; Al-Kenany, Al-Sayed; Hosny, Mostafa; Aglan, Omar; Samy, Mohamad; Al-Abd, Mohamed
"Electrical shock is the physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. It occurs upon contact of a human body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair causing undesirable effects ranging from simple burns to death." Ventricular fibrillation is believed to be the most common cause of death after electrical shock. "The ideal duration of cardiac resuscitation is unknown. Typically prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with poor neurologic outcomes and reduced long term survival. No consensus statement has been made and traditionally efforts are usually terminated after 15-30 minutes." The case under discussion seems worthy of the somewhat detailed description given. It is for a young man who survived after 65 minutes after electrical shock (ES) after prolonged high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple defibrillations, and artificial ventilation without any sequelae. Early start of adequate chest compressions and close adherence to advanced cardiac life support protocols played a vital role in successful CPR.
Vermet, G; Degoutin, S; Chai, F; Maton, M; Flores, C; Neut, C; Danjou, P E; Martel, B; Blanchemain, N
The use of textile meshes in hernia repair is widespread in visceral surgery. Though, mesh infection is a complication that may prolong the patient recovery period and consequently presents an impact on public health economy. Such concern can be avoided thanks to a local and extended antibiotic release on the operative site. In recent developments, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) has been used in complement of polyethyleneterephthalate (Dacron®) (PET) or polypropylene (PP) yarns in the manufacture of semi-resorbable parietal implants. The goal of the present study consisted in assigning drug reservoir properties and prolonged antibacterial effect to a 100% PLLA knit through its functionalization with a cyclodextrin polymer (polyCD) and activation with ciprofloxacin. The study focused i) on the control of degree of polyCD functionalization of the PLLA support and on its physical and biological characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and cell viability, ii) on the understanding of drug/meshes interaction using mathematic model and iii) on the correlation between drug release studies in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and microbiological evaluation of meshes and release medium against E. coli and S. aureus. All above mentioned tests highlighted the contribution of polyCD on the improved performances of the resulting antibacterial implantable material.
Steven W Cole
Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.
Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on ... of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...
Full Text Available Objectives: In Switzerland, assisted suicide (AS is legal, provided that the person seeking assistance has decisional capacity and the person assisting is not motivated by reasons of self-interest. However, in this particular setting nothing is known about patients’ and their caregivers’ attitudes towards AS and life-prolonging measures. Methods: Data was retrieved through validated questionnaires and personal interviews in 33 patients and their caregivers covering the following domains: physical function according to the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R, demographic data, quality of life (QoL, anxiety, depression, social situation, spirituality, burden of disease, life-prolonging and life-shortening acts.Results: In patients the median time after diagnosis was 9 months (2-90 and the median ALS FRS-R score was 37 (22-48. The majority of patients (94%; n=31 had no desire to hasten death. Patients’ and caregivers’ attitudes towards Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG and Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV differed. Significantly more patients than caregivers (21.2% versus 3.1% stated that they were against NIV (p=0.049 and against PEG (27.3% versus 3.1%; p=0.031. Answers regarding tracheotomy were not significantly different (p= 0.139. Caregivers scored significantly higher levels of suffering (p=0.007, loneliness (p=0.006 and emotional distress answering the questionnaires (p<0.001. Suffering (p<0.026 and loneliness (p<0.016 were related to the score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS in patients. Conclusion: A liberal legal setting does not necessarily promote the wish for AS. However, the desire to discuss assisted suicide is prevalent in ALS patients. There is a higher level of suffering and loneliness on the caregivers’ side. A longitudinal study is warranted.
Full Text Available Qing Liu,1,2 Renlai Zhou,1–4 Xin Zhao,5 Tian Po S Oei6 1Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, 2Research Center of Emotion Regulation, 3State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, International Data Group/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Psychology, School of Social and Behavioral Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 5Behavior Rehabilitation Training Research Institution, School of Psychology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: The weightlessness caused by prolonged bed rest results in changes in cerebral circulation and thus, brain functions, which is of interest. Methods: We investigated the effects of 45-day, -6° head-down bed rest, which stimulated microgravity, on working memory in 16 healthy male participants. The 2-back task was used to test the working memory variations on the 2nd day before bed rest (R-2; on the 11th (R11, 20th (R20, 32nd (R32, and 40th (R40 days of bed rest; and on the eighth day after bed rest (R+8. The cognitive response and the physiological reactivity (such as galvanic skin response, heart rate, and heart rate variability under the 2-back task were recorded simultaneously. Results: The results showed that compared with R-2, on the R+8, the participants’ galvanic skin response increased significantly, and the high frequency of heart rate variability (HF, low frequency of heart rate variability (LF, and reaction time in the 2-back task decreased significantly. There were positive correlations between the participants’ reaction time of working memory and the LF/HF under head-down bed rest (at R11, R20, and R32. Conclusion: The results suggested that the prolonged head-down bed rest may have a detrimental effect on individual
Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per
"Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...
Coyle, E F; Coggan, A R
Prolonged exercise in the fasted state frequently results in a lowering of blood glucose concentration, and when the intensity is moderate (i.e. 60-80% of VO2 max), muscle often becomes depleted of glycogen. The extent to which carbohydrate feedings contribute to energy production, and their effectiveness for improving endurance during prolonged exercise, are reviewed in this article. Prolonged exercise (i.e. greater than 2 hours) results in a failure of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with muscle glucose uptake. As a result, blood glucose concentration frequently declines below 2.5 mmol/L. Despite this hypoglycaemia, fewer than 25% of subjects display symptoms suggestive of central nervous system dysfunction. Since fatigue rarely results from hypoglycaemia alone, the effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding should be judged by its potential for muscle glycogen sparing. Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity exercise postpones the development of fatigue by approximately 15 to 30 minutes, yet it does not prevent fatigue. This observation agrees with data suggesting that carbohydrate supplementation reduces muscle glycogen depletion. It is not certain whether carbohydrate feeding increases muscle glucose uptake throughout moderate exercise or if glucose uptake is higher only during the latter stages of exercise. In contrast to moderate intensity exercise, carbohydrate feeding during low intensity exercise (i.e. less than 45% of VO2 max) results in hyperinsulinaemia. Consequently, muscle glucose uptake and total carbohydrate oxidation are increased by approximately the same amount. The amount of ingested glucose which is oxidised is greater than the increase in total carbohydrate oxidation and therefore endogenous carbohydrate is spared. The majority of sparing appears to occur in the liver, which is reasonable since muscle glycogen is not utilised to a large extent during mild exercise. Although carbohydrate feedings prevent hypoglycaemia and are readily
Skardelly, Marco; Dangel, Elena; Gohde, Julia; Noell, Susan; Behling, Felix; Lepski, Guilherme; Borchers, Christian; Koch, Marilin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Bisdas, Sotirios; Naumann, Aline; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel; von Hehn, Ulrike; Ritz, Rainer; Tatagiba, Marcos Soares; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh
The impact of prolonging temozolomide (TMZ) maintenance beyond six cycles in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) remains a topic of discussion. We investigated the effects of prolonged TMZ maintenance on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we included patients with GBM who were treated with radiation therapy with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ. For analysis, patients were considered who either completed six TMZ maintenance cycles (group B), continued with TMZ therapy beyond six cycles (group C), or stopped TMZ maintenance therapy within the first six cycles (group A). Patients with progression during the first six TMZ maintenance cycles were excluded. Clinical data from 107 patients were included for Kaplan-Meier analyses and 102 for Cox regressions. Median PFS times were 8.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-12.4) in group A, 13.7 months (95% CI 10.6-17.5) in group B, and 20.9 months (95% CI 15.2-43.5) in group C. At first progression, response rates of TMZ/lomustine rechallenge were 47% in group B and 13% in group C. Median OS times were 12.7 months (95% CI 10.3-16.8) in group A, 25.2 months (95% CI 17.7-55.5) in group B, and 28.6 months (95% CI 24.4-open) in group C. Nevertheless, multivariate Cox regression for patients in group C compared with group B that accounted for imbalances of other risk factors showed no different relative risk (RR) for OS (RR 0.77, p = .46). Our data do not support a general extension of TMZ maintenance therapy beyond six cycles. The Oncologist 2017;22:570-575 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Radiation therapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) maintenance therapy is still the standard of care in patients below the age of 65 years in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. However, in clinical practice, many centers continue TMZ maintenance therapy beyond six cycles. The impact of this continuation is controversial and has not yet been addressed in
Xu, Xiangdong; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L; Hassan, Anjum
Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a rare and aggressive form of systemic mastocytosis. There are approximately 50 reported cases since 1950s. MCL is refractory to cytoreduction chemotherapy and the average survival is only six months. We report a MCL case in a 71 year-old woman with high tumor load at the initial presentation in 2005, who did not respond to either interleukin-2 or dasatinib therapy. After enrolled in a clinical trial of PKC412 (or Midostaurin) with a daily dose of 100 mg, the patient responded well to PKC412 and became transfusion independent in three months. Since then, her disease had been stably controlled. This is the first report of a high-tumor-load MCL case which achieved prolonged survival (101 months) by PKC 412. The 101-month overall survival is the longest among reported MCL cases in the English literature.
Sahin, M; Riviello, J J
Barbiturate anesthesia, which is commonly used for refractory status epilepticus, is an effective treatment, but with many significant complications. The relationship between the duration of this extreme therapy and the ultimate outcome of refractory status epilepticus has not been well studied. We report a 7-year-old girl who presented with refractory status epilepticus secondary to presumed encephalitis with a focal lesion on cranial magnetic resonance imaging. She was treated for 70 days with high-dose antiepileptic drugs and recovered with a residual seizure disorder. This case suggests that, if the status epilepticus is due to a reversible cause such as encephalitis, neurologic recovery may occur despite this very prolonged course of extreme therapy.
Macías-Robles, María Dolores; Perez-Clemente, Ana María; Maciá-Bobes, Carmen; Alvarez-Rueda, María Asunción; Pozo-Nuevo, Sergio
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the avoidance of food intake, which usually leads to a weight loss. Cardiac co-morbility is common and we can find sometimes a mass loss from the left ventricle, which can be seen by echocardiography. But the commonest complications are rhythm variations, typically bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval in up to a 40% of the cases, which altogether elevates ventricular tachycardia and sudden death risk. We present the case of a male who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and developed asthenia, a long QT interval and also a severe both hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia. We intend to discuss the pathogenic paths as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures to this potentially-lethal pathology. PMID:19646241
Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean
Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.
Côté, Denis; Caron, Anne; Aubert, Jonathan; Desrochers, Véronique; Ladouceur, Robert
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether near wins can prolong gambling activity on a video lottery terminal. In a three-reel game, near wins were operationally defined as two identical symbols followed by a third different symbol. Players in an experimental condition were exposed to 27% near wins in a series of continuous losses, whereas players in a control group were exposed to none. Participants played as long as they wished, and received real money for their wins. The results showed that players in the near win condition played 33% more games than did the control group. The results of this study suggest that near wins can be added to the list of factors that may motivate people to gamble despite the probability of monetary loss.
Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W
Prolonged administration (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) to rats of an antiepileptic drug--sodium valproate (Vupral--"Polfa") in the dose of 200 mg/kg/day produced the first hepatic morphological lesions after 3 months of the experiment. These structural abnormalities progressively increased to achieve their peak within 12 months. The most prominent microscopic changes consisted of extensive microvesicular fatty change and vacuolar degeneration of periportal hepatocytes. Intralobular focal necrosis, infiltrations of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and phagocytes in the portal tracts, and centrilobular congestion were also present. The connective tissue did not proliferate either in periportal lobular zone or around the central veins. The described lesions seem thus to be reversible.
Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann
reflects suppressed arousal. In H, subjects fatigued after 34.4-1.4 min coinciding with an oesophageal temperature (Toes) of 39.8-0.1°C, an almost maximal heart rate (HR 192-3 beats·min-1), a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 19.0-0.8 and significantly elevated !/# index (188-71% of the value after 2...... min of exercise; PIncreases in the !/# index were strongly correlated to increases in Toes (r2=0.98; P=0.0001).......We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...
Md. Golam Rashed
Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.
to the brain. However, exercise with superimposed hyperthermia is not only a challenge to the brain it also provides an excellent model for studying factors of importance for central fatigue. Excessive heat storage within the brain appears to be the primary cause for the central fatigue during exercise...... to aggravate central fatigue and degrade exercise performance. Hyperthermia mediated central fatigue may include other cerebral perturbations such as reduced perfusion of the brain, accumulation of ammonia or depletion of neuronal energy stores, but further research is needed to elucidate their possible......Exercise-induced hyperthermia is associated with central fatigue as indicated by an impaired ability to sustain maximal motor activation during prolonged voluntary efforts. Therefore, exercise in hot environments challenges not only to the cardiorespiratory and locomotive systems but also...
Hazani, A; Tatarsky, I; Barzilai, D
A patient with polycythemia vera (PV) received successive treatment by phlebotomies, radioactive phosphorus, myleran and cyclophosphamide. Sixteen years after the diagnosis, he developed acute myeloblastic leukemia. A complete remission was achieved following two courses of COAP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Cytosine Arabinoside, and prednisone) therapy. Four months later, while still in leukemic remission, he became mildly polycythemic again and the treatment with phlebotomies and cyclophosphamide was resume. The patient has subsequently been in complete remission of leukemia for over three years and his polycythemia is controlled by small doses of cyclophosphamide. This appears to be a unique case of such a prolonged remission of leukemia in the course of PV, with a return to a mild polycythemia state.
Maiz, Jaione; Karakossian, Movses H; Pakaprot, Narawut; Robleto, Karla; Thompson, Richard F; Otis, Thomas S
Climbing fiber input to the cerebellum is believed to serve as a teaching signal during associative, cerebellum-dependent forms of motor learning. However, it is not understood how this neural pathway coordinates changes in cerebellar circuitry during learning. Here, we use pharmacological manipulations to prolong the postcomplex spike pause, a component of the climbing fiber signal in Purkinje neurons, and show that these manipulations enhance the rate of learning in classical eyelid conditioning. Our findings elucidate an unappreciated aspect of the climbing fiber teaching signal, and are consistent with a model in which convergent postcomplex spike pauses drive learning-related plasticity in the deep cerebellar nucleus. They also suggest a physiological mechanism that could modulate motor learning rates.
Leone, G; de Schonen, S; Lipshits, M
We evaluated the influence of prolonged weightlessness on the performance of three cosmonauts to bilateral symmetry detection in the course of a 15-day-long Russian-French mission CASSIOPEE 96 aboard the MIR station. We tested the influence of weightlessness on subjects' performance as a function of the retinal orientation of axis of symmetry. as a function of type of stimuli (closed versus multi-elements shapes) and as a function of visual field presentation (at fixation, left visual field. right visual field). The results indicate firstly a difference between presentation at fixation versus away of fixation. Away of fixation, no effect of microgravity on performance was shown. A hypothesis of hemispheric specialization for symmetry detection was not supported as well. At fixation, an effect of micro-gravity was shown and more interestingly, the effect was quite different as a function of type of shapes used. suggesting that symmetry detection is a multiple-stage process.
Basset, Céline; Vadrot, Jacqueline; Denis, Jacques; Poupon, Joël; Zafrani, Elie Serge
Hepatotoxicity, predominantly cholestatic, is a rare adverse effect of gold salt therapy, which usually completely resolves within a few months. We report the case of a female patient treated for rheumatoid arthritis, who had gold salt overdose, and in whom acute cholestatic hepatitis occurred three weeks after beginning of therapy. Evolution of gold concentration was followed in plasma and urine, as well as in cutaneous and liver dry tissue. Liver biopsy showed marked inflammatory changes of interlobular bile ducts that evolved towards ductopenia, which was responsible for prolonged cholestasis still present 15 months later. In addition, sialadenitis with sicca syndrome was noted six months after onset of the disease. The mechanism of hepatotoxicity was probably immunoallergic since liver lesions were associated with hypersensitivity syndrome including dermatitis and blood and tissue eosinophilia. This is the first report of gold salt hepatotoxicity with histological demonstration of cholangitis followed by ductopenia.
Tracheoesophageal fistula most commonly occurs as a complication of prolonged tracheal intubation. The incidence decreased after the use of low pressure and high volume endotracheal cuffs, but the intensive care units continue to provide such cases. The abnormal tracheoesophageal communication causes pulmonary contamination (with severe suppuration) and impossibility to feed the patient. The prognosis is reserved, because most patients are debilitated and ventilator dependent, with severe neurological and cardiovascular diseases. The therapeutic options are elected based on respiratory, neurological and nutritional status. The aim of conservative treatment is to stop the contamination (drainage gastrostomy, feeding jejunostomy) and to treat the pulmonary infection and biological deficits. Endoscopic therapies can be tried in cases with surgical contraindication. Operation is addressed to selected cases and consists in the dissolution of the fistula, esophageal suture with or without segmental tracheal resection associated. Esophageal diversion is rarely required. The correct indication and timing of surgery, proper surgical technique and postoperative care are prerequisites for adequate results.
Full Text Available Prolonged reorganization behaviour of mono-, di-, tri- and multi-layer films of Au nanoparticles prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett method on hydrophobic Si(001 substrates have been studied by using X-ray scattering techniques. Out-of-plane study shows that although at the initial stage the reorganization occurs through the compaction of the films keeping the layered structure unchanged but finally all layered structures modify to monolayer structure. Due to this reorganization the Au density increases within the nanometer thick films. In-plane study shows that inside the reorganized films Au nanoparticles are distributed randomly and the particle size modifies as the metallic core of Au nanoparticles coalesces.
Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G
Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested.
Mersa, B; Tiangco, D A; Terzis, J K
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether 40 percent of the hypoglossal nerve, which showed optimal efficacy in restoring orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) function after different percentages of partial neurectomy in a previous study would be effective after prolonged denervation time. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. In first-stage surgery the left facial nerve of all animals was transected at the level of the stylomastoid foramen and main zygomatic branch. Group A (controls) consisted of animals with only left facial nerves transected (no repair). In Groups B, C, and D the facial nerve was transected and the facial musculature was denervated for a period of 4, 8, and 12 weeks respectively. During a second-stage procedure, a 40 percent neurectomy was performed on the hypoglossal nerve. Subsequently, a nerve transfer was performed by coaptations of a saphenous nerve graft to the neurectomized hypoglossal nerve and the main zygomatic branch of the facial nerve that innervated the OOM. Behavioral analysis of blink reflex, electrophysiology, and axon and motor end-plate counts in Groups B, C, and D showed superior results compared to Group A. There was no statistically significant difference observed among Groups B, C, and D (p > 0.05). Despite the diminished number of axons in the zygomatic branch and motor end-plates in the orbicularis oculi muscle after 12 weeks of denervation, there was still sufficient muscle target recovery to effect some eye closure in all groups except the controls. This study demonstrated in this model that the 40 percent partial neurectomy of the XII to VII component of the "baby-sitter" procedure was effective even after prolonged denervation.
Clavet, Heidi; Hébert, Paul C.; Fergusson, Dean; Doucette, Steve; Trudel, Guy
Background Prolonged immobility during a critical illness may predispose patients to the development of joint contracture. We sought to document the incidence of, the risk factors for and the reversibility of joint contractures among patients who stayed in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU) for 2 weeks or longer. Methods We conducted a chart review to collect data on the presence of and risk factors for joint contractures in the shoulders, elbows, hips, knees and ankles among patients admitted to the ICU between January 2003 and March 2005. Results At the time of transfer out of the ICU, at least 1 joint contracture was recorded in 61 (39%) of 155 patients; 52 (34%) of the patients had joint contractures of an extent documented to impair function. Time spent in the ICU was a significant risk factor for contracture: a stay of 8 weeks or longer was associated with a significantly greater risk of any joint contracture than a stay of 2 to 3 weeks (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–38.9; p = 0.02). Among the variables tested, only the use of steroids conferred a protective effect against joint contractures (adjusted OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14–0.83; p = 0.02). At the time of discharge to home, which occurred a median of 6.6 weeks after transfer out of intensive care, 50 (34%) of the 147 patients not lost to follow-up still had 1 or more joint contractures, and 34 (23%) of the patients had at least 1 functionally significant joint contracture. Interpretation Following a prolonged stay in the ICU, a functionally significant contracture of a major joint occurred in more than one-third of patients, and most of these contractures persisted until the time of discharge to home. PMID:18332384
The causes of prolonged pregnancy are still largely unknown and their investigation requires a detailed observation of potential birth-initiating stimuli on the endocrine and biomolecular level. A large number of clinical and biochemical studies point to the central importance of prostaglandins for the beginning of human birth. The main places of origin of the intensified prostaglandin formation and release are the amnion and the decidua which has "macrophage-like" properties and functions. The superordinate regulation and trigger mechanisms for intensified uterine prostaglandin production has not been sufficiently investigated either. Possible factors currently being debated include local changes in estrogen and progesterone biosynthesis in fetal membranes and decidua, subclinical inflammatory reactions with the activation of macrophages and the consecutive release of cytokines, and a loss of maternal immune tolerance with a time-determined rejection reaction. In addition, the substances inhibiting and stimulating prostaglandin synthesis have been detected in the amniotic fluid, fetal membranes and decidua. The fetus itself also plays an important part in the initiation of labor. Prolongation may be due to anatomic functional disturbances of the one hand which prevent the activation of the fetal hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal axis and the release of the birth-initiating stimuli originating in the fetus; on the other hand, an elevated immune tolerance with a delayed rejection reaction or the lack of "bacterial stimulus" may inhibit the activation of the macrophages and hence the formation of cytokines. The consequences would be the development and release of a quantity of prostaglandins from the fetal membranes and decidua insufficient to overcome the pregnancy-maintaining safety systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J
Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.
O'Brien, Catherine E; Harik, Nada; James, Laura P; Seib, Paul M; Stowe, Cindy D
Alternative medicine is becoming increasingly popular, especially with terminally ill patients. Most alternative remedies have not been adequately studied or proven effective for the diseases for which they are promoted. In the worst cases, these therapies are harmful. We describe a 16-year-old girl with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma who experienced cesium-induced QT-interval prolongation after the start of a cesium chloride-based alternative treatment regimen. She had received seven courses of chemotherapy, with a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 500 mg/m(2) over 5 months, resulting in minimal tumor regression. Against the advice of her oncologist, she abandoned traditional therapy and started an alternative regimen that included cesium chloride supplements. Two weeks later, the patient went to a local emergency department after experiencing two brief syncopal episodes. An electrocardiogram revealed occasional premature ventricular contractions, a QTc interval of 683 msec (normal range for females 450-460 msec), and R on T phenomenon. She was admitted to the hospital and later experienced monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which resolved spontaneously. Lidocaine therapy was started, and the patient was transferred to a cardiac intensive care unit at our hospital. Her plasma cesium level was 2400 microg/dl (normal cesium level was 1800 microg/dl, and her QTc interval was 494 msec. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, cesium was the probable cause of the patient's arrhythmia. In animal models, cesium chloride has induced cardiac arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes. It inhibits delayed rectifier potassium channels in the myocardium, causing delayed repolarization and QT-interval prolongation. Patients with cancer should be aware that alternative remedies may be harmful and ineffective. Because patients may be unlikely to self-report alternative remedies, health care providers should specifically ask their patients about any
Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV
Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.
Toth, Iulia; Neumann, Inga D
Social fear and avoidance of social situations represent the main behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a highly prevalent anxiety disorder that is poorly elucidated and has rather unsatisfactory therapeutic options. Therefore, animal models are needed to study the underlying etiology and pathophysiology of SAD and to verify the efficacy of possible novel treatment approaches. In this review, we describe and discuss the most important paradigms that have been shown to induce social avoidance and fear in rodents, including foot shock exposure, restraint stress, social isolation, social instability, social defeat, conditioned defeat, social defeat/overcrowding, chronic subordinate colony housing, chronic mild stress, maternal separation and social fear conditioning. We also describe some of the behavioral paradigms used to assess social avoidance and fear in rodents, including the social interaction test, the social preference-avoidance test, the social approach-avoidance test, the three-chambered social approach test, the partition test and the modified Y-maze test. We focus on the behavioral alterations these paradigms induce, especially on social interaction, general anxiety and depressive-like behavior given that SAD is strongly comorbid with anxiety and affective disorders.
Landhäußer, Sandra; Ziegler, Holger
This paper surveys research on social capital. We explore the concepts that motivate the social capital literature, efforts to formally model social capital using economic theory, the econometrics of social capital, and empirical studies of the role of social capital in various socioeconomic outcomes. While our focus is primarily on the place of social capital in economics, we do consider its broader social science context. We argue that while the social capital literature has produced many i...
Frynta, Daniel; Nováková, Marcela; Kutalová, Hana; Palme, Rupert; Sedlácek, Frantisek
Assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites has become a widely used method for monitoring stress responses. Because most small rodents are social animals whose physiologic parameters are affected by social stimuli, individual housing may compromise these data. Nevertheless, housing rodents in families or social groups may be an important limitation to the experimental design. The challenge is to collect samples from individual rodents while avoiding stress-associated effects from the sampling method itself. Here we present an apparatus and protocol allowing routine repeated collection of an individual rodent's fresh fecal samples without noticeable disturbance of any of the study animals; continuous maintenance of studied animals in a familiar environment; group housing; and uninterrupted visual and olfactory communication among group members during sampling. The apparatus consists of 1 central and 4 lateral compartments. The experimental animal was allowed to enter a lateral compartment voluntarily, where it remained for the short (4 h) period necessary for sample collection before rejoining the rest of the group. Evaluations involved Egyptian spiny mice, a social rodent increasingly studied in laboratories. The results confirmed the repeatability of the assessment of baseline levels of glucocorticoid metabolites. Moreover, keeping the animals in our experimental apparatus did not induce any increase in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites, even when isolation in the compartment was relatively prolonged. We interpret these results as confirmation that our sampling procedure allows repeated individual sampling within a nearly undisturbed social unit.
Bergmann, Christopher; Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S
Bilingual and monolingual language processing differ, presumably because of constant parallel activation of both languages in bilinguals. We attempt to isolate the effects of parallel activation in a group of German first-language (L1) attriters, who have grown up as monolingual natives before emigrating to an L2 environment. We hypothesized that prolonged immersion will lead to changes in the processing of morphosyntactic violations. Two types of constructions were presented as stimuli in an event-related potential experiment: (1) verb form combinations (auxiliaries+past participles and modals+infinitives) and (2) determiner-noun combinations marked for grammatical gender. L1 attriters showed the same response to violations of gender agreement as monolingual controls (i.e. a significant P600 effect strongest over posterior electrodes). Incorrect verb form combinations also elicited a significant posterior P600 effect in both groups. In attriters, however, there was an additional posterior N400 effect for this type of violation. Such biphasic patterns have been found before in L1 and L2 speakers of English and might reflect the influence of this language. Generally, we interpret our results as evidence for the stability of the deeply entrenched L1 system, even in the face of L2 interference.
Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van
The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but
Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van
The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but
Tingate, T. R.; Lugg, D. J.; Muller, H. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.
Stressful environmental conditions are a major determinant of immune reactivity. This effect is pronounced in Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition populations exposed to prolonged periods of isolation in the Antarctic. Alterations of T cell function, including depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and a peak 48.9% reduction of T cell proliferation to the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin, were documented during a 9-month period of isolation. T cell dysfunction was mediated by changes within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell compartment, including a paradoxical atypical monocytosis associated with altered production of inflammatory cytokines. There was a striking reduction in the production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the predominant pro-inflammatory monokine TNF-alpha and changes were also detected in the production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ra and IL-10. Prolonged Antarctic isolation is also associated with altered latent herpesvirus homeostasis, including increased herpesvirus shedding and expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cell population. These findings have important long-term health implications.
Lo Presti, Patrizio
The aim of this paper is to show that there is a reciprocal dependency relationship between social cognition and social ontology. It is argued that, on the one hand, the existence conditions of socially meaningful objects and of social groups are about subjects’ social cognitive processes and interactive patterns and, on the other hand, social cognitive processes and interactive patterns are modulated by socially meaningful objects and social groups. I proceed from a historically informed dis...
Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV
Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus an...
雷铭; 罗路; 马士棋; 张研; 吴玺宏; 李量
发育早期的不良事件会对动物和人类的大脑发育及成年后的行为产生重要影响.早期社会隔离能引起人和动物的行为模式及神经系统结构产生持久性改变,本文从认知行为水平及细胞分子水平总结了社会隔离对实验动物造成的影响.动物隔离实验表明,隔离对认知行为方面造成的影响主要包括:运动增多,惊反射和前脉冲抑制异常及学习、记忆功能下降.神经递质方面的影响主要包括:伏隔核、杏仁核及中脑边缘系统内多巴胺的活性提高,内侧前额叶多巴胺的活性降低,同时海马、伏隔核等脑区内5-羟基色胺酸受体活性异常,多个脑区谷氨酸代谢异常.最后,早期社会隔离还会引起海马、内侧前额叶、杏仁核、伏隔核等脑区细胞凋亡的异常.多脑区多种神经递质的异常和细胞凋亡的异常可能是导致动物行为出现异常的神经机制.鉴于早期社会隔离动物表现出的行为、神经递质、细胞凋亡方面的异常与精神分裂症等发展性精神疾病的症状密切相关,因此早期社会隔离可以作为一种有效的研究精神分裂症的动物模型.%Social isolation influences the development of the brain, causing dysfunctions at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. The present paper summarizes the abnormalities induced by social isolation in behaviors, neurotransmitters and cell apoptosis. At the behavioral level, social isolation induces hyperlocomotion, abnormalities in startle reflex and prepulse inhibition (PPI), and dysfunctions in conditioned learning, reversal learning and memory. Moreover, social isolation causes changes of neurotransmitters, such as the increase of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala and other brain regions in the limbic system, the decrease of dop-amine in medial prefrontal cortex, the decrease of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and the hippocampus, and changes of glutamine in the prefrontal cortex
Walden, Malcolm; Nicholls, Fiona A.; Smith, Kevin J.; Tucker, Geoffrey T
Recent experience has prompted the US FDA to consider whether ethanol ingestion may modify the release characteristics of prolonged-release formulations, where dose dumping may be an issue for patient safety. The influence of ethanol on the in vitro release of opioid drugs from some prolonged-release formulations utilizing different release technologies was examined. Results indicated that the prolonged-release mechanisms remained intact under the testing conditions, although one product show...
Nystedt, Astrid; Hildingsson, Ingegerd
Background: Prolonged labour very often causes suffering from difficulties that may have lifelong implications. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and treatment of prolonged labour and to compare birth outcome and women's experiences of prolonged and normal labour. Method: Women with spontaneous onset of labour, living in a Swedish county, were recruited two months after birth, to a cross-sectional study. Women (n = 829) completed a questionnaire that investigated socio-demographic an...
Rita Barradas Barata
Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência da epidemiologia social concomitantemente ao surgimento da epidemiologia como disciplina científica, destacando as condições teóricas e epistemológicas desse aparecimento. Em seguida são enfocadas as razões para o declínio dessa abordagem, assim como para seu ressurgimento na década de 60, no século XX. São apresentadas as diferentes correntes teóricas atualmente vigentes na epidemiologia social, destacando as características gerais e as limitações de cada uma delas. Especial atenção é dada às seguintes formulações: a eco-epidemiologia proposta por Mervin Susser, a teoria do capital social, a perspectiva do curso de vida, a teoria da produção social da doença e a teoria ecosocial elaborada por Nancy Krieger. O panorama traçado pretende demonstrar a vitalidade dessa abordagem, bem como indicar a diversidade de aspectos em seu interior. Para finalizar são apontados alguns dilemas e desafios.This paper reviews the latest trends in social epidemiology. It analyzes the emergence of epidemiology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century focusing on the main characteristics of the episteme of the period. This paper also analyzes the decline of the social approach in the beginning of the twentieth century and the resurgence of social interest in the sixties. The multiple approaches of social epidemiology currently adopted are commented. The study also emphasizes Susser's proposal of ecoepidemiology, describing its characteristics and pointing out limitations. Next, there is a discussion of the social capital theory and its potentialities for epidemiological studies. The life course perspective is also analyzed, mentioning its psychological and material versions. Latin America's social production of the health and disease process is presented along with an overview of Nancy Krieger's social ecoepidemiology. Finally, some dilemmas and challenges for the future are presented.
Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.
Full Text Available Background. Neonatal jaundice is one of the urgent problems in neonatology. There is a tendency to increase the incidence of prolonged jaundice. The aim of our study was to explore the features of history, anthropometric data and some liver functions in children with prolonged jaundice. Materials and methods. The study involved 111 children with prolonged jaundice aged from 3 weeks to 3 months. In all children with prolonged jaundice, we have examined complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry (determination of total bilirubin and fractions, total protein, albumin, glucose and used instrumental methods of examination — ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and cranial ultrasonography, electrocardiography. Most children with prolonged jaundice were breastfed and were term infants. Results. Indicators of physical development at birth (body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference in children with prolonged jaundice and in healthy children had not statistically significant differences. Neonatal jaundice was prolonged in children, who were born from the first pregnancy, — 60 children (54.1 %. A high level of total and indirect bilirubin was accompanied by a low level of albumin in the blood serum of children with prolonged jaundice. Protein-synthesis function of the liver was reduced in children with prolonged jaundice.
Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; Kahn, Rene S.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kemner, Chantal
Objective: The ability to use the gaze direction of another person to guide attention is important for social functioning, but behavioral reports on this topic among individuals with schizophrenia are inconclusive. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) can very accurately pinpoint the shifting of attentio
Haller, Andreas; Schuerg, Sebastian; Schudt, Florian; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Mursina, Ljudmila; Gross, Volker; Sohrabi, Keywan
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is the most frequent form of chronic respiratory disease. During the progress of this disease, phases of aggravation of pulmonary function (exacerbations) can occur, which reduce the quality of life. Clinical experience shows that single investigations are insufficient. Therefore a prolonged monitoring is required to recognize an exacerbation early. This home monitoring will involve a quick respiratory test and a related application for Android, iOS and Windows phones. This rapid test transmits the relevant pulmonary parameters, converted in an Extensible Markup Language file to the smartphone. The application will analyze the incoming data to evaluate the current health status of the patient. Additionally the data will be transferred to the virtual control point (server) and stored in a database. If critical values are detected, the server will send a notification to prior defined relatives and doctors. A connection to a Hospital Information System will be possible through an included Health Level 7 interface. This offers an improved site-independent patient care. The project is planned to be in development until 2016.
Gagnon, D; Lynn, A G; Binder, K
Prolonged exercise in the heat without fluid replacement represents a significant challenge to the regulation of mean arterial pressure (MAP). It is unknown, however, if MAP is equally challenged during the post-exercise period, and whether regular endurance exercise training can provide any...... benefit to its regulation. We examined MAP (Finometer) in eight trained (T) and eight untrained (UT) individuals prior to, and following, 120 min of cycling at 42 °C with (HYD) and without (DEHY) fluid replacement. Exercise during DEHY induced significant hyperthermia (T: 39.20 ± 0.52 °C vs UT: 38.70 ± 0.......36 °C, P = 0.941) and body weight losses (T: 3.4 ± 1.2% vs UT: 2.7 ± 0.9%, P = 0.332), which did not differ between groups. Although MAP was equally reduced 5 min into the post-exercise period of DEHY (T: -20 ± 11 mmHg vs UT: -22 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.800), its subsequent recovery was significantly different...
Agnes van Minnen
Full Text Available Although prolonged exposure (PE has received the most empirical support of any treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, clinicians are often hesitant to use PE due to beliefs that it is contraindicated for many patients with PTSD. This is especially true for PTSD patients with comorbid problems. Because PTSD has high rates of comorbidity, it is important to consider whether PE is indeed contraindicated for patients with various comorbid problems. Therefore, in this study, we examine the evidence for or against the use of PE with patients with problems that often co-occur with PTSD, including dissociation, borderline personality disorder, psychosis, suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury, substance use disorders, and major depression. It is concluded that PE can be safely and effectively used with patients with these comorbidities, and is often associated with a decrease in PTSD as well as the comorbid problem. In cases with severe comorbidity, however, it is recommended to treat PTSD with PE while providing integrated or concurrent treatment to monitor and address the comorbid problems.
Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.
The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.
Crippa, G; Cagnoni, C; Castelli, A; Concesi, C; Girometta, S; Pancotti, D; Sverzellati, E; Tacchini, G; Pierfranceschi, M G; Carrara, G C
Eighteen patients affected with biopsy-proved primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (histological stage III and IV) received ursodeoxicholic acid (UDCA) 600 mg for 1 year. Signs and symptoms and biochemical tests (glutamic and oxalcetic transaminase, glutamic and pyruvic transaminase, bilirubine, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, bile acids, plasma proteins electrophoresis, immunoglubulins A, G and M) and antimitochondrial antibodies were evaluated before the treatment and every four months during the treatment. The results were compared with those obtained in 8 untreated patients affected PBC. The control group of patients were comparable (as far as age, histological stage, biochemical tests are concerned) to the group who received UDCA. Bilirubine, ALP, gamma-GT and LAP decreased during the treatment with UDCA and remained lower than baseline values until the end of the observation (12 months), while no changes occurred in the untreated patients. Both in the treated and untreated group plasma protein electrophoresis, serum immunoglubulins A, G and M remained unchanged, as well as anti-mitochondrial antibody. A moderate reduction of transaminases and bile acids was observed in the group of patients receiving UDCA but it did not reach statistical significance. In 16 out of the 18 treated patients pruritus disappeared and resulted diminished in the remaining 2 patients. No significant amelioration of pruritus was observed in the patients who did not receive UDCA. In conclusion, our data show that prolonged treatment with UDCA drastically reduces pruritus and improves cholestasis biochemical tests in patients affected with symptomatic PBC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Epstein, M.; Denunzio, A. G.; Ramachandran, M.
?jDuring the initial phase of space flight, there is a translocation of fluid from the lower parts of the body to the central vascular compartment with a resultant natriuresis, diuresis, and weight loss. Because water immersion is regarded as an appropriate model for studying the redistribution of fluid that occurs in weightlessness, an immersion study of relatively prolonged duration was carried out in order to characterize the temporal profile of the renal adaptation to central hypervolemia. Twelve normal male subjects underwent an immersion study of 8-h duration in the sodium-replete state. Immersion resulted in marked natriuresis and diuresis which were sustained throughout the immersion period. The failure of that natriuresis and diuresis of immersion to abate or cease despite marked extracellular fluid volume contraction as evidenced by a mean weight loss of -2.2 + or - 0.3 kg suggests that central blood volume was not restored to normal and that some degree of central hypervolemia probably persisted.
Dubé, Celiné M.; Ravizza, Teresa; Hamamura, Mark; Zha, Qinqin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Fok, Kimberly; Andres, Adrienne M.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Obenaus, Andre; Vezzani, Annamaria; Baram, Tallie Z.
Whether long febrile seizures (FS) can cause epilepsy in the absence of genetic or acquired predisposing factors is unclear. Having established causality between long FS and limbic epilepsy in an animal model, we studied here if the duration of the inciting FS influenced the probability of developing subsequent epilepsy and the severity of the spontaneous seizures. We evaluated if interictal epileptifom activity and/or elevation of hippocampal T2 signal on MRI provided predictive biomarkers for epileptogenesis, and if the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an intrinsic element of FS generation, contributed also to subsequent epileptogenesis. We found that febrile status epilepticus, lasting an average of 64 minutes, increased the severity and duration of subsequent spontaneous seizures compared with FS averaging 24 minutes. Interictal activity in rats sustaining febrile status epilepticus was also significantly longer and more robust, and correlated with the presence of hippocampal T2 changes in individual rats. Neither T2 changes nor interictal activity predicted epileptogenesis. Hippocampal levels of IL-1β were significantly higher for over 24 hours after prolonged FS. Chronically, IL-1β levels were elevated only in rats developing spontaneous limbic seizures after febrile status epilepticus, consistent with a role for this inflammatory mediator in epileptogenesis. Establishing seizure duration as an important determinant in epileptogenesis, and defining the predictive roles of interictal activity, MRI, and inflammatory processes are of paramount importance to the clinical understanding of the outcome of FS, the most common neurological insult in infants and children. PMID:20519523
Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.
Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243
Full Text Available Rationale: Prolonged exposure (PE therapy has been found to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, it is difficult for many patients to engage fully in the obligatory retelling of their traumatic experiences. This problem is compounded by the fact that habituation and cognitive restructuring – the main mechanisms through which PE is hypothesized to work – are not instantaneous processes, and often require several weeks before the distress associated with imaginal exposure abates. Case reports: Two cases are described that respectively illustrate the use of hydrocortisone and placebo, in combination with PE, for the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Based on known effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory performance, we hypothesized that augmentation with hydrocortisone would improve the therapeutic effects of PE by hastening “new” learning and facilitating decreases in the emotional impact of fear memories during the course of treatment. The veteran receiving hydrocortisone augmentation of PE displayed an accelerated and ultimately greater decline in PTSD symptoms than the veteran receiving placebo. Conclusions: While no general conclusion can be derived from comparison of two patients, the findings are consistent with the rationale for augmentation. These case reports support the potential for an appropriately designed and powered clinical trial to examine the efficacy of glucocorticoids in augmenting the effects of psychotherapy for PTSD.
de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia;
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on color stability and staining susceptibility of a silorane-based composite material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Cylindrical specimens (n=24) were fabricated from...... methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... acid, 75% ethanol or distilled water (control) for 7, 14, 21, and 180 days, when new measurements were performed. A staining test was performed (n=12) after 21 days of chemical challenge by immersion in coffee during 3 weeks at 37°C. Color changes (¿E) were characterized using the CIEL*a*b* color...
de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Natan Luiz; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa;
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prolonged chemical challenges on water sorption, solubility, and roughness of a silorane-based material when compared to methacrylate-based composites. Methods: Initial roughness and mass were registered for specimens (n=24......) fabricated from methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composites. The volume of all specimens was also calculated. Specimens were divided in four groups (n=6) and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N...... submitted to two-way analysis of variance or analysis of variance for repeated measures, and Tukey’s multiple comparison test (a=0.05). Results: The silorane-based composite was the roughest (pcomposite (Ra=0.06±0.01) when compared to the other investigated materials (Ra=0.05±0.01). Significant...
Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai
Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.
Sheehy, J B; Wilkinson, M
The present study was initiated following a report that a few helicopter pilots had failed a test of stereoscopic depth perception after a prolonged training flight employing night vision goggles (NVGs). In order to determine the cause of the loss, 12 helicopter pilots/copilots were assessed for depth perception, lateral and vertical phoria, and contrast sensitivity before and after training flights requiring the pilots to wear night vision goggles for the duration of the flight. Pilots flew one to three missions while wearing either PVS-5A or AN/AVS-6 goggles. Mission duration ranged from 1 to 4 h. The results indicate that contrast sensitivity and depth perception when monocular cues are present did not degrade over the course of the mission. Lateral phoria, however, did demonstrate an average exophoric shift of 1.5 prism diopters for 12 out of the 24 missions. The results indicate that the original report of a loss of depth perception based on a test of depth requiring stereopsis might have been caused by a shift in lateral phoria. It would be expected that as additional fusional effort is required, the minimum resolvable disparity degrades due to the increase in accommodation brought about through vergence accommodation. Possible causes for the phoria shift and future testing are discussed.
Jia, Xin; Sheng, Wen-bo; Li, Wei; Tong, Yan-bin; Liu, Zhi-yong; Zhou, Feng
In this work, we report a conceptual strategy for prolonging foliar pesticide retention by using an adhesive polydopamine (PDA) microcapsule to encapsulate avermectin, thereby minimizing its volatilization and improving its residence time on crop surfaces. Polydopamine coated avermectin (Av@PDA) microcapsules were prepared by emulsion interfacial-polymerization and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The in situ synthesis route confers Av@PDA microcapsules with remarkable avermectin loading ability of up to 66.5% (w/w). Kinetic study of avermectin release demonstrated that Av@PDA microcapsules exhibit sustained- and controlled-release properties. The adhesive property of Av@PDA microcapsules on different surfaces was verified by a comparative study between Av@PDA and passivated Av@SiO2 and Av@PDA@SiO2 capsules with silica shell. Moreover, PDA shell could effectively shield UV irradiation and so protect avermectin from photodegradation, making it more applicable for foliar spraying. Meanwhile, it is determinated that Av@PDA microcapsules have good mechanical stability property.
Woodman, Emily C; Read, Scott A; Collins, Michael J; Hegarty, Katherine J; Priddle, Scott B; Smith, Josephine M; Perro, Judd V
To investigate the influence of a period of sustained near work upon axial length in groups of emmetropes (EMM) and myopes. Forty young adult subjects (20 myopes and 20 emmetropes) were recruited for the study. Myopes were further classified as early onset (EOM), late onset (LOM), stable (SM) or progressing (PM) subgroups. Axial length was measured with the IOLMaster instrument before, immediately after and then again 10 min after a continuous 30 min near task of 5 D accommodation demand. Measures of distance objective refraction were also collected. Significant changes in axial length were observed immediately following the near task. EOM axial length elongated on average by 0.027±0.021 mm, LOM by 0.014±0.020 mm, EMM by 0.010±0.015 mm, PM by 0.031±0.022 mm and SM by 0.014±0.018 mm. At the conclusion of the 10 min regression period, axial length measures were not significantly different from baseline values. Axial elongation was observed following a prolonged near task. Both EOM and PM groups showed increases in axial length that were significantly greater than emmetropes.
Lisa N. Abaid
Full Text Available Background: Granulosa cell tumors are rare sex cord stromal lesions that comprise approximately 3% of all ovarian neoplasms. The vast majority of granulosa cell tumors are considered indolent but in spite of aggressive management, delayed recurrence is of significant concern. Case Report: We describe a case involving a 67-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain, bloody stools, and mild nausea. Following a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis, a 19-cm pelvic mass was identified. Her prior medical history included a hysterectomy for uterine fibroids 40 years ago and a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a presumed granulosa cell tumor 20 years ago. Final pathology revealed granulosa cell tumor with small bowel mesentery involvement. The patient underwent surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy; she is currently doing well. Conclusion: Granulosa cell tumors are considered to be of low malignant potential but they have the capacity to recur, even several years following initial patient management. This case exemplifies the disease’s capacity for prolonged recurrence and further accentuates the significance of long-term follow-up in these patients.
Ji Qi Yan; Hong Wei Li; Wei Yao Cai; Ming Jun Zhang; Wei Ping Yang
The last two decades of the twentieth century have witnessed increasingly successful rates of liver transplantation. The number of liver transplantations has increased steadily while the number of organ donors has remained relatively constant. Thus a great disparity has developed between the demand and supply of donor organs and remains a major limiting factor for further expansion of liver transplantation. Although many procedures, such as split liver , living-related transplantation , and xenotransplantation, have been attempted clinically to overcome the shortage, it is hoped that livers harvested from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) would alleviatethe problem of organ shortage, which again becomes the focus of attention[4-9]. However, sensitivity of the liver to warm ischemia remains a major worry for use of theNHBDs. The aim of this animal study was to assess if murine liver could tolerate prolonged period of warm ischemia and to determine the optimum timing of intervention in the cadaver donor in order to preserve liver viability.
De Jonckheere, J; Rakza, T; Logier, R; Jeanne, M; Jounwaz, R; Storme, L
Pain management is a general concern for healthcare quality. In the particular context of neonatal care, it's well known that an efficient pain management will decrease mortality and morbidity of newborn infants. Furthermore, the plasticity of developing brain is vulnerable to pain and/or stress, that in turn may cause long term neurodevelopmental changes, including altered pain sensitivity and neuroanatomic and behavioural abnormalities. During neonatal intensive care stay, large number of painful procedures are performed, the majority of which are not accompanied by adequate analgesia. Optimal management requires competent pain assessment which can be especially difficult to perform in this non verbal population. We have developed an instantaneous heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method, non intrusive and user-friendly, based on the ECG signal acquisition. This analysis method enabled us to design parameters related to the influence of pain on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity. This paper presents the application of this method, previously validated for adults under general anesthesia, to the domain of newborn infants prolonged pain assessment.
Demolliens, Marie; Isbaine, Faiçal; Takerkart, Sylvain; Huguet, Pascal; Boussaoud, Driss
A fundamental aspect of behavior in many animal species is 'social facilitation', the positive effect of the mere presence of conspecifics on performance. To date, the neuronal counterpart of this ubiquitous phenomenon is unknown. We recorded the activity of single neurons from two prefrontal cortex regions, the dorsolateral part and the anterior cingulate cortex in monkeys as they performed a visuomotor task, either in the presence of a conspecific (Presence condition) or alone. Monkeys performed better in the presence condition than alone (social facilitation), and analyses of outcome-related activity of 342 prefrontal neurons revealed that most of them (86%) were sensitive to the performance context. Two populations of neurons were discovered: 'social neurons', preferentially active under social presence and 'asocial neurons', preferentially active under social isolation. The activity of these neurons correlated positively with performance only in their preferred context (social neurons under social presence; asocial neurons under social isolation), thereby providing a potential neuronal mechanism of social facilitation. More generally, the fact that identical tasks recruited either social or asocial neurons depending on the presence or absence of a conspecific also brings a new look at the social brain hypothesis. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Sun, Qian-Yun; Chen, Gang; Guo, Hui; Chen, Shi; Wang, Wan-Yu; Xiong, Yu-Liang
A highly active cobra venom factor (CVF) was isolated from the venom of Naja kaouthia by sequential column chromatography. It displays strong anticomplementary activity, and has 1515 U of anticomplementary activity per mg protein. A single dose of 0.1 mg/kg CVF given i.v. to rats completely abrogated complement activity for nearly 5 days. Given 0.02 mg/kg of CVF, the complement activity of rats was reduced by more than 96.5% in 6 h. In guinea pig-to-rat heart transplant model, rats treated with a single dose of 0.05 mg/kg CVF had significantly prolonged xenograft survival (56.12+/-6.27 h in CVF-treated rats vs. 0.19+/-0.07 h in control rats, P<0.001).
Pleskov, V M; Bannikov, A I; Gurevich, V S; Pleskova, Iu V
It was established that viral particles, like low-density lipoproteins (LDLP), when subjected to some modification changes, lost their ability to be internalized by tissue somatic cells and acquired tropism to macrophage cells. The data, obtained by us by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, made it possible to assert that atherosclerotic plaques, isolated from vessels of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent coronary bypass, contained RNA of the A(HINI) and AH3N3) influenza viruses. Whereas, the vessel portions, undamaged by atherosclerosis, did not contain any genetic substances of influenza viruses. It was for the first time that an experimentally supported understanding was expressed on that the atherosclerotic plaques serve as a "reservoir" for influenza viruses. It is also suggested that the mentioned plaques can be the carriers of influenza viruses for a long time, thus, prolonging the persistent form of influenza infection in the human body.