WorldWideScience

Sample records for prolonged nuclear conflict

  1. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  2. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  3. Regional conflicts and nuclear fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1984-01-01

    The real danger of nuclear weapons in the Third World is not that developing countries will acquire them, but that advanced countries will intervene in Third World affairs with them. Nuclear weapons can play a part in Third World conflicts in two ways: a recognized nuclear weapon power can threaten to use the weapon in the conflict situation or a clandestine nuclear power may do so. In noting that most conflicts in the Third World can be sustained only through support from the developing countries, the author complains that the Non-Proliferation Treaty is pernicious because it legitimizes the use of nuclear weapons by a few weapon powers. He urges a two-step effort to pressure the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations to make nuclear weapons illegal. 17 references

  4. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  6. The nuclear state - from consensus to conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Andrew.; Pepper, David.

    1987-01-01

    The early 1980s is suggested as the 'moment of transition' in Britain when public opinion turned from being basically, but quietly, in favour or indifferent to nuclear power, to being actively involved in debate about it and far less happy with it. The accident to the reactor at Chernobyl made nuclear power a major international issue and intensified the debate. The conflict over nuclear power in Britain and elsewhere in the Western World is examined. The causes of the conflict are identified as legitimacy, accountability and control, the changing political environment and finally, the international political dimension. Problems at the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield and the disposal of radioactive wastes are seen as central issues in the conflict. Questionable levels of nuclear safety are also crucial with the accident at Chernobyl making this a major factor. This chapter looks at these issues as the background to the nuclear power conflict. (UK)

  7. Science in conflict over nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiedel, R.

    1977-01-01

    This book intends to establish an orientation theory of science in order to solve the conflict over the peaceful uses of nuclear power in West Germany. The reason for this conflict is that everybody is concerned either about the job situation or about the environmental effects. This concern has failed to mobilize people until now but mobilization is possible. (GL) [de

  8. Nuclear power : decline, prolongation or renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In an international context still under the shock of Fukushima, and at a time when France is committed to an energy transition, the details of which still have to be decided, the future of nuclear power in the world is provoking intense and contradictory debate. What to expert: a decline, business as usual, or a renewal of the sector throughout its value chain? Some answers are to be found in an analysis by Colombus Consulting. (author)

  9. Climatic Consequences of Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    A nuclear war between Russia and the United States could still produce nuclear winter, even using the reduced arsenals of about 4000 total nuclear weapons that will result by 2017 in response to the New START treaty. A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history. This scenario, using much less than 1% of the explosive power of the current global nuclear arsenal, would produce so much smoke from the resulting fires that it would plunge the planet to temperatures colder than those of the Little Ice Age of the 16th to 19th centuries, shortening the growing season around the world and threatening the global food supply. Crop model studies of agriculture in the U.S. and China show massive crop losses, even for this regional nuclear war scenario. Furthermore, there would be massive ozone depletion with enhanced ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface. These surprising conclusions are the result of recent research (see URL) by a team of scientists including those who produced the pioneering work on nuclear winter in the 1980s, using the NASA GISS ModelE and NCAR WACCM GCMs. The soot is self-lofted into the stratosphere, and the effects of regional and global nuclear war would last for more than a decade, much longer than previously thought. Nuclear proliferation continues, with nine nuclear states now, and more working to develop or acquire nuclear weapons. The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of the world.

  10. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow

  11. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  12. Nuclear Weapons in Russia's approach to conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dave

    2016-11-01

    President Putin has moved nuclear weapons to the foreground of the European security landscape. New risks and dangers arise from the apparent coupling of nuclear weapons capabilities with Moscow's revanchist and irredentist foreign and defence policies toward its neighbours. Nuclear weapons are the central feature and capstone capability in Russia's evolving concept of strategic deterrence and are important tools for achieving Russia's geopolitical aims. Russian thinking on the role and place of nuclear weapons in upholding national security and in achieving strategic aims is reflected in military policy, force structure and posture, and exercises and operations. Russia's political and military leaders are not only re-conceptualising the role of nuclear weapons. They are also building the military capabilities that can credibly threaten the calibrated employment of nuclear weapons for deterrence, de-escalation and war-fighting from the regional to large-scale and global levels of conflict. New and still developing concepts for the employment of conventional long-range precision weapons in tandem with nuclear weapons for regional deterrence and containment of local and regional conflicts add volatility to the regional tensions and uncertainties created by recent Russian aggression. Russia's reliance upon integrated conventional and nuclear capabilities in reasserting its influence in its perceived sphere of special interest, intended to contain conflicts at a manageable level, could actually increase the risk of the potential employment of nuclear weapons. NATO nations collectively, and the three NATO nuclear powers (Great Britain, France, and the United States) individually, have recognized this new reality and have begun to adapt to it. In that context, the aim of this paper is to elaborate a clearer understanding of the place and role of nuclear weapons in Russia's approach to conflict, based on nuclear-related policy statements and military-theoretical writing

  13. Dangerous deterrent: nuclear weapons proliferation and conflict in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Kapur, S.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the acquisition of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan and its effect on security of the South Asian region. The author uses quantitative analysis to establish the relationship between nuclearization and conventional stability in the region between 1971 and 2002. He shows a positive correlation between nuclear proliferation and conventional instability during these three decades. Thus, this study affirms that nuclear weapons have failed to prevent conflict in South Asia. In fact, they have escalated tensions

  14. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the second of a two-part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Using the siting of nuclear facilities as an illustrative policy, Part One (Burt, 1978) derived hypotheses predicting what types of communities could be expected to become embroiled in conflict over a proposed facility and the process that conflict escalation would follow. The purpose here is to extend the argument to include conflict resolution. Available research is analyzed in order to outline a structural approach to the resolution of community conflict over specific policies. The conflict-resolution techniques proposed are intended to reverse the social parameters of conflict escalation and compensate for deficiencies in a community structure so as to transform a community high in potential for conflict into a community with low conflict potential. The discussion concludes with general principles for the resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue.

  15. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the second of a two-part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Using the siting of nuclear facilities as an illustrative policy, Part One (Burt, 1978) derived hypotheses predicting what types of communities could be expected to become embroiled in conflict over a proposed facility and the process that conflict escalation would follow. The purpose here is to extend the argument to include conflict resolution. Available research is analyzed in order to outline a structural approach to the resolution of community conflict over specific policies. The conflict-resolution techniques proposed are intended to reverse the social parameters of conflict escalation and compensate for deficiencies in a community structure so as to transform a community high in potential for conflict into a community with low conflict potential. The discussion concludes with general principles for the resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue

  16. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke-Glueckert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN) [de

  17. Choices: A Unit on Conflict and Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Teachers Association, Boston.

    Ten lessons on the evolution of the nuclear arms race, the nature and consequences of using nuclear weapons, and new ways that conflicts among nations might be resolved are presented for the junior high school level. The unit contains age-appropriate materials to equip students with skills and knowledge to understand what choices can be made to…

  18. Nuclear policy in the conflict of interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilker, L.

    1980-01-01

    The 5 articles in this book deal with the nuclear policies of the USA, of Brazil and of the Federal Republic of Germany and with the function of the international nuclear organisations. The main problem at present, it is said, is not the delivery of nuclear weapons to other countries, but the selling of nuclear systems and technologies and the possibilities of applying them in the production of nuclear weapons by the receiving country. This, the author says, is not being really paid attention to by the public. The articles have the aim of awakening public interest in these problems and of showing how national nuclear policies and international nuclear organisations can support or hinder the political aim of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. (HSCH) [de

  19. Nuclear proliferation: the U.S.-Indian conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, Brahma.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the present conflicting positions of U.S. and India on the issue of nuclear proliferation is narrated and various aspects of this U.S. India controversy are studied. These aspects are: U.S.-India cooperation in the nuclear field in the fifties and sixties; India's peaceful nuclear explosion (PNE) in 1974 and U.S. policy of containment through denial of nuclear fuel and spare parts supply for Tarapur Atomic Power Station; and the political, technical and legal aspects of the nuclear conflict between U.S. and India. Since India's PNE in 1974, U.S. has made India a target of its non-proliferation strategy and is coordinating multinational efforts in erecting barriers in the flow of dual-use sensitive technologies to India. The recent instance is U.S. pressure on Russia to cancel the contract with India to sell cryogenic rocket engine technology required for India's civilian space programme. Even though apparently the conflict is over nuclear proliferation issue, in essence it is a conflict between U.S. determination to restrict high-technology transfer to India on one hand and India's resolve to maintain its nuclear independence on the other hand. The study is based on primary sources in the form of U.S. and Indian government documents. Texts of important government documents are given in appendices and bibliographies of primary and secondary sources used in the study are included. (M.G.B.)

  20. Nuclear weapons and conflict transformation: the case of India-Pakistan. - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Part 1: Theory 1. Studies on Conflict Transformation 2. Scholarship on Ramifications of Nuclear Weapons Acquisition 3. Elucidating Conflict Transformation with Nuclear Weapons Part 2: The India-Pakistan Protracted Conflict 4. Life of the Protracted Conflict 5. Introduction of Nuclear

  1. Connections or conflicts between nuclear regulations and other regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1976-01-01

    The potential for conflicts between nuclear and other regulations stems in large part from overlapping jurisdictional lines which reflect not only the basic governmental structure but the political realities as well. A completely logical pattern - with a clear differentiation of responsibilities assigned to the various departments and agencies involved - is assuredly a worthy goal, but one not often, if ever, achieved. Fortunately, innovative means for obviating or mitigating the conflicts can be and have been found. (Auth) [fr

  2. Nuclear weapons and the Arab-Israeli conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, P.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of the clandestine Israeli nuclear arsenal for the conflict in the Middle East are studied in the light of emerging Arab reactions to it. The opportunities for European influence on the policy and programmes of this threshold state are described

  3. The nuclear state - From consensus to conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, A.; Pepper, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book confirms the view that there is a lack of coherent planning for energy in general and for all the activities associated with nuclear energy in particular, which is common to several Western countries. What planning there is, is generally confined by secretive processes rather than being open to democratic public consultation and involvement. It tends, too, to be restricted to specific siting matters and inquiries, although these should not and cannot be divorced from overall strategy

  4. Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

  5. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  6. New nuclear weapon states and their impact on Third World regional conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazrui, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper examines the new nuclear weapon states and their impact on third world regional conflicts. Nuclear technology in South Africa, nuclear terrorism and the Arab/Israeli conflict, Islam and the nuclear age, Egypt and the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the 'masculinity' of warfare, are all discussed. (UK)

  7. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue: a report and annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.S.; Fischer, M.; Corbett, T.; Garrett, K.; Lundgren, M.

    1978-02-01

    This report is a scholarly discussion of the escalation and possible resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue. The concern is at all times with the social factors in this conflict; technical problems in nuclear power are only considered to the extent that such problems are raised in conflict over nuclear power. Social science research on conflict is only reviewed to the extent that it bears on community conflict over nuclear power. Chapter 1 describes the nature of community conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: stages of escalation, typical individuals and groups involved, typical issues raised, typical manners in which participants become involved, and the basic social parameters of conflict escalation. Chapter 2 outlines the community level determinants of conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: How is a community in which conflict over a nuclear facility is most likely different from a community in which such conflict is least likely. Chapter 3 is a detailed consideration of alternative methods of containing and resolving conflict. Chapter 4 summarizes principles for dealing with community conflict in the nuclear power issue. Finally, Chapter 5 is an annotated bibliography of the literature reviewed in the report. 840 references

  8. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue: a report and annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.; Fischer, M.; Corbett, T.; Garrett, K.; Lundgren, M.

    1978-02-01

    This report is a scholarly discussion of the escalation and possible resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue. The concern is at all times with the social factors in this conflict; technical problems in nuclear power are only considered to the extent that such problems are raised in conflict over nuclear power. Social science research on conflict is only reviewed to the extent that it bears on community conflict over nuclear power. Chapter 1 describes the nature of community conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: stages of escalation, typical individuals and groups involved, typical issues raised, typical manners in which participants become involved, and the basic social parameters of conflict escalation. Chapter 2 outlines the community level determinants of conflict escalation in the nuclear power issue: How is a community in which conflict over a nuclear facility is most likely different from a community in which such conflict is least likely. Chapter 3 is a detailed consideration of alternative methods of containing and resolving conflict. Chapter 4 summarizes principles for dealing with community conflict in the nuclear power issue. Finally, Chapter 5 is an annotated bibliography of the literature reviewed in the report. 840 references.

  9. The safety of nuclear installations as a source of international conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.; Breest, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    The author outlines safety problems regarding nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and the whole nuclear fuel cycle and gives an account of national supervision in the FRG. Suggestions are made for easing international conflicts. (HP/LN) [de

  10. Prolonged exposure to particulate chromate inhibits RAD51 nuclear import mediator proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Wise, John Pierce

    2017-09-15

    Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a human lung carcinogen and a human health concern. The induction of structural chromosome instability is considered to be a driving mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. Homologous recombination repair protects against Cr(VI)-induced chromosome damage, due to its highly accurate repair of Cr(VI)-induced DNA double strand breaks. However, recent studies demonstrate Cr(VI) inhibits homologous recombination repair through the misregulation of RAD51. RAD51 is an essential protein in HR repair that facilitates the search for a homologous sequence. Recent studies show prolonged Cr(VI) exposure prevents proper RAD51 subcellular localization, causing it to accumulate in the cytoplasm. Since nuclear import of RAD51 is crucial to its function, this study investigated the effect of Cr(VI) on the RAD51 nuclear import mediators, RAD51C and BRCA2. We show acute (24h) Cr(VI) exposure induces the proper localization of RAD51C and BRCA2. In contrast, prolonged (120h) exposure increased the cytoplasmic localization of both proteins, although RAD51C localization was more severely impaired. These results correlate temporally with the previously reported Cr(VI)-induced RAD51 cytoplasmic accumulation. In addition, we found Cr(VI) does not inhibit interaction between RAD51 and its nuclear import mediators. Altogether, our results suggest prolonged Cr(VI) exposure inhibits the nuclear import of RAD51C, and to a lesser extent, BRCA2, which results in the cytoplasmic accumulation of RAD51. Cr(VI)-induced inhibition of nuclear import may play a key role in its carcinogenic mechanism since the nuclear import of many tumor suppressor proteins and DNA repair proteins is crucial to their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Conflict management in the planning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Subsequent to the decision of the Bavarian Higher Administrative Court, which after judicial review declared the development plan for the Wackersdorf site and the reprocessing facility there to be void, the author analyses the situation with regard to the tasks to be accomplished by an installation-specific planning management for coping with arising conflicts - and nuclear hazards in particular -, and for coming to a reconciliation of interests. The author agrees with the decision of the Lueneburg Higher Administrative Court which stated that, in view of the subsequent licensing procedure provided by the law, the development plans need not specify any regulations concerning the specific nuclear hazards or radiological consequences of installations of this type, so that development plans within the meaning of sec. 1, sub-sec. (3) BauGB do not necessarily have to consider nuclear risks or dose limits. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Influence of prolonged nuclear fuel burnup on safety characteristics of advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic, D.; Matausek, M.; Marinkovic, N.

    1989-01-01

    Prolonged nuclear fuel burnup in advanced NPP with four or more instead of three one-year cycles, and/or with 15- to 18-month instead of standard 12-month cycles, requires the fresh fuel to have increased enrichment combined with burnable poisons. This causes changes in axial and radial distribution of power generation during the particular fuel cycles, so that detailed analyses of thermal reliability of reactor core becomes necessary. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the departure from nuclear boiling ratio DNBR for an equilibrium cycle of an advanced PWR. (author)

  13. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors I - description of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    This article examines how symbols and sentiments are exchanged to produce a synthesis of two cultures in the context of prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction, thereby minimizing or preventing sociocultural disintegration and the resulting demoralization. This process will be shown to be anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The setting of this research is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese state on the western coast of India, where the exchange between the Portuguese and Indian cultures lasted longer than four centuries (1510-1961). Both published and unpublished sources were studied. From 1510, the year of the beginning of the Portuguese rule, until 1540, the local traditions and leadership patterns were respected. This was followed by a period of religious intolerance during which attempts were made to encourage Hindus to convert to Christianity and to wipe out the bicultural interaction. Finally a new era of tolerance and cultural integration started around 1773 and continued until 1961. The bicultural interaction persisted and a hybrid culture developed around cultural receptors. The history of Portuguese Goa is a natural experiment that allows us to examine the role played by cultural receptors in the adaptation to acculturative stress.

  14. The nuclear energy conflict: A scientific solvable problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, Fieke.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to inventorize opinions and changes of opinions of a group involved scientists and technicians on the subject of nuclear energy and to determine the underlying attitudes that cause the changes of opinion. Quantitative data are compiled from postal surveys and qualitative data from in-depth interviews. In part 1 of this report a general and overall introduction is given on the subject nuclear energy. In part 2 the discussions that have taken place on three nuclear energy subjects (radiation dose standards and risks, the energetic efficiency of a light water reactor, and the costs of nuclear energy are summarized. Examples of conflicting information and opinions are given. In the last chapter of part 2 the theoretical framework and research method for this study are outlined. In part 3 the actual survey is described: in chapter 11 the research method, in chapter 12 the results of the surveys and interviews and the conclusions. In chapter 13 the complete texts of the in-depth interviews with 16 nuclear energy experts are presented. 10 figs., 32 tabs., 1 appendix

  15. Sacred values and conflict over Iran's nuclear program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Dehghani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflict over Iran's nuclear program, which involves a US-led policy to impose sanctions on Iran, is perceived by each side as a preeminent challenge to its own national security and global peace. Yet, there is little scientific study or understanding of how material incentives and disincentives, such as economic sanctions, psychologically affect the targeted population and potentially influence behaviour. Here we explore the Iranian nuclear program within a paradigm concerned with sacred values. We integrate experiments within a survey of 1997 Iranians. We find that a relatively small but politically significant portion of the Iranian population believes that acquiring nuclear energy has become a sacred value, in the sense that proposed economic incentives and disincentives result in a ``backfire effect'' in which offers of material rewards or punishment lead to increased anger and greater disapproval. This pattern was specific to nuclear energy and did not hold for acquiring nuclear weapons. The present study is the first demonstration of the backfire effect for material disincentives as well as incentives, and on an issue whose apparent sacred nature is recent rather than longstanding.

  16. Consequences of Regional Scale Nuclear Conflicts and Acts of Individual Nuclear Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as high-yield weapons, if they are targeted at city centers. A single low-yield nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in major historical conflicts. A regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II (WW-II), or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Portions of megacities attacked with nuclear devices or exposed to fallout of long-lived isotopes, through armed conflict or terrorism, would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war might induce significant climatic and ozone anomalies on global scales. While there are many uncertainties in the issues we discuss here, the major uncertainties are the type and scale of conflict that might occur. Each of these potential hazards deserves careful analysis by governments worldwide advised by a broad section of the world scientific community, as well as widespread

  17. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2007-04-01

    We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized) explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007) show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due

  18. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenke, A.; Hoyle, C. R.; Luo, B.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Maag, L.; Brönnimann, S.; Peter, T.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL, which belongs to a different family of CCMs than previously used, to investigate the consequences of such a hypothetical nuclear conflict. In accordance with previous studies, the present work assumes a scenario of a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan, each applying 50 warheads with an individual blasting power of 15 kt ("Hiroshima size") against the major population centers, resulting in the emission of tiny soot particles, which are generated in the firestorms expected in the aftermath of the detonations. Substantial uncertainties related to the calculation of likely soot emissions, particularly concerning assumptions of target fuel loading and targeting of weapons, have been addressed by simulating several scenarios, with soot emissions ranging from 1 to 12 Tg. Their high absorptivity with respect to solar radiation leads to a rapid self-lofting of the soot particles into the strato- and mesosphere within a few days after emission, where they remain for several years. Consequently, the model suggests earth's surface temperatures to drop by several degrees Celsius due to the shielding of solar irradiance by the soot, indicating a major global cooling. In addition, there is a substantial reduction of precipitation lasting 5 to 10 yr after the conflict, depending on the magnitude of the initial soot release. Extreme cold spells associated with an increase in sea ice formation are found during Northern Hemisphere winter, which expose the continental land masses of North America and Eurasia to a

  19. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM SOCOL, which belongs to a different family of CCMs than previously used, to investigate the consequences of such a hypothetical nuclear conflict. In accordance with previous studies, the present work assumes a scenario of a nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan, each applying 50 warheads with an individual blasting power of 15 kt ("Hiroshima size" against the major population centers, resulting in the emission of tiny soot particles, which are generated in the firestorms expected in the aftermath of the detonations. Substantial uncertainties related to the calculation of likely soot emissions, particularly concerning assumptions of target fuel loading and targeting of weapons, have been addressed by simulating several scenarios, with soot emissions ranging from 1 to 12 Tg. Their high absorptivity with respect to solar radiation leads to a rapid self-lofting of the soot particles into the strato- and mesosphere within a few days after emission, where they remain for several years. Consequently, the model suggests earth's surface temperatures to drop by several degrees Celsius due to the shielding of solar irradiance by the soot, indicating a major global cooling. In addition, there is a substantial reduction of precipitation lasting 5 to 10 yr after the conflict, depending on the magnitude of the initial soot release. Extreme cold spells associated with an increase in sea ice formation are found during Northern Hemisphere winter, which expose the continental land masses of North

  20. Protection of civilian nuclear installations in time of armed conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion of article 56 in Protocol 1 of the Geneva convention of 12 August 1949 represents a significant achievement in the development of international humanitarian law. Article 56 of protocol 1 reads as follow: firstly, works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, shall not not be made the object of attack, even where these objects are military objectives, if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations shall not be made the object of attack if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces from the works or installations and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Secondly, the special protection against attack provided by paragraph 1 shall cease: for a dam or a dyke only if it is used for other than its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support; for a nuclear electrical generating station only if it provides electric power in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;for other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations only if they are used in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support. Thirdly, in all cases, the civilian population and individual civilians shall remain entitled to all the protection accorded them by international law, including the protection of the precautionary measures provided for in article 57. If the protection ceases and any of the works, installations or military objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 is attacked, all practical precautions shall be taken to

  1. Environmental conflict as a social construction: Nuclear waste conflicts in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Litmanen, Tapio

    1996-01-01

    Environmental conflicts are a familiar phenomenon in all industrial societies, and social scientists have produced a great number of studies of different environmental conflicts. One conventional way to conceptualize them is known as NIMBY ("not in my backyard"). Although the recent NIMBY literature has revealed the complexity of the issue, the approach continues to be beset by a number of problems. It has been difficult to conceptualize the dynamic character of a conflict from this perspecti...

  2. Crisis as opportunity. Implications of the nuclear conflict with Iran for the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The conflict over the Iranian nuclear programme represents the greatest challenge for international efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. For decades Iran has been violating obligations contained in its safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to become nuclear weapons capable. But what impact does the conflict over Tehran's nuclear programme have on the nuclear non-proliferation regime? In three areas there is significant overlap between efforts to find a solution with Iran and broader discussions about strengthening non-proliferation norms, rules and procedures: verification of civilian nuclear programmes, limiting the ability to produce weapons-grade fissile materials, and nuclear fuel supply guarantees. The nuclear dispute with Tehran is likely to have specific effects in each of these fields on the non-proliferation regime's norms, rules and procedures. The ninth NPT review conference, which will take place from 27 April to 22 May 2015, offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the nuclear conflict and discuss ideas for further strengthening the regime. Germany is the only non-nuclear-weapon state within the E3+3 group and the strongest proponent of nuclear disarmament. As a supporter of effective multilateralism, Berlin also bears a special responsibility for ensuring that steps to strengthen nuclear verification and control efforts in the talks with Iran also reflect the non-nuclear-weapon states' interest in disarmament and transparency on the part of the nuclear-weapons states.

  3. Crisis as opportunity. Implications of the nuclear conflict with Iran for the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Oliver

    2014-11-15

    The conflict over the Iranian nuclear programme represents the greatest challenge for international efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. For decades Iran has been violating obligations contained in its safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to become nuclear weapons capable. But what impact does the conflict over Tehran's nuclear programme have on the nuclear non-proliferation regime? In three areas there is significant overlap between efforts to find a solution with Iran and broader discussions about strengthening non-proliferation norms, rules and procedures: verification of civilian nuclear programmes, limiting the ability to produce weapons-grade fissile materials, and nuclear fuel supply guarantees. The nuclear dispute with Tehran is likely to have specific effects in each of these fields on the non-proliferation regime's norms, rules and procedures. The ninth NPT review conference, which will take place from 27 April to 22 May 2015, offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the nuclear conflict and discuss ideas for further strengthening the regime. Germany is the only non-nuclear-weapon state within the E3+3 group and the strongest proponent of nuclear disarmament. As a supporter of effective multilateralism, Berlin also bears a special responsibility for ensuring that steps to strengthen nuclear verification and control efforts in the talks with Iran also reflect the non-nuclear-weapon states' interest in disarmament and transparency on the part of the nuclear-weapons states.

  4. Directions in locational conflict research: Voting on the location of nuclear waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, F.M.; Murauskas, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    It is clear from empirical evidence that currently significant locational conflicts concerning the siting of nuclear waste disposal facilities cannot be modeled under the standard noxious facility location paradigm that views locational conflict as conflict between regions. Rather, local populations are characterized by sharp disagreements as to whether the proposed facility is in fact salutary or noxious. Thus, conflict concerning nuclear waste disposal must be understood as a conflict among preferences and values, rather than among competing, areally defined interest groups. This has significant implications for the outcomes of political processes leading to siting decisions, as indicated in this paper. Whether intransivity occurs depends on the location and proportion of persons with different preference orderings concerning possible outcomes. Further research on this issue can and should be directed to further mathematical specification of these conditions along with empirical analysis where appropriate

  5. Nuclear energy in relation to the elimination of social conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, A.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that, in Austria, employers and labour have both been in favour of nuclear energy and that nuclear energy problems have been the main causes of political disagreement. The importance of maintaining employment and stable currency is noted and the question is raised whether technical progress can endanger political stability. Reference is made to the 1979 European nuclear energy conference and the need for finding solutions which do not endanger the political system is emphasised. The importance of a decision on the Zwentendorf nuclear power station is stated. (G.M.E.)

  6. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs attributable to diarrheal and related diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma and the nematode infections (DSTN diseases in 2002 among World Health Organization Member States. Deaths resulting from terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence were significantly related to DSTN DALYs across the majority of sex–age subgroups of the populace, after controlling for baseline levels of improved water/sanitation and a variety of economic measures: overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths owing to terrorism and related violence was associated with an increase of 0.16% in DALYs lost to DSTN diseases. Associations were greatest among 0-to-4-year olds. The results of the present study suggest that DSTN disease control efforts should target conflict-affected populations with particular attention to young children who suffer disproportionately from DSTN diseases in these settings. In view of the evidence that terrorism and related violence may influence DSTN DALYs in the longer term, control strategies should move beyond immediate responses to decrease the incidence and severity of DSTN diseases to seek solutions through bolstering health systems infrastructure development among conflict-affected populations.

  7. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  8. Conflicts about nuclear power safety: a decision theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D.V.; Rios, M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of psychological studies indicate that people's judgements of risks from energy production in general and nuclear power plants in particular deviate from technical and statistical estimates because social and psychological variables influence people's risk perception. After reviewing these studies a decision analytic methodology is outlined which incorporates such social and psychological variables in a formal analysis of the risks and benefits of nuclear energy production. The methodology is intended to identify groups with differing risk-benefit perceptions and to elicit and quantify their values and concerns. Such group and value structures are presented for the problem of choosing between a nuclear plant, a coal plant, and a conservation strategy

  9. ''Confession statement against the nuclear nation''. The protestant church in Germany and the conflicts concerning nuclear energy 1970 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuering, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book on ''Confession statement against the nuclear nation'' discusses the conflicts of the protestant church in Germany concerning nuclear energy in 1970 - 1990. The introduction covers the state of research and the historical sources. The following chapters discuss the issues philosophic-ideological fundamentals: atomic energy and theology, the political church, the new protest culture and comparative perspectives: the catholic perspective, Three Mile Island's shadow.

  10. Nuclear energy, conflict between the milieu and trade union movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krozer, J.; Lugt, B. van der; Oudshoorn, N.; Staal, A.

    1980-01-01

    The opposition between the Anti Nuclear Energy Movement (AKB) and the trade union (FNV) in the Netherlands over the question of nuclear energy has been analysed. The movements have different social backgrounds which are reflected in their respective strategies. The trade union represents the workers and judges technical developments from their viewpoint. The milieu movement aims to maintain a clean environment and critically considers technical developments. (C.F.)

  11. State and nuclear power: conflict and control in the western world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the political, cultural, and international dimensions of the nuclear power conflict, this book focuses on the role of the advanced capitalist state in the establishment and subsequent development of the nuclear industry. The author examines the mode, extent, and efficacy of state intervention in nuclear decision making and the political contest which has emerged between pro- and anti-nuclear elements in society, which have confronted the state with a new challenge to its authority. Separate chapter headings are: (1) Origins of the Peaceful Atom, (2) The Emerging Nuclear State, (3) The State's Authority under Challenge, (4) The State and the Crisis of Legitimacy, (5) The Impact of Recession, (6) The Politics of the Fuel Cycle, (7) International Nuclear Politics, and (8) Nuclear Power and the Crisis of Capitalism. 47 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  12. The operation of nuclear power plants in the conflict between administrative law and criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbe, C.

    1989-01-01

    The conflicting interests of administrative law and criminal law give rise to a number of burdensome conditions to be met by the operators of nuclear plants. Of course, it is one of the peculiarities of criminal law that nobody can decide for himself whether he wants to become involved in it. There is probably no other choice than meeting, with a good blend of composure and cleverness, the criteria now surrounding the operation of a nuclear facility. (orig.) [de

  13. Climatic Consequences and Agricultural Impact of Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Robock, A.; Mills, M. J.; Xia, L.

    2013-05-01

    A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, would inject smoke from the resulting fires into the stratosphere.This could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and global-scale ozone depletion, with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface.Simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), run at higher vertical and horizontal resolution than a previous simulation with the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, and incorporating ozone chemistry for the first time, show a longer stratospheric residence time for smoke and hence a longer-lasting climate response, with global average surface air temperatures still 1.1 K below normal and global average precipitation 4% below normal after a decade.The erythemal dose from the enhanced UV radiation would greatly increase, in spite of enhanced absorption by the remaining smoke, with the UV index more than 3 units higher in the summer midlatitudes, even after a decade. Scenarios of changes in temperature, precipitation, and downward shortwave radiation from the ModelE and WACCM simulations, applied to the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model for winter wheat, rice, soybeans, and maize by perturbing observed time series with anomalies from the regional nuclear war simulations, produce decreases of 10-50% in yield averaged over a decade, with larger decreases in the first several years, over the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The impact of the nuclear war simulated here, using much less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal, would be devastating to world agricultural production and trade, possibly sentencing a billion people now living marginal existences to starvation.The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of

  14. Climate and chemistry effects of a regional scale nuclear conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Stenke A.; Hoyle C. R.; Luo B.; Rozanov E.; Groebner J.; Maag L.; Broennimann S.; Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the severity of detrimental effects for life on Earth after an assumed regionally limited nuclear war. These effects are caused by climatic, chemical and radiative changes persisting for up to one decade. However, so far only a very limited number of climate model simulations have been performed, giving rise to the question how realistic previous computations have been. This study uses the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) SOCOL, which belongs to a...

  15. Multi-lobulation of the nucleus in prolonged S phase by nuclear expression of Chk tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2005-04-01

    Chk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Src-family tyrosine kinases and suppresses their kinase activity. We recently showed that Chk localizes to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and inhibits cell proliferation. To investigate the role of nuclear Chk in proliferation, various Chk mutants were constructed and expressed. Nuclear localization of Chk-induced dynamic multi-lobulation of the nucleus and prolonged S phase of the cell cycle. The N-terminal domain of Chk and a portion of its kinase domain but not the kinase activity were responsible for induction of the multi-lobulation. Cell sorting analysis revealed that nuclear multi-lobulated cells were enriched in late S phase. Multi-lobulated nuclei were surrounded with lamin B1 that was particularly concentrated in concave regions of the nuclei. Furthermore, treatment with nocodazole or taxol disrupted multi-lobulation of the nucleus. These results suggest that nuclear multi-lobulation in late S phase, which is dependent on polymerization and depolymerization of microtubules, may be involved in nuclear Chk-induced inhibition of proliferation.

  16. Multi-lobulation of the nucleus in prolonged S phase by nuclear expression of Chk tyrosine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2005-01-01

    Chk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Src-family tyrosine kinases and suppresses their kinase activity. We recently showed that Chk localizes to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and inhibits cell proliferation. To investigate the role of nuclear Chk in proliferation, various Chk mutants were constructed and expressed. Nuclear localization of Chk-induced dynamic multi-lobulation of the nucleus and prolonged S phase of the cell cycle. The N-terminal domain of Chk and a portion of its kinase domain but not the kinase activity were responsible for induction of the multi-lobulation. Cell sorting analysis revealed that nuclear multi-lobulated cells were enriched in late S phase. Multi-lobulated nuclei were surrounded with lamin B1 that was particularly concentrated in concave regions of the nuclei. Furthermore, treatment with nocodazole or taxol disrupted multi-lobulation of the nucleus. These results suggest that nuclear multi-lobulation in late S phase, which is dependent on polymerization and depolymerization of microtubules, may be involved in nuclear Chk-induced inhibition of proliferation

  17. An illustration of the Arena model: Conflicts concerning nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1991-01-01

    The author examines the current relevance of the debate on risk and presents a systematic survey of theoretical concepts of risk: Technical foundations, economic and psychological perspectives, sociological and cultural-anthropological perspectives as well as social mobilization and the arena model, arenas for settling conflicts being parliament, administrative institutions, the legal realm, the humanities and sciences, mass media etc. The arena model is illustrated using atomic energy as an example, whereby the following factors are taken into account: The political arena, the function of the normal authority, agents, the media as a medium for action and public opinion. Conclusion: Three elements are necessary for a rational and democratic policy for dealing with risks: Experts on the theoretical aspects of the issue must be consulted, the legitimate interests of those persons in the arena who are affected by the decision must be taken into acoount and a representative public opinion poll which determines whether the public is in favour of possible political options must be carried out, thus giving them the opportunity to participate in the decision-making procedure. The better a process is prestructured before such a participatory procedure is initiated, the more likely it is that acceptance and acceptability can be obtained. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2008-01-01

    We use a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100 Hiroshima-size bombs exploded in cities in the northern subtropics. We find column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25–45% at midlatitudes, and 50–70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts remain near or <220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extratropical “ozone hole.” The resulting increases in UV radiation could impact the biota significantly, including serious consequences for human health. The primary cause for the dramatic and persistent ozone depletion is heating of the stratosphere by smoke, which strongly absorbs solar radiation. The smoke-laden air rises to the upper stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow, so that much of the stratosphere is ultimately heated by the localized smoke injections. Higher stratospheric temperatures accelerate catalytic reaction cycles, particularly those of odd-nitrogen, which destroy ozone. In addition, the strong convection created by rising smoke plumes alters the stratospheric circulation, redistributing ozone and the sources of ozone-depleting gases, including N2O and chlorofluorocarbons. The ozone losses predicted here are significantly greater than previous “nuclear winter/UV spring” calculations, which did not adequately represent stratospheric plume rise. Our results point to previously unrecognized mechanisms for stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:18391218

  19. Conflicting Evolutionary Histories of the Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genomes in New World Myotis Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Roy N; Faircloth, Brant C; Sullivan, Kevin A M; Kieran, Troy J; Glenn, Travis C; Vandewege, Michael W; Lee, Thomas E; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2018-03-01

    The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial genomes of 37 representative Myotis, primarily from the New World, in conjunction with targeted sequencing of 3648 ultraconserved elements (UCEs). We inferred the phylogeny and explored the effects of concatenation and summary phylogenetic methods, as well as combinations of markers based on informativeness or levels of missing data, on our results. Of the 294 phylogenies generated from the nuclear UCE data, all are significantly different from phylogenies inferred using mitochondrial genomes. Even within the nuclear data, quartet frequencies indicate that around half of all UCE loci conflict with the estimated species tree. Several factors can drive such conflict, including incomplete lineage sorting, introgressive hybridization, or even phylogenetic error. Despite the degree of discordance between nuclear UCE loci and the mitochondrial genome and among UCE loci themselves, the most common nuclear topology is recovered in one quarter of all analyses with strong nodal support. Based on these results, we re-examine the evolutionary history of Myotis to better understand the phenomena driving their unique nuclear, mitochondrial, and biogeographic histories.

  20. Conflict of interests, nuclear weapons, and flexible response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afheldt, H.

    1992-01-01

    When President Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power in the Soviet Union in 1985, neither goal had been achieved. Consequently, a serious crisis on NATO policy was developing. That crisis had its focus on the double-track decision of 1979 and the deployment in Central Europe of ground-based, Medium-range ballistic and cruise missiles. In the early 1990s the world looks much more promising. First steps for a new less confrontational political structure in Europe have been taken. First successes are in the field of disarmament are being realized. Unfortunately, the results have seen a tendency to forget about the difficulties. This paper reports on a new military security structure and force postures for central Europe, which avoid former roadblocks to disarmament and political cooperation and at the same time provide for military security just in case things go wrong in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, on some of the results of that study. As to the critical examination on the problems we face with NATO's security policy, two areas demand detailed examination: Political and military reasons for the failure of policies of detente, arms limitation, and disarmament in the past. The role of nuclear weapons in the policy of confrontation, especially their role inside NATO and in the continuing NATO crisis on nuclear deterrence

  1. The Public Sphere and the Conflict-Structure in Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Social Acceptance is important to decide policy of spent nuclear fuel management. The idea of a public sphere as a receptacle of dynamic process is the core in this discussion. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept, participants, the conflict-structure and agreeable conditions of a public sphere. A public sphere means in this paper, mechanism and systems that various stakeholders' and public's participation with spontaneous will can affect decision-making process. For good designing and implementing a public sphere, it is necessary to analysis and cope with political, foreign and security, economic, sociocultural environments, the law and systems around spent nuclear fuel management.

  2. Conflict between constitutional norms: monopoly of nuclear ore and the social function of property in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-de-Moura, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)

  3. Maintaining nutritional adequacy during a prolonged food crisis. [Basic foods for post-nuclear attack use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.B.; Kearny, C.H.

    1979-08-01

    This handbook is the first to assemble nutritional information and make recommendations on the efficient use of unprocessed grains, beans, and other elemental foods during the aftermath of a nuclear war. These basic foods would constitute the main resources to combat famine after a major nuclear attack. Such an attack would reduce and probably eliminate most commercial food processing for many months. To decision makers, this handbook should prove useful on basic aspects of nutrition in a long-term survival situation. These decision makers might range from the heads of families to government officials. Recommendations for nutrition given by organizations experienced in crisis feeding are reviewed and compared. Based on the best nutritional information available, emergency dietary recommendations are made for minimum and intermediate goals. The emergency dietary recommendations are applied to food for practical survival rations. Long-term survival rations for Americans are evaluated. These rations are (1) ten single-food rations; (2) four cereal-legume rations, ratio 4:1; (3) four cereal-legume rations, ratio 8:1; and (4) four cereal-legume-dry milk rations. The 22 different survival rations are detailed and summarized in 20 tables which list their nutritional adequacies and deficiences. Expedient procedures are given by which basic foods may be processed and cooked to provide a more healthful diet than most Americans believe possible. Special attention is given to the requirements of infants, children, and pregnant or lactating women. The eleven appendixes provide a wealth of specialized information. Among these appendixes is one that summarizes new and improved expedient methods for removing radioactive fallout and other contaminants from water. Another appendix is a comprehensive account of ways to sprout seeds to produce vitamins and improve palatability. (ERB)

  4. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von

    2010-01-01

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  5. Nuclear labelling after prolonged 3H-uridine incorporation as visualized by high resolution autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakan, S.; Bernhard, W.

    1973-01-01

    Localization of radioactive labeling over the nuclei of BSC 1 cells is visualized after long periods of 3 H-5-uridine incubation followed or not followed by periods of postincubation in nonradioactive medium for up to several days, using high resolution autoradiography combined with a preferential staining method for ribonucleoproteins. It is shown that when cells are labeled for 1 or 6 h with 3 H-uridine and postincubated with a nonradioactive medium up to several days, there is always some radioactivity present in the nucleolus and nucleoplasm. When sections of cells fixed after 1 h of labeling followed by 24 h of postincubation are treated with RNase, part of the radioactivity found in the nucleus disappears almost completely only after a succeeding DNase digestion. The majority of interchromatin granules are weakly labeled after most incubation times, with the label localized rather at the periphery of clusters of granules, or are unlabeled. The results are discussed in the context of recent biochemical findings. It is proposed that interchromatin granules might represent a structure containing a limited quantity of slowly labeled nuclear RNA

  6. Is more better or worse? New empirics on nuclear proliferation and interstate conflict by Random Forests1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akisato Suzuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on nuclear proliferation, some argue that further proliferation decreases interstate conflict, some say that it increases interstate conflict, and others indicate a non-linear relationship between these two factors. However, there has been no systematic empirical investigation on the relationship between nuclear proliferation and a propensity for conflict at the interstate–systemic level. To fill this gap, the current paper uses the machine learning method Random Forests, which can investigate complex non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables, and which can identify important regressors from a group of all potential regressors in explaining the relationship between nuclear proliferation and the propensity for conflict. The results indicate that, on average, a larger number of nuclear states decrease the systemic propensity for interstate conflict, while the emergence of new nuclear states does not have an important effect. This paper also notes, however, that scholars should investigate other risks of proliferation to assess whether nuclear proliferation is better or worse for international peace and security in general.

  7. Nuclear waste disposal. A wicked and highly conflict bearing societal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Mez, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The final disposal of nuclear wastes is called ''messy'' or ''wicked'' in the political science literature. The highly complicated problems are characterized by a number of features such as intra- and inter-generational aspects and ethical questions. In the case of stakeholders the differences concern ideologies, interests, merits and preferences that cause conflicts. The search for solutions is complicated due to interacting political, social, ecologic, economic and technical aspects. The concepts ''wicked problems'' and ''multi-level-governance'' are promising approaches to solve the complicated situation.

  8. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mandungu, Tumwaka P; Mbela, Kisumbula; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Kalambayi, Banza B; Kayembe, Kalambayi P; Emina, Jacques B O

    2014-03-20

    The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing U5M by half by 2015.

  9. Conflict nuclear power. Theses for current supply with and without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a lecture at the 2nd Internationally Renewable Energy Storage Conference at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the author of the contribution under consideration reports on theses for current supply with and without nuclear power. (1) Theses for current supply with nuclear energy: Due to a relative amount of 17 % of nuclear energy in the world-wide energy production and due to the present reactor technology, the supplies of uranium amount nearly 50 to 70 years. The security of the nuclear power stations is controversially judged in the public and policy. In a catastrophic accident in a nuclear power station, an amount of nearly 2.5 billion Euro is available for adjustment of damages (cover note). The disposal of radioactive wastes is not solved anywhere in the world. The politically demanded separation between military and civilian use of the nuclear energy technology is not possible. The exit from the nuclear energy is fixed in the atomic law. By any means, the Federal Republic of Germany is not insulated in the European Union according to its politics of nuclear exit. After legal adjustment of the exit from the nuclear energy the Federal Republic of Germany should unfold appropriate activities for the re-orientation of Euratom, Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consideration of the use of nuclear energy in relation to the risks has to result that its current kind of use is not acceptable and to be terminated as fast as possible. (2) Theses for current supply without nuclear energy: The scenario technology enables a transparency of energy future being deliverable for political decisions. In accordance with this scenario, the initial extra costs of the development of the renewable energies and the combined heat and power generation amount approximately 4 billion Euro per year. The conversion of the power generation to renewable energies and combined heat and power generation

  10. Multi-Decadal Global Cooling and Unprecedented Ozone Loss Following a Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M. J.; Toon, O. B.; Lee-Taylor, J. M.; Robock, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea-ice and land models (Mills et al., 2014). A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15-kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon. This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM1(WACCM)), we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric black carbon, compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies (figure panel a). Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years (figure panel c). We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30-80% over Mid-Latitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years, due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of the more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today. Mills, M. J., O. B. Toon, J. Lee-Taylor, and A. Robock (2014), Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict, Earth's Future, 2(4), 161-176, doi:10.1002/2013EF000205.

  11. The evolution of non-reciprocal nuclear exchange in mushrooms as a consequence of genomic conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Kuyper, T.W.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    nucleo-mitochondrial conflict, mitochondrial inheritance, doubly uniparental inheritance, basidiomycetes, cytoplasmic male sterility......nucleo-mitochondrial conflict, mitochondrial inheritance, doubly uniparental inheritance, basidiomycetes, cytoplasmic male sterility...

  12. Inner conflict between nuclear power generation and electricity rates: A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Takanori; Takemura, Kosuke; Sato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Since the March 11 earthquake, Japanese households have been facing a trade-off problem between decreasing dependency on nuclear power generation and avoiding an increase in electricity rates. We analyze this inner conflict quantitatively, adopting two economic–psychological approaches: First, we note that the trade-off causes cognitive dissonance after making a choice that results in a wider desirability gap between the chosen and rejected alternatives. Second, the consumer surplus improves by 11.2% with a no-choice option for suspending judgment in the presence of cognitive dissonance. Third, individual characteristics such as gender and annual household income are significantly correlated with both cognitive dissonance and a preference for the no-choice option. - Highlights: • The Fukushima crisis shocked Japanese citizens' attitudes on nuclear power plants. • Citizens' attitudes toward nuclear power generation and electricity rates surveyed • The trade-off caused cognitive dissonance resulting in a hardline stance. • The consumer surplus improves with a no-choice option for suspending judgment

  13. Nuclear waste repository siting and locational conflict analysis: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murauskas, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates an alternative framework that is based on contextual variables. The premise is that differences in attitudes and perceptions regarding the local siting of nuclear wastes and differences in attitudes regarding siting decision-making procedures are influenced by local political, economic, and cultural variables. This framework articulates the nature of conflict in terms of the incongruence between the use-value individuals ascribe to their present situation and the anticipated exchange-value individuals associate with the local siting of a nuclear waste repository. In order to evaluate this conceptual framework a survey was conducted of residents in four communities representing distinct societal contexts: Richton, Mississippi; Peterborough, New Hampshire; Richland, Washington; and Antigo/Waupaca, Wisconsin. Data analyses indicate substantial differences in economic expectations associated with the local siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository and in perception regarding the impacts such a repository might have on the environment, local agriculture, personal health and safety, and the quality of life

  14. The state and nuclear power - conflict and control in the Western world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A contribution to the debate on nuclear power, this book provides a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the political, ideological and economic dimensions of the conflict. It offers the first political study of the nuclear fuel cycle in the light of the complex and often contradictory functions the advanced capitalist state is called upon to perform. Since the late 1960s, the nuclear power controversy has intruded with increasing frequency and intensity into the political process of most Western countries, and had a greater polarising effect on the body politic than almost any other technological dispute this century. This book concentrates on three main areas of investigation - political management, social legitimation and international regulation. The scope and limitations of state intervention in all three areas are examined and it is concluded that such intervention is often less than effective. In order to achieve greater coherence and insight, the study concentrates on six countries: the United Kingdom, the United States, France, West Germany, Sweden and Brazil. It relates theory to empirical research and provides an international and comparative perspective on the crisis of economic and political management confronting modern capitalism. (author)

  15. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research.

  16. Goal conflicts management in the control and operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letzkus, P.

    2004-11-01

    The goal conflicts constitute classes of situation or behaviors which can be translated, in the human activity, by skirting or variations with the rules...Their consequences can be serious, in particular in nuclear industry. In addition, the analyses of incidents do not make it always possible to integrate complex factors like individual attitudes, organisational or design features which push the operators to take risks to achieve their activity. This research first of all presents indicators which make it possible to go up with the causes of these variations. In the second place, a model of management of the activity illustrates why it is observed that people can adopt strategies or behaviors whose finalities seem to be opposed to the context. For that, it allots to emotional dimension a role of modulator intervening on the cognitive mechanisms managing an operational situation. (author)

  17. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research

  18. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L. is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera S Bogdanova

    Full Text Available In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L., nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  19. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Conflict in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Is Associated with Nuclear and Plastidic Candidate Genes Encoding Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Vera S.; Zaytseva, Olga O.; Mglinets, Anatoliy V.; Shatskaya, Natalia V.; Kosterin, Oleg E.; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized. PMID:25789472

  20. The end of nuclear power? The conflict of politics, ecology and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The German federal government's demand to opt out of the peaceful use of nuclear power is examined under aspects of constitutional law. Constitutional barriers allow the peaceful use of nuclear power to be discontinued without any compensation only in the distant future. A general restriction of the useful life of plants does not constitute a modification of ownership rights but deprivation, i.e., expropriation. In this politically desired opt-out, the government also must bear in mind that the constitution protects not only the property but also the freedom to exercise their profession (Article 12, para. 1, German Basic Law) of all those who have been committed to this industry for decades. Also a national ban on reprocessing with transborder effects violates existing law, counteracting the requirement of a free exchange of goods and services within the single European market. Moreover, the existing reprocessing contracts with foreign companies may be terminated unilaterally only subject to indemnification, as they constitute obligations under international law, unless German customers were to exercise their contractual right to cancel. In addition, it is to be feared that discontinuation of the peaceful uses of nuclear power manifests itself in the absence of provisions for the back end of the fuel cycle. Prolonging the exploration of repositories and, consequently, relying more and more heavily on interim stores, is bound to raise the question of the evidence of spent fuel and waste management in these latter facilities. In the absence of sufficient proof of waste management provisions in interim stores, the accusation could be leveled that it was not certain whether these interim stores were not turning into final stores. (orig.) [de

  1. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  2. Conflict about conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.; Mannix, E.; Neale, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two "conflicts about conflict" (i.e., two meta-conflicts) in the literature: we examine whether and under what conditions conflict in workgroups might be beneficial and

  3. Microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for resolving conflicting nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    We describe one design for a microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for identifying and resolving false, conflicting, or misleading instrument indications resulting from certain systems interactions for a pressurized water reactor. The system processes sensor signals from groups of instruments that track together under nominal transient and certain accident conditions, and alarms when they do not track together. We examine multiple-casualty systems interaction and formulate a trial grouping of variables that track together under specified conditions. A two-of-three type redundancy check of key variables provides alarm and indication of conflicting information when one signal suddenly tracks in opposition due to multiple casualty, instrument failure, and/or locally abnormal conditions. Since a vote count of two of three variables in conflict as inconclusive evidence, the system is not designed to provide tripping or corrective action, but improves the operator/instrument interface by providing additional and partially digested information

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen prolongs the life span of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Sugaya, Makoto; Atkins, April M; Aquilino, Elisabeth A; Yang, Aparche; Borris, Debra L; Brady, John; Blauvelt, Andrew

    2003-06-01

    Tumor spindle cells in all clinical types of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Although KSHV contains more than 80 genes, only a few are expressed in tumor spindle cells, including latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and k-cyclin (kCYC). To assess the oncogenic potential of LANA and kCYC, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine NIH 3T3 cells were stably transduced by using recombinant retroviruses expressing these genes or the known viral oncogene simian virus 40 large T antigen (LTAg). Interestingly, LANA-transduced HUVEC proliferated faster and demonstrated a greatly prolonged life span (mean +/- standard deviation, 38.3 +/- 11.0 passages) than untransduced cells and vector-transduced cells (<20 passages). By contrast, kCYC-transduced HUVEC did not proliferate faster or live longer than control cells. LANA- and kCYC-transduced HUVEC, but not LTAg-transduced HUVEC, retained the ability to form normal vessel-like structures in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. In cellular assays of transformation, LANA- and kCYC-transduced NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated minimal or no anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and no tumorigenicity when injected into nude mice, unlike LTAg-transduced NIH 3T3 cells. Lastly, gene expression profiling revealed down-regulation, or silencing, of a number of genes within LANA-transduced HUVEC. Taken together, these results suggest that KSHV LANA is capable of inducing prolonged life span, but not transformation, in primary human cells. These findings may explain why LANA-expressing spindle cells proliferate within KS tumors, yet most often do not demonstrate biologic characteristics of transformation or true malignant conversion.

  5. Prolonged Living as a Refugee from the Area Around a Stricken Nuclear Power Plant Increases the Risk of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011) resulted in a large number of disaster-related deaths, it is not common knowledge that the number of disaster-related deaths continues to increase, even four years after the earthquake, in Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear power plant accident occurred. There has been a lack of a minute and critical analysis for the causes for this continuous increase. In this report, the causes for the increase in disaster-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture were analyzed by aggregating and comparing multiple data released by public organizations (the Reconstruction Agency, the National Police Agency, and Fukushima Prefecture), which may also have implications for developing response strategies to other disasters. The disaster-related death rate, the dead or missing rate, and the refugee rate (the number of disaster-related deaths, dead or missing persons, and refugees per 1,000 people) in each prefecture in stricken areas, and also each city, county, town, and village in Fukushima Prefecture, were calculated and compared with each other. The populations which were used for the calculation of each death rate in the area were based on the number of dead victims who had lived in the area when the earthquake occurred, regardless of where they were at the time of their death. The disaster-related death rate was higher than the dead or missing rate in the area around a stricken nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. These areas coincide exactly with the Areas under Evacuation Orders because of unsafe radiation levels. The external and internal radiation doses of most of the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake have appeared not to be so high to harm their health, until now. The psychological stress associated with being displaced from one's home for a long time with an uncertain future may be the cause for these disaster-related deaths. There is an urgent need to recognize refugees

  6. Conflict generation and avoidance: contradictions in the development of civil nuclear power in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (role of state power in the development of nuclear energy); the employment effects of nuclear plant construction ((i) the case of North West Wales; (ii) the case of Windscale, Cumbria); local class structure and labour market segmentation; state policy and nuclear energy ((i) the position of Windscale; (ii) the position of the Cabinet); state policy and public decision making; conclusions. (U.K.)

  7. Conflict between civil liberties and nuclear energy safeguards: an analysis of current and prospective Federal regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The high regard that the U.S. has traditionally placed on individual rights and liberties makes it imperative that nuclear-safeguards measures currently in use or suggested by evaluated in terms of their social costs. A nuclear-safeguards strategy that minimizes civil-liberties impacts as a social cost and allows adequate protection against the threats of nuclear theft and sabotage in the rapidly developing nuclear energy industry must be arrived at. This study explores the possible civil-liberties impacts and the effectiveness of nuclear-safeguards measures which may be or are being used. Case law and statutory law are extensively analyzed to classify the type of civil-liberties impacts that particular nuclear-safeguards measures may impose. Literature addressing the effectiveness of safeguards measures is examined in various contexts often completely outside of the ''security'' disciplines. A comparison of both the civil liberties impact and effectiveness of each nuclear safeguards measure reveals a cost/benefit factor from which conclusions may be drawn. The real issue is whether or not a nuclear safeguards system will interfere with historic respect governmental institutions have given rights and liberties guaranteed in the U.S. It is concluded that physical access controls present only minor civil liberties costs while providing substantial protection against theft and sabotage. Recommendations are made in the form of suggested statutes, regulations, and regulatory guides. Certain inter-agency relationships and methods for establishing those relationships are also suggested

  8. Social issues and energy alternatives: the context of conflict over nuclear waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The perceived risks and benefits of electric power alternatives were used to explore the context of attitudes toward nuclear power. Supporters and opponents of nuclear power responded to thirty-three items which referred to five categories of energy issue: the production potential of electric, risks of those technologies, power generation technologies, energy conservation, comparisons of risks among technologies and comparisons between risks and benefits of each technology. The results are summarized. The nuclear supporters studied here do favor nuclear power. However, they believe that there are limited prospects for contributions from solar, wind and hydroelectric technologies. They also believe that there are serious disadvantages to conservation. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, disagree that there are such limited prospects for solar and wind, although they are neutral on the prospects for increased hydro capacity. They also do not believe that conservation necessarily poses serious adverse consequences either for themselves or others

  9. The operation of nuclear power plants in the conflict between administrative law and criminal law. Betrieb kerntechnischer Anlagen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Verwaltungs- und Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbe, C. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Rechtsabteilung)

    The conflicting interests of administrative law and criminal law give rise to a number of burdensome conditions to be met by the operators of nuclear plants. Of course, it is one of the peculiarities of criminal law that nobody can decide for himself whether he wants to become involved in it. There is probably no other choice than meeting, with a good blend of composure and cleverness, the criteria now surrounding the operation of a nuclear facility. (orig.).

  10. The problem of nuclear wastes. A possible point of conflict between Mexico and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas Poblano, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this research were: a) To analyse the problem of nuclear wastes, and the importance of their safe handling; b) To investigate the best and safest technologies for the treatment of radioactive wastes and two relevant international laws or regulations; c) To study whether the wastes produced in the United States represent an environmental problem for Mexico

  11. The state and nuclear power: conflict and control in the western world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the political, ideological and economic dimensions of the nuclear power debate is made. Political management, social legitimation and international regulation are considered. The scope and limitations of state intervention in all three areas are examined. The study concentrates on six countries: the United Kingdom, the United States, France, West Germany, Sweden and Brazil

  12. Multidecadal global cooling and unprecedented ozone loss following a regional nuclear conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael J.; Toon, Owen B.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Robock, Alan

    2014-04-01

    We present the first study of the global impacts of a regional nuclear war with an Earth system model including atmospheric chemistry, ocean dynamics, and interactive sea ice and land components. A limited, regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan in which each side detonates 50 15 kt weapons could produce about 5 Tg of black carbon (BC). This would self-loft to the stratosphere, where it would spread globally, producing a sudden drop in surface temperatures and intense heating of the stratosphere. Using the Community Earth System Model with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, we calculate an e-folding time of 8.7 years for stratospheric BC compared to 4-6.5 years for previous studies. Our calculations show that global ozone losses of 20%-50% over populated areas, levels unprecedented in human history, would accompany the coldest average surface temperatures in the last 1000 years. We calculate summer enhancements in UV indices of 30%-80% over midlatitudes, suggesting widespread damage to human health, agriculture, and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Killing frosts would reduce growing seasons by 10-40 days per year for 5 years. Surface temperatures would be reduced for more than 25 years due to thermal inertia and albedo effects in the ocean and expanded sea ice. The combined cooling and enhanced UV would put significant pressures on global food supplies and could trigger a global nuclear famine. Knowledge of the impacts of 100 small nuclear weapons should motivate the elimination of more than 17,000 nuclear weapons that exist today.

  13. Living with the bomb: American and Japanese cultural conflicts in the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, L.; Selden, M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a book about how Japanese, Americans -- not the least Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Americans directly affected by the bombings -- and the rest of the world have lived with the history of atomic destruction, how they have remembered, forgotten, commemorated, and erased that history. A powerful collection that confronts the consequences of the atomic bombing of Japan for that nation, for the United States, and for the world. Stripping away the veils of carefully manufactured illusions, it brings readers face-to-face with the realities of the nuclear era

  14. The crisis bears the chance. The nuclear conflict with Iran and the impact on the nuclear non-proliferation regime; In der Krise liegt die Chance. Der Atomkonflikt mit Iran und seine Auswirkungen auf das nukleare Nichtverbreitungsregime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Oliver

    2014-10-15

    The contribution on the nuclear conflict with Iran and the impact on the nuclear non-proliferation regime covers the following topics: Iran and the verification of non-nuclear -weapon states, the system of nuclear safeguards, the application of new verification instruments, verification of possible military research and development activities, the limitation of proliferation relevant activities, delivery guarantees as mean for non-proliferation, Iran and the handling of contract violations, graded reactions, political issues, problems of harmonization, capacity and process deficiencies, before the ninth non-proliferation verification conference, approaches for strengthening the non-proliferation regime, recommendation to the German politics.

  15. Elites in conflict: nuclear energy, ideology, and the perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.; Lichter, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    We now have the capacity to injure much larger populations than ever before, and that power is growing exponentially. Expectations have also grown. Many Americans believe that it should be possible to eliminate environmental risk without lowering living standards. Further, scientific advances have enabled us to detect smaller traces of potentially toxic substances, and research permits us to measure ever-smaller effects of those substances and to extrapolate to possible disaster. However, this study indicates that ideological factors also have played a significant role in changing perceptions of risk. The argument has three hypotheses: (1) expressed concerns about the risks of new technologies on the part of some leadership groups are at least partly a function of their political ideology; (2) some groups, due to their key roles in communicating information, have persuaded a significant segment of the public that their perceptions of risks are accurate; and (3) the concern of leadership groups with the risks of new technologies is a substitute for more-fundamental criticisms of the American economic and political system. The authors examine these hypotheses, concentrating on nuclear energy. However, they strongly suspect that the same factors are at work in other areas of environmental concern as well. 49 references, 6 tables

  16. The conflict zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-01-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium

  17. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  18. Nuclear waste disposal. A wicked and highly conflict bearing societal problem; Nukleare Entsorgung. Ein ''wicked'' und hoechst konfliktbehaftetes Gesellschaftsproblem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Mez, Lutz [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Schreuers, Miranda [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The final disposal of nuclear wastes is called ''messy'' or ''wicked'' in the political science literature. The highly complicated problems are characterized by a number of features such as intra- and inter-generational aspects and ethical questions. In the case of stakeholders the differences concern ideologies, interests, merits and preferences that cause conflicts. The search for solutions is complicated due to interacting political, social, ecologic, economic and technical aspects. The concepts ''wicked problems'' and ''multi-level-governance'' are promising approaches to solve the complicated situation.

  19. Conflict between constitutional norms: monopoly of nuclear ore and the social function of property in Brazil; Conflito entre normas constitucionais: monopolio do minerio nuclear e a funcao social da propriedade no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-de-Moura, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)

  20. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  1. 48 CFR 2009.570 - NRC organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2009.570 Section 2009.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570 NRC organizational conflicts of interest. ...

  2. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  3. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  4. After-operating properties of nuclear reactor vessel materials of Lenin atomic ice breaker and prospective of reactor vessels radiation life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, P.A.; Shtrombakh, Ya.I.; Amaev, A.D.; Krasikov, E.A.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Zabusov, O.O.; Glushakov, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    A post-operational state of the icebreaker Lenin reactor vessel metal is investigated. It is shown that a base metal of the icebreaker Lenin reactor vessel is of high quality as by an initial value of critical temperature of embrittlement, so by its radiation resistance. The weld metal possesses a sufficient radiation resistance but has an insufficient initial ductile-brittle transition temperature (approximately 63 Deg C). It is necessary to note that the final stage of operation for nuclear steam-generating plant should be carried out at the coolant temperature as high as possible [ru

  5. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  6. Forests, Fragility and Conflict : Overview and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Harwell, Emily; Farah, Douglas; Blundell, Arthur G.

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a synthesis of key themes and current knowledge about the links among forests, armed conflict, poverty, and various aspects of state fragility. The main themes addressed are: how predatory, incapable, or absent states are fragile in different ways, and their diverse relationships to forests and conflict; the mechanisms by which forests facilitate or prolong conflict, inc...

  7. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the remote and immediate causes of the armed ethnic conflicts in the Niger Delta in Nigeria and attempts to proffer a strategic approach rather than the use of brute force in managing the conflicts. The study revealed that the underlying cause of the conflict is the prolonged ...

  8. Nuclear Deterrence in South Asia - an Assessment of Deterrence and Stability in the India-Pakistan Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Westh, Mark; Juel Giorgio, Maia; Wiegersma, Jakob; Madsen, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a coherent assessment of the stability created by nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan. Our examination posits the neorealist understanding of the stability created by nuclear deterrence in relation to alternative frameworks. To unfold the varying theoretical presuppositions upon which the concept of stability is based, three logically constructed analyses will be undertaken where the theories are explored in relation to empirical data. The Kargil Crisis in 1999 and...

  9. Nuclear energy as a 'golden bridge'? Constitutional legal problems of the negotiation of the prolongation of the running time against skimming of profits; Kernenergie als 'goldene Bruecke'? Verfassungsrechtliche Probleme der Aushandlung von Laufzeitverlaengerungen gegen Gewinnabschoepfungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, Christian; Aswege, Hanka von [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht

    2010-07-15

    The coalition agreement of Christian Demographic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union (CSU) and Free Democratic Party (FDP) from 26th October, 2009 characterizes the nuclear energy as a bridge technology. The coalition parties explain to prolong the running times of German nuclear power stations up to a reliable replacement by renewable energies. The conditions for the prolongation of the running times are to be regulated in agreement with energy supply companies. In the contribution under consideration, the authors report on the fiscal legal problems of the skimming of profits. Constitutional legal problems of the earmaking of a skimming of profits as well as a consensual agreement are discussed in this contribution. In the result, a financial constitutionally reliable way for the skimming of added profits due to prolongation of the running time is not evident. The legal earmaking of the duty advent for the promotion of renewable energies increases the constitutional doubts.

  10. The social conflict about nuclear energy and the procedure of public participation - theses explaining the demand for operative acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloede, F.

    1989-01-01

    (1) The opinion of the population on the participation procedure depends on its judgement of the project. (2) Judgement of the leading groups taking part in the procedure is an independent factor. (3) The fundamental disagreement about the use of nuclear energy cannot be adjusted by administrative procedures. (4) The gradational disagreement about nuclear engineering projects suggests a procedural reform. (5) Political settlement of the fundamental controversy and reforms of the public participation procedure cannot be substituted one for the other. (6) There is a social and political interaction between the fundamental and the gradational disagreement. (orig.) [de

  11. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... of organizational conflict where members of an organization are seen as politicized actors engaged in power struggles that continually ebb and flow....

  12. Utility of combining morphological characters, nuclear and mitochondrial genes: An attempt to resolve the conflicts of species identification for ciliated protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gentekaki, Eleni; Zhan, Aibin; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a highly diverse protozoan lineage inhabiting all biotopes and playing crucial roles in regulating microbial food webs. Nevertheless, subtle morphological differences and tiny sizes hinder proper species identification for many ciliates. Here, we use the species-rich taxon Frontonia and employ both nuclear and mitochondrial loci. We attempt to assess the level of genetic diversity and evaluate the potential of each marker in delineating species of Frontonia. Morphological features and ecological characteristics are also integrated into genetic results, in an attempt to resolve conflicts of species identification based on morphological and molecular methods. Our studies reveal: (1) the mitochondrial cox1 gene, nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 as well as the hypervariable D2 region of LSU rDNA are promising candidates for species delineation; (2) the cox1 gene provides the best resolution for analyses below the species level; (3) the V2 and V4 hypervariable regions of SSU rDNA, and D1 of LSU rDNA as well as the 5.8S rDNA gene do not show distinct barcoding gap due to overlap between intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences; (4) morphological character-based analysis shows promise for delimitation of Frontonia species; and (5) all gene markers and character-based analyses demonstrate that the genus Frontonia consists of three groups and monophyly of the genus Frontonia is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  14. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  15. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  16. Optimization method concerning target conflicts between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1991-01-01

    The simplified cost-benefit analysis has not been considered for applications in nuclear engineering with complex decisions between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects. The extended cost-benefit analysis encounters problems with non-monetary criteria. Solutions are in sight, however with a subjective element. A major problem in implementing the method is the psychological barrier as against an evaluation of human life. The multi-attribute utility analysis overcomes the difficulties of the extended cost-benefit analysis, however, it also creates new problems on account of the complicated construction of the utility functions. The problems are solved most elegantly with the multi-criteria outranking analysis, the only disadvantage possibly being less transparency at first sight. (orig./HP) [de

  17. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  18. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  19. Prolonged Wars: A Post-Nuclear Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    within the transport corridors might well reflect irreversible urbanization. Quite apart from the logistical nightmare of holding universal franchise ... franchise at last into line with that of Britain; a points system based on need had been adopted for the allocation of houses; and a ministry of com- munity...example occurred in March 1972 when an explosion in a crowded cafe claimed 143 casualties. Continuing initiatives were buried completely by Bloody

  20. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  1. ''Confession statement against the nuclear nation''. The protestant church in Germany and the conflicts concerning nuclear energy 1970 - 1990; ''Bekennen gegen den Atomstaat''. Die evangelischen Kirchen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die Konflikte um die Atomenergie 1970-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuering, Michael [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The book on ''Confession statement against the nuclear nation'' discusses the conflicts of the protestant church in Germany concerning nuclear energy in 1970 - 1990. The introduction covers the state of research and the historical sources. The following chapters discuss the issues philosophic-ideological fundamentals: atomic energy and theology, the political church, the new protest culture and comparative perspectives: the catholic perspective, Three Mile Island's shadow.

  2. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    This volume of materials is part of the report on 'Technological risks and social conflicts. Political risk strategies in the field of nuclear power'. The interested reader who wants to deepen his knowledge on the results and reasoning of the main report, will here find detailed explanations and brief drafts of subprojects; fundamental aspects of problems are presented in detail, and theoretical-conceptional, methodological and scientific-political points of view are explained. Furthermore it contains general reflections on the application-oriented research by order, a review of the status of risk research, historical considerations on the nuclear energy conflict, and finally explanations are attempted for the nuclear energy conflict. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  4. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  5. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  6. Behavioral vs. molecular sources of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA: The role of male-biased dispersal in a Holarctic sea duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Bolender, Kimberly A.; Pearce, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies of waterfowl (Anatidae) have observed the full spectrum of mitochondrial (mt) DNA population divergence, from apparent panmixia to deep, reciprocally monophyletic lineages. Yet, these studies often found weak or no nuclear (nu) DNA structure, which was often attributed to male-biased gene flow, a common behaviour within this family. An alternative explanation for this ‘conflict’ is that the smaller effective population size and faster sorting rate of mtDNA relative to nuDNA lead to different signals of population structure. We tested these alternatives by sequencing 12 nuDNA introns for a Holarctic pair of waterfowl subspecies, the European goosander (Mergus merganser merganser) and the North American common merganser (M. m. americanus), which exhibit strong population structure in mtDNA. We inferred effective population sizes, gene flow and divergence times from published mtDNA sequences and simulated expected differentiation for nuDNA based on those histories. Between Europe and North America, nuDNA ФST was 3.4-fold lower than mtDNA ФST, a result consistent with differences in sorting rates. However, despite geographically structured and monophyletic mtDNA lineages within continents, nuDNA ФST values were generally zero and significantly lower than predicted. This between- and within-continent contrast held when comparing mtDNA and nuDNA among published studies of ducks. Thus, male-mediated gene flow is a better explanation than slower sorting rates for limited nuDNA differentiation within continents, which is also supported by nonmolecular data. This study illustrates the value of quantitatively testing discrepancies between mtDNA and nuDNA to reject the null hypothesis that conflict simply reflects different sorting rates.

  7. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    . In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research...

  8. International conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, P.

    1984-01-01

    The gravest danger facing mankind is that the superpowers have built a complex technological apparatus of nuclear weaponry without thinking through its purpose or control. In a time of crisis nuclear command systems in both the United States and the USSR are likely to pass rapidly from political to highly fragmented military control, making political direction of a nuclear war virtually impossible. The organization and management of nuclear command systems in both peace and war are analyzed, and potential wartime interactions of the Soviet and American control structures are described. Wartime information gathering is identified as the key problem of command and control because the havoc created in communications and data processing by a nuclear war would result in strong decentralizing tendencies with pathological strategy implications. By focusing on how military organizations actually carry out nuclear strategy, the uncertainty and chaos of nuclear war is shown. While there are no absolute guarantees of security in this perilous age, a full understanding of the opportunities and problems of managing nuclear forces may be the best way to prevent disaster

  9. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  10. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  11. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  12. Out-group trust and conflict understandings: The perspective of Turks and Kurds in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çelebi, Elif; Verkuijten, Maykel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073378542; Köse, Talha; Maliepaard, Mieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869278

    2014-01-01

    Conflict reconciliation is difficult in the absence of out-group trust. The current study is concerned with the prolonged Turkish-Kurdish conflict in Turkey and examines out-group trust among both ethnic Kurds and ethnic Turks, in relation to perceptions and interpretations of the conflict (i.e.

  13. Problems arising in connection with the commissioning of experts in conflict-oriented implementation of nuclear law. The legal status of expert opinions in administrative procedures under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebig, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    Court decisions available so far do not primarily consider the problems linked to the commissioning of an expert and his mandate, as well as the legal status of the commissioning of an expert as an administrative act which might be legally contestable. Thus there are at present no court decisions that would create legal certainty in matters of the act of commissioning a nuclear expert opinion. The current legal situation is such that an independent order for commissioning of an expert opinion in compliance with section 19 III AtG (Atomic Energy Act), which in general is given in response to the refusal of the facility operator to do so, can be independently contested on the basis of section 44 a, sentence 2 VwGO (Rules of Administrative Courts). The current practice of conflict-oriented, or nuclear power phase-out-oriented, implementation of the nuclear law poses a threat to our constitutional state and to our democracy. The supply of energy as a common good is of essential importance and thus deserves fair and objective treatment free of emotions, including the matter of nuclear energy. In cases of nuclear licensing procedures meeting with impedimental treatment by a Land government favouring the nuclear power phase-out, this treatment however not fitting into the Land governments' overall political line, there is reason to call upon the Federal Government to take action for clarifying the situation. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  15. Timing of cyber conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert; Iliev, Rumen

    2014-01-28

    Nations are accumulating cyber resources in the form of stockpiles of zero-day exploits as well as other novel methods of engaging in future cyber conflict against selected targets. This paper analyzes the optimal timing for the use of such cyber resources. A simple mathematical model is offered to clarify how the timing of such a choice can depend on the stakes involved in the present situation, as well as the characteristics of the resource for exploitation. The model deals with the question of when the resource should be used given that its use today may well prevent it from being available for use later. The analysis provides concepts, theory, applications, and distinctions to promote the understanding strategy aspects of cyber conflict. Case studies include the Stuxnet attack on Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian cyber attack on the energy firm Saudi Aramco, the persistent cyber espionage carried out by the Chinese military, and an analogous case of economic coercion by China in a dispute with Japan. The effects of the rapidly expanding market for zero-day exploits are also analyzed. The goal of the paper is to promote the understanding of this domain of cyber conflict to mitigate the harm it can do, and harness the capabilities it can provide.

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  17. 10 CFR 30.2 - Resolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 30.2 Section 30.2 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 30.2 Resolution of conflict. The requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution for, other requirements of this chapter. In any conflict between the requirements in this part and...

  18. 10 CFR 51.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 51.3 Section 51.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.3 Resolution of conflict. In any conflict between a general rule in subpart A of...

  19. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special...

  20. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  1. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  2. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  3. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  4. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  5. The reasons for conflict and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Adnan; Ergün, Ercan; Alpkan, Lütfihak

    2000-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict, and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage. In this respect, we conducted a question...

  6. The conflict zone; A arena dos embates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ana Maria Ribeiro de

    2006-07-01

    The chapter gives an overview on the beginning of the nuclear energy in the world passing through the conflicts at United Nations - UN, the new political order, the revision of MacMahon Law, the nuclear control, the fear peace and searching for the equilibrium.

  7. Hysteresis of targeting civilians in armed conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Uih Ran Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article explores warring groups’ intentional targeting behavior against civilians, a strictly prohibited war strategy by international norms. Using dynamic panel regressions run on a comprehensive dataset of contemporary warfare which covers 22 years (1989-2010), I find that warring actors, both sovereign states and formally organized armed groups, behave systematically in terms of civilian targeting when they are involved in prolonged armed conflict (15-22 years). Warring actors’ lethal...

  8. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  9. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  10. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  11. Interpersonal Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between constructive and destructive conflicts may be traced to the way in which they are managed. Third-party help is often utilized to achieve constructive conflict management. This article describes two models for conflict management consultation. Five guidelines are given for constructive conflict management. (Author/JEL)

  12. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  13. Goal conflicts management in the control and operation of nuclear power plant; La gestion des conflits d'objectifs dans la conduite et l'exploitation d'installations nucleires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letzkus, P

    2004-11-15

    The goal conflicts constitute classes of situation or behaviors which can be translated, in the human activity, by skirting or variations with the rules...Their consequences can be serious, in particular in nuclear industry. In addition, the analyses of incidents do not make it always possible to integrate complex factors like individual attitudes, organisational or design features which push the operators to take risks to achieve their activity. This research first of all presents indicators which make it possible to go up with the causes of these variations. In the second place, a model of management of the activity illustrates why it is observed that people can adopt strategies or behaviors whose finalities seem to be opposed to the context. For that, it allots to emotional dimension a role of modulator intervening on the cognitive mechanisms managing an operational situation. (author)

  14. Goal conflicts management in the control and operation of nuclear power plant; La gestion des conflits d'objectifs dans la conduite et l'exploitation d'installations nucleires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letzkus, P

    2004-11-15

    The goal conflicts constitute classes of situation or behaviors which can be translated, in the human activity, by skirting or variations with the rules...Their consequences can be serious, in particular in nuclear industry. In addition, the analyses of incidents do not make it always possible to integrate complex factors like individual attitudes, organisational or design features which push the operators to take risks to achieve their activity. This research first of all presents indicators which make it possible to go up with the causes of these variations. In the second place, a model of management of the activity illustrates why it is observed that people can adopt strategies or behaviors whose finalities seem to be opposed to the context. For that, it allots to emotional dimension a role of modulator intervening on the cognitive mechanisms managing an operational situation. (author)

  15. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  16. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  17. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  18. Managing Organizational Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon that requires a high level of attention and thorough understanding. It appears that there is a very little margin to remain unaffected from the clutches of stress in contemporary time.

  19. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  20. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  1. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further ... The relevance and function of conflict in organisations have been an issue of ..... Studies have shown that “too much work can lead to a variety of stress-related.

  2. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  3. The Darfur Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive media element provides information related to the Darfur conflict in Sudan such as the locations of attacks, a conflict timeline, etc. NS4311 Contemporary Issues in African Politics

  4. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  6. Conflict in workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Barlings, J.; Cooper, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The original research on conflict in organizations suggested that conflict was a negative force, but some of the early theorizing also suggested some positive effects (e.g., idea generation, constructive criticism, creativity). A resurgence of research on workgroup conflict in the past 15 years

  7. Technological risks and social conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1980-12-01

    Research on acceptance, perception and assessment of risks clearly shows that perception of risk by the public is based more on subjective assessments than on scientifically objective risk values. Risk perception by the public is influenced by a number of factors. Risk is still a central point in the conflict and always plays a major role in the opposition toward dangerous technologies. Risk forms the thematic focus for the controversy. The development of the actual conflict, the positions, interests, adaptation problems and processes of the various societal institutions, the conditions, prospects, and forms of antinuclear protest and the subjects and structures, symmetries and changes of argument in the public discussion on nuclear energy are analyzed and represented in detail in this report. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  9. An interactional approach to conflict resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this work, the authors have not focused directly on the United States-Soviet conflict but on regional conflicts that have obvious repercussions on the relations between the superpowers. Apart from some work on the Cyprus conflict, my major efforts in recent years have concentrated on the Middle East conflict. This work relates to the goal of avoiding nuclear war in at least two respects. First, given the high degree of superpower involvement in all the globe's trouble spots, regional conflicts present the danger of escalating United States-Soviet confrontation that might touch off an unintentional military exchange-an exchange that might start with conventional weapons and move on to nuclear ones. The danger that the superpowers might inadvertently, through a succession of small commitments, be drawn into a regional war is probably greater in the Middle East than in any other area of the world. Second, the orientation and techniques that they have been developing can be applied, with appropriate adaptations, to efforts to manage and resolve the United States-Soviet conflict

  10. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  11. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play....

  12. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  13. Collective memory in primate conflict implied by temporal scaling collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward D; Daniels, Bryan C; Krakauer, David C; Flack, Jessica C

    2017-09-01

    In biological systems, prolonged conflict is costly, whereas contained conflict permits strategic innovation and refinement. Causes of variation in conflict size and duration are not well understood. We use a well-studied primate society model system to study how conflicts grow. We find conflict duration is a 'first to fight' growth process that scales superlinearly, with the number of possible pairwise interactions. This is in contrast with a 'first to fail' process that characterizes peaceful durations. Rescaling conflict distributions reveals a universal curve, showing that the typical time scale of correlated interactions exceeds nearly all individual fights. This temporal correlation implies collective memory across pairwise interactions beyond those assumed in standard models of contagion growth or iterated evolutionary games. By accounting for memory, we make quantitative predictions for interventions that mitigate or enhance the spread of conflict. Managing conflict involves balancing the efficient use of limited resources with an intervention strategy that allows for conflict while keeping it contained and controlled. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  15. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  16. Increased capability of Strassy: the decision making aid for the inspection of nuclear materials; Prolongement des capacites de Strassy: systeme d`aide a la decision pour le controle des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkoff, F [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Preston, N [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; [CRIL-Ingenierie, 92 -Puteaux (France); Le Manchec, K [CRIL-Ingenierie, 92 - Puteaux (France); Dumas, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the latest developments in STRASSY (Strategy Assistance System), the strategy assistance system for the inspection of nuclear materials. The user can now select the fuel cycle he wishes to investigate from an initial range of 19 facilities. An inspection interface has been developed to enable the details and dates of inspections to be modified. One of the special features of the application of STRASSY in international safeguards is the taking into account of timeliness of detection; certain aspects of the time manager algorithms are presented and analysed, including the guaranteed existence of a solution. The results of a study of diversion paths in a simplified cycle consisting of our facilities are presented. Finally, the modifications necessary to enable STRASSY to be used for a posterior analysis of inspection results are discussed. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is important in determining whether conflicts are functional or dysfunctional. Moreover, the way conflicts are handled might reveal information about the nature of relationships and their developmental status...

  18. 10 CFR 820.4 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 820.4 Section 820.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.4 Conflict of interest. A DOE Official may not perform functions provided for in this part regarding any matter in which he has a...

  19. Safety hazard Iran? Between nuclear thread and peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    The volume on Iran between nuclear thread and peaceful use of nuclear energy covers the following contributions: Iran versus USA: labor pains of a new world order; certainties, speculations and lack of knowledge; The nuclear conflict as symptom of deeper conflicts of the Middle East; Peaceful use of nuclear energy? The Iranian nuclear conflict; Satellite broadcast in Iranian backyards; An American invention becoming a doom for the Iran.

  20. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  1. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  2. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  3. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  4. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  5. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  6. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  8. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  9. Communication strategies for conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlange, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    The current debates in Swiss nuclear power policy about the power increase in one nuclear generating unit and about a repository for radioactive waste are used as models for strategic decisionmaking. For this purpose, two independent, but complementary, schools of thought are combined: First, a sensitivity model is employed to analyze societal mechanisms in a coherent, holistic frame of reference; secondly, a meta-analysis concentrates on the process of conflict management among the Federal Government, the managers of the electricity utilities, their political opponents, and the public. The way in which the participating groups make decisions and implement them is of critical importance to their behavior in the next phase. This is the stage at which models show how the behavior of the players will develop over time. The establishment of a highly flexible strategic knowledge base illustrates how the findings made can be employed in designing successful communication strategies. (orig.) [de

  10. Three cheers for conflict!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1981-01-01

    Conflict is pervasive and an inevitable part of life--at work and elsewhere. But author Dennis King, organizational consultant for The Procter & Gamble Manufacturing Company, adds that it is also a functional part of the social process. Managing conflict on the job involves the ability to identify, seek out, and utilize the functions of conflict and its outcomes. He identifies fifteen functions of conflict in three major categories: maintaining or reinforcing identity and innate strength, increasing operational effectiveness, and dealing with others. For example, conflict can lead to minor clashes that actually strengthen a relationship because they function as safety valves--preventing the buildup of tension to the stage of explosion. (Note, however, that a conflict over the basic foundation of a relationship spells trouble.) Similarly, in the union-management relationship, both negotiations and grievance handling focus on adjusting or eliminating problem elements so that the employer-employee relationship can exist satisfactorily. Recognizing and exploiting the functions of a conflict situation--that is, functional conflict management--can work to our benefit. If we develop a "functional mind-set," looking for the positive aspects of conflict will become natural.

  11. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  12. Interpersonal conflicts at work as a predictor of self-reported health outcomes and occupational mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, L; Jansen, N W H; van den Brandt, P A; Vasse, R; Kant, I J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal conflicts at work and subsequent self-reported health outcomes (self-reported general health, need for recovery, and prolonged fatigue) and occupational mobility (internal mobility ie, changing job function, and external mobility ie, changing employers). Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on fatigue at work (n = 5582 for co-worker conflict; n = 5530 for supervisor conflict) were used. Interpersonal conflict with either co-workers or supervisors was assessed between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Outcomes were studied every 4 months between 1-year and 2-year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses using generalised estimating equations were conducted for each of the dichotomous outcomes, while controlling for demographic factors, the presence of a long-term illness, other workplace stressors, coping, and outcome at baseline. Analyses were conducted for men only. At baseline, conflicts with co-workers occurred in 7.2% of the study population, while conflicts with supervisors occurred in 9.5% of the study population. In general, this study showed that co-worker conflict was a statistically significant risk factor for the onset of an elevated need for recovery, prolonged fatigue, poor general health and external occupational mobility. Supervisor conflict was a significant risk factor for the onset of an elevated need for recovery, prolonged fatigue, external occupational mobility, and internal occupational mobility. The results of this study indicate a possible causal relationship between interpersonal conflicts at work and self-reported health and occupational mobility. Given the considerable impact of interpersonal conflicts at work on the individual worker and on the organisation, and the fact that interpersonal conflicts at work are highly prevalent, these findings underline the need for interventions aimed at preventing the occurrence of interpersonal conflicts at work, or

  13. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  14. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  15. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    that participants are fully engaged in the conflict. My task has more to do with classification and detection of conflict. In [ Sina et al., 2014] the...characters. In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital En- tertainment Conference. [ Sina et al., 2014] Sina , S., Kraus, S., and Rosenfeld

  16. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  17. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  18. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  19. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  20. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  1. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  2. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  3. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  4. Conflict, public communication, and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Of the technical, political, and social problems associated with radioactive waste management, least is known about the latter two. Lay persons tend to generalize negative attitudes about other nuclear activity to radioactive waste management. Thus, conflict appears inevitable between the general public, citizen action groups, and decision-makers on radioactive waste management. The basis of conflict can be found in the value orientation of certain groups and in differing perceptions of risk. The paper is in three parts. First the sources of conflict over radioactive waste management issues are reviewed. The negative attitudes and fears of the public toward different types of projects involving radioactivity, value conflicts, and differential perceptions of risk are cited as sources. Next are discussed the consequences of conflict in terms of sociological theory. Finally, discussed is how conflict can be directed and managed to produce an informed decision-making process. When the public is sensitized to an issue, when prevailing attitudes on the issue are negative, and when perceived risks are high - all of which are characteristic of waste management issues - specific steps should be taken to establish a legitimate process of communication and interaction between the public and the sponsor agency. When conflict is recognized as inevitable, the goal of a communications programs is no longer to avoid it. It is to use the increased awareness to increase knowledge about waste management issues and public participation in decisions so that the final solution is acceptable at some level to all parties. Other benefits, such as increased agency/group cohesion, can also be realized as consequence of conflict

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-01

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  6. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-01

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  8. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.

    2009-06-01

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  9. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  10. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  11. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  12. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  13. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  14. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  15. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  16. Civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. The 'cumbersome' wastes of the civil nuclear; The Parliament and the management of wastes from the civil nuclear; The Swiss legal framework related to the shutting down of nuclear power stations and to the management of radioactive wastes; Economic theory and management of radioactive wastes: to dare the conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambour, Muriel; Pauvert, Bertrand; Zuber-Roy, Celine; Thireau, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    This publication presents the contributions to a research seminar organised by the European Centre of research on Risk, Collective Accident and Disasters Law (CERDACC) on the following theme: civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. Three main thematic issues have been addressed: the French legal framework for waste processing, the comparison with the Swiss case, and the controversy about the exposure of societies to waste-induced risks. The first contribution addressed the cumbersome wastes of the civil nuclear industry: characterization and management solutions, the hypothesis of reversibility of the storage of radioactive wastes. The second one comments the commitment of the French Parliament in the management of wastes of the civil nuclear industry: role of Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices (OPECST) to guide law elaboration, assessment by the Parliament of the management of nuclear wastes (history and evolution of legal arrangements). The next contribution describes the Swiss legal framework for the shutting down of nuclear power stations (decision and decommissioning) and for the management of radioactive wastes (removal, financing). The last contribution discusses the risk related to nuclear waste management for citizen and comments how economists address this issue

  17. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  18. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  19. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  20. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  1. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a practical problem-solving approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of ...

  2. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... are at one hand historical, and they demand situated handling and coordination in concrete situations to make things work. The involved experience the contradictions from different positions, types of responsibilities and with insight from different locations. In this way contradictions have potential...... to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social...

  3. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  4. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  5. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other sex, usually through direct reproductive interactions. This leads ... Most of the interaction is through .... clearly indicating parental conflict over offspring provision- ing. ... Ba˜nuelos M. J. and Obeso J. R. 2003 Maternal provisioning, sibling.

  6. Preventing Deadly Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    34an ounce of type-A botulinal toxin, properly dis- persed, could kill every man, woman , and child in North America. . . just eight ounces of the...attend to the short-term humanitarian needs generated by conflict, frequently a good deal of "wheel- spinning " occurs; little headway is made in...Empire’s millet system, for exam- ple, where the religious leaders of Judaism and several Christian churches were entrusted with arbitrating conflicts

  7. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  8. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  9. Workplace conflicts and psychological work-related injuries: our experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Taino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.

  10. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  11. Forced migration and mental health: prolonged internal displacement, return migration and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Stewart, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Forced internal displacement has been rising steadily, mainly due to conflict. Many internally displaced people (IDP) experience prolonged displacement. Global research evidence suggests that many of these IDP are at high risk for developing mental disorders, adding weight to the global burden of disease. However, individual and community resilience may act as protective factors. Return migration may be an option for some IDP populations, especially when conflicts end, although return migration may itself be associated with worse mental health. Limited evidence is available on effects of resettlement or return migration following prolonged forced internal displacement on mental health. Also, the role of resilience factors remains to be clarified following situations of prolonged displacement. The public health impact of internal displacement is not clearly understood. Epidemiological and interventional research in IDP mental health needs to look beyond medicalised models and encompass broader social and cultural aspects. The resilience factor should be integrated and explored more in mental health research among IDP and a clearly focused multidisciplinary approach is advocated.

  12. Unpacking the Meaning of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Steward

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual essay, we review the field of organizational conflict to unpack how it has been constructed genealogically and with what consequences by investigating three major shifts in theorization that have occurred over the past six decades. First, a move away from viewing conflict...... as dysfunctional to viewing it as constructive. Second, a shift from normative prescriptions to descriptions of what disputants do in conflict. Third, a shift from psychological functional analyses to studying conflict as an organizational phenomenon. We find that three distinct and essentially contested...... conceptions frame studies of conflict at work: conflict as a distinct behavioral phenomenon, conflict as an instrumental means of achieving something else, and conflict as a social construction contingent on how reality is perceived. This conceptual essay adds to current thinking in organizational conflict...

  13. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Aage, H.K.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J.

    2012-07-01

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  14. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B.

    2010-05-01

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  15. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E.; Israelson, C.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J.

    2013-11-01

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  16. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  17. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  18. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  20. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  1. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  2. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  3. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  4. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  5. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  6. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    When Danish soldiers wage war abroad and far from home, family relations are strained. Both during the mission and after return, the soldier experiences civil life as unorderly and conflicting with the warrior mindset with its clear demarcations of friend/foe, peace and war, battletime and the time...

  7. Derailing Intragroup Management Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, John; Vaughn, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of management conflict highlights differing job perceptions held by middle managers. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Assessment Program is described, and a management structure that requires members of each group to experience job perceptions and tasks of the other group is recommended for performance improvement. (Contains three…

  8. Leading through Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzon, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about leading significant learning opportunities through conflict of ideas in a school system. Catalyzing school change can turn emotional differences of opinion into learning opportunities. Leaders who want to deal effectively with these challenging, often tense situations need to be more than good managers. They need to be…

  9. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, Evert; Nauta, Aukje; Giebels, Ellen; Janssen, Onne

    1999-01-01

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  10. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  11. Spousal Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  12. Constructive conflict at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Nauta, A.; Giebels, E.; Janssen, O.

    Two field studies of interpersonal conflict in organizations and a simulated dyadic negotiation show that problem solving and forcing are frequently combined simultaneously and sequentially. As a robust finding, conglomerations of problem solving and forcing appear to enhance the parties' joint

  13. Conflict and Tao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    What can philosophical Taoism teach us about interpersonal conflict and effective approaches for dealing with it? Examination of selected portions of the R. Hendricks translation of the "Lao-Tzu" or "Te-Tao Ching," and experiences recorded in fieldnotes while a member of a Taoist commune suggest a four-point protocol for…

  14. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention. .... A Basic Approach to Pre-Conflict Management Planning ... and also factor in an evaluation of perception variables that help us to understand ...

  15. Conflict management, Part 1. Conflict management checklist: a diagnostic tool for assessing conflict in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siders, C T; Aschenbrener, C A

    1999-01-01

    Complex interpersonal conflicts are inevitable in the high speed, high stakes, pressured work of health care. Poorly managed, conflict saps productivity, erodes trust, and spawns additional disputes. Well managed, conflict can enhance the self-confidence and self-esteem of the parties, build relationships, and engender creative solutions beyond expectations. Just as thoughtful differential diagnosis precedes optimum treatment in the doctor-patient relationship, management of conflict is greatly enhanced when preceded by careful assessment. In the first of two articles, the authors present a diagnostic approach, the Conflict Management Checklist, to increase self-awareness and decrease anxiety around conflict.

  16. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  17. Caught in the Middle of Persistent Conflict. The Rights of Palestinian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Arts (Karin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPalestinian children have suffered greatly, whether as a result of numerous conflicts and Israel’s continued belligerent occupation of the occupied Palestinian territory, as a result of discrimination, or due to their prolonged exile. Their plight is a tragic illustration of the failure

  18. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  19. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  20. Military Strategy in Ethnic Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nesbitt, Wanda L

    1997-01-01

    .... It is therefor ironic to find so many of today's observers of the international scene arguing that the Cold War kept a lid on ethnic conflict and that with its passing this type of conflict is likely to proliferate...

  1. Constructive Conflict in Academic Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Collective bargaining is seen as a process of shared authority used in some institutions to manage conflict. Some ways in which parties to bargaining can significantly alter their relationships to promote constructive and creative outcomes of conflict are suggested. (MLW)

  2. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  3. Conflict prevention, conflict mitigation, and manifestations of conflict during emergency department consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Bakewell, Francis; Orlich, Donika; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to determine the causes of and mitigating factors for conflict between emergency physicians and other colleagues during consultations. From March to September 2010, a total of 61 physicians (31 residents and 30 attendings from emergency medicine [EM], internal medicine, and general surgery) were interviewed about how junior learners should be taught about emergency department (ED) consultations. During these interviews, they were asked if and how conflict manifests during the ED consultation process. Two investigators reviewed the transcripts independently to generate themes related to conflict until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The trustworthiness of the analysis was ensured by generating an audit trail, which was subsequently audited by an investigator not involved with the initial analysis. This analysis was compared to previously proposed models of trust and conflict from the sociology and business literature. All participants recalled some manifestation of conflict. There were 12 negative conflict-producing themes and 10 protective conflict-mitigating themes. When comparing these themes to a previously developed model of the domains of trust, each theme mapped to domains of the model. Conflict affects the ED consultation process. Areas that lead to conflict are identified that map to previous models of trust and conflict. This work extends the current understanding about intradisciplinary conflict in the clinical realm. These new findings may improve the understanding of the nature of conflicts that occur and form the foundation for interventions that may decrease conflict during ED consultations. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  5. Family conflicts and conflict resolution regarding food choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen

    2011-01-01

    with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...

  6. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  7. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  8. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  9. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  10. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  11. Managing conflicts in systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, E

    1997-05-01

    Conflict in systems development is nothing new. It can vary in intensity, but there will always be two possible outcomes--one constructive and the other destructive. The common approach to conflict management is to draw the battle lines and apply brute force. However, there are other ways to deal with conflict that are more effective and more people oriented.

  12. Cognitive conflict without explicit conflict monitoring in a dynamical agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Ward, Ronnie

    2006-11-01

    We examine mechanisms for resolving cognitive conflict in an embodied, situated, and dynamic agent, developed through an evolutionary learning process. The agent was required to solve problems of response conflict in a dual-target "catching" task, focusing response on one of the targets while ignoring the other. Conflict in the agent was revealed at the behavioral level in terms of increased latencies to the second target. This behavioral interference was correlated to peak violations of the network's stable state equation. At the level of the agent's neural network, peak violations were also correlated to periods of disagreement in source inputs to the agent's motor effectors. Despite observing conflict at these numerous levels, we did not find any explicit conflict monitoring mechanisms within the agent. We instead found evidence of a distributed conflict management system, characterized by competitive sources within the network. In contrast to the conflict monitoring hypothesis [Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108(3), 624-652], this agent demonstrates that resolution of cognitive conflict does not require explicit conflict monitoring. We consider the implications of our results for the conflict monitoring hypothesis.

  13. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  14. Order of the 13. of October 2009 approving the decision no 2009-DC-0150 of the Nuclear Safety Authority on the 16. of July 2009 defining the technical criteria on which relies the prolongation of the use duration of sealed radioactive sources awarded according to the R. 1333-52 article of the Public Health Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This legal publication defines the technical framework for the prolongation of the use of sealed radioactive sources beyond the ten-year period which had been initially defined. It defines the sources which are concerned, those which are not, or need a specific request. It defines the required controls and verifications, the usage conditions for species used in different systems present in electronuclear reactors. It describes the content and the associated administrative procedure of a prolongation request, as well as the consequences of a loss of integrity of a source

  15. Conflict in schools: student nurses' conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Gezer, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    Unless conflicts between the students and the instructors can be successfully managed, they will certainly result in negative outcomes for the students. The conflict management styles of the students should be recognized in detail in order to attain positive outcomes in regard to the conflict management styles. The purpose of this study was to examine the conflict management styles used by nursing students in conflict with faculty members and the differences in use of style from the aspect of some variables. This study was conducted with 151 students in a public university nursing school. Data were collected using a personal information form and the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and Cronbach alpha coefficient analyses. The students were found to use integrating (X=3.82) and obliging (X=3.81) styles the most, and dominating style (X=3.02) the least. In addition there were differences determined in management style between classes, frequency of experiencing conflict, and feeling of success in the conflict (pstyles were used more by those who evaluated themselves as successful in conflict management, but the avoiding and compromising styles were used more by students who evaluated themselves as unsuccessful. It was determined that the students preferred to use styles that produced positive results in conflict resolution and that the frequency of experiencing conflict and the feeling of success in conflict had an effect on choice of style. It will be helpful to analyze the relationship between the causes of conflict between the student and the instructor in the practice field and the uses of conflict management styles.

  16. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  17. Conflict field energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebsbach-Gnath, C.

    1981-01-01

    Violent social controversies characterize the treatment of the energy problem. Solutions of this conflict decisively depend on the knowledge and evaluation of the causes and the possible development. How is it possible to explain the opinions, views, and the attitude of the population to different kinds of energy. Which factors are decisive for the explosive effect and the stability of the conflict in the field of nulcear energy. What will happen when there arises a possible lack of energy. Which socio-political effects will such a lack have. Are there new proposals for solving problems in the nulcear-energy debate. The contributions of this book are results of scientific and empiric works. They provide perceptive approaches and analyses to the problems and by discussing them are useful in giving an orientation for political action. (orig.) [de

  18. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  19. Conflict engagement: workplace dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This article is one in a series on conflict. It is part of an ongoing series on leadership coordinated by the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), highlighting topics of interest to nurse managers and emerging nurse leaders. The AONE provides leadership, professional development, advocacy, and research to advance nursing practice and patient care, promote nursing leadership excellence, and shape public policy for health care.

  20. Islam: Ideology and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    brands ’ (‘ popular fronts’ and ‘liberation fronts’). The difference was that the ‘fronts’ often had real state backers while the current VEOs do not...assuming the al Qaeda brand name. This underscores the essential role of local conflicts and rivalries.5 To a significant degree, this paper argues...under poor leadership it was disas- trous. The Abbasids did not have that luxury . They were far more dependent on political power centers that

  1. Solicitors' conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Brief overview of the need for the Law Society of England and Wales to formulate new rules to address conflicts of interest situations and accommodate modern practices which have followed from the merger of firms of solicitors resulting for example in requests to act in a dispute with a former client or to represent several parties in the same commercial or financial transaction. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal ...

  2. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  3. Conflict: an imperative for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F J

    1986-04-01

    Conflict in organizations of any type is inevitable. Medical institutions, particularly multispecialty clinics, are no exception. This paper presents an examination of the anatomy of conflict in group practice settings. Several case studies, including the "Hunterdon Experiment," are presented to illustrate the outcome of conflict situations where management was unable to direct its energy to productive ends. Recommendations are made for identifying, considering, and resolving conflicts in a proactive fashion. The conflict management role of the top management of the organization is described, with particular emphasis on the pivotal position of the Medical Director.

  4. Flexible Conflict Management: Conflict Avoidance and Conflict Adjustment in Reactive Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Kiesel, Andrea; Eder, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict processing is assumed to serve two crucial, yet distinct functions: Regarding task performance, control is adjusted to overcome the conflict. Regarding task choice, control is harnessed to bias decision making away from the source of conflict. Despite recent theoretical progress, until now two lines of research addressed these…

  5. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  6. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  7. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  8. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  9. Functional imaging of decision conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Riis, Jason; Sanfey, Alan G; Nystrom, Leigh E; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2008-03-26

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive (or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of decision conflict, in particular, the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Previous studies have implicated the ACC in conflict monitoring during perceptual tasks, but there is considerable controversy as to whether the ACC actually indexes conflict related to choice, or merely conflict related to selection of competing motor responses. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we dissociate the decision and response phases of a decision task, and show that the ACC does indeed index conflict at the decision stage. Furthermore, we show that it does so for a complex decision task, one that requires the integration of beliefs and preferences and not just perceptual judgments.

  10. Conflict management: importance and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie

    2017-01-26

    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  11. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  12. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  13. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  14. 48 CFR 2052.209-72 - Contractor organizational conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conflicts of interest. 2052.209-72 Section 2052.209-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Clauses 2052.209-72 Contractor organizational conflicts of interest. As prescribed at 2009.570-5(a) and..., contracts, and simplified acquisitions of the types described; 2009.570-4(b): Contractor Organizational...

  15. 10 CFR 1706.11 - Organizational conflicts of interest certificate-Advisory or assistance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and belief, no actual or potential conflict of interest or unfair competitive advantage exists with... that any actual or potential conflict of interest or unfair competitive advantage that does or may... or assistance services. 1706.11 Section 1706.11 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD...

  16. Energy supply and environmental protection as conflicting targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, G.

    1976-01-01

    The conflict between sufficient energy supply and efficient environmental protection is didactically analysed as a complex of topics for the political education. Education principles and sequencies basing on opinions of supporters and opponents of nuclear energy are shown. Aims of education are briefly shown with the examples of the energy supply of the FRG and the energy problems of Europe. (HP) [de

  17. Exploring how Conflict Management Training Changes Workplace Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2012-01-01

    While many organisations offer conflict management training to both staff and management, there has been little research investigating the changes resulting from such training. Using an interpretive framework of analysis, a qualitative case study was conducted to understand how 'sensemakings' about...... conflicts change when enacted from the perspective of staff and management in a non-profit organisation that participated in conflict management training. The case study was constructed as a longitudinal investigation with ethnographic fieldwork as the primary method of inquiry. The training worked...... as a catalyst for the development of new sensemakings about workplace conflicts. These included increasing acknowledgement of workplace conflicts, recognition of interdependent and context embedded relationships in interpersonal conflicts, and enactment of active resistance in a subordinated occupational group...

  18. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  19. Conflicts between Ambition and Love of Ralph in The Thorn Birds in Light of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    congmin zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Ralph as a churchman possesses all the needs of a normal man, such as the pursuit of power, wealth and love, and his track of life is characterized by the prolonged and fierce conflict between ambition and love. Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs throws new light on the conflict and its source and offers insights into human nature.

  20. Conflicts between Ambition and Love of Ralph in The Thorn Birds in Light of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    OpenAIRE

    congmin zhao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract:   Ralph as a churchman possesses all the needs of a normal man, such as the pursuit of power, wealth and love, and his track of life is characterized by the prolonged and fierce conflict between ambition and love. Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs throws new light on the conflict and its source and offers insights into human nature.

  1. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. SOME PROSPECTS ON THE LABOR CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Bădoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managers wish for harmony within their organizations, that the satisfied employees to work in well balanced teams in order to achieve the institutional goals without taking into account the individual and cultural differences, personal or group interests. Conflicts can be classified according to several criteria. This study aims to present the particularities of conflict resolution within labor relations. Starting from the analysis of the conflict concept viewed from several perspectives, including legal term, this paper aims to reveal the sources of labor disputes through statistical tools, to explain the development of the conflict and to propose solutions to reduce / solve conflicts. From the traditionalist perspective all conflicts are bad, being subsumed to terms of violence, anarchy, destruction, chaos, requiring major reality changes. Conflicts are seen as natural, normal, and cyclical from the human relations point of view. Moreover, inter-actionist perspective suggests encouraging for triggering conflicts because a group that is too long peaceful may become inert, listless and noncreative. This theory proposes to the leaders to maintain a level of conflict within institutions so that to be in the presence of a dynamic group, the manifestation of critical thinking, innovation and improvement of the human relationships’ quality.

  2. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  3. Prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in post-weaned elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Rodriguez, Ruben; Viscarra, Jose A; Nishiyama, Akira; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2013-08-01

    Elephant seals naturally experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In humans, rats and mice, prolonged food deprivation activates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and increases oxidative damage. In elephant seals, prolonged fasting activates RAS without increasing oxidative damage likely due to an increase in antioxidant defenses. The mechanism leading to the upregulation of antioxidant defenses during prolonged fasting remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated whether prolonged fasting activates the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, which controls the expression of antioxidant genes, and if such activation is potentially mediated by systemic increases in RAS. Blood and skeletal muscle samples were collected from seals fasting for 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks. Nrf2 activity and nuclear content increased by 76% and 167% at week 7. Plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) were 5000% and 250% higher at week 7 than at week 1. Phosphorylation of Smad2, an effector of Ang II and TGF signaling, increased by 120% at week 7 and by 84% in response to intravenously infused Ang II. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) mRNA expression, which is controlled by smad proteins, increased 430% at week 7, while Nox4 protein expression, which can activate Nrf2, was 170% higher at week 7 than at week 1. These results demonstrate that prolonged fasting activates Nrf2 in elephant seals and that RAS stimulation can potentially result in increased Nox4 through Smad phosphorylation. The results also suggest that Nox4 is essential to sustain the hormetic adaptive response to oxidative stress in fasting seals.

  4. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  5. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict elaboration—epistemic and relational—are identified. Epistemic elaborations focus students on task resolution leading to positive cognitive outcomes, an...

  6. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS) implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts). To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. I...

  7. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  8. Interdisciplinary conflict and organizational complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, M E

    1986-01-01

    Most people think that conflict among the professional staff is inevitable and results from each profession's unique set of values. Each profession then defends itself by claiming its own turf. This article demonstrates that organizational complexity, not professional territorialism, influences the amount of intraorganizational conflict. In a comparison of two psychiatric hospitals, this study shows that there is not necessarily greater conflict across professions than within professions. However, there is a significantly greater amount of conflict among staff at a structurally more complex hospital than at a less-complex hospital, regardless of profession. Implications for management are discussed.

  9. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  10. The cultural contagion of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  11. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  12. The nuclear revival after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montfort, Julie; Du Castel, Viviane

    2012-12-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author questions the role of nuclear energy (energy supply security or diplomatic weapon, pretext for geo-strategic ambitions), discusses the various political aspects of nuclear energy (between progressive phasing out and rehabilitation, question of the existence of a European model and of Africa as a main actor), and discusses the conflicting character of nuclear energy (threat or stake, instrument of reconciliation or objective at whatever price, issues of terrorism and nuclear proliferation)

  13. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  14. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  15. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  16. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  17. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  18. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Resolution Styles among Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the causes of conflict and conflict resolution styles among university students. The participants were 390 (49 female and 341 male) sophomore (87.7%), junior (5.6%), and senior (6.7%) university students. Students identified themselves as Amhara, Oromo, Tigre, and as belonging to other ethnic groups ...

  19. "Conflict management" and "conflict resolution" are not synonymous terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S P

    1978-01-01

    Robbins sees functional conflict as an absolute necessity within organizations and explicitly encourages it. He explains: "Survival can result only when an organization is able to adapt to constant changes in the environment. Adaption is possible only through change, and change is stimulated by conflict." Robbins cites evidence indicating that conflict can be related to increased productivity and that critical thinking encourages well-developed decisions. He admits, however, that not all conflicts are good for the organization. Their functional or dysfunctional nature is determined by the impact of the conflict on the objectives of the organization. The author identifies several factors underlying the need for conflict stimulation: (1) managers who are surrounded by "yes men"; (2) subordinates who are afraid to admit ignorance or uncertainty; (3) decision-makers' excessive concern about hurting the feelings of others; or (4) an environment where new ideas are slow in coming forth. He suggests techniques for stimulating conflict; manipulating the communication channels (i.e., repression of information); changing the organizational structure (i.e., changes in size or position); and altering personal behavior factors (i.e., role incongruence). Robbins stresses that the actual method to be used in either resolving or stimulating conflict must be appropriate to the situation.

  20. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How Important is Conflict Detection to the Conflict Resolution Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Gabets, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Edwards, Tamsyn; Bienert, Nancy; Claudatos, Lauren; Homola, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the capabilities and limitations of human operators and automation in separation assurance roles, the second of three Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) part-task studies investigates air traffic controllers ability to detect and resolve conflicts under varying task sets, traffic densities, and run lengths. Operations remained within a single sector, staffed by a single controller, and explored, among other things, the controllers conflict resolution performance in conditions with or without their involvement in the conflict detection task. Whereas comparisons of conflict resolution performance between these two conditions are available in a prior publication, this paper explores whether or not other subjective measures display a relationship to that data. Analyses of controller workload and situation awareness measures attempt to quantify their contribution to controllers ability to resolve traffic conflicts.

  2. Nuclear reactors for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the operation of a nuclear power plant, the status quo about the application of nuclear energy in the world are explained, the subjects of discussion between supporters and adversaries nowadays and the prospects for prolonged usage of nuclear power are summarized, viewed from the actual technical possibilities. 2 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  4. Social networks and intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly

    2002-01-01

    Conflicts between groups are among the most challenging problems of mankind. They arise as groups compete for the possession of certain scarce resources. Under what conditions does such competition lead to conflict or to a peaceful coexistence? Why do individual group members, despite the likelihood

  5. Climate Change, Conflict, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akresh, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have good reason to predict that a warming climate will produce more conflict and violence. A growing contingent of researchers has been examining the relationship in recent years, and they've found that hotter temperatures and reduced rainfall are linked to increases in conflict at all scales, from interpersonal violence to war. Children are…

  6. Managing conflict in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygman, L

    1986-08-01

    Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.

  7. The Logic of Animal Conflict

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is not surprising that ani- mals are often in conflict because they compete for limited resources. What is surprising however is that such conflict is often re- solved by a trial of strength, followed by the weaker ani- mal surrendering resources to the stronger rival, with- out an injurious fight until. A sparring match between male ...

  8. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  9. Conflict Elaboration and Cognitive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Celine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents advice for teachers about using sociocognitive conflicts to promote academic learning. In doing so, the conditions under which sociocognitive conflicts are constructive or disruptive are examined and the relevant research is reviewed on social development, cooperative learning, and social influence. Two types of conflict…

  10. Conflict management in online relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kumi

    2010-08-01

    With the diffusion of networked technology, personal relationships can be easily formed and maintained online today. Similar to a face-to-face situation, conflict is also seen in these online relationships. Early theories suggested that computer-mediated communication (CMC) tends to increase conflicts because of the lack of social-context cues, and CMC is not rich enough to manage conflict. As CMC has become part of our daily life, we often face conflict online, and thus we need to understand how people manage conflict online. This study explored how online users manage interpersonal conflict. Self-report survey data from 159 university students were analyzed to examine their conflict-management styles in association with the perceived closeness of the online relationship and a future intention toward the relationship. The results indicated that online users select cooperative management styles to handle conflict in their close relationships. In addition, online users avoid less cooperative styles when they want to continue the relationship.

  11. Functional imaging of decision conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochon, J.B.; Riis, J.; Sanfey, A.G.; Nystrom, L.E.; Cohen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Decision conflict occurs when people feel uncertain as to which option to choose from a set of similarly attractive ( or unattractive) options, with many studies demonstrating that this conflict can lead to suboptimal decision making. In this article, we investigate the neurobiological underpinnings

  12. Worldview conflict in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret; van Tongeren, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Building on laboratory- and survey-based research probing the psychology of ideology and the experience of worldview conflict, we examined the association between worldview conflict and emotional reactions, psychological well-being, humanity esteem, and political ideology in everyday life using

  13. The energy situation as a factor of conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1975-01-01

    The rising energy demand is increasingly becoming an international problem. How extensive the consequences of international conflicts can be is illustrated by the oil crisis. It changed the energy policy, had a negative influence on the overall growth and price stability, enforced a change in the industrial structure, and exercised influence on the developing countries. This is followed by a prognosis on future development trends in the energy markets in which nuclear energy on the one hand plays a dominating role and on the other presents a considerable potential for conflict. (GG/LN) [de

  14. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  15. Email Adaptation for Conflict Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...

  16. Considerations Regarding the Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Manolescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The conflict has always been present among people. It arises at the level of human relationships and has a specific form of expression, according to its evolutionary stage. Because of the fact that people are part of an organization, they bring the conflict with themselves. Any attempt of efficiently managing an organization without taking into account the fact that organizational conflicts are inevitable are bound to failure. In order to successfully handle conflicting situations, old habits and empirical pieces of knowledge are no longer sufficient. We therefore witness the birth of new theoretical concepts and innovative practices, as well as the coming into being of different strategies and approaches re garding conflict management which are based on a set of clear ideas that we will develop in the following article.

  17. The high cost of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forté, P S

    1997-01-01

    Conflict is inevitable, especially in highly stressed environments. Clinical environments marked by nurse-physician conflict (and nurse withdrawal related to conflict avoidance) have been proven to be counterproductive to patients. Clinical environments with nurse-physician professional collegiality and respectful communication show decreased patient morbidity and mortality, thus enhancing outcomes. The growth of managed care, and the organizational turmoil associated with rapid change, makes it imperative to structure the health care environment so that conflict can be dealt with in a safe and healthy manner. Professional health care education programs and employers have a responsibility to provide interactive opportunities for multidisciplinary audiences through which conflict management skills can be learned and truly change the interpersonal environment. Professionals must be free to focus their energy on the needs of the patient, not on staff difficulties.

  18. Creating constructive outcomes in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, B

    1998-06-01

    1. Conflict and disagreement are a fact of business life. Effort toward optomizing differences rather than minimizing them is a value added activity--leading to greater creativity, increasing levels of respect in relationships, and better solutions. 2. Proactively looking at potential conflict--where diasgreeing parties are often inherent and/or predictable--can save energy, relationships, and costly mistakes. Diagnosing or "reading" a situation and planning an approach is wise. 3. Several options or responses are available when facing conflict. Knowing when to use a given response is an important interpersonal skill. Relying on learned, habitual, and exclusive approaches to conflict may be limiting. 4. Implementation of effective conflict resolution is a function of attitude, initiative, and flexibility. An exploratory posture and a willingness to learn are constructive in attempting to reach agreements with optimum short and long term effect.

  19. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  1. Beneficial role of conflict in radioactive waste management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Of the technical, political, and social problems associated with radioactive waste management, least is known about the latter two. Lay persons tend to generalize negative attitudes about other nuclear activity to radioactive waste management. Thus, conflict appears inevitable between the general public, citizen action groups, and decision-makers on radioactive waste management. The basis of conflict, we believe, can be found in the value orientation of certain groups and in differing perceptions of risk. Research on similar controversial issues reveals that conflict may be beneficial in the long run by contributing to the public's participation level and understanding of the issues, and to the decision-makers' appreciation of the lay perspective. The paper is in three parts. First, we review the sources of conflict over radioactive waste management issues. The negative attitudes and fears of the public toward different types of projects involving radioactivity, value conflicts, and differential perceptions of risk are cited as sources. Next we discuss the consequences of conflict in terms of sociological theory. Finally, we discuss how conflict can be directed and managed to produce an informed decision-making process. When the public is sensitized to an issue, when prevailing attitudes on the issue are negative, and when perceived risks are high - all of which are characteristic of waste management issues - specific steps should be taken to establish a legitimate process of communication and interaction between the public and the sponsor agency. When conflict is recognized as inevitable, the goal of a communications program is no longer to avoid it. It is to use the increased awareness to increase knowledge about waste management issues and public participation in decisions so that the final solution is acceptable at some level to all parties

  2. Mismatch and conflict: neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for conflict priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ralph; Meuth, Sven G; Kräuchi, Kurt; Schmidlin, Maria; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Conflict-related cognitive processes are critical for adapting to sudden environmental changes that confront the individual with inconsistent or ambiguous information. Thus, these processes play a crucial role to cope with daily life. Generally, conflicts tend to accumulate especially in complex and threatening situations. Therefore, the question arises how conflict-related cognitive processes are modulated by the close succession of conflicts. In the present study, we investigated the effect of interactions between different types of conflict on performance as well as on electrophysiological parameters. A task-irrelevant auditory stimulus and a task-relevant visual stimulus were presented successively. The auditory stimulus consisted of a standard or deviant tone, followed by a congruent or incongruent Stroop stimulus. After standard prestimuli, performance deteriorated for incongruent compared to congruent Stroop stimuli, which were accompanied by a widespread negativity for incongruent versus congruent stimuli in the event-related potentials (ERPs). However, after deviant prestimuli, performance was better for incongruent than for congruent Stroop stimuli and an additional early negativity in the ERP emerged with a fronto-central maximum. Our data show that deviant auditory prestimuli facilitate specifically the processing of stimulus-related conflict, providing evidence for a conflict-priming effect.

  3. CONFLICT PERSONALITY AS A PARTICIPANT OF CONFLICT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyranyan Margarita Yuryevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict discourse as a communicative event reveals the characteristics of its participants as linguistic personalities. In this respect, this study enables us to reveal and describe their personal and social features. Undoubtedly, the individual characteristics of participants, their cultural and ideological differences and similarities have a great impact on the interaction process in general and on the use of linguistic means in particular. To better understand the nature of conflict discourse, its causes and consequences, one should take into account that adverse behaviour depends on the personality type and the role the speaker plays in different situations. Conflict personality is referred to as an archetype, transcendental phenomenon common to everybody. The research revealed such key characteristics typical of conflict personality as: verbal (use of language units with "conflict" connotation, the "manipulation" of speech means that convey negative, conflict meaning in particular contexts and non-verbal (communicative aim, communication medium, pre- and post-supposition of the speaker and the listener, mode of behaviour. It also proved that conflict patterns of behavior may lead to confrontation and/or transfer of collaborative interaction into an adverse one.

  4. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  5. History on foundation of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    This reports the history on foundation of Korea nuclear power from 1955 to 1980, which is divided ten chapters. The contents of this book are domestic and foreign affairs before foundation of nuclear power center, establishment of nuclear power and research center, early activity and internal conflict about nuclear power center, study for nuclear power business and commercialization of the studying ordeal over nuclear power administration and new phase, dispute for jurisdiction on nuclear power business and the process, permission for nuclear reactor, regulation and local administration, the process of deliberation and decision of reactor 3. 4 in Yonggwang, introduction of nuclear reprocessing facilities and activities for social organization.

  6. Is consciousness necessary for conflict detection and conflict resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-06-15

    Is conflict control dependent on consciousness? To answer this question, we used high temporal resolution event-related potentials (ERPs) to separate conflict detection from conflict resolution in a masked prime Stroop task. Although behavioral interference effect was present in both the masked and unmasked conditions, the electrophysiological findings revealed more complex patterns. ERP analyses showed that N450 was greater for incongruent trials than for congruent trials and that it was located in the ACC and nearby motor cortex, regardless of whether the primes were masked or unmasked; however, the effects were smaller for the masked than unmasked condition. These results suggest that consciousness of conflict information may not be necessary for detecting conflict, but that it may modulate conflict detection. The analysis of slow potential (SP) amplitude showed that it distinguished incongruent trials from congruent trials, and that this modulation effects was reduced to a greater extent for the masked condition than for the unmasked condition. Moreover, the prefrontal-parietal control network was activated under the unmasked but not under the masked condition. These results suggest that the consciousness of conflict information may be a necessary boundary condition for the subsequent initiation of control operations in the more extended PFC-parietal control network. However, considering that the conflict interference effect was significantly reduced in the masked condition, it may be that, with larger unconscious conflict effects, more extensive cognitive control networks would have been activated. These findings have important implications for theories on the relationship between consciousness and cognitive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Conflict Resolution Training on Conflict Handling Styles of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Abel Gitimu; Moore-Austin, Shante'; Gitimu, Priscilla N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conflict resolution skills training on conflict handling styles, and conflict orientation of college students. Conflict handling styles was measured by the Thomas-Kilmann MODE instrument, while Conflict orientation was measured by conflict orientation survey instrument. A sample of 135…

  8. Nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1980-01-01

    The author gives an overlapping socialpolitical history of the decision-making process on nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. He follows the path on which within about two decades an investment strategy planned in the long term by a few international multis has become the issue of the century at all political and economic levels and instances. The study analyses the conditions of the fact that a conflict has arisen, and of the conflict development within the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. As a result, the author shows that the present conflict has been provoked by the systematic ruling-out of all those concerned who have contrary interests. The escalation of the conflict during the 70s has led to a paralysis of the political decision-making process, because neither existing policies nor distinct alternatives could be ca rried through. (HSCH) [de

  9. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  10. Management of Conflicts within Beer Drinking Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toshiba

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... Key words: conflict resolution, conflict management, public sphere, beer, conflict ... Alcohol is any beverage planned for consumption having least possible .... dropping out of school due to lack of good food and tuition fees ...

  11. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  12. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  13. Intergenerational Conflicts among Latinos in Early Adulthood: Separating Values Conflicts with Parents from Acculturation Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jessica; Basanez, Tatiana; Farahmand, Anahita

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of Latino and non-Latino college students sought to examine the ways in which perceived intergenerational conflicts with parents are related to acculturation, family dynamics, and psychosocial functioning. Participants reported the extent to which they experienced two types of intergenerational conflicts with parents:…

  14. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  15. Nuclear security and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozal, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the classical distinction between the military nuclear law and the civil nuclear law is outdated. The technologies are dual and might be misused from a pacific to a military goal. The central element of the nuclear law is thus the integration of the safety rules: the nuclear risk being universal, it has created an universal law (first part) that reflects our scientific knowledge and might thus evaluate. This universal law has been a factor of nuclear security (part 2), as in 50 years, there had been only one major nuclear accident and no nuclear conflict. The horizontal proliferation has been limited and the international community has understood that time had come to reduce our arsenals. (author)

  16. Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: the pivotal role of intragroup trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T L; Peterson, R S

    2000-02-01

    Task conflict is usually associated with effective decisions, and relationship conflict is associated with poor decisions. The 2 conflict types are typically correlated in ongoing groups, however, which creates a prescriptive dilemma. Three explanations might account for this relationship--misattribution of task conflict as relationship conflict, harsh task conflict tactics triggering relationship conflict, and misattribution of relationship conflict as task conflict. The authors found that intragroup trust moderates the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict in 70 top management teams. This result supports the "misattribution of task conflict" explanation. The authors also found a weak effect that is consistent with the argument that tactical choices drive the association between the 2 conflict types. We infer that trust is a key to gaining the benefits of task conflict without suffering the costs of relationship conflict.

  17. Prolonged Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exposure Suppresses Homologous Recombination Repair in Human Lung Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Cynthia L; Qin, Qin; Kelly, Deborah F; Prakash, Rohit; Vanoli, Fabio; Jasin, Maria; Wise, John Pierce

    2016-09-01

    Genomic instability is one of the primary models of carcinogenesis and a feature of almost all cancers. Homologous recombination (HR) repair protects against genomic instability by maintaining high genomic fidelity during the repair of DNA double strand breaks. The defining step of HR repair is the formation of the Rad51 nucleofilament, which facilitates the search for a homologous sequence and invasion of the template DNA strand. Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a human lung carcinogen, induces DNA double strand breaks and chromosome instability. Since the loss of HR repair increases Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability, we investigated the effect of extended Cr(VI) exposure on HR repair. We show acute (24 h) Cr(VI) exposure induces a normal HR repair response. In contrast, prolonged (120 h) exposure to particulate Cr(VI) inhibited HR repair and Rad51 nucleofilament formation. Prolonged Cr(VI) exposure had a profound effect on Rad51, evidenced by reduced protein levels and Rad51 mislocalization to the cytoplasm. The response of proteins involved in Rad51 nuclear import and nucleofilament formation displayed varying responses to prolonged Cr(VI) exposure. BRCA2 formed nuclear foci after prolonged Cr(VI) exposure, while Rad51C foci formation was suppressed. These results suggest that particulate Cr(VI), a major chemical carcinogen, inhibits HR repair by targeting Rad51, causing DNA double strand breaks to be repaired by a low fidelity, Rad51-independent repair pathway. These results further enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced chromosome instability and thus, carcinogenesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The role of religious beliefs in ethics committee consultations for conflict over life-sustaining treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Julia I; Courtwright, Andrew; Zollfrank, Angelika A; Robinson, Ellen M; Cadge, Wendy

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that individuals who identify as being more religious request more aggressive medical treatment at end of life. These requests may generate disagreement over life-sustaining treatment (LST). Outside of anecdotal observation, however, the actual role of religion in conflict over LST has been underexplored. Because ethics committees are often consulted to help mediate these conflicts, the ethics consultation experience provides a unique context in which to investigate this question. The purpose of this paper was to examine the ways religion was present in cases involving conflict around LST. Using medical records from ethics consultation cases for conflict over LST in one large academic medical centre, we found that religion can be central to conflict over LST but was also present in two additional ways through (1) religious coping, including a belief in miracles and support from a higher power, and (2) chaplaincy visits. In-hospital mortality was not different between patients with religiously versus non-religiously centred conflict. In our retrospective cohort study, religion played a variety of roles and did not lead to increased treatment intensity or prolong time to death. Ethics consultants and healthcare professionals involved in these cases should be cognisant of the complex ways that religion can manifest in conflict over LST. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Conflict and Ambiguity: Implementing Evolutionary Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sylvester, Richard

    2003-01-01

    .... Organizational conflict is inevitable but not necessarily counterproductive. In fact the original policy can be improved as the organization undergoes an iterative process of interpretation conflict and refinement.

  20. Conflict with less distress: promoting team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, V I; Bennett, J A; Birdsall, C

    1993-01-01

    As nurses increasingly turn to teamwork as a viable option for accomplishing a myriad of duties and responsibilities, they are discovering that teamwork can also be a source of conflict and stress. This article suggests that conflict is both inevitable and necessary within a team. A model of conflict is presented that aims not at reducing conflict, but at making it less distressing and thus more effective. The authors trace the influence of pre-conflict conditions and perspective-taking on conflict and ultimately team effectiveness. Finally, to apply the conflict model to practice, two examples are presented demonstrating both an ineffective and an effective use of conflict.

  1. Conflict and human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The nuclear power debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerndl, B.

    1992-01-01

    This material-intensive analysis of the public dispute about nuclear power plants uses the fundamental thoughts of the conflict theory approach by Georg Simmel, linking them to results of recent value change research. Through the medium of a qualitative content analysis of arguments in favour of and against nuclear energy it is shown how values are expressed and move, how they differentiate and get modified, in conflicting argumentation patterns. The first part reconstructs the history of the nuclear power conflict under the aspect of its subject priorities changing from time to time. The second part shows, based on three debate priorities, how social value patterns recognized for the moment changed in and by the conflict: the argumentation is that the nuclear power controversy has led to a relativization of its scientific claim for recognition; it has created a problem awareness with regard to purely quantitatively oriented growth objectives and developed criteria of an ecologically controlled satisfaction of needs; the debate has paved the way, in the area of political regulation models, for the advancement of basic democratic elements within a representative democracy. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  4. Environmental conflicts and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugallo, Alicia Irene

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the Yungas forest of Argentina became the subject of tremendous debates, caused by the construction of the Norandino Gas-pipeline. Apart from technical and financial considerations, the discussion of constructing the duct confronted the different actors in questions of great ethical relevance. Environmental activists assumed positions that not only consider persons, but also the rest of living beings as morally relevant. An untenable strong anthropocentrism, which is a predominant attitude in our developed societies, was questioned. The final implementation of the Yungas Biosphere Reserve showed the conflictive process as a 'witness case' in which the will to dialogue and the wise rationality have predominated, with the application of a new active conservationist, which make it possible to make compatible human development with care of the environment. The incorporation of socio-cultural topics to conservation imply a true conceptual and methodological revolution, taking into account the intangible and not quantifiable elements of action and human spirit, the different perceptions of each population, their development way and life quality, their ambitions, the sense of belonging or of self-realization feeling

  5. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adolescence. Hence, this paper explores different types of conflict with peers and friends with the aim of determining the preferred conflict resolution strategies and using the obtained results to consider the implications for the improvement of constructive conflict resolution programmes. The research was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. The method of hypothetical conflict situations was used for studying the preferred conflict resolution strategies. The key results, which should be taken into account when developing constructive conflict resolution programmes, indicate that the preference for a conflict resolution strategy varies depending on conflict type (problem solving is mostly used in conflicts occurring due to opinion differences and disrespect of agreement, unlike the conflicts arising due to provocations, stubbornness and dishonesty and relationship types (in conflicts with friends, adolescents prefer problem solving, while in peer conflicts they more frequently opt for competition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  6. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved......Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive......, and to its potential transformation. Thus it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply on the basis of their economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions...

  7. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  8. The International Politics of Peace Education: The Conflict between Deterrence and Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Jack Conrad

    The main impetus for peace education is the arms race, which places peace education in the conflict between conservatives advocating increased nuclear deterrence and liberals supporting nuclear disarmament. In the United States, education for peace is still in its infancy. Other developed nations, such as the Scandinavian countries and to a lesser…

  9. The Colombian nuclear scenario: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    In Colombia, the absence of nuclear-oriented policies based on technical knowledge, the closing of the Nuclear Affairs Institute (1956-1998), the association of the word "nuclear" with weapons, plus the country's last six decades of internal conflict and narcotraffic have discourage the technical, social and environmental nuclear advance. However, there are technical, social and economic national challenges that could be faced by the present nuclear technical capacities.

  10. Nuclear - a chance for the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdera, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution is structured as follows: Physical principles of gaining nuclear energy; Specifics of power generation by nuclear and fossil fuel fired power plants; The nuclear fuel cycle; The potential of nuclear power; Global conflicts of nuclear power plant suppliers; Can power consumption be reduced by energy savings? What is better for the Czech Republic: the carbon tax or the emission trading scheme? In conclusion, the future benefits and requirements are summarized with respect to the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  11. Information system conflicts: causes and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boonstra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. Information Systems (IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they understand the nature and causes of information system conflicts (IS conflicts. To contribute to such an understanding, this study focuses on the analysis of IS conflicts. In so doing, it aims to identify various types of IS conflicts and to develop a framework that can be helpful in assessing these conflicts. To this end, we have conducted a meta-ethnographic study – that is, we synthesized earlier case studies in which IS conflicts are described. We purposefully selected 11 descriptions of IS conflicts and we analyzed the topics, contexts, and processes of these conflicts. Based on this analysis, we propose a two-dimensional framework of IS conflicts that leads to a categorization involving four IS conflict types: task; implementation process; structure; and value conflicts. Based on the conflicts that were studied, this paper also reveals that, in reality, many IS conflicts have a hybrid form and develop from one type to another over time.

  12. Prolonged internal displacement and common mental disorders in Sri Lanka: the COMRAID study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Adikari, Anushka; Pannala, Gayani; Siribaddana, Sisira; Abas, Melanie; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is lacking on the mental health issues of internally displaced persons, particularly where displacement is prolonged. The COMRAID study was carried out in year 2011 as a comprehensive evaluation of Muslims in North-Western Sri Lanka who had been displaced since 1990 due to conflict, to investigate the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a randomly selected sample of internally displaced people who had migrated within last 20 years or were born in displacement. The total sample consisted of 450 adults aged 18-65 years selected from 141 settlements. Common mental disorders (CMDs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalences were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire and CIDI sub-scale respectively. The prevalence of any CMD was 18.8%, and prevalence for subtypes was as follows: somatoform disorder 14.0%, anxiety disorder 1.3%, major depression 5.1%, other depressive syndromes 7.3%. PTSD prevalence was 2.4%. The following factors were significantly associated with CMDs: unemployment (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.6-4.9), widowed or divorced status (4.9, 2.3-10.1) and food insecurity (1.7, 1.0-2.9). This is the first study investigating the mental health impact of prolonged forced displacement in post-conflict Sri Lanka. Findings add new insight in to mental health issues faced by internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka and globally, highlighting the need to explore broader mental health issues of vulnerable populations affected by forced displacement.

  13. Conflicts of the Global State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2016), s. 378-392 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global state * global * conflicts * critical theory * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Revisiting peace and conflict studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    dominant geopolitics it initially set out to criticise. Secondly, I will map – undoubtedly in cursory and incomplete fashion – the scholarly communities and literatures dealing with questions of peace and conflict. Rather than a literature review or an attempt at synthesis, my purpose is to highlight...... the broad variety of existing units of analysis, motivations, theories and methodologies of peace and conflict studies. Thirdly, I will propose a number of suggestions for a research attitude that, in absence of a better word, I subsume under the heading of ‘critical peace and conflict research’, striving...... to understand peace and conflict as concomitantly subjective and objective, as critique and hegemony, as normative and value-free, as local and global....

  15. Neurovascular conflict in oculomotor imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Agafonovna Totolyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the data of Russian and foreign literature, considers modern approaches to the understanding of neurovascular conflict (NVC term, different causes of its development and realization mechanisms; statistical data are presented on its occurrence in different medical specialties; modern approaches to early diagnosis of neurovascular conflicts are covered. Special attention is drawn to oculomotor imbalances being one of neurovascular conflict manifestations. Based on global experience, approaches to most exact and early diagnosis are described, differences in notion terminology of neurovascular contact and neurovascular conflict are shown. As most effective method for NVC diagnosis, the use of neurovisualization method, that is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (high field MRI, is positioned.

  16. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  17. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  18. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lindred L; Saygi, Ozum; Aaldering, Hillie; de Dreu, Carsten K W

    2012-10-01

      Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are beneficial or detrimental to team outcomes has been the source of much debate. From one perspective, a conflict that stems from differences in members' functional understanding may enhance team members' understanding and performance of the task at hand. By contrast, such a conflict may cause hostility, emotionality and distraction from actual task accomplishment.   This study reviews findings on the relationships between intragroup conflict and team outcomes, discusses potential conflict resolution strategies for intragroup conflicts and explores how these link to the field of medical education.   Three primary types of conflict have been distinguished, involving, respectively, task-, process- and relationship-associated conflict. Both process conflict, or conflict about the logistics of task accomplishment, and relationship conflict, or conflict about interpersonal incompatibilities, have been shown to detract from effective team functioning. Task conflict, or conflict about the content of the task itself, is also generally negative for team functioning, but under certain conditions its negative effects may be minimised. For example, when teams can clearly separate task issues from relationship issues, task conflicts are less destructive for team outcomes. However, achieving such a separation in practice, and thereby realising the benefits of task conflict, is quite difficult to achieve.   Intragroup conflicts pose a challenge to effective team functioning. In the education of medical professionals, effective training in conflict management skills and their application to specific team conflict dynamics, such as with reference to how to resolve task as opposed to relationship

  19. Distribution Channels Conflict and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, Dr Vasanth; Majumdar, Dr Mousumi; Kishore, Dr Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Relationships in distribution channels tend to be long-term oriented and members of the channel rely on each other to jointly realize their goals by serving buyers. Despite the channels focus on serving buyers, conflicts often arise between channel members because of each members self-interest. When conflicts arise, the perceptions of a channel member based on normative, rational/instrumental, or emotional reasoning will influence relational norms like trust and commitment that characterize t...

  20. [Conflict of interest and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer De Carlucci, Aida

    2014-06-01

    "Conflicts of interests" is a multi-meaning expression. To give a juridical concept is not easy because this concept is applied in public and private law. Maybe this is the reason of not having a law giving a valid definition in any case In health area, a conflict of interests is present many times, i.e. at the beginning of a research, when informing its results, etc. This conflict of interests may affect different aspects of the research work, economic or not; sometimes totally or partially. The economic resources is one of the most common reasons of the conflict of interests. The mass media often cause conflicts of interests informing the general public about new scientific discovery in a simple way to be understood but without been quite assertive. Other times, great enterprises hide information about new and better medicines due to the fact that they have many old medicines that should be sold before introducing in the market the new ones. From the academic point of view, conflicts may arise when the public funds are wrongly used to support unworthy researches.

  1. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Emotional conflict in interpersonal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío

    2011-01-15

    Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  4. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  5. Family Therapy for the "Truncated" Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Gerald H.

    1980-01-01

    The truncated nuclear family consists of a two-generation group in which conflict has produced a polarization of values. The single-parent family is at special risk. Go-between process enables the therapist to depolarize sharply conflicted values and reduce pathogenic relating. (Author)

  6. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  7. Preparing Students for Early Work Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Larson, R. Sam

    2005-01-01

    To improve college students' skills in resolving workplace conflict, the authors studied the types of workplace conflicts that students encounter with peers or supervisors in part-time or seasonal work and with whom they discuss these conflicts. The authors found that most students report conflicts that are process or relational in nature, with…

  8. 32 CFR 776.6 - Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflict. 776.6 Section 776.6 National Defense... Conflict. To the extent that a conflict exists between this part and the rules of other jurisdictions that... conflict between the rules contained in subpart B of this part and the rules of other jurisdictions shall...

  9. Evaluation conflicts in the enterprises activities

    OpenAIRE

    Podolchak, N.; Kovalchuk, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been elaborated the method for quantitative evaluation of level and structure of the interpersonal management conflicts that prevail over the other conflicts in the machine-building enterprises functioning. According to the reasons of appearance investigated interpersonal management conflicts were divided into the following types: informational, behavioral, structural, conflicts of relationships and values.

  10. Information system conflicts : causes and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Albert; de Vries, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts are an inherent part of organizational life and managers deal with confrontations and conflicts on an almost daily basis. IS implementations are a type of change that often leads to open or hidden conflicts. Managers and others involved can only deal with such conflicts effectively if they

  11. 76 FR 61046 - TARP Conflicts of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... conflict may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of conflict, the scope of work under the... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... interim rule that provided guidance on conflicts of interest pursuant to Section 108 of the Emergency...

  12. Conflict Management at School: An Unavoidable Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondesio, Mike J.

    Conflict management has become an integral part of a headmaster's tasks. Headmasters are not required to suppress or resolve conflict, but to manage it. Since 1976, conflict in black schools has increased, and headmasters have had to manage serious and dangerous situations. Unfortunately, there has been little research in conflict management in…

  13. Managing Conflict with Effective Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Dick B.

    Conflict is a basic social process; there is no conceivable way of removing all conflict from an organization. Interpersonal conflict, often created by interdependency of people and tasks within an organization, lowers staff morale and employee productivity and drives people away. Difficult employees who foster conflicts fall into five distinct…

  14. IDENTIFYING THE CRITICAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Completing construction projects entails inputs from various professional disciplines; this makes projects prone to conflicts. It has been acknowledged that management of conflict is crucial to improving project performance. Thus, understanding the causes of conflicts in construction project will ease the process of conflict ...

  15. Searching for climate-conflict links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental scarcity caused by climate change has been implicated as a driver of violent conflict. Now, research shows significant bias in the regions analysed for climate-conflict links. This may limit understanding of the socioeconomic and political conditions in which such conflict occurs, and how these conflicts could be prevented.

  16. Constructive Management of Conflict in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rex C.; Mitchell, Rie R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a concise overview of important conflict management concepts and strategies for those working in group settings. Presents a brief conceptual basis for understanding conflict and group memebers' behavior when in conflict, followed by specific recommendations for managing and making use of conflict in groups. (JAC)

  17. Otto Hahn - Research and responsibility. Conflicts of a scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The life of Otto Hahn is documented and the time where science started in the mysterious field of radioactivity. The main steps: Youth, studies, first practical experiences, research at Berlin university, first world war, success for atomic researchers, national socialism - night over Germany, fission of uranium atom, menace with the atomic bomb of Hitler, the American super explosive U235, hunting on atomic researchers, diplomacy with atomic bombs, in conflict with conscience and policy, against nuclear arm tests and atomic arm race. (GL)

  18. Clean contest for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, John.

    1996-01-01

    Reinvestment in the nuclear power generation industry is identified as the key to solving the conflict between rising energy demand over the next fifty years and protecting the environment. Nuclear power, it is argued, can readily meet consumers, rising demand for electricity, but will not contribute to global warming problems or other forms of atmospheric pollution. The chief problems seem not to be technical, but rather to convince policy makers and the general public that the nuclear industry is an acceptable, environmentally sound contributer to the energy generation conundrum. (UK)

  19. PARP Inhibition Attenuates Histopathological Lesion in Ischemia/Reperfusion Renal Mouse Model after Cold Prolonged Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo M. G. del Moral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that PARP inhibition can decrease acute tubular necrosis (ATN and other renal lesions related to prolonged cold ischemia/reperfusion (IR in kidneys preserved at 4°C in University of Wisconsin (UW solution. Material and Methods. We used 30 male Parp1+/+ wild-type and 15 male Parp10/0 knockout C57BL/6 mice. Fifteen of these wild-type mice were pretreated with 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinylbutoxyl]-1(2H-isoquinolinone (DPQ at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body weight, used as PARP inhibitor. Subgroups of mice were established (A: IR 45 min/6 h; B: IR + 48 h in UW solution; and C: IR + 48 h in UW solution plus DPQ. We processed samples for morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and western-blotting studies. Results. Prolonged cold ischemia time in UW solution increased PARP-1 expression and kidney injury. Preconditioning with PARP inhibitor DPQ plus DPQ supplementation in UW solution decreased PARP-1 nuclear expression in renal tubules and renal damage. Parp10/0 knockout mice were more resistant to IR-induced renal lesion. In conclusion, PARP inhibition attenuates ATN and other IR-related renal lesions in mouse kidneys under prolonged cold storage in UW solution. If confirmed, these data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of PARP activity may have salutary effects in cold-stored organs at transplantation.

  20. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  1. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  2. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zafar; H. Ashfaq; Muhammad Ahmad Ali; M. Imran

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhanc...

  3. Role of conflict in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    In the siting process for a low-level waste disposal facility, there is a place for conflict, negotiation, arbitration, and public involvement. Contrary to popular belief, conflict is good. It signals pluralism and demonstrates a distribution of power. Conflict should not be eliminated because it is a dynamic method of decision-making. Conflict causes negotiation, which leads to compromise. Conflict is the product of the legitimacy of dissent

  4. The conciliation of collective labour conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Badoi

    2013-01-01

    The present article envisages presenting the conciliation as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts. The conciliation was stipulated as a resolution procedure for the conflicts of interests/collective labour conflicts even from the first acts that regulated this domain, being foreseen as a mandatory phase within the process of solving this type of conflicts. The subject of conciliation was approached before within the doctrine, from this juridical in...

  5. Interpersonal conflict: strategies and guidelines for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C

    1985-02-01

    Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.

  6. History on foundation of Korea nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    This book reports the history of establishment of Korea nuclear power. It is divided into twelve chapters, which deals with situation of domestic and foreign countries before establishment of nuclear power agency, foundation of nuclear power agency and nuclear power research center, the early activity of nuclear power agency and internal conflict, research for nuclear power business and commercialization, new phase and ordeal of administration of nuclear power, the process of nuclear power business, permission and regulation on nuclear power, building of the third and fourth reactor in Yonggwang and antinuclear campaign, establishment of nuclear power plant and commission, introduction of nuclear reprocessing facilities and frustration of nuclear weapon, the process on KEDO, association and social organization related nuclear power.

  7. Electrophysiological evidence for cognitive control during conflict processing in visual spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrer, Stefanie; Kraft, Antje; Irlbacher, Kerstin; Koch, Stefan P; Hagendorf, Herbert; Kathmann, Norbert; Brandt, Stephan A

    2009-11-01

    Event-related potentials were measured to investigate the role of visual spatial attention mechanisms in conflict processing. We suggested that a more difficult target selection leads to stronger attentional top-down control, thereby reducing the effects of arising conflicts. This hypothesis was tested by varying the selection difficulty in a location negative priming (NP) paradigm. The difficult task resulted in prolonged responses as compared to the easy task. A behavioral NP effect was only evident in the easy task. Psychophysiologically the easy task was associated with reduced parietal N1, enhanced frontocentral N2 and N2pc components and a prolonged P3 latency for the conflict as compared to the control condition. The N2pc effect was also obvious in the difficult task. Additionally frontocentral N2 amplitudes increased and latencies of N2pc and P3 were delayed compared to the easy task. The differences at frontocentral and parietal electrodes are consistent with previous studies ascribing activity in the prefrontal and parietal cortex as the source of top-down attentional control. Thus, we propose that stronger cognitive control is involved in the difficult task, resulting in a reduced behavioral NP conflict.

  8. The Diplomacy of the Jaguar: French Airpower in Postcolonial African Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    turned back. Lorell, Airpower in Peripheral Conflict, 46. 32. Ibid., 48. 33. Ibid., 49. 34. Martel, Histoire Militaire de la France, 563. 35. Lorell...Airpower in Peripheral Conflict, 50. 36. Martel, Histoire Militaire de la France, 563. 37. Chipman, French Military Policy and African Security, 9. 38...Pro- longed Wars: A Post-Nuclear Challenge. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, March 2005. 39 Martel, André, ed. Histoire Militaire de la France

  9. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The

  10. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  11. Prolongation of rapacuronium neuromuscular blockade by clindamycin and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Paul A; Rasul, Mazhar

    2002-01-01

    We report a prolonged neuromuscular block with the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rapacuronium in the presence of clindamycin. Even when using "short-acting" muscle relaxants, the anesthesiologist must routinely monitor the neuromuscular function.

  12. Water tourism conflict resolution through good governance (story from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Rohmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss good governance model for conflict resolution around water tourism area in Indonesia. This paper developed structural factors that influence water tourism such as the population, economic development, regional generated revenue, real-time sector revenue, poverty rates, and water management which is the focus of the study affected the rising of the water conflict. This study is field research qualitative study. The objects in this research are water tourism stakeholders which are composed of three different water tourism management in Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia, namely Grojogan Sewu, Jumog and Peblengan. This study conducted in Karanganyar as a district that has a natural beauty with huge potential to further develop its natural attractions. The data sampling is done by observation and interview. From the result of this study it can be concluded that (1 there needs to be a clear explanation for the villagers near the water tourism area that the natural resources of water needs to be preserved and used moderately ; (2 a communication needs to be established between the stakeholders and those using the water resource, for the sake of the villagers’ welfare as well as the economic improvement; (3 the government, both the regional government as well as the central government need to make regulation to keep the condition of the nature without ignoring the possibility of conflict ensuing because of water usage by the villagers; (4 increasing the role of the villagers in managing the water resource so that there will be no prolonged conflict in the future.

  13. A nuclear-weapon-free Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jortner, Joshua

    1986-01-01

    The paper examines the issue of nuclear-weapon States involvement in regional conflicts, and whether such a conflict in the Middle East could trigger a nuclear war between the Super-Powers. Comments on the Middle Eastern situation are given, along with a discussion of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Middle East, Israel and the NPT, and the nuclear potential in Arab countries. The proposal, by Israel, of a nuclear weapon-free zone in the Middle East is outlined. (UK)

  14. The timeless aspect of nuclear speculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The author understands peaceful utilization of nuclear energy as a wave of speculations and explains it by the spirit of capitalism. In the fifties the American initiative had resulted in a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and led to the development which the author terms nuclear speculation and compares with a classic speculation, namely the Panama affair. The main conflict of present days - the conflict of the nuclear club and its opponents - were not yet over. The one would lose who had less persistence. In the supplement the author gives sociological comments on breeding reactor technology and basic law with regard to the decrees of the court of Kalkar. (HSCH) [de

  15. Ways to Optimize Therapy of Prolonged Conjugation Jaundice in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the optimization of the treatment of prolonged conjugation jaundice. Inclusion of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of neonatal prolonged conjugation jaundice in a dose of 15–20 mg/kg of body mass per day increases the terms of regression of clinical and paraclinical signs of jaundice as much as 2 times and leads to cytolysis normalization. The preparation has a sufficient level of safety, there were not revealed side effects whilst its application.

  16. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  17. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  18. Technology assessment in energy landscapes. Agent-based modeling of energy conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffran, Juergen; Link, P. Michael; Shaaban, Mostafa; Suesser, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The risks and conflicts of the fossil-nuclear age are in contrast to the effects of renewable energies which appear in a largely positive light. However, the transformation towards a low-carbon energy supply creates new energy landscapes with a high demand for suitable land areas - which may also provoke energy conflicts. Technology assessment can contribute to reducing such energy conflicts and increasing public acceptance by using spatial agent-based models that represent dynamic decisions and interactions of stakeholders regarding energy alternatives and land-use options. Northern Germany serves as a case study region where farmers and communities are local actors of the energy transition.

  19. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  20. Affective and substantive conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in the Turkish organizational context

    OpenAIRE

    Eruzun, Ayşegül; Eruzun, Aysegul

    2004-01-01

    Previous literature on affective and substantive workplace conflicts has been dominated by studies on intragroup efficiency and effectiveness with little attention paid to the relationship between these types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles. To improve understanding of how different types of conflicts are managed by employees this thesis has explored the relationship between affective and substantive types of conflicts and interpersonal conflict management styles in ...

  1. Behavioral Responses to Interpersonal Conflict in Decision Making Teams: A Clarification of the Conflict Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Felice Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...

  2. Armed Conflict in Colombia : Different Resources Different Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Most research on armed conflict in Colombia has focused on the narcotics trade. Little attention has been ... From “gender as usual” to “gender as transformative” ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards. IDRC is ...

  3. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Conflict: Strategic Insights for California's Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazezi, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta - a major water supply source in California and a unique habitat for many native and invasive species--is on the verge of collapse due to a prolonged conflict over how to manage the Delta. There is an urgent need to expedite the resolution of this conflict because the continuation of the status quo would leave irreversible environmental consequences for the entire state. In this paper a systematic technique is proposed for providing strategic insights into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta conflict. Game theory framework is chosen to systematically analyze behavioral characteristics of decision makers as well as their options in the conflict with respect to their preferences using a formal mathematical language. The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR), a recent game-theoretic technique, is applied to model and analyze the Delta conflict in order to better understand the options, preferences, and behavioral characteristics of the major decision makers. GMCR II as a decision support system tool based on GMCR concept is used to facilitate the analysis of the problem through a range of non-cooperative game theoretic stability definitions. Furthermore, coalition analysis is conducted to analyze the potential for forming partial coalitions among decision makers, and to investigate how forming a coalition can influence the conflict resolution process. This contribution shows that involvement of the State of California is necessary for developing an environmental-friendly resolution for the Delta conflict. It also indicates that this resolution is only achievable through improving the fragile levee systems and constructing a new water export facility.

  4. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  5. Conflict Avoidance and University Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliacozzo, Daisy M.

    The conditions that intensify conflict avoidance by the central administration in making strategic decisions, and the consequences of such avoidance for the management of college affairs, are discussed. The implication of an emerging decision-making style for adapting the organization to changing environments is also considered. Some of the…

  6. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  7. The semiosis of family conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    by family members in attempts to break a cycle of conflict—violence but they also exacerbate negative emotions, which we see in the case of conflict. The article develops a critique of the practice of punishment and reward. By analyzing psychotherapy as signs and technologies of the self impacting family...

  8. Interactive behavior in conflict situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with interactive behavior in conflict situations. The first chapters consider several issues in relation to bankruptcy theory. Thereafter, several operations research problems are modeled within the framework of cooperative game theory. The main focus is on what is optimal for a

  9. Sexual conflict and life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedell, N.; Kvarnemo, C.; Lessells, C.M.; Tregenza, T.

    2006-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the costs of mating and in how this leads to sex differences in the optimal mating rate. Here, we attempt to look beyond an exclusive focus on matings to examine the fundamental conflicts that arise out of the fact that sexual reproduction involves investment in

  10. Distinguishing targets in armed conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main object of international humanitarian law (IHL) is the amelioration of the effect of armed conflict on the populace. It seeks to accomplish this by establishing rules that ensure that objects the destruction of which will not give military advantage e are protected; thus, such objects are not to be targeted or destroyed.

  11. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many interpretations of peace and conflict in Africa are too simplistic. The book under review, therefore, seeks to deviate from those interpretations and provide a more detailed perspective. A collection of essays edited by David J. Francis, the book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and.

  12. Conflict resolution in Western Sahara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the North African region vis-à-vis their Realpolitik conflict containment approach towards the ... Sahara (MINURSO) effectively monitors the ceasefire and the region remains relatively stable. ...... Nación Árabe, 47, pp. 33–39. Mcelroy, D.

  13. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

  14. The paradox of intragroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Franciscus Remendus Cornelis de

    2013-01-01

    During group decision making, people often experience disagreements in which they need to choose between their own viewpoint and the viewpoint of another group member, for example, when cabinet members disagree about the best decision to tackle a crisis. These intragroup conflicts often pose a

  15. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  16. Conflicting Pressures in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.

    Papers were presented on these subcategories of the theme of conflicting pressures in postsecondary education: privacy and confidentiality; program analysis, goals, and outcomes; planning, research, and modeling; financing and resource allocation; faculty; and students. Individual topics addressed include: student-faculty interaction; student…

  17. Auditory conflict processing in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Sergeant, J.A.; Helsenfeld, D.; Konig, C.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was

  18. Internal Conflicts in Muslim Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Ali Shah

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of psychological theories and the social dynamics of the society help identify salient attributes and processes relevant to conflict among Muslims. The psychodynamic concept of personality and frustration-aggression hypothesis account for the socialization practices in the Muslim societies, emotional instability, unfavorable evaluation of those holding a different viewpoint and venting out one's aggression on the weaker. The tendency of the Muslims to praise their sect/tribe/religious group leads to a groupthink situation that polarizes intergroup relationships. The acts of categorization in group and out group, as postulated by the social identity theory, contribute towards the distorted perception of each other. The Islamic notions of brotherhood, unity and ethnic identity as means of personal identification and social interaction seems to have been forgotten by the Muslims. Though the Western social-psychological constructs are helpful in understanding the causes of conflict among Muslims, they are not germane to Muslim societies. The group belongingness and group favouritism is not necessarily a tool of discrimination and conflict but is an essential component of one's survival in a collectivist society. The Western theories also do not address the economic and political circumstances responsible for the multitude of conflicts among Muslims.

  19. Consideration on the interaction between society and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    A social conflict over nuclear technology arises from the different interactions between society and nuclear technology. The purpose of this review is to grasp the essential points of this social conflict from a social viewpoint. These essential points can be discerned by interpreting results of polls about nuclear technology and the future of society in general. As a result, attitudes towards nuclear technology can be explained in terms of differences of general views on society such as social order or social progress. The attitudes of people toward nuclear technology were divided into strong agreement, weak agreement, weak objection and strong objection in order to obtain useful information for clarification of social conflict on this issue. Results of polls of people who have weak agreement for nuclear technology reveal their ambivalence about nuclear technology. This raises concern that further implementation of nuclear technology might cause these people to shift their views to objection. (author)

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in prolonged fever ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ifiable risk factors for the infection in humans in post conflict Northern Uganda. Methods: The .... models. Goodness of fit for the final model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test. Results .... Quantifying risk factors.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in prolonged fever ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ifiable risk factors for the infection in humans in post conflict Northern Uganda. Methods: The study ... human brucellosis control. Keywords: Brucellosis, human, fever, prevalence, Uganda, zoonosis. ..... lution and taxonomy. Vet Microbiol. 2002 ...

  2. Bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus has differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Leonora; Rodríguez-Oroz, Maria-Cruz; Obeso, Jose A; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2013-05-01

    It has been proposed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates response inhibition and conflict resolution through the fronto-basal ganglia pathways. Our aim was to compare the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN on reactive and proactive inhibition and conflict resolution in Parkinson's disease using a single task. We used the conditional Stop signal reaction time task that provides the Stop signal reaction time (SSRT) as a measure of reactive inhibition, the response delay effect (RDE) as a measure of proactive inhibition and conflict-induced slowing (CIS) as a measure of conflict resolution. DBS of the STN significantly prolonged SSRT relative to stimulation off. However, while the RDE measure of proactive inhibition was not significantly altered by DBS of the STN, relative to healthy controls, RDE was significantly lower with DBS off but not DBS on. DBS of the STN did not alter the mean CIS but produced a significant differential effect on the slowest and fastest RTs on conflict trials, further prolonging the slowest RTs on the conflict trials relative to DBS off and to controls. These results are the first demonstration, using a single task in the same patient sample, that DBS of the STN produces differential effects on reactive and proactive inhibition and on conflict resolution, suggesting that these effects are likely to be mediated through the impact of STN stimulation on different fronto-basal ganglia pathways: hyperdirect, direct and indirect.

  3. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  4. Indigenous Approaches to Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the developing countries are a manifestation of a people's quest for self-identity, ... cultures, there exist pathways in the ethnic wisdom for managing conflicts. .... study of war focuses on attempts to explain armed conflicts as a universal feature.

  5. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  6. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (CPRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  7. Conflict in organizations : Beyond effectiveness and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Beersma, Bianca

    Conflict theory and research has traditionally focused on conflict management strategies, in relation to individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity. Far less attention has been devoted to "soft" outcomes including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and

  8. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  9. Environmental Degradation, Livelihood and Conflicts the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able exploitation by man. One notable .... action of any of the parties in the quest to realise or secure those values. The struggle ... ethnic conflicts when they move to new areas, while decreases in ..... and Responses to International Conflict.

  10. Temporality of couple conflict and relationship perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Horne, Rebecca M; Hardy, Nathan R; Anderson, Jared R

    2018-05-03

    Using 5 waves of longitudinal survey data gathered from 3,405 couples, the present study investigates the temporal associations between self-reported couple conflict (frequency and each partner's constructive and withdrawing behaviors) and relationship perceptions (satisfaction and perceived instability). Autoregressive cross-lagged model results revealed couple conflict consistently predicted future relationship perceptions: More frequent conflict and withdrawing behaviors and fewer constructive behaviors foretold reduced satisfaction and conflict frequency and withdrawal heightened perceived instability. Relationship perceptions also shaped future conflict, but in surprising ways: Perceptions of instability were linked with less frequent conflict, and male partner instability predicted fewer withdrawing behaviors for female partners. Higher satisfaction from male partners also predicted more frequent and less constructive conflict behavior in the future. These findings illustrate complex bidirectional linkages between relationship perceptions and couple conflict behaviors in the development of couple relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Conflicting health information: a critical research need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Geryk, Lorie L; Chen, Annie T; Nagler, Rebekah H; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Han, Paul K J

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting health information is increasing in amount and visibility, as evidenced most recently by the controversy surrounding the risks and benefits of childhood vaccinations. The mechanisms through which conflicting information affects individuals are poorly understood; thus, we are unprepared to help people process conflicting information when making important health decisions. In this viewpoint article, we describe this problem, summarize insights from the existing literature on the prevalence and effects of conflicting health information, and identify important knowledge gaps. We propose a working definition of conflicting health information and describe a conceptual typology to guide future research in this area. The typology classifies conflicting information according to four fundamental dimensions: the substantive issue under conflict, the number of conflicting sources (multiplicity), the degree of evidence heterogeneity and the degree of temporal inconsistency. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Conflict interaction management as a cultural phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е L Ryabova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the definition for the concept of conflict interaction culture, reveals its functions as well as the structure of its elements and components. Conflict interactions are also examined in the paper.

  13. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  14. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  15. Conflict Management Strategies for Rangeland Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Metadata only record Numerous strategies have been developed to cope with conflicts. Collaborative processes are one group of conflict management strategies used. When successful these processes have several common features: they are voluntary, build trust, develop a shared vision, and use consensus. These techniques have often led to false expectations because the source of the conflict was ignored or adequately trained facilitators were not used. The source of the conflict (lack of infor...

  16. Army Officers’ Attitudes of Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-11

    The purpose of this study was to measure the attitudes of the middle level career Army officers relative to the concepts of conflict management . The...the literature concerning conflict management and its related fields of study, an exploratory analysis employing Hierarchical Clustering Schemes, and... conflict management . (2) No difference exists in the attitudes of conflict management according to the sample’s three branch groups: combat arms

  17. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors II - genesis of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this article is to show that bicultural hybridization for the prevention of demoralization is anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The specific setting is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese territory on the western coast of India. Both published and unpublished sources of information were studied. Education, occupation and income, the three dimensions of social class, were less dominant than other aspects of the Hindu caste system, such as birth into a group viewed as a caste, observance of marriage circles, regulations of kinship and inheritance, and identification with a location. These other aspects were preserved as much as possible. The result was the conversion of the caste system into a system more akin to social class. Other examples of cultural receptors were found. A key step in the adaptation to acculturative stress is the discovery of cultural receptors in both cultures and the development of meaningful interconnections among those receptors. Psychotherapy attempts the restoration of morale. To be effective, therapists should consider the hierarchical organization of symbols and sentiments in the patient's culture.

  18. Remanent life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, J.; Gomez Santamaria, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of life in the nuclear power plants is very special. The main aceptions are: design life, economic life and useful life. The good management of NPP will do the prolongation of the life in the NPP. The remanent of management life summarizes certain activities in order to prolong the lifetime of the NPP. This article presents the activities of the RML program, the technological program and its benefits

  19. Nuclear deterrence: Inherent escalation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergbauer, J.R. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Despite 40 years of peace between the super powers, there is increasing clamor to the effect that nuclear war between the super powers is imminent; or could occur through escalation from a minor conflict; or could result from harsh rhetoric (but only on the part of the U.S.) in the super power dialogue. The factor that is ignored is that a massive nuclear attack would be rational ONLY if that attack could inflict such damage that the other super power could not launch a significant retaliatory nuclear attack. ONLY in this circumstance would there be any profit in launching an initial Strategic Nuclear Attack. This First Strike capability is not now possessed nor projected to be developed by either super power. As long as ANY possible Strategic Nuclear Attack against the national territory of one super power would be insufficient to prevent an equally destructive retaliatory attack, then a Strategic Nuclear Attack would inevitably result in the destruction of both and would be profitless, hence, pointless. This situation describes Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), the governing conflict paradigm applicable to both super powers. The only convential attack that would even remotely rival the national-destruction potential of a Strategic Nuclear Attack and could cause the attacked power to consider launching a retaliatory Strategic Nuclear Attack would be a massive land-air invasion/occupation of one super power by the other. Since neither super power can successfully execute such a conventional invasion/occupation, this situation is moot. The geo-political environments of the two super powers are so asymmetrical and their military positions so symmetrical that the probability of ANY forseeable situation resulting in their resorting to a Strategic Nuclear Exchange is vanishingly small. It is possible escape the Chicken-Little syndrome and, instead, devote energy to ensuring the maintenance of this favorable, but fragile, world system

  20. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  1. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  2. Conflict: How to Beat the Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia L.

    1993-01-01

    Conflict between people can arise over breakdowns in communication, work policies and practices, adversarial management, and personality conflict. A conflict-resolution plan involves defining the problem, collecting the facts and opinions, considering all solutions proposed, implementing the solutions, and evaluating the situation. (MLF)

  3. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  4. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  5. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  6. Coping with Conflict in Educational Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Mary K.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents ideas on what the school administrator should know in order to successfully manage conflict situations so that the conflict does not impede school functioning, and suggests that proper handling of the inevitable conflict situations that arise can bring about group cohesiveness and unity. (KC)

  7. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  8. Conflict management strategies for effective performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community conflicts are becoming regular feature of social life in many developing countries since the 1960(s). This study proposes for the inclusion of conflict resolution strategies in agricultural extension programs as farmers and farm lands are the most affected. It also examines the various conflict survival strategies ...

  9. Cross-Cultural Conflicts within Sports Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.

    2018-01-01

    Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…

  10. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  11. Conflict in medical teams: opportunity or danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Saygi, O.; Aaldering, H.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  Intragroup conflicts often occur when people are called upon to collaborate in the accomplishment of a task. For example, when surgeons and nurses work together during an operation, conflicts may emerge because of differences in functional understanding. Whether these conflicts are

  12. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  13. The African Union and Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AFRICAN UNION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen Royal Danish Army Colonel Patrick...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen TITLE: The African Union and Conflict Management FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 2 March 2006...WORD COUNT: 5850 PAGES: 28 KEY TERMS: African Union, Africa, Conflict Management , Capabilities CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Africa is a continent with a

  14. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  15. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  16. Intra-Organizational Conflict in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Richard

    There is no abundance of research on intra-organizational conflict, and there are no simple answers to the tricky business of managing organizational conflicts. This paper states some propositions about conflict and suggests some management stratagems that can be used in sustaining constructive organizational characteristics. The propositions are…

  17. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  18. A Case Study in Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Lawrence J.; Smith, Val R.

    This paper presents a model for a message-centered theory of human conflict based on the assumption that conflict will result from the pairing of any two functional messages that share a common antecedent but contain different consequences with oppositely signed affect. The paper first shows how to represent conflict situations diagrammatically…

  19. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  20. Look Inside for Conflicts of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses conflicts of interest in higher education, offering rules of thumb for judging individual situations, tools to help board members address such conflicts, and possible standards to apply when considering conflicts of interest. Also touches on the need to be realistic and the importance of collegiality and trust. (EV)

  1. The Impact of Perceptions on Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaretti, Lynette; Wilson, Jeni

    2006-01-01

    This article describes research that explored student and teacher perceptions and management of conflict within the primary school context. It was found that both teachers and students shared similarities in their views of conflict and in their management of interpersonal problems at school. Conflict was generally perceived to be a negative…

  2. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  3. Context, Not Conflict, Drives Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaghecken, Friederike; Martini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Theories of cognitive control generally assume that perceived conflict acts as a signal to engage inhibitory mechanisms that suppress subsequent conflicting information. Crucially, an absence of conflict is not regarded as being a relevant signal for cognitive control. Using a cueing, a priming, and a Simon task, we provide evidence that conflict…

  4. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  6. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among Students at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazezew, Arega; Neka, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal conflict happens everywhere and at any time and is inherent in all societies. However, the methods of managing such conflict are quite different from one organisation to the other. The general objective of the study was to assess interpersonal conflicts and styles of managing conflicts among students at Bahir Dar University.…

  7. Examining the longitudinal relations among adolescents' conflict management styles with parents and conflict frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, K.; Branje, S.J.T.; Hale, W.W.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflicts are not necessarily detrimental for adolescent development. The way adolescents handle conflicts with parents is of crucial importance. The present five-wave longitudinal study (N = 1313) focuses on how adolescents' conflict management behaviors and conflict frequency

  8. Health Education in Practice: Employee Conflict Resolution Knowledge and Conflict Handling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Alexis; Renschler, Lauren; Kramer, Alaina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine if a brief workplace conflict resolution workshop improved employee conflict resolution knowledge and to examine which conflict handling strategies (Yielding, Compromising, Forcing, Problem-Solving, Avoiding) were most used by employees when dealing with workplace conflict. A pre-test/post-test control…

  9. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  10. Friendship Conflict, Conflict Responses, and Instability: Unique Links to Anxious and Angry Forms of Rejection Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Carissa D.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) instigates conflict and prompts maladaptive conflict responses within romantic relationships. We tested whether RS had similar effects within friendships (N = 262, X[subscript age] = 11.7) by investigating whether (a) RS was associated with more frequent conflict, (b) two RS forms prompted different conflict responses,…

  11. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: High School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated by the Governor of Ohio to be Conflict Management Week With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for high schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living, but managing conflict is difficult…

  12. Let's Resolve Conflicts Together: Elementary School Classroom Activities. Conflict Management Week, May 1-7, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    With heightened awareness to issues of school safety, it is important for elementary schools to take an active role in promoting constructive responses to conflict. The week of May 1-7, 2000 has been designated as Conflict Management Week by the Governor of Ohio. Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of living; however, managing conflict is…

  13. Examining the longitudinal relations among adolescents' conflict management with parents and conflict frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-adolescent conflicts are not necessarily detrimental for adolescent development. The way adolescents handle conflicts with parents is of crucial importance. The present five-wave longitudinal study (N = 1313) focuses on how adolescents' conflict management behaviors and conflict frequency

  14. Emotions in cognitive conflicts are not aversive but are task specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Dimigen, Olaf; Sommer, Werner

    2010-09-01

    It has been suggested that cognitive conflicts require effortful processing and, therefore, are aversive (Botvinick, 2007). In the present study, we compared conflicts emerging from the inhibition of a predominant response tendency in a go/no-go task with those between incompatible response activations in a Simon task in a within-subjects design, using the same type of stimuli. Whereas no-go trials elicited reduced skin conductance and pupillometric responses, but prolonged corrugator muscle activity, as compared with go trials, incompatible and compatible Simon trials were indistinguishable with respect to these parameters. Furthermore, the conflict-sensitive N2 components of the event-related brain potential were similar in amplitude, but showed significantly different scalp distributions, indicating dissociable neural generator systems. The present findings suggest the involvement of different emotional and cognitive processes in both types of cognitive conflicts-none being aversive, however. In addition, the N2 findings call into question claims of common monitoring systems for all kinds of cognitive conflicts.

  15. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  16. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  17. The biology of cultural conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Atran, Scott

    2012-03-05

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives-how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour-but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment.

  18. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  19. CONFLICTS BETWEEN TOURISTS AND HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Soare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism recreational outdoors bring revenue for the major economies of many states, for example communities should contribute with more than 800 billion dollars annually on U.S. economy, where three out of four Americans participate actively in the open air at recreation each year, as well as as well as hiking, biking, camping, wildlife generates an enormous economic power and a multiplier effect in major sectors of the economy. Empirical Research reveals a ambiguity of the feelings and attitudes concerning the relationship and potential for real conflicts between hunting recreational-sports and leisure and other activities of tourism recreational outdoors. Quantitative methods of analysis have revealed many common items, the reasons for and the environment, which are shared by both classes. An investigation carried out by means of interviews and questionnaires revealed three key elements which offers the potential of conflict: group characteristics, behavior and use of weapons for killing of animals.

  20. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    strategy is to first revise a priori trust assignments as a function of the degree of conflict, before the evidence is fused. This paper focuses on the...practical trust transitivity seems to be idiosyncratic for humans and animals, with no true analogue among non- living forms (and in the physical world ...visiting a foreign country Alice is looking for a restaurant where the locals go, because she would like to avoid places overrun by tourists. She meets a